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Sample records for african american caucasian

  1. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  2. Racial disparities in stroke awareness: African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Alkadry, Mohamad G; Bhandari, Ruchi; Wilson, Christina S; Blessett, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the existence of racial disparities in incidence, mortality, and morbidity related to stroke. Awareness of risk factors could substantially lower the probability of stroke incidence. Awareness of stroke warning signs and treatment options could significantly alter the outcome of a stroke if patients immediately seek emergency help. This article examines the disparities in awareness of stroke risk factors, stroke signs, and action to be taken when stroke occurs. Survey results from 422 Caucasian Americans and 368 African Americans in West Virginia were analyzed. Significant disparities in recognition of cholesterol, smoking, prior stroke, and race as stroke risk factors were observed. The study also found a significant and substantial difference in awareness of stroke signs. There was also a significant difference in the way African Americans and Caucasians would respond to a stroke. The study found no evidence of disparities in recognition of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcoholism, and family history.

  3. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  4. MicroRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-1-0379 TITLE: MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL... MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women Hua Zhao Health Research Inc. Buffalo, NY 14263 So far...identified several SNPs in microRNA processing genes and microRNA genes are associated with breast cancer risk in either Caucasian Americans or

  5. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  6. Cognitive Effects of College: Differences between African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2003-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of African American and Caucasian students from 18 4-year institutions, objective tests were used to estimate the cognitive effects of race in college, while applying statistical controls for an extensive set of confounding influences. Found that Caucasian students scored higher than African Americans on standardized…

  7. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Roswell...Park Cancer Institute Buffalo , NY 14263 REPORT DATE: June 2012 TYPE OF REPORT...microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1

  8. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  9. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    for AfricanAmerican ( AA ) men as compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Biological basis for this disparity has not been established. Oncogenic...underlying biological or genetic differences of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and/or progression between African American ( AA ) and Caucasian American (CA...positive and ERG negative CaP. It is anticipated that molecular determinants of aggressive CaP in AA men include somatic mutations (TMPRSS2-ERG

  10. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  11. Soft tissue evaluation of contemporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R E; Turley, P K

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no

  12. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  13. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-05-09

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor.

  14. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  15. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  16. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    O’Neal W Jr; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review . Ethn Dis. 2003;13(4):414-28. 6...sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...between men and women. Men have a greater maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (Men: 44.6 ± 1.2 vs. Women 36.1 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min), waist circumference (Men

  17. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  18. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  19. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  20. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  1. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  2. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  3. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  4. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  5. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  6. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  7. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  8. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?✩

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230

  9. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  10. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  11. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  12. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data indicate that obese men and women have several characteristics consistent with poor...next two years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how

  14. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    obesity. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES obesity, insulin sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , 9 African Americans, Caucasians...mortality of any ethnic group in the United States, and AA women have a higher prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data...years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how different

  15. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  16. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  17. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  18. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  19. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  20. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  1. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  2. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  3. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, Haile F; Mason, Jacquline A; Peters, Sharla; Thompson, Charles E; Littleton, George K; Jett, Marti; Day, Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expression of 14 genes which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Cell lines derived from AA and CAU patients were analyzed to demonstrate alterations in the transcription of genes known to be involved in cancer and the metastatic process. Total RNA was isolated from cell lines and analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. Differential expression of the 14 targeted genes between a spectrum model (6 breast cancer cell lines and 2 non-cancer breast cell lines) and a metastasis model (12 metastatic breast cancer cell lines) were demonstrated. Additionally, an in vitro comparison of the expression established differences in 5 of the 14 biomarker genes between African American and Caucasian breast cell lines. Results from this study indicates that altered expression of the genes Atp1b1, CARD 10, KLF4, Spint2, and Acly may play a role in the aggressive phenotype seen in breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17472751

  4. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N F; Austin, H; Dilley, A; Whitsett, C; Evatt, B L; Hooper, W C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, comprehensively, medical and genetic attributes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a multiracial American population. The Genetic Attributes and Thrombosis Epidemiology (GATE) study is an ongoing case-control study in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to examine racial differences in VTE etiology and pathogenesis. Between 1998 and 2001, 370 inpatients with confirmed VTE, and 250 control subjects were enrolled. Data collected included blood specimens for DNA and plasma analysis and a medical lifestyle history questionnaire. Comparing VTE cases, cancer, recent surgery, and immobilization were more common in caucasian cases, while hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease were more prevalent in African-American cases. Family history of VTE was reported with equal frequency by cases of both races (28-29%). Race-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were 3.1 (1.5, 6.7) and 1.9 (0.8, 4.4), respectively. Using a larger external comparison group, the odds ratio for the prothrombin mutation among Caucasians was a statistically significant 2.5 (1.4, 4.3). A case-only analysis revealed a near significant interaction between the two mutations among Caucasians. We found that clinical characteristics of VTE patients differed across race groups. Family history of VTE was common in white and black patients, yet known genetic risk factors for VTE are rare in African-American populations. Our findings underscore the need to determine gene polymorphisms associated with VTE in African-Americans.

  5. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  6. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  7. A Comparison of Depressive Symptoms in African Americans and Caucasian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Young, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined group differences in depressive symptomatology among African Americans and whites seeking psychotherapy. African Americans reported less pessimism, dissatisfaction, self-blame, and suicidal ideation and more sense of punishment and weight change, but for reasons unrelated to depression. Self-dislike was a stronger manifestation of…

  8. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment.

  9. Variations in mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency between African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders: implications for reentry services.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Wallace, John M; Davis, Larry E; Fernandes, Giselle T; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-06-01

    The incarceration of young people is a growing national problem. Key correlates of incarceration among American youth include mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency. The present study uses a statewide sample of incarcerated youth to examine racial differences in African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders' outcomes related to mental health, substance use, and delinquency. The data indicate that relative to Caucasian offenders, African American offenders report lower levels of mental health problems and substance use but higher levels of delinquent behavior such as violence, weapon carrying, and gang fighting. The data further reveal that African American offenders are more likely than Caucasian offenders to be victims of violence and to experience traumatic events such as witnessing injury and death. Recognition of these patterns may help to improve postrelease services by tailoring or adapting preexisting programs to patterns of risk factors and their relative magnitudes of effect.

  10. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  11. Sulfotransferase 2B1b in human breast: differences in subcellular localization in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Nicole A; He, Dongning; Frost, Andra R; Falany, Charles N

    2008-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of post-menopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm.

  12. A Multivariate Comparison of Elderly African Americans and Caucasians Voting Behavior: How Do Social, Health, Psychological, and Political Variables Effect Their Voting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used data from Aging in the Eighties national survey to examine impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. For Caucasians, self-assessment of health was significantly related to voting behavior; whereas among African Americans,…

  13. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    PubMed Central

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundlyamong minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, runningor jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls’physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Child Welfare Services through the Eyes of African American, Caucasian, and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find if differences exist among 88 African American, Caucasian, and Latino families who received child welfare services. Method: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data employing standardized measures was used for this study. Family preservation (FP) services were received by 49…

  15. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  16. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  17. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  18. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for…

  19. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys' antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys' vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline-and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences-may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.

  20. Distribution of composite CYP1A1 genotypes in Africans, African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Garte, S J; Trachman, J; Crofts, F; Toniolo, P; Buxbaum, J; Bayo, S; Taioli, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic frequencies and admixture rates were observed for the three polymorphisms. Because of the importance of the CYP1A1 gene (which encodes the aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as a biomarker of genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, these data may provide a useful reference for future studies of relationships between CYP1A1 genotype and disease susceptibility.

  1. An Ongoing Assessment of Osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians in North Carolina: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and is frequently associated with significant disability. Its public health impact is increasing due to the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project is an ongoing, population-based prospective cohort begun in 1990 to fill knowledge gaps about prevalence, incidence, and progression of OA, and its risk factors, in African American and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina. Critically important phenotypic differences were observed in patterns of multi-joint OA burden, with African Americans much less likely than Caucasians to have hand OA and much more likely to have multiple large joint involvement. Racial differences also exist in systemic bone and joint tissue biomarkers. Novel potentially modifiable risk factors identified in this cohort include selenium and blood lead levels. Selected key findings of this ongoing study will be discussed. PMID:26330661

  2. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age.

  3. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  4. A Comparison of African-American versus Caucasian Men Screened for an Alcohol Administration Laboratory Study: Recruitment and Representation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ogle, Richard L.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A.; Sims, Calvin M.

    2011-01-01

    African-Americans are under-represented in alcohol research, especially alcohol administration laboratory studies. Specific recruitment of African-Americans into laboratory studies, however, may also inadvertently affect the generalizability of the findings. In the current study, we compared all African-American young adult men (n = 53) who volunteered and met criteria for an alcohol administration study to a sample (n = 50) of Caucasian men recruited for the same study. Groups were compared on variables including demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and other substance use, consequences of use and psychopathology. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men reported less drinking frequency and quantity, less use of other substances and fewer negative consequences, but their alcohol and drug use was more likely to be associated with various measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that even when recruiting participants using criteria that should minimize differences (i.e. all participants were “social drinkers”), differences on key variables were evident. These differences may have important implications for alcohol research. PMID:21277094

  5. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  6. Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among C, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in C compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in C. PMID:21527894

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  8. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  9. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    It is anticipated that molecular determinants of aggressive prostate cancer in African American men, including somatic mutations and SNPs associated...molecular stratification, germline variants (SNPs), admixture mapping, European and African ancestry, somatic mutations, aggressive cancer... aggressive CaP in AA men include somatic mutations (TMPRSS2-ERG) and germline variants (SNPs). The objective will be achieved by the following specific

  10. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Becker, Emily M.; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N.; Birmaher, Boris B.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; March, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7–17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650

  11. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T; Becker, Emily M; Ginsburg, Golda S; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N; Birmaher, Boris B; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M; Kendall, Philip C; Suveg, Cynthia M; March, John S

    2015-10-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7-17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement.

  12. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  13. Do Asian renal transplant patients need another mycophenolate mofetil dose compared with Caucasian or African American patients?

    PubMed

    Li, Pengmei; Shuker, Nauras; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Schaik, Ron H N; Zhang, Xianglin; van Gelder, Teun

    2014-10-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is used to prevent acute rejection following solid organ transplantation in transplant centers all over the world. Patients from different ethnic backgrounds are treated with this drug, for which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has not become the standard of practice in most centers. Whether or not some ethnic groups require a different MMF dose has been a topic of debate in recent years. In this review, it is shown that Asian patients, compared with Caucasian patients, with a comparable MMF dose reach higher mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. Also clinical experience points toward more adverse events in case of treatment with 1 g MMF bid in Asian patients, and therefore, for this ethnic group, a lower maintenance dose seems justified. In contrast, African American patients reach similar drug concentrations as Caucasians patients receiving the same MMF dose, but due to immunological reasons, they require a higher MMF dose to reach comparable acute rejection incidences. When TDM is performed, clinicians can correct the dose and compensate for interethnic differences in drug exposure. Otherwise, it is important to choose the right dose. This optimal dose is 20-46% lower in Asian transplant recipients than in Caucasian or African American patients.

  14. Influence of education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses to phenylephrine in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans.

    PubMed

    Thomas, KaMala S; Nelesen, Richard A; Ziegler, Michael G; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-09-01

    Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microg PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning.

  15. Influence of Education and Neighborhood Poverty on Pressor Responses to Phenylephrine in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, KaMala S.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, Phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microgram PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning. PMID:19427353

  16. Ethnic group-related differences in CpG hypermethylation of the GSTP1 gene promoter among African-American, Caucasian and Asian patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Hideki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Igawa, Mikio; Ogishima, Tatsuya; Pookot, Deepa; Li, Long-Cheng; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Kawahara, Motoshi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kane, Christopher J; Carroll, Peter R; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2005-08-20

    The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PC) is approximately 2-fold higher among African-Americans as compared to Caucasians and very low in Asian. We hypothesize that inactivation of GSTP1 genes through CpG methylation plays a role in the pathogenesis of PC, and its ability to serve as a diagnostic marker that differs among ethnic groups. GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation and its correlation with clinico-pathological findings were evaluated in 291 PC (Asian = 170; African-American = 44; Caucasian = 77) and 172 benign prostate hypertrophy samples (BPH) (Asian = 96; African-American = 38; Caucasian = 38) using methylation-specific PCR. In PC cells, 5-aza-dC treatment increased expression of GSTP1 mRNA transcripts. The methylation of all CpG sites was found in 191 of 291 PC (65.6%), but only in 34 of 139 BPH (24.5%). The GSTP1 hypermethylation was significantly higher in PC as compared to BPH in each ethnic group (p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis (PC vs. BPH) showed that African-Americans had a higher hazard ratio (HR) (13.361) compared to Caucasians (3.829) and Asian (8.603). Chi-square analysis showed correlation of GSTP1 hypermethylation with pathological findings (pT categories and higher Gleason sum) in Asian PC (p < 0.0001) but not in African-Americans and Caucasian PC. Our results suggest that GSTP1 hypermethylation is a sensitive biomarker in African-Americans as compared to that in Caucasians or Asian, and that it strongly influences tumor progression in Asian PC. Ours is the first study investigating GSTP1 methylation differences in PC among African-American, Caucasian and Asian.

  17. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  18. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA). Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  19. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweightness in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-27

    and the relationship between insulin resis- tance and physiologic and anthropo - metric variables in African Americans and Whites. Ethnicity and Disease...Anthropometric Measures, and Insulin Resistance Correlational analyses revealed sig- nificant associations among anthropo - metric measures, P , .001, and all

  20. Stereotype confirmation concern and fear of negative evaluation among African Americans and Caucasians with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Anderson, Page L.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of negative evaluation is a central component of social anxiety. The current study examines the relation between fear of negative evaluation and fears of confirming stereotypes about a social group to which one belongs among people diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Participants (N = 94) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who self-identified as either African American (n = 41) or Caucasian (n = 53) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns and fear of negative evaluation. Results from hierarchical logistical regression showed that stereotype confirmation concerns predicted fear of negative evaluation for both racial groups, with greater concern predicting greater fear. This association was moderated by race, B = −.24, t = −2.67, p < .01, such that stereotype confirmation concerns had a stronger association with fear of negative evaluation for Caucasians (b = .38, p < .01) than for African Americans (b = .14, p < .05). This study is the first to directly examine the relation between stereotypes and fear of negative evaluation within a socially anxious sample. Although we cannot identify the specific social group to which each participant’s stereotype confirmation concerns apply, this study provides quantitative evidence that the social context within which socially anxious individuals view themselves impacts their fear of negative evaluation and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:24746163

  1. Cross-Sectional Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Community Sample of Single African American and Caucasian Men

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted self-interviews were completed with a random sample of 163 unmarried Caucasian and African American men in a large metropolitan area. Almost a quarter (24.5%) of these men acknowledged committing an act since the age of 14 that met standard legal definitions of attempted or completed rape; an additional 39% had committed another type of sexual assault involving forced sexual contact or verbal coercion. An expanded version of the Malamuth et al. [1991] confluence model was examined using path analysis. The number of sexual assaults perpetrated by participants was associated with the direct or indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse, adolescent delinquency, alcohol problems, sexual dominance, positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships, and pressure from peers to engage in sexual relationships. Additionally, empathy buffered the relationship between sexual dominance and perpetration. The pattern of results was highly similar for African American and Caucasian men. The implications of these findings for sexual assault measurement are discussed and suggestions are made for alternative treatment programs. PMID:26435555

  2. BMI1, Stem Cell Factor Acting as Novel Serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Parray, Aijaz; Zhong, Weixiong; Karnes, R. Jeffery; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rhim, Johng S.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Saleem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model), human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i) secreted by CaP cells, (ii) increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii) detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Conclusions/Significance BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy) for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients. PMID:23308129

  3. Differences in radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Braga, L.; Renner, J. B.; Schwartz, T. A.; Woodard, J.; Helmick, C. G.; Hochberg, M. C.; Jordan, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine racial differences in tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) radiographic osteoarthritis in African-American (AA) and Caucasian men and women. Method Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate cross-sectional associations between race and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TF-OA) and the presence, severity and location of individual radiographic features of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis [TFJ-OA] (osteophytes, joint space narrowing [JSN], sclerosis and cysts) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ-OA) (osteophytes, JSN and sclerosis), using data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Proportional odds ratios (POR) assessed severity of TF-OA, TFJ and PFJ osteophytes, and JSN, adjusting for confounders. Generalized estimating equations accounted for auto-correlation of knees. Results Among 3187 participants (32.5% AAs; 62% women; mean age 62 years), 6300 TFJ and 1957 PFJ were included. Compared to Caucasians, AA men were more likely to have TF-OA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.86); tri-compartmental TFJ and PFJ osteophytes (aOR = 3.06; 95%CI = 1.96–4.78), and TFJ and PFJ sclerosis. AA women were more likely than Caucasian to have medial TFJ and tri-compartmental osteophytes (aOR = 2.13; 1.55–2.94), and lateral TFJ sclerosis. AAs had more severe TF-OA than Caucasians (adjusted cumulative odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.19–3.64 for men; aPOR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06–2.29 for women) and were more likely to have lateral TFJ JSN. Conclusions Compared to Caucasians, AAs were more likely to have more severe TF-OA; tri-compartmental disease; and lateral JSN. Further research to clarify the discrepancy between radiographic features in OA among races appears warranted. PMID:19735758

  4. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry.

  5. Parenting behaviors of African American and Caucasian families: parent and child perceptions, associations with child weight, and ability to identify abnormal weight status.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the agreement between parent and child perceptions of parenting behaviors, the relationship of the behaviors with the child's weight status, and the ability of the parent to correctly identify weight status in 176 parent-child dyads (89 Caucasian and 87 African American). Correlational and regression analyses were used. Findings included moderate to weak correlations in child and parent assessments of parenting behaviors. Caucasian dyads had higher correlations than African American dyads. Most parents correctly identified their own and their child's weight status. Parents of overweight children used increased controlling behaviors, but the number of controlling behaviors decreased when the parent expressed concern with their child's weight.

  6. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  7. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  8. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  9. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated term fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from term and preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ramkumar; Arora, Chander P; Hobel, Calvin J; Fortunato, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study is to document differences in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), and CRH binding protein (CRHBP) gene expression in fetal membranes derived from African Americans and Caucasians in vitro in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and to assess racial disparity in CRH concentrations in the amniotic fluid (AF) of women with spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Fetal membranes (African American, n = 8; Caucasian, n = 8) at term, placed in an organ explant system, were stimulated with LPS. Microarray analysis documented differences in the mRNA expression pattern of CRH, CRHBP, and CRHR1 between races. CRH was measured in AF (a case [PTB]-control [term] study) and culture media. Between races, LPS significantly increased CRH and CRHR1 expression in African Americans and CRHBP in Caucasians, with no differences in controls. CRH was detectable only in LPS-stimulated African American membranes. AF CRH concentrations were higher in PTB compared with controls (P < .001), and no difference was noticed between races (P = .1). AF analysis did not document racial disparity in CRH concentrations in PTB. In fetal membranes, African Americans showed a higher expression and production of CRH in response to an in vitro stimulus.

  10. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Digna Rosa; Wejse, Christian; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Abbate, Eduardo; Hulme, William F.; Myers, Jamie L.; Estevan, Rosa; Patillo, Sara G.; Olesen, Rikke; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Sirugo, Giorgio; Gilbert, John R.; Hamilton, Carol D.; Scott, William K.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and a source of preventable deaths each year, with 8.8 million new cases of TB and 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2005. Approximately, 10% of infected individuals develop pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB, suggesting that host defense factors influence development of active disease. Toll-like receptor’ (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with regulation of TLR expression and development of active TB. In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 controls) Caucasians, and from 667 (321 cases and 346 controls) Africans from Guinea-Bissau for association with pulmonary TB using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression. Statistically significant associations were observed across populations at TLR9 and TLR2. The strongest evidence for association came at an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (−196 to −174) in TLR2 that associated with TB in both Caucasians (II vs. ID&DD, OR=0.41 [95% CI 0.24–0.68], p=0.0007) and Africans (II vs. ID&DD, OR=0.70 [95% CI 0.51–0.95], p=0.023). Our findings in three independent population samples indicate that variations in TLR2 and TLR9 might play important roles in determining susceptibility to TB. PMID:19771452

  11. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  13. Psychopathy and ethnicity: structural, item, and test generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) in Caucasian and African American Participants.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D J; Kosson, D S; Michie, C

    2001-12-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) is an important measure in both applied and research settings. Evidence for its validity is mostly derived from male Caucasian participants. PCL-R ratings of 359 Caucasian and 356 African American participants were compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Previous research has indicated that 13 items of the PCL-R can be described by a 3-factor hierarchical model. This model was replicated in this sample. No cross-group difference in factor structure could be found using CFA; the structure of psychopathy is the same in both groups. IRT methods indicated significant but small differences in the performance of 5 of the 20 PCL-R items. No significant differential test functioning was found, indicating that the item differences canceled each other out. It is concluded that the PCL-R can be used, in an unbiased way, with African American participants.

  14. T cell receptor repertoire differences between African Americans and Caucasians associated with polymorphism of the TCRBV3S1 (V{beta}3.1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Inocencio, J.; Glass, D.N.; Hirsch, R.

    1995-05-01

    The generation of TCR diversity occurs primarily through rearrangement of germline DNA. Genetic polymorphism of the TCR chains appears to be a rarer mechanism for generating repertoire differences between races. Flow cytometric analysis of the TCR V{beta} repertoire in a population of healthy African Americans (n = 30) and Caucasians (n = 30) revealed a significant difference in the frequency of cells bearing V{beta}3.1, but not V{beta}2, V{beta}5.1, V{beta}5.2-5.3, V{beta}6.7, V{beta}8.1-8.2, V{beta}12.1, V{beta}13.3, or V{beta}19. African Americans had a significantly lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, in both the CD4{sup +} (2.55 {+-} 0.36% vs 4.85 {+-} 0.43%, p = 0.0001) and the CD8{sup +} (3.03 {+-} 0.54% vs 5.32 {+-} 0.57%, p = 0.004) population than did Caucasians, and this difference was independent of the age of the individuals. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed that the observed differences in frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells correlated with a recently described polymorphism of the recombination signal sequence of the TCRBV3S1 gene. Allele 1, associated with a lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in African Americans (0.68 vs 0.43), whereas allele 2, associated with a higher frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in Caucasians (0.31 vs 0.56). This study demonstrates the potential for TCR repertoire differences, based on genetic polymorphism, between African Americans and Caucasians. 31 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and mixed-race adolescents living in high poverty inner-city neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bolland, John M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lian, Bradley E; McCallum, Debra M; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Barth, Joan M

    2007-12-01

    Youths growing up in low-income inner-city neighborhoods are at substantial risk for initiating substance use, violent behavior, and sexual intercourse at early ages; these risk behaviors continue at comparatively high rates through adolescence. Hopelessness has been implicated as a risk factor for these behaviors. In this paper, we consider how race influences this process. African Americans form a demographic minority within the United States, but they are often the majority within inner-city neighborhoods. For Caucasians, the opposite typically holds. Mixed-race populations form a minority within both contexts. Using longitudinal data, we examine the relationship between race and risk behaviors in several impoverished inner-city neighborhoods where African Americans form the distinct majority and Caucasians and people of mixed racial heritage form a small minority. We also consider how race moderates the relationship between hopelessness and risk behavior. Our findings show that compared to Caucasian or mixed-race adolescents, African American adolescents are less likely to engage in risk behaviors, and that hopelessness has a less important impact on their behaviors.

  16. Maternal leptin concentrations are similar in African Americans and Caucasians in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Laura D; Powers, Robert W; Adotey, Mary; Gallaher, Marcia J; Markovic, Nina; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, James M

    2007-01-01

    Leptin concentrations were measured in African American women in order to assess leptin's role in the increased frequency and severity of preeclampsia. In addition, leptin concentrations were measured in women who delivered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. A case-control study of African American and Caucasian women with normal pregnancies, preeclampsia, or SGA infants was done. Plasma leptin was quantitated by radio-immunoassay. The previously recognized pattern of increased leptin concentrations in preeclampsia was replicated. Leptin concentrations did not differ by race in any diagnostic category, and concentrations in women with SGA infants were not higher than those in healthy women. Differences in the frequency and severity of preeclampsia in African Americans cannot be explained by higher leptin concentrations.

  17. Professional motivation and career plan differences between African-American and Caucasian dental students: implications for improving workforce diversity.

    PubMed

    Butters, Janice M; Winter, Paul A

    2002-06-01

    Vast disparities in oral health status coupled with projected decreases in African Americans enrolling in and graduating from dental school have heightened concern about the underrepresentation of African Americans in the dental profession. The purpose of this study was to explore differences between African-American and white American students regarding demographics, professional motivations, and career plans. African-American (n = 104) and white American (n = 226) dental students completed a biographical data survey instrument, which included information about family background and professional motivations and plans, and rated descriptions of three practice arrangements. African-American students were more motivated to become a dentist to serve the public, plan to specialize, work in an urban area, and work part-time. White American students were more motivated to become a dentist based on factors related to family commitments. Race was a significant predictor for student ratings for both solo and employee practice. Study results have implications for health professions educators, administrators, and policy makers in their efforts to improve the recruitment and retention of African-American students, shape dental curricula to meet diverse student needs, and implement loan forgiveness programs to enhance minority student recruitment.

  18. Expression of melatonin receptors in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in African American and Caucasian women: relation to survival.

    PubMed

    Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Haus, Erhard; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda; Liu, Yuan; McLendon, Lauren; Busch, Robert; Adams, Amy; Cohen, Cynthia

    2013-02-01

    In the normal rodent breast, the pineal hormone melatonin controls the development of ductal and alveolar tissue. Melatonin counteracts tumor occurrence and tumor cell progression in vivo and in vitro in animal and human breast cancer cell cultures. It acts predominantly through its melatonin MT1 receptor. Our aim was to investigate the presence or absence of the MT1 melatonin receptor in the aggressive triple negative group of human breast carcinoma (TNBC) and its possible relationship to the course of the disease. A total of 167 patients with a ER-, PR-, Her-2/neu- phenotype in which tissue for receptor studies was available were examined. The MT1 receptor immunostain was evaluated semiquantitatively as staining intensity (0, 1, 2, 3), percentage of stained cells and the weighted index (WI) (staining intensity times percentage of stained cells). A score of WI < 60 was regarded as "negative". There was a striking difference in incidence of MT1 positivity and staining intensity between carcinomas in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. The AA showed a higher incidence of MT1 negative tumors (41/84 = 48.8 % in AA, 6/51 = 11.8 % in C) and a lower average WI. MT1 positivity in TNBC was associated with a lower stage and a smaller tumor size at time of diagnosis. In multivariable survival analysis, MT1 negative TNBC in all cases regardless of race showed a significantly higher hazard ratio for disease progression, shorter progression free survival, and disease-related death, and shorter OS. This was especially pronounced in the AA group but did not reach statistical significance in the smaller group of C alone. These results suggest that melatonin or a melatonin receptor agonist may be useful biologic additions in the treatment of some forms of TNBC, especially in AA who generally show a more aggressive course of their disease.

  19. Voices of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Surrogates on the Burdens of End-of-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Beyth, Rebecca J.; Ford, Marvella E.; McCullough, Laurence B.

    2008-01-01

    Background End-of-life decisions are frequently made by patients’ surrogates. Race and ethnicity may affect such decision making. Few studies have described how different racial/ethnic groups experience end-of-life surrogate decision making. Objectives To describe the self-reported experience the self-reported experience of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogate decision makers of seriously ill patients and to examine the relationship of race, ethnicity, and culture to that experience. Design Purposive sample to include racial/ethnic minorities in a qualitative study using focus group interviews. Participants The participants of the study were 44 experienced, mostly female, surrogate decision makers for older veterans. Approach Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the three groups. Results The experience of burden of end-of-life decision making was similar in all three groups. This burden in its medical, personal, and familial dimensions is compounded by uncertainty about prognosis and the patient’s preferences. Racial/ethnic variations of responses to this burden concerned the physician–family relationship, religion and faith, and past experiences with race/ethnicity concordant versus non-concordant physicians. Conclusions Regardless of race/ethnicity, surrogates for seriously ill patients appeared to experience increased significant, multidimensional burdens of decision making under conditions of uncertainty about a patient’s preferences. This aspect of the burden of surrogate decision making may not be fully appreciated by physicians. Physicians should identify and be especially attentive to strategies used by surrogates, which may vary by race/ethnicity, to reduce the uncertainty about a patient’s preferences and thus the burden of surrogate decision making to assist them in this difficult process. PMID:18172738

  20. ROBO1, a tumor suppressor and critical molecular barrier for localized tumor cells to acquire invasive phenotype: study in African-American and Caucasian prostate cancer models.

    PubMed

    Parray, Aijaz; Siddique, Hifzur R; Kuriger, Jacquelyn K; Mishra, Shrawan K; Rhim, Johng S; Nelson, Heather H; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Konety, Badrinath R; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Saleem, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    High-risk populations exhibit early transformation of localized prostate cancer (CaP) disease to metastasis which results in the mortality of such patients. The paucity of knowledge about the molecular mechanism involved in acquiring of metastatic behavior by primary tumor cells and non-availability of reliable phenotype-discriminating biomarkers are stumbling blocks in the management of CaP disease. Here, we determine the role and translational relevance of ROBO1 (an organogenesis-associated gene) in human CaP. Employing CaP-progression models and prostatic tissues of Caucasian and African-American patients, we show that ROBO1 expression is localized to cell-membrane and significantly lost in primary and metastatic tumors. While Caucasians exhibited similar ROBO1 levels in primary and metastatic phenotype, a significant difference was observed between tumor phenotypes in African-Americans. Epigenetic assays identified promoter methylation of ROBO1 specific to African-American metastatic CaP cells. Using African-American CaP models for further studies, we show that ROBO1 negatively regulates motility and invasiveness of primary CaP cells, and its loss causes these cells to acquire invasive trait. To understand the underlying mechanism, we employed ROBO1-expressing/ROBO1-C2C3-mutant constructs, immunoprecipitation, confocal-microscopy and luciferase-reporter techniques. We show that ROBO1 through its interaction with DOCK1 (at SH3-SH2-domain) controls the Rac-activation. However, loss of ROBO1 results in Rac1-activation which in turn causes E-Cadherin/β-catenin cytoskeleton destabilization and induction of cell migration. We suggest that ROBO1 is a predictive biomarker that has potential to discriminate among CaP types, and could be exploited as a molecular target to inhibit the progression of disease as well as treat metastasis in high-risk populations such as African-Americans.

  1. ROBO1, a tumor suppressor and critical molecular barrier for localized tumor cells to acquire invasive phenotype: Study in African-American and Caucasian prostate cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Aijaz; Siddique, Hifzur R.; Kuriger, Jacquelyn K.; Mishra, Shrawan K.; Rhim, Johng S.; Nelson, Heather H.; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Konety, Badrinath R.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Saleem, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-risk populations exhibit early transformation of localized prostate cancer (CaP) disease to metastasis which results in the mortality of such patients. The paucity of knowledge about the molecular mechanism involved in acquiring of metastatic behavior by primary tumor cells and non-availability of reliable phenotype-discriminating biomarkers are stumbling blocks in the management of CaP disease. Here, we determine the role and translational relevance of ROBO1 (an organogenesis-associated gene) in human CaP. Employing CaP-progression models and prostatic tissues of Caucasian and African-American patients, we show that ROBO1 expression is localized to cell-membrane and significantly lost in primary and metastatic tumors. While Caucasians exhibited similar ROBO1 levels in primary and metastatic phenotype, a significant difference was observed between tumor phenotypes in African-Americans. Epigenetic assays identified promoter methylation of ROBO1 specific to African-American metastatic CaP cells. Using African-American CaP models for further studies, we show that ROBO1 negatively regulates motility and invasiveness of primary CaP cells, and its loss causes these cells to acquire invasive trait. To understand the underlying mechanism, we employed ROBO1-expressing/ROBO1-C2C3-mutant constructs, immunoprecipitation, confocal-microscopy and luciferase-reporter techniques. We show that ROBO1 through its interaction with DOCK1 (at SH3-SH2-domain) controls the Rac-activation. However, loss of ROBO1 results in Rac1-activation which in turn causes E-Cadherin/β-catenin cytoskeleton destabilization and induction of cell migration. We suggest that ROBO1 is a predictive biomarker that has potential to discriminate among CaP types, and could be exploited as a molecular target to inhibit the progression of disease as well as treat metastasis in high-risk populations such as African-Americans. PMID:24752651

  2. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior.

  3. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  4. Polymorphic SVA retrotransposons at four loci and their association with classical HLA class I alleles in Japanese, Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kulski, Jerzy K; Shigenari, Atsuko; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphic insertion frequencies of the retrotransposons known as the "SVA" elements were investigated at four loci in the MHC class I genomic region to determine their allele and haplotype frequencies and associations with the HLA-A, -B or -C genes for 100 Japanese, 100 African Americans, 174 Australian Caucasians and 66 reference cell lines obtained from different ethnic groups. The SVA insertions representing different subfamily members varied in frequency between none for SVA-HF in Japanese and 65% for SVA-HB in Caucasians or African Americans with significant differences in frequencies between the three populations at least at three loci. The SVA loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the SVA-HA locus which deviated significantly in African Americans and Caucasians possibly because of a genomic deletion of this locus in individuals with the HLA-A*24 allele. Strong linkage disequilibria and high percentage associations between the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I gene alleles and some of the SVA insertions were detected in all three populations in spite of significant frequency differences for the SVA and HLA class I alleles between the three populations. The highest percentage associations (>86%) were between SVA-HB and HLA-B*08, -B*27, -B*37 to -B*41, -B*52 and -B*53; SVA-HC and HLA-B*07; SVA-HA and HLA-A*03, -A*11 and -A*30; and SVA-HF and HLA-A*03 and HLA-B*47. From pairwise associations in the three populations and the homozygous cell line results, it was possible to deduce the SVA and HLA class I allelic combinations (haplotypes), population differences and the identity by descent of several common HLA-A allelic lineages.

  5. The therapeutic value of natural agents to treat miRNA targeted breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian-American women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M Wahidur; Sakr, Wael A

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States, with African-American (AA) women showing significantly higher rates than Caucasian-American (CA) women do. The reason for this racial disparity remains unknown, and factors that might be responsible for the differences in incidence and mortality have not been identified. One possible factor could be microRNAs (miRs), which are small noncoding regulatory RNAs involved intimately in cancer, and the expression of certain miRs may be decreased or increased in the breast tumors of AA and CA women. Therefore, modulation of miRs using natural agents could lead to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy to treat aggressive forms of breast cancer in women of different racial backgrounds. The function of natural agents in the regulation of miRs has not been investigated extensively. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of naturally occurring agents as potent antitumor agents thought to function by targeting miRs as contributing factors to the disparity in breast cancer between AA and CA women.

  6. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  7. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  8. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  9. Population data on the thirteen CODIS core short tandem repeat loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M

    1999-11-01

    Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Caucasian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact test, the loci that departed significantly from HWE are: D21S11 (p = 0.010, Bahamians); CSF1PO (p = 0.014, Trinidadians); TPOX (p = 0.011, Jamaicans and p = 0.035, U.S. Caucasians); and D16S539 (p = 0.043, Bahamians). After employing the Bonferroni correction for the number of loci analyzed (i.e., 13 loci per database), these observations are not likely to be significant. There is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci in these databases. The allelic frequency data are similar to other comparable data within the same major population group.

  10. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  11. Differential Expression of MicroRNAs in Hepatitis C Virus-Mediated Liver Disease Between African Americans and Caucasians: Implications for Racial Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Devhare, Pradip B; Steele, Robert; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M; Kaplan, David E; Ray, Ratna B

    2017-02-10

    African Americans (AAs) have higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality rates than Caucasian Americans (CAs). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to cirrhosis and HCC. HCV infection is highly prevalent in the AA population compared to other racial groups. AAs are also less likely to naturally clear HCV, potentially contributing to higher prevalence of HCV. However, the explanation for this disparity is currently unknown. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions. Expression analysis of miRNAs in major racial groups would be important for optimizing personalized treatment strategies. Here we assessed the differential expression of circulatory miRNAs from HCV-infected AA and CA patients. We identified increased expression of miR-146a, miR-150, and miR-155 in HCV-infected AA patient sera compared to that of CA. Further analysis demonstrated that these miRNAs were significantly elevated in AA patients diagnosed with HCV-mediated HCC. Higher expression of miR-150 was also noted in cirrhosis and HCC in AA patients, which may serve as a predictor of liver disease progression in this population. The differential expression of miRNAs suggests that these miRNAs and their target genes could be useful to gain further mechanistic insight of racial disparity associated with HCV-mediated pathogenesis.

  12. Comparison of survival and clinicopathologic features in colorectal cancer among African American, Caucasian, and Chinese patients treated in the United States: Results from the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junzhong; Qiu, Miaozhen; Xu, Ruihua; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2015-10-20

    African American patients of colorectal cancer (CRC) were found to have a worse prognosis than Caucasians, but it has not been fully understood about the survival difference among Chinese and these two races above. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among these three race/ethnicities in the United States. Adenocarcinoma patients of colorectal cancer with a race/ethnicity of Caucasian, Chinese and African American were enrolled for study. Patients were excluded if they had more than one primary cancer but the CRC was not the first one, had unknown cause of death or unknown survival months. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally, there were 585,670 eligible patients for analysis. Chinese patients had the best and African American patients had the worst 5-year CSS (66.7% vs 55.9%), P < 0.001. The 5-year CSS for Caucasian patients was 62.9%. Race/ethnicity was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis, P < 0.001. The comparison of clinicopathologic factors among these three race/ethnicities showed that the insurance coverage rate, income, percentage that completing high school and percentage of urban residence was lowest in the African American patients. Chinese patients had the highest percentage of married, while African American patients ranked lowest. More African American patients were diagnosed as stage IV and had high percentage of signet ring cell and mucinous adenocarcinoma. It is likely that biological differences as well as socioeconomic status both contribute to the survival disparity among the different race/ethnicities.

  13. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  14. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  15. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: confirmatory factor analyses, structural invariance in Caucasian and African American samples, and score reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Arnau, Randolph C; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Green, Bradley A; Berman, Mitchell E

    2009-06-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated the fit of all published factor models for the 36- and 21-item ASI-R, modified the hierarchical model using an approach that does not eliminate items, evaluated the invariance of the modified model across Caucasian and African-American subsamples, and compared the reliability and validity of the 36-item and 21-item versions. The 21-item version of the ASI-R fit a four factor model, as did the 36-item version after several meaningful model modifications. The modified 36-item model was replicable in independent cases and its structural properties were generally invariant across race. Scores from the 36-item version exhibited superior reliability and criterion-related validity.

  16. Association between CMD signs and symptoms, oral parafunctions, race and sex, in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Gunn, S M; Christiansen, R L; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    The associations between oral parafunctions, signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD), race, and sex were analysed in recordings from 203 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children. Significant correlations were found between bruxism, nail biting, thumb sucking and most of the CMD signs and symptoms. There were also significant associations between most of the signs and symptoms and race, while significant association with sex was found only regarding headache, TMJ sounds and chewing pain. Significant associations were found between most CMD signs and TMJ sounds supporting the view that joint sound recordings have diagnostic value. There were also significant associations between the pain variables recorded by questionnaire and those recorded by palpation, which indicates that reliable data can be obtained by interviewing children as young as five. The results of this study support the concept that oral parafunctions have a significant role in the aetiology of CMD. The results also show that race and sex need to be considered when analysing the possible aetiological role of oral parafunctions in CMD. Longitudinal studies, beginning with low age groups are needed to better determine the role of childhood oral parafunctions in CMD aetiology.

  17. A six-year follow-up study of social network changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-born Caucasian urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born Caucasian, African-American, and Caribbean older adults. One hundred and twenty-four community-dwelling older adults were interviewed during 2 data collection points over a 6-year period. Differences between Wave 1 and Wave 2 data were examined using paired sample t-tests confirmed with post-hoc tests and multivariate analyses. Results regarding types of movement showed that network changes were attributed to attrition--the "loss" of network members and a novel movement--the "addition" of network members not heretofore discussed. The results show an interaction between kinship status, ethnicity, and time--the attrition of non-kin members was underscored by ethnic differences. The type of network change was specific for type of network affiliation, such that children were more likely to be added to the networks of the young-old and kin were more likely to be lost in networks of the old-old. Older adults engage in social network interactions marked by compensatory processes beyond loss of network members such as social promotion and demotion. These social network processes are of emotional and functional significance for the older adult.

  18. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.

  19. Assessment of Interactions between PAH Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on PAH-DNA Adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study. PMID:18268125

  20. My Body, My Weight: Body Perception Among African American and Caucasian First-Graders and Their Parents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    behaviors toward weight, body shape, and eating: drive for thinness, bulimia , and body dissatisfaction. For the purposes of this investigation, only...American Mothers’ Eating Behavior and Acculturation (n=29). EDI Thinness Bulimia Body TEEQ-R DEBQ DEBQ-R AAAS Total -.10 p=.61 .02 p= .92 -.07 p= .73...5.91 (7.22) F(1,49)= 6.33* (.693) [.114] Bulimia 1.48 (2.84) 1.09 (2.45) F(1,49)= .27, p= .61 (.080) [.005] TFEQ-R Restraint 24.97 (7.75

  1. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  2. A longitudinal study of serum insulin and insulin resistance as predictors of weight and body fat gain in African American and Caucasian children

    PubMed Central

    Sedaka, Nicole M.; Olsen, Cara H.; Yannai, Laura E.; Stutzman, William E.; Krause, Amanda J.; Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Condarco, Tania A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Susan Z; Hubbard, Van S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of insulin and insulin resistance (IR) on children’s weight and fat gain is unclear. Objective To evaluate insulin and IR as predictors of weight and body fat gain in children at high-risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that baseline IR would be positively associated with follow-up BMI and fat mass. Subjects/Methods 249 healthy African American and Caucasian children, age 6–12y, at high-risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight, were followed for up to 15y with repeated BMI and fat mass measurements. We examined baseline serum insulin and HOMA-IR as predictors of follow-up BMI Z score and fat mass by DEXA in mixed model longitudinal analyses accounting for baseline body composition, pubertal stage, sociodemographic factors, and follow-up interval. Results At baseline, 39% were obese (BMI ≥95th percentile for age/sex). Data from 1,335 annual visits were examined. Children were followed for an average of 7.2±4.3y, with a maximum follow up of 15 years. After accounting for covariates, neither baseline insulin nor HOMA-IR was significantly associated with follow up BMI (p’s>.26), BMIz score (p’s>.22), fat mass (p’s>.78), or fat mass percentage (p’s>.71). In all models, baseline BMI (p<.0001), body fat mass (p<.0001), and percentage fat (p<.001) were strong positive predictors for change in BMI and fat mass. In models restricted to children without obesity at baseline, some but not all models had significant interaction terms between body adiposity and insulinemia/HOMA-IR that suggested less gain in mass among those with greater insulin or insulin resistance. The opposite was found in some models restricted to children with obesity at baseline. Conclusions In middle childhood, BMI and fat mass, but not insulin or IR, are strong predictors of children’s gains in BMI and fat mass during adolescence. PMID:27534840

  3. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  4. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  5. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  6. Differential Splicing of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in African- and Caucasian-American Populations: Contributing Factor in Prostate Cancer Disparities?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    award is to characterize differential splicing of oncongenes and tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer disparities between African American ( AA ...splicing where the AA -specific variants are engendered with a more aggressive oncogenic phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Full-length cloning of the AA ...and CA variants of both PIK3CD and FGFR3 have been accomplished. PCa cell lines genetically manipulated to predominantly express the AA -variant of

  7. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  8. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  10. Factors influencing choices for colorectal cancer screening among previously unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: findings from a triangulation mixed methods investigation.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Mack T; Creswell, John W; Jimbo, Masahito; Fetters, Michael D

    2009-04-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were >or=50 years of age and reported not having been screened for colorectal cancer in the last ten years. Analyses examined differences by race, gender, and geographic location. Participants had modest knowledge about CRC and there were fewer correct answers to knowledge questions by African Americans. Participants recognized value of early detection, and identified health symptoms and their doctor's recommendation as influential for obtaining CRC screening. They chose colonoscopy and FOBT as the most preferred tests, while barium enema was least preferred. The analysis revealed intra-group variations in preference, though there were no significant differences by race, gender, or location. Openness of discussing this sensitive topic, lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening costs, and diversity of preferences expressed within study groups suggest the importance of patient-physician dialogue about colorectal cancer screening options. New approaches to promoting colorectal cancer screening need to explore methods to facilitate patients establishing and expressing preferences among the screening options.

  11. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not having been screened for colorectal cancer in the last ten years. Analyses examined differences by race, gender, and geographic location. Participants had modest knowledge about CRC and there were fewer correct answers to knowledge questions by African Americans. Participants recognized value of early detection, and identified health symptoms and their doctor's recommendation as influential for obtaining CRC screening. They chose colonoscopy and FOBT as the most preferred tests, while barium enema was least preferred. The analysis revealed intra-group variations in preference, though there were no significant differences by race, gender, or location. Openness of discussing this sensitive topic, lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening costs, and diversity of preferences expressed within study groups suggest the importance of patient-physician dialogue about colorectal cancer screening options. New approaches to promoting colorectal cancer screening need to explore methods to facilitate patients establishing and expressing preferences among the screening options. PMID:19082695

  12. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  13. Mental Health Values Differences between Native American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John D.; Suan, Lance V.

    1990-01-01

    Used the Mental Health Values Questionnaire to compare concepts of mental health in 66 Native American and 93 Caucasian American college students. Caucasian Americans tend more strongly to associated unconventional experiences of reality, such as visions, with poor mental health, whereas Native Americans were more likely to view such experiences…

  14. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  15. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  16. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  17. Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B

    2006-05-01

    Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05), and higher serum creatinine (1.66 +/- 1.3, 1.25 +/- 1.0, and 1.31 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.025). African Americans had lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P < 0.05), and lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P < 0.05). Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P < 0.05), as was the development of renal events or death (34, 20, and 10%; P < 0.025). Our results suggest that both biological factors indicating an aggressive disease and low household income are common in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Teaching Styles: Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Mother-Father-Daughter Triads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    Chinese-American girls perform as well as Chinese-American boys at higher levels of mathematics. Caucasian-American girls perform significantly less well than Caucasian-American boys. This study, designed to examine factors involved in this differential, contrasts 25 first generation Chinese-American mother-father pairs and 27 Caucasian-American…

  19. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  20. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  1. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  2. Arterial stiffness profiles: investigating various sections of the arterial tree of African and Caucasian people.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Reimann, Manja

    2011-01-01

    In Africans, arterial stiffness progression seems more pronounced compared to Caucasians. We compared the arterial stiffness profiles of different age groups and focused on muscular arteries and two more central arterial segments in African and Caucasian people from South Africa. In African (N = 374) and Caucasian (N = 376) participants (20-70 years), we measured carotid-radial (C-R) and carotid-dorsalis pedis (C-DP) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic characteristic impedance (Zao). Major findings were that normotensive and high-normal/hypertensive (HT) Caucasians indicated increased trends of C-R PWV with aging (P = .029 and P = .067), not seen in the African groups (P = .122 and P = .526). Both ethnic groups showed significant increases of C-DP PWV and Zao with aging. High-normal/hypertensive Africans had significantly stiffer arteries than hypertensive Caucasians for almost all age groups, and for all stiffness measures. African C-R PWV correlated significantly with blood pressure (BP), but not with age. Opposite results were observed for Caucasians. In conclusion, the stiffness of muscular arteries is already elevated in young Africans, in both those with normal or elevated BP. This is possibly due to an earlier deterioration during childhood, or perhaps already present from birth. Also, in Caucasians stiffness seems more age-related, while in Africans it seems to be more pressure-related.

  3. Defining Physiologically “Normal” Vitamin D in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicole C.; Chen, Lang; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Javiad, Kassim; Nevitt, Michael A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D levels ≥30 ng/ml are commonly considered “normal” based upon maximal suppression of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); however, this has recently been challenged and the optimal 25(OH)D level among non-Caucasians is unclear. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in a sample of Caucasian and African American adults. Method We used baseline serum samples of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) for this analysis, and used three methods to model the relationship between 25(OH)D and iPTH: ordinary least squares regression (OLS), segmented regression, and Helmert contrasts. Results Among Caucasians (n=1,258), 25(OH)D and iPTH ranged from 4-51 ng/ml and 2-120 pg/ml and from 3-32 ng/ml and 3-119 pg/ml in African Americans (n=423). We observed different thresholds between African Americans and Caucasians using each analytic technique. Using 25(OH)D as a categorical variable in OLS, iPTH was statistically higher at lower 25(OH)D categories than the 24-32 ng/ml referent group among Caucasians. However, in African Americans, the mean iPTH was only significantly higher at 25(OH)D levels below 15 ng/ml. Using segmented regression, iPTH appeared to stabilize at a lower 25(OH)D level in African Americans (19-23 ng/ml) compared to in Caucasians (>32 ng/ml). Helmert contrasts also revealed a lower threshold in African Americans than Caucasians. Conclusion Among MOST participants, the 25(OH)D thresholds at which no further change in iPTH was observed was approximately 20 ng/ml in African Americans versus approximately 30 ng/ml in Caucasians, suggesting optimal vitamin D levels in Caucasians may not be applicable to African Americans. PMID:22189572

  4. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  5. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  6. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  7. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  8. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.

  9. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  10. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  11. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society.

  12. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  14. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  15. The Impact of Instructional Methodology on the Reading Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terri I.

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…

  16. Effects of Teacher Certification on the Educational Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Davenport, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the effects of teachers' certification on the achievement of African American students. The impetus for this exploration resided in the reading achievement disparities between African American and Caucasian students in the study district. Guided by the principles of total…

  17. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  19. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  20. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  1. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  2. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  3. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.

  4. Lung diffusing capacity in sub-Saharan Africans versus European Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Simaga, Bamodi; Forton, Kevin; Motoji, Yoshiki; Naeije, Robert; Faoro, Vitalie

    2017-01-10

    Single breath measurements of lung diffusing capacity (DL) for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) were performed in age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched 32 sub-Saharan Africans (13 women) and 32 Caucasian Europeans, and repeated in 14 of each group at 80% of maximum exercise capacity. In Africans versus Caucasians respectively, DLNO was 153±31 vs 176±38ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001) and 210±48 vs 241±52ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01) while hemoglobin-adjusted DLCO was 29±6 vs 34±6ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001), and 46±11 vs 51±13ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01). However there were no differences in DLCO/alveolar volume(VA) (KCO) and DLNO/VA(KNO). The sitting-to-standing height ratio was lower in the Africans. Differences in lung volume with respect to body height explain lower DLNO and DLCO in sub-Saharan Africans as compared to Caucasian Europeans.

  5. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  6. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Marlow B.; Asher, Craig R.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Novaro, Gian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians. PMID:22548197

  7. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  8. Identification of common cystic fibrosis mutations in African-Americans with cystic fibrosis increases the detection rate to 75%.

    PubMed Central

    Macek, M; Mackova, A; Hamosh, A; Hilman, B C; Selden, R F; Lucotte, G; Friedman, K J; Knowles, M R; Rosenstein, B J; Cutting, G R

    1997-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF)--an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and characterized by abnormal chloride conduction across epithelial membranes, leading to chronic lung and exocrine pancreatic disease--is less common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. No large-scale studies of mutation identification and screening in African-American CF patients have been reported, to date. In this study, the entire coding and flanking intronic sequence of the CFTR gene was analyzed by denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing in an index group of 82 African-American CF chromosomes to identify mutations. One novel mutation, 3120+1G-->A, occurred with a frequency of 12.3% and was also detected in a native African patient. To establish frequencies, an additional group of 66 African-American CF chromosomes were screened for mutations identified in two or more African-American patients. Screening for 16 "common Caucasian" mutations identified 52% of CF alleles in African-Americans, while screening for 8 "common African" mutations accounted for an additional 23%. The combined detection rate of 75% was comparable to the sensitivity of mutation analysis in Caucasian CF patients. These results indicate that African-Americans have their own set of "common" CF mutations that originate from the native African population. Inclusion of these "common" mutations substantially improves CF mutation detection rates in African-Americans. PMID:9150159

  9. Increased risk of agricultural injury among African-American farm workers from Alabama and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Enochs, R; Roseman, J M

    2000-10-01

    Research on the epidemiology of agriculture-related injuries has largely ignored African-Americans and farm workers. This cohort study is the first to estimate injury rates and to evaluate prospectively risk factors for agriculture-related injuries and compare them among African-American and Caucasian farmers and African-American farm workers. A total of 1,246 subjects (685 Caucasian owners, 321 African-American owners, and 240 African-American workers) from Alabama and Mississippi were selected from Agricultural Statistics Services databases and other sources and were enrolled between January 1994 and June 1996. Baseline data included detailed demographic, farm and farming, and behavioral information. From January 1994 to April 1998, subjects were contacted biannually to ascertain the occurrence of an agriculture-related injury. Injury rates were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.3) higher for African-American farm workers compared with Caucasian and African-American owners. Part-time farming (relative risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), prior agricultural injury (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), and farm machinery in fair/poor condition (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) were also independently associated with injury rates. The results demonstrate the increased frequency of agricultural injury among farm workers and identify a number of possible ways of reducing them.

  10. Pilot study of INSIGHT therapy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Wicks, Mona; Bolden, Lois

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if treatment with INSIGHT therapy, designed specifically for women, could reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and loneliness in African American women. Prevalence of mental illness differs in African Americans and Caucasians. The nonexperimental one-group pretest posttest design study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week INSIGHT group intervention. Due to the stigma of mental illness, groups met at an African American church. Reliability and validity of instruments were effectively demonstrated. Statistically significant difference was found in the level of depression but the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness. Clinically significant improvement occurred for some participants in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness.

  11. The Impact of Differentiated Instruction in Mathematics on African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaddy-Busch, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    Many African American students have different learning styles than their Caucasian and Asian American counterparts. This distinction makes differentiated instruction a vital teaching strategy, as it allows teachers to tailor curriculum and teaching to meet the needs of individual students, especially those with different learning styles. This…

  12. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  13. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  14. Beauty is in the soul of the beholder: psychological implications of beauty and African American women.

    PubMed

    Hall, C C

    1995-01-01

    The criteria for beauty in the United States are primarily based on Caucasian European American, middle-class standards. African American women tend to vary greatly from these criteria. Though very few studies have been conducted on the body image of Black women in the United States, historically, the physical images portrayed of African American women in the United States have not been positive. Mental health practitioners must understand how these negative images may affect the body image and self-esteem of African American women. Therapeutic and community interventions are discussed.

  15. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  16. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  17. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  18. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  19. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  20. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  1. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  2. Genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Kessler, Lisa Jay; Mitchell, Edith

    2005-01-01

    As genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations is increasingly integrated into the clinical management of high-risk women, it will be important to understand barriers and motivations for genetic counseling among women from underserved minority groups to ensure equitable access to these services. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling and testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans. We also review studies that evaluated genetic testing intentions in this population. We conducted a search of the PubMed database to identify studies related to BRCA1/2 testing in African Americans that were published between 1995 and 2003. Overall, studies have evaluated ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing or have compared African American and Caucasian women in terms of genetic testing intentions. These studies have shown that knowledge about breast cancer genetics and exposure to information about the availability of testing is low among African Americans, whereas expectations about the benefits of genetic testing are endorsed highly. However, much less is known about the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in African Americans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers and motivations for participating in genetic testing for inherited cancer risk in African Americans. The lack of studies on psychological functioning, cancer surveillance, and preventive behaviors following testing is a significant void; however, for these studies to be conducted, greater access to genetic counseling and testing in African Americans will be needed.

  3. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  4. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials--Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders.

  5. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying genes and biological pathways regulating arterial stiffness may provide insight into the genetics underlying the increased risk of hypertension in African Americans. This paper reviews the genetic findings to date in the area of arterial stiffness and blood pressure in African Americans with an emphasis on the current limitations and new efforts to move the field forward. PMID:22492025

  6. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  7. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  8. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  9. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  10. Schools in Violent Neighborhoods: The Impact on African American Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between African American and Caucasian students continues to be a major concern for policymakers and educators. This gap started to shrink in the 1970s and 1980s with integration, but the 1990s showed the achievement gap was on the rise again. The characteristics of the neighborhoods where children live and attend…

  11. Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Herbert; Ebisu, Keita; Watanabe, Emi; Sue, Laura Y; Tong, Tiejun

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.

  12. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  13. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  14. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  15. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals.

  16. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R

    2002-01-01

    Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.

  17. African Expressions in Hispano-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben C.

    This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…

  18. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  19. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  20. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  1. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  2. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  3. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  4. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  5. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  6. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  7. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  8. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  9. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  10. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  11. Novel 180- and 480-base-pair insertions in African and African-American strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Shannon L; Mole, Beth M; Dailidiene, Daiva; Segal, Issy; Ally, Reid; Mistry, Rajesh; Secka, Ousman; Adegbola, Richard A; Thomas, Julian E; Lenarcic, Erik M; Peek, Richard M; Berg, Douglas E; Forsyth, Mark H

    2004-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that chronically infects human stomachs and sometimes causes severe gastroduodenal disease. Studies of polymorphic DNA sequences can suggest geographic origins of individual strains. Here, we describe a 180-bp insertion (ins180), which is just after the translation stop of a gene of unknown function, near the promoter of jhp0152-jhp0151 two-component signal transduction genes in strain J99, and absent from this site in strain 26695. This ins180 insertion was found in 9 of 9 Gambian (West African), 9 of 20 (45%) South African, and 9 of 40 (23%) Spanish strains but in only 2 of 20 (10%) North American strains and none of 20 Lithuanian, 20 Indian, and 20 Japanese strains. Four South African isolates that lacked ins180 and that belonged to an unusual outlier group contained a 480-bp insertion at this site (ins480), whereas none of 181 other strains screened contained ins480. In further tests 56% (10 of 18) of strains from African Americans but only 17% (3 of 18) of strains from Caucasian Americans carried ins180 (P < 0.05). Thus, the H. pylori strains of modern African Americans seem to retain traces of African roots, despite the multiple generations since their ancestors were taken from West Africa. Fragmentary ins180-like sequences were found at numerous sites in H. pylori genomes, always between genes. Such sequences might affect regulation of transcription and could facilitate genome rearrangement by homologous recombination. Apparent differences between African-American and Caucasian-American H. pylori gene pools may bear on our understanding of H. pylori transmission and disease outcome.

  12. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  13. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  14. Panic disorder in African-Americans: symptomatology and isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Steven; Paradis, Cheryl

    2002-06-01

    While attention has been paid to the study of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia among Caucasians, surprisingly little empirical research within the United States has looked at the phenomenology of PD among minority groups. In this paper we present data we have collected and review other research on the phenomenology, social supports, and coping behavior among African-Americans with panic disorder. Our studies indicate that, in comparison to Caucasians, African-Americans with PD reported more intense fears of dying or going crazy, as well as higher levels of numbing and tingling in their extremities. African-Americans reported higher rates of comorbid post traumatic disorder and more depression. African-Americans also used somewhat different coping strategies (such as religiosity and counting one's blessings), less self-blame, and were somewhat more dissatisfied with social supports. The incidence of isolated sleep paralysis was, as per previous reports, higher in African-Americans. These findings, results of other research, and the implications for assessment and treatment are discussed within a semantic network analysis of panic (Hinton and Hinton 2002, this issue).

  15. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  16. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  17. Cross-Race Preferences for Same-Race Faces Extend beyond the African versus Caucasian Contrast in 3-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Liu, Qinyao; Pascalis, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants…

  18. Mineral metabolites and CKD progression in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Scialla, Julia J; Astor, Brad C; Isakova, Tamara; Xie, Huiliang; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles

    2013-01-01

    CKD progresses more rapidly to ESRD among African Americans compared with Caucasians. Disordered mineral metabolism is more severe among African Americans with CKD, which might partially explain the accelerated progression of their kidney disease. Here, using data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years. We also examined the association of baseline levels of mineral metabolites with risk for ESRD or death in 809 participants. FGF23, PTH, and phosphate levels rose over time; participants with faster rates of decline in measured GFR had the greatest increases in these parameters (P<0.01 for each). Higher baseline levels of FGF23, PTH, and phosphate each associated with increased risk for ESRD or death independent of GFR. FGF23 exhibited a dose-response relationship with outcomes (HR=1.30 per doubling, 95% CI=1.15-1.47; HR=2.24 for highest compared with lowest quartile, 95% CI=1.39-3.60), whereas PTH and phosphate showed nonlinear relationships. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/ml) was present in 95% of participants, but lower levels did not independently associate with outcomes. Using death-censored ESRD as the outcome produced qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, abnormalities of mineral metabolism worsen with progressive CKD and associate with higher risk for ESRD among African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.

  19. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  20. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  1. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  2. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  3. Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low-Income African American Sample of Medical Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Karen B.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jones, Glenn N.; Bodenlos, Jamie; Ancona, Martin; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) are well established with primarily Caucasian samples. However, little is known about its reliability and validity with minority groups. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the BDI-II in a sample of low-income African American medical outpatients (N = 220).…

  4. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  5. Five novel missense mutations of the Lewis gene (FUT3) in African (Xhosa) and Caucasian populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pang, H; Liu, Y; Koda, Y; Soejima, M; Jia, J; Schlaphoff, T; Du Toit, E D; Kimura, H

    1998-06-01

    Five novel missense mutations, viz., C304 A, T370 G, G484 A, G667 A, and G808 A, in the Lewis gene (FUT3) were detected in African (Xhosa) and Caucasian individuals in South Africa. These single base substitutions may result in changes in amino acid residues from Gln102 to Lys in the 304 mutation, Ser124 to Ala in the 370 mutation, Asp162 to Asn in the 484 mutation, Gly223 to Arg in the 667 mutation, and Val270 to Met in the 808 mutation. Out of the five novel mutations identified in this investigation, four new alleles (le484,667, le484,667,808, Le304, and Le370) were determined in the Xhosa population and two new alleles (le202,314,484 and Le304) in the Caucasian population. The determination of alpha(1,3/1,4)fucosyltransferase activity, after transfection of plasmids containing the new alleles into COS7 cells, suggested that alleles le484,667 and le484,667,808 encoded an inactive enzyme, and that alleles Le304 and Le370 encoded a functional enzyme. In addition, we also examined the incidence of five common alleles, Le59, le59,508 le59,1067, le202,314, and le1067 in two populations by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method and compared differences in the allele frequencies of FUT3 among three ethnic groups (Orientals, Africans, and Caucasians).

  6. Phenol sulphotransferase SULT1A1 polymorphism: molecular diagnosis and allele frequencies in Caucasian and African populations.

    PubMed Central

    Coughtrie, M W; Gilissen, R A; Shek, B; Strange, R C; Fryer, A A; Jones, P W; Bamber, D E

    1999-01-01

    Sulphation, catalysed by members of the sulphotransferase (SULT) enzyme family, is an important component of the body's chemical defence mechanism, but also acts to bioactivate mutagens such as hydroxylated aryl and heterocyclic amines. A major human sulphotransferase, SULT1A1 (P-PST), metabolizes and/or bioactivates many drugs, iodothyronines and hydroxylated aromatic amines. The enzyme activity varies widely within the population and is under genetic control. We have developed an assay detecting a G-->A transition in SULT1A1 that causes an Arg213-->His substitution associated with low SULT activity and altered enzyme properties, and have used it to assess the SULT1A1 genotype in Caucasian (n=293) and African (Nigerian, n=52) populations. We show that the mutant SULT1A1*2 allele is present at frequencies of 0.321 and 0.269 in the Caucasian and African populations respectively. We also demonstrate a significant age-related difference in SULT1A1 genotype within our Caucasian population, with increasing incidence of SULT1A1*1 homozygosity and decreasing incidence of SULT1A1*2 homozygosity with increasing age, indicating a potential association of SULT1A1*1 allozyme(s) with protection against cell and/or tissue damage during aging. PMID:9854023

  7. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  8. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  9. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  10. African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wieder, Robert; Shafiq, Basit; Adam, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African American race negatively impacts survival from localized breast cancer but co-variable factors confound the impact. METHODS: Data sets were analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) directories from 1973 to 2011 consisting of patients with designated diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, race as White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, age, stage I, II or III, grade 1, 2 or 3, estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive or negative, marital status as single, married, separated, divorced or widowed and laterality as right or left. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model was used to determine hazard ratios for survival. Chi square test was applied to determine the interdependence of variables found significant in the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression analysis. Cells with stratified data of patients with identical characteristics except African American or Caucasian race were compared. RESULTS: Age, stage, grade, ER and PR status and marital status significantly co-varied with race and with each other. Stratifications by single co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans. Stratification by three and four co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans in most subgroupings with sufficient numbers of values. Differences in some subgroupings containing poor prognostic co-variables did not reach significance, suggesting that race effects may be partly overcome by additional poor prognostic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: African American race is a poor prognostic indicator for survival from breast cancer independent of 6 associated co-variables with prognostic significance. PMID:27698895

  11. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  12. Study of MICA alleles in 201 African Americans by multiplexed single nucleotide extension (MSNE) typing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzheng; Han, Mei; Vorhaben, Robert; Giang, Chris; Lavingia, Bhavna; Stastny, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a method for major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genotyping using multiplexed single nucleotide extension (MSNE) and flow cytometric analysis of an array of fluorescent microspheres. This technique employs a polymerase chain reaction-derived target DNA containing all the polymorphic sites of MICA, synthetic complementary primers, biotinylated dideoxynucleotide triphosphate, fluorescent reporter molecules (streptavidin-phycoerythrin), and thermophilic DNA polymerase. Genomic DNA was amplified by MICA locus-specific primers and the MSNE reactions were carried out in the presence of 30 MSNE primers used to assay polymorphisms in exons 2, 3, and 4 of the MICA genes. Thirty-two previously typed cell lines were used as reference material. The MICA gene frequencies among 201 African-American unrelated donors were determined. Of 51 previously known alleles, 18 were observed in African-Americans, compared to 16 that were found in North American Caucasians and 9 in South American Indians, suggesting a more diversified allelic distribution in African-Americans. MICA*00201 and MICA*00801 were the two most frequent alleles in African-Americans. We observed a high degree of linkage disequilibrium between certain alleles of MICA and of human leukocyte antigen-B in the African-American population. The methodology described here offers a powerful new approach to DNA typing of the MICA alleles.

  13. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  15. Disparities in colorectal cancer in African-Americans vs Whites: before and after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dimou, Anastasios; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2009-08-14

    There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African-Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.

  16. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  17. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  18. Germline mutations in PALB2 in African-American breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Chu, Li-Hao; Kelley, Karen; Davis, Helen; John, Esther M; Tomlinson, Gail E; Neuhausen, Susan L

    2011-02-01

    Breast cancer incidence is lower in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial/ethnic variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis. Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of early-onset and/or familial breast cancer cases. To date, PALB2 mutation testing has not been performed in African-American breast cancer cases. We screened for germline mutations in PALB2 in 139 African-American breast cases by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Twelve variants were identified in these cases and none caused truncation of the protein. Three missense variants, including two rare variants (P8L and T300I) and one common variant (P210L), were predicted to be pathogenic, and were located in a coiled-coil domain of PALB2 required for RAD51- and BRCA1-binding. We investigated and found no significant association between the P210L variant and breast cancer risk in a small case-control study of African-American women. This study adds to the literature that PALB2 mutations, although rare, appear to play a role in breast cancer in all populations investigated to date.

  19. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations.

  20. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  1. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  2. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  3. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  4. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  5. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  6. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  7. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  8. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  9. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  10. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  11. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  12. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  13. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  14. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans With Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The disproportionate incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (CaP) among African Americans ( AA ) in comparison to Caucasian American (CA...are not well understood. It is believed that high circulating androgens reported in AA men may account for such racial disparities. It has been...mass-index (BMI), which is significantly higher in AA -men, and the risk for aggressive CaP. Active steroidogenic pathways are active in adipocytes

  15. Periodontal Disease Status in Gullah African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes living in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Jyotika K; Wiegand, Ryan E; Salinas, Carlos F.; Grossi, Sarah G; Sanders, John J; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans have a disproportionate burden of diabetes. Gullah African Americans are the most genetically homogeneous population of African descent in the US, with an estimated European Caucasian admixture of only 3.5%. This study assessed the previously unknown prevalence of periodontal disease among a sample of Gullah African Americans with diabetes and investigated the association between diabetes control and presence of periodontal disease. Methods Gullah African Americans with Type 2 diabetes (n=235) were included. Diabetes control was assessed by HbA1C, and divided into three categories: well controlled, <7%; moderately controlled, 7–8.5%; and poorly controlled, >8.5%. Participants were categorized as healthy, having no clinical attachment loss (CAL) or bleeding on probing (BOP); early periodontitis, having CAL ≥1 mm in ≥2 teeth; moderate periodontitis, having 3 sites with CAL ≥4 mm and at least 2 sites with probing depth (PD) ≥3 mm; and severe periodontitis, having CAL ≥6 mm in ≥2 teeth and PD ≥5 mm in ≥1 site. Observed prevalences of periodontitis were compared to rates reported for the NHANES studies. Results All subjects had evidence of periodontal disease: 70.6% had moderate periodontitis and 28.5% had severe disease. Diabetes control was not associated with periodontal disease. The periodontal disease proportions were significantly higher than the reported national prevalence of 10.6% among African Americans without diabetes. Conclusions Our sample of Gullah African Americans with type 2 diabetes exhibits higher prevalence of periodontal disease than African Americans, both with and without diabetes, described in NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2000. PMID:19563285

  16. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  17. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  18. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  19. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  20. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  1. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  2. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  3. Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

  4. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  5. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  6. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  7. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  8. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  9. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  10. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  11. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  12. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  13. Five Types of African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  14. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  15. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  16. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  17. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  18. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  19. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  20. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  1. Trends in smoking among African-Americans: a description of Nashville's REACH 2010 initiative.

    PubMed

    Larson, Celia O; Schlundt, David G; Patel, Kushal; Wang, Hong; Beard, Katina; Hargreaves, Margaret K

    2009-08-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate burden of tobacco related morbidity and mortality despite smoking less than their Caucasian counterparts. Nashville's REACH 2010 initiative developed community partnerships to promote awareness, education and participatory programs to prevent and decrease smoking among residents of the northern geographic area of Nashville, TN, a majority African American community. A social-ecological model provided the framework for interventions used during a 5 year period that included: (a) community level strategies to increase awareness and knowledge about the effects of smoking; (b) individual level strategies to enlist and train community members to become advocates, lead smoking cessation classes and encourage current smokers in quit attempts; and (c) strategies directed to changing policy through education and partnership building. Smoking prevalence among residents was examined from 2001 through 2005 based on data from the Nashville CDC REACH 2010 Risk Factor Survey and the Tennessee CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Tests for linear trends indicated a significant decreasing trend (P < .02) of daily smoking and smoking uptake (P < .03) in North Nashville. In contrast to our community an increasing trend was observed in quitting smoking (P < .01). No trends were significant for African Americans in Tennessee. This study suggests that consistent, multiple and multi-level strategies targeted to an African American community may impact smokers who are not ready to quit but willing to reduce their level of smoking. This study underscores the importance of developing and implementing community wide campaigns to address the needs of African Americans.

  2. Diagnosis of fragile X syndrome: a qualitative study of African American families.

    PubMed

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Charen, Krista; Rohr, Julia; Allen, Emily; Sherman, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences to the proband and family members at all levels in the generations. Although evidence demonstrates that the rates of diagnosis for FXS are the same in all racial groups, age of diagnosis in African American children has been reported to occur later than in Caucasian children. Additionally, African American families are seriously under-represented in existing FXS research studies. As such, it is important to understand the possible disparities in the underlying factors to receiving a diagnosis in African American families with FXS. Herein, a qualitative approach was adopted to describe the overall FXS diagnosis experiences (pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, and post-diagnosis stages) of a convenience sample of 10 African American mothers. We identified three major findings among our participants: (1) FXS testing is not ordered immediately once a parent expresses concerns of developmental delays to the pediatricians, (2) the diagnosis is sometimes delivered in an insensitive manner with information often being outdated and unbalanced towards negative aspects, (3) communication issues among family members exists once the diagnosis is discovered. Although these qualitative data may not be representative of the whole group, these findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and our understanding in providing support and advocacy for African American families with FXS.

  3. Evaluating a measure of everyday problem solving for use in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, K E; Baker-Thomas, T; Heyward, K; Gatto, M; Williams, Y

    1999-01-01

    Results from previous research on everyday problem solving involving Caucasians suggests that it may be a useful concept in studying cognitive aging in African Americans. The purpose of this investigation was to examine: (1) the factor structure of an everyday problem solving in a sample of African Americans, (2) the internal consistency of everyday-problem solving in a sample of African Americans, and (3) the relationship of problem solving to demographic factors, physical functioning, and measures of fluid ability. The sample included subjects recruited from Baltimore, MD. The sample consisted of 249 community dwelling African-American adults with a mean age of 67.8 years (SD = 8.47). Variables included the Everyday Problem Solving Test (EPT), gender, age, education, physical functioning, and inductive reasoning. Everyday problem solving as a latent construct was confirmed and the split half reliability was high (.89). As in previous research, inductive reasoning and physical functioning were related to everyday problem solving abilities. We also found that certain domains of the EPT are more influenced by demographic factors than others. Our finding suggest that the Everyday Problems Test is appropriate for use with African American samples.

  4. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  5. Do African American Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer have Worse Overall Survival? Accounting for Pathologic Staging and Patient Demographics Beyond Race Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Canner, Joseph K.; Kates, Max; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that 74,000 men and women in the United States will be diagnosed with bladder cancer and 16,000 will die from the disease in 2015. The incidence of bladder cancer in Caucasian males is double that of African American males, but African American men and women have worse survival. Although factors contributing to this disparity have been analyzed, there is still great uncertainty as to why this disparity exists. Objective: To evaluate whether the disparities in bladder cancer survival after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder amongst African American (AA) and Caucasian patients is attributable to patient demographics, year of diagnosis, and/or tumor characteristics. Methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) data from 1973–2011, African American and Caucasian patients treated with a radical cystectomy for TCC of the bladder were identified. Primary outcomes were all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Differences in survival between African Americans and Caucasian patients were assessed using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Student’s t-tests for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to measure the hazard ratio for African Americans compared to Caucasians for all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. In addition, coarsened matching techniques within narrow ranges, were used to match African American and Caucasian patients on the basis of age, sex, and cancer stage. Following matching, differences in all-cause and cancer-specific mortality were again assessed using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model, using the matching strata for the regression strata. Results: The study cohort consisted of 21,406 African American and Caucasian patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder urothelial cancer, with 6.2% being African American and 73.9% male. African American patients had worse all-cause and cancer

  6. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  7. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  8. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  9. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  10. African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)

  11. TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IL-10, IL-6, and INF-gamma alleles among African Americans and Cuban Americans. Report of the ASHI Minority Workshops: Part IV.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Nancy L; Esquenazi, Violet; Lucas, Donna P; Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2004-12-01

    Point mutations or single nucleotide substitutions in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may affect levels of cytokine expression and have been associated with acute and chronic rejection in organ transplantation, severity of graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and predisposition to autoimmune disorders. Because these cytokine variants have been studied primarily among Caucasians, we defined the alleles and frequencies of five cytokines among 691 unrelated, adult African Americans and 296 Cuban Americans in the American Society for Histocompatibility/National Institutes of Health Minority HLA Workshops. The genotypes of all cytokines, except for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta among African Americans, were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Genotype frequencies among African American and Cuban American participants were compared with those of 75 North American Caucasian bone marrow donors and with published frequencies. Significant differences were observed in all comparisons except between Cuban and Caucasian Americans for alleles of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. The most notable differences were in genotype frequencies of African Americans compared with those of the two other populations. The frequency of the IFN-gamma genotype A/A, which is associated with low expression, was significantly higher in African Americans than in Caucasian or Cuban Americans (0.66 vs 0.37 and 0.26, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). The high-expression G/G genotype for IL-6 was more than twice as prevalent among African Americans as among Caucasians and 1.5 times more frequent than among Cuban Americans (respective frequencies: 0.85 vs 0.38 and 0.49; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In African Americans, the frequency of the high-expression genotype for IL-10, GCC/GCC, was approximately half that of the frequency in Cuban and Caucasian Americans (0.10 vs 0.19 and 0.23, respectively; p < 0

  12. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  13. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  14. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  15. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  16. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D and health disparities among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Nakshatra; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the major storage form of vitamin D, leading to the widespread assumption that African Americans are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. However, the finding that African Americans maintain better indices of musculoskeletal health than Caucasians throughout their lifespan despite having lower circulating 25(OH)D concentrations suggests that the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and racial health disparities may not be so straight forward. The fairly recent emergence of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) may help resolve some of this uncertainty. FGF23 strongly modulates both systemic and local activation of 25(OH)D, playing a potentially important role in the degree to which lower 25(OH)D concentrations impact health outcomes, including differences in the incidence and rate of progression of chronic kidney disease by race. The focus of this review will be to critically assess ongoing controversies surrounding the relationship between vitamin D and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease outcomes, and how FGF23 may help to clarify the picture. PMID:24119850

  18. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  19. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday

  20. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    PubMed

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  1. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  3. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  4. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...

  5. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians...

  6. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  7. Math Blitz Afterschool Program: Reclaiming Excellence for African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ruth R.

    2013-01-01

    An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…

  8. The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.

    This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…

  9. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  10. African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

  11. Exploration of Depressive Symptoms in African American Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890

  12. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  13. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  14. Are there differences in performance, metabolism, and quadriceps muscle activity in black African and Caucasian athletes during brief intermittent and intense exercise?

    PubMed

    Temfemo, A; Laparadis, C; Bishop, D; Merzouk, A; Ahmaidi, S

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are any differences in power output (PO) and/or quadriceps muscle (Quad) activity between black African and Caucasian football players during a force-velocity (fv) exercise test, which consisted of performing maximal 6-s sprints against an increasing load. Each subject started the test with a load of 2 kg and then recovered for 5 min before repeating the same test with a load increased by 2 kg. When the pedal frequency did not exceed 130 rev x min(-1), the load was increased by only 1 kg. Each subject attained the load corresponding to his maximal power if an additional increase in load (+1 kg) induced a power decrease. Nine black Africans (mean age 24.2 +/- 3.3 years) and nine Caucasians (24.7 +/- 4.2 years) (matched for stature and aerobic fitness) participated in the fv exercise test. During the test, PO, blood lactate, and the quadriceps electromyography (EMG) root mean square (Quad RMS) were assessed. Higher blood lactate was observed in Caucasians than in black Africans for POs over the load range from 4 kg up to the maximal power. However, PO and Quad RMS values were similar in Caucasians and black Africans. They also had similar lean leg volume (LLV) and consequently produced similar PO/LLV and Quad RMS/LLV values. Overall, our results suggest that Caucasians and black Africans matched for stature, VO(2max), and training background have similar PO and Quad RMS values, but different blood lactate concentrations during brief, intermittent, intense exercise performed on a cycloergometer.

  15. A Phenomenological Study of African American Men Who Were Mentored While Pursuing Their Bachelor's Degree at Historically White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Davin Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    African American men pursuing bachelor's degrees at historically White colleges and universities (HWCU) are not graduating at the same rates as Caucasian men. With a continued rapid decline in degree completion, establishing a framework of success for these students is becoming increasingly difficult. While research concerning graduation…

  16. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  17. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    cancer syndromes that are prevalent among African Americans? Little information exists about other familial cancer syndromes unique to African...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...familial syndromes based on pedigree analysis, calculation of risk estimates, and effective communication of risk status at a level that the patient can

  18. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-06-01

    Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.

  19. From their own voices: the lived experience of African American registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deborah W

    2007-04-01

    This phenomenological study described the lived experience of African American registered nurses providing nursing care to individuals, families, and communities in southeast Louisiana. Data were collected from 13 African American registered nurses using semistructured interviews and a focus group. Analysis of the phenomenological data revealed two essential themes, (a) connecting with the patient and (b) proving yourself; and four incidental themes, (a) a fulfilling dream, (b) being invisible and voiceless, (c) surviving and persevering, and (d) mentoring and role modeling. The findings revealed that the general perception among participants was that they were not fully accepted as equal professionals by their Caucasian nurse colleagues, other health care providers, and sometimes patients. The findings of the study indicate the immediate need to address and resolve the issues of diversity within the nursing profession. Nursing will also have to reform its system and practices to embrace and support diversity.

  20. Somatic mutation spectrum of non-small cell lung cancer in African Americans: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Luiz H.; Lammers, Philip E.; Matthews-Smith, Velmalia; Eisenberg, Rosana; Gonzalez, Adriana; Schwartz, Ann G.; Timmers, Cynthia; Shilo, Konstantin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Zhang, Jianying; Yilmaz, Ayse Selen; Liu, Tom; Coombes, Kevin; Carbone, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mutational profile of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become an important tool in tailoring therapy to patients, with clear differences according to the population of origin. African Americans have higher lung cancer incidence and mortality than Caucasians, yet discrepant results have been reported regarding the frequency of somatic driver mutations. We hypothesized that NSCLC has a distinct mutational profile in this group. Methods We collected NSCLC samples resected from self-reported African Americans in five sites from Tennessee, Michigan, and Ohio. Gene mutations were assessed by either SNaPshot or next generation sequencing, and ALK translocations were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Two hundred sixty patients were included, mostly males (62.3%) and smokers (86.6%). Eighty-one samples (31.2%) were squamous cell carcinomas. The most frequently mutated genes were KRAS (15.4%), EGFR (5.0%), PIK3CA (0.8%), BRAF, NRAS, ERBB2, and AKT1 (0.4% each). ALK translocations were detected in 2 non-squamous tumors (1.7%), totaling 61 cases (23.5%) with driver oncogenic alterations. Among 179 non-squamous samples, 54 (30.2%) presented a driver alteration. The frequency of driver alterations altogether was lower than that reported in Caucasians, while no difference was detected in either EGFR or KRAS mutations. Overall survival was longer among patients with EGFR mutations. Conclusions We demonstrated that NSCLC from African Americans has a different pattern of somatic driver mutations than from Caucasians. The majority of driver alterations in this group are yet to be described, which will require more comprehensive panels and assessment of non-canonical alterations. PMID:26301800

  1. Mammography Adherence in African American Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Stump, Timothy; Rawl, Susan M.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Champion, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the developed world. Mammography screening is especially important for African Americans because they experience a greater mortality (OR=1.38) than Caucasians despite having a lower incidence of breast cancer. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions with usual care on mammography adherence among African American women. Methods A subsample of African American women (n=244) aged 41-65 years who had not had a mammogram in the last 15 months and no history of breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive: 1) mailed interactive DVD, 2) computer-tailored telephone counseling, or 3) usual care. Results The DVD intervention was 5 times more effective than usual care for promoting mammography screening at 6 months follow-up among women who earned less than $30,000 (OR= 5.3). Compared to usual care, neither the DVD nor phone produced significant effects for women with household incomes >$30,000. Conclusion Use of a mailed DVD for low-income African American women may be an effective way to increase mammography adherence. PMID:26416127

  2. African American-preponderant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Ikuko; Cichon, Michelle; Yee, Cecilia L.; Land, Susan; Korczak, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    Background African American women more often present with more aggressive types of breast cancer than Caucasian women, but little is known whether genetic polymorphisms specific to or disproportionate in African Americans are associated with their risk of breast cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted including 194 cases identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System and 189 controls recruited through random digit dialing to examine polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen metabolism and action. Results The African American-specific CYP1A1 5639C allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio(OR)=2.34, 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.23–4.44) and this association with the CYP1A1 5639 locus was dependent on another polymorphism in the CYP3A4 gene (P=0.043 for the interaction). In addition, African American-predominant CYP1B1 432 Val allele was significantly more often found in the cases than in the controls overall and the HSD17B1 312 Gly allele was specifically associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR=3.00, 95% CI: 1.29–6.99). Conclusion These observations need to be confirmed in larger studies due to the limited statistical power of the study based on a small number of cases. PMID:19679043

  3. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

  4. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  5. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  6. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  8. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  9. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  10. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  11. Interethnic diversity of the CD209 (rs4804803) gene promoter polymorphism in African but not American sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jenelle A.; Duru, Kimberley C.; Guindo, Aldiouma; Yi, Li; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Diallo, Dapa A.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the genomic diversity of CD209 gene promoter polymorphism could assist in clarifying disease pathophysiology as well as contribution to co-morbidities. CD209 gene promoter polymorphism has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to infection. We hypothesize that CD209 mutant variants occur at a higher frequency among Africans and in sickle cell disease. We analyzed the frequency of the CD209 gene (rs4804803) in healthy control and sickle cell disease (SCD) populations and determined association with disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from 145 SCD and 231 control Africans (from Mali), 331 SCD and 379 control African Americans and 159 Caucasians. Comparative analysis among and between groups was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Per ethnic diversification, we found significant disparity in genotypic (23.4% versus 16.9% versus 3.2%) and allelic frequencies (48.7% versus 42.1% versus 19.8%) of the homozygote mutant variant of the CD209 (snp 309A/G) gene promoter between Africans, African Americans and Caucasians respectively. Comparative evaluation between disease and control groups reveal a significant difference in genotypic (10.4% versus 23.4%; p = 0.002) and allelic frequencies (39.7% versus 48.7%; p = 0.02) of the homozygote mutant variant in African SCD and healthy controls respectively, an observation that is completely absent among Americans. Comparing disease groups, we found no difference in the genotypic (p = 0.19) or allelic (p = 0.72) frequencies of CD209 homozygote mutant variant between Africans and Americans with sickle cell disease. The higher frequency of CD209 homozygote mutant variants in the African control group reveals a potential impairment of the capacity to mount an immune response to infectious diseases, and possibly delineate susceptibility to or severity of infectious co-morbidities within and between groups. PMID:25755928

  12. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  13. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be responsible for this disparity. We here report genome-wide copy number variations, single nucleotide mutations and DNA methylation findings that might be specific to this population. PMID:27917406

  14. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  15. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  16. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  18. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  19. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  20. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  1. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  2. Educating African American Males: Examining Teacher Perceptions and Cultural Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Celeste A.

    2010-01-01

    For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…

  3. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  4. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  5. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  6. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  7. A Lifeline to Science Careers for African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean

    1996-01-01

    Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…

  8. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…

  9. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  10. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  11. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  12. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  13. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  14. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  15. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  16. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  17. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  18. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  19. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  20. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  1. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Cancer.gov

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  2. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  3. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  4. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  5. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  6. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  7. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  8. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  9. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  10. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  11. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  12. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  13. Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

  14. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for much of our Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  15. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  16. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  17. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  18. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  19. Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

  20. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  1. Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

  2. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  3. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  4. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national...

  5. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story..., music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month,...

  6. These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gerri

    2007-01-01

    Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

  7. Recent African American Migration Trends in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…

  8. Counseling African American Clients: Professional Counselors and Religious Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…

  9. Scholarly Productivity and Social Work Doctorates: Patterns among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)

  10. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  11. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  12. African-American Women's Voices: Expanding Theories of Women's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Diane J.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)

  13. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  14. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  15. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  16. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  17. Bone and mineral metabolism in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H

    1997-08-01

    Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.

  18. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  19. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  20. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  1. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  2. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  3. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  4. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  5. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  6. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  7. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  8. Education and self-rated health: An individual and neighborhood level analysis of Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.

  9. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  10. A Dietary Intervention in Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not

  11. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  12. Takotsubo Syndrome in African American vs. Non-African American Women

    PubMed Central

    QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531

  13. Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism and invasive breast cancer in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Canter, Jeffrey A; Kallianpur, Asha R; Parl, Fritz F; Millikan, Robert C

    2005-09-01

    Mitochondria generate oxygen-derived free radicals that damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA and in turn promote carcinogenesis. The mtDNA G10398A polymorphism alters the structure of Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, an important site of free radical production. This polymorphism is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. We hypothesized that the 10398A allele is also associated with breast cancer susceptibility. African mitochondria harbor the 10398A allele less frequently than Caucasian mitochondria, which predominantly carry this allele. Mitochondrial genotypes at this locus were therefore determined in two separate populations of African-American women with invasive breast cancer and in controls. A preliminary study at Vanderbilt University (48 cases, 54 controls) uncovered an association between the 10398A allele and invasive breast cancer in African-American women, [odds ratio (OR), 2.90; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-18.3; P = 0.11]. We subsequently validated this finding in a large, population-based, case-control study of breast cancer, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study at the University of North Carolina (654 cases, 605 controls). African-American women in this study with the 10398A allele had a significantly increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10-2.31; P = 0.013). The 10398A allele remained an independent risk factor after adjustment for other well-accepted breast cancer risk factors. No association was detectable in white women (879 cases, 760 controls; OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.31; P = 0.81). This study provides novel epidemiologic evidence that the mtDNA 10398A allele influences breast cancer susceptibility in African-American women. mtDNA polymorphisms may be underappreciated factors in breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

  15. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  16. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  17. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  18. Effective screening for Alzheimer's disease among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A

    2001-05-01

    Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.

  19. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Armando A.; Little, Michelle; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the balance between sensitivity and specificity. Overall, results supported the SPAI-C’s cross-race invariance but a few items emerged as non-invariant. Compared to past research, lower SPAI-C cutoff scores were found (13 to 15 range). Findings support research showing that African American youth generally have significantly lower (or similar) social anxiety levels than their White counterparts. Suggestions for using the SPAI-C with African American under non-invariant conditions youth are provided and implications of using lower cutoff scores are discussed. PMID:23872906

  20. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  1. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

  2. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  3. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  4. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  5. Deficits in diagnosis, treatment and continuity of care in African-American children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed Central

    Hervey-Jumper, Heather; Douyon, Karl; Franco, Kathleen N.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just a diagnosis of whites, it often goes undiagnosed and is underresearched in the African-American population. There are higher rates of delinquency, incarceration, teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases associated with inadequate or delayed treatment of ADHD. Afrcan Americans generally respond well to treatments, but access to evaluation, medication and psychotherapy is limited or absent for many, The purpose of this research is to compare descriptive characteristics of African-American children with ADHD to age-matched Caucasian children with the same diagnosis. Age at diagnosis, treatment offered, perception of outcome, adherence, comorbid symptoms and frequency of follow-up were collected retrospectively from charts of children treated in the sections of child and adolescent psychiatry and pediatric neurology. PMID:16708509

  6. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings.

  7. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM.

  8. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM. PMID:25960944

  9. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  10. 75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    .... Structural inequalities--from disparities in education and health care to the vicious cycle of poverty--still... Economic Empowerment,'' calls upon us to honor the African Americans who overcame injustice and...

  11. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  12. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  13. Structural and Social Contexts of HIV Risk Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519

  14. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  15. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Narrative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.

  16. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.

  17. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  18. MAP2K3 is associated with body mass index in American Indians and Caucasians and may mediate hypothalamic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Li; Traurig, Michael; Hanson, Robert L.; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kobes, Sayuko; Muller, Yunhua L.; Malhotra, Alka; Huang, Ke; Perez, Jessica; Gale, Alex; Knowler, William C.; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify genes that affect body mass index (BMI) in American Indians who are predominately of Pima Indian heritage, we previously completed a genome-wide association study in 1120 American Indians. That study also included follow-up genotyping for 9 SNPs in 2133 additional subjects. A comprehensive follow-up study has subsequently been completed where 292 SNPs were genotyped in 3562 subjects, of which 128 SNPs were assessed for replication in 3238 additional subjects. In the combined subjects (n = 6800), BMI associations for two SNPs, rs12882548 and rs11652094, approached genome-wide significance (P = 6.7 × 10−7 and 8.1 × 10−7, respectively). Rs12882548 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 14 and rs11652094 maps near MAP2K3. Several SNPs in the MAP2K3 region including rs11652094 were also associated with BMI in Caucasians from the GIANT consortium (P = 10−2–10−5), and the combined P-values across both American Indians and Caucasian were P = 10−4–10−9. Follow-up sequencing across MAP2K3 identified several paralogous sequence variants indicating that the region may have been duplicated. MAP2K3 expression levels in adipose tissue biopsies were positively correlated with BMI, although it is unclear if this correlation is a cause or effect. In vitro studies with cloned MAP2K3 promoters suggest that MAP2K3 expression may be up-regulated during adipogenesis. Microarray analyses of mouse hypothalamus cells expressing constitutively active MAP2K3 identified several up-regulated genes involved in immune/inflammatory pathways and a gene, Hap1, thought to play a role in appetite regulation. We conclude that MAP2K3 is a reproducible obesity locus that may affect body weight via complex mechanisms involving appetite regulation and hypothalamic inflammation. PMID:23825110

  19. ASHE: Improvisation & Recycling in African-American Visionary Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Tom

    This exhibition guide provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and brief biographies of 15 self-taught African-American artists whose works were displayed. "Ashe," an African word meaning "the power to make things happen," was used as the theme of the exhibition. The guide verbalizes the exhibit's investigation of…

  20. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  1. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  2. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living…

  3. In Our Own Image: An African American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This textbook for elementary school children is a history of African Americans from 800 A.D. to 1992 in 24 chapters. Each chapter closes with a review that lists vocabulary words to learn, and offers thinking and writing questions. Some chapters also contain activity sheets. Chapter topics include African origins, black explorers and settlers in…

  4. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    African American women. J Couns Dev 1992;71: 184–90. [35] Myers LJ. Understanding an Afrocentric worldview: introduction to an optimal psychology Dubuque...this study is to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic Counseling (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on psychological ...prophylactic surgery. Reductions in psychological distress will be mediated by increased use of spiritual coping strategies. Secondary Aim To identify

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    genetic testing in African Americans must include the entire coding and flanking non-coding regions of the BRCA2 gene . "* It is noteworthy that BRCA ...Over 80% of inherited breast cancer is due to mutations in the breast cancer predisposing genes BRCA ] and BRCA2. In one of the largest studies of high...population 25-27,32. Therefore, genetic testing in African Americans must include complete sequencing of both BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes . Familial cancer

  6. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, K

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.

  7. Unique Genomic Alterations in Prostate Cancers in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    analysis of DNAs and RNAs from cancer and benign tissues from African American men with prostate followed by an in depth analysis of the 4p16.3 region...Cancer Tissue Bank. Samples will be from African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer and were...collected with informed consent. Prostate cancer (PCa) samples will have 80% tumor and will have a matched benign tissue available from the same patient

  8. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  9. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  10. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  11. Advancing Breast Cancer Survivorship among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  12. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  13. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder.

  15. Physical activity interventions in African American women: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284

  16. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  17. Evaluating Academic Achievement of African-American Male Students in Relationship to African-American Male Teachers in Guilford County, North Carolina Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Byron L.

    2010-01-01

    The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…

  18. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  19. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  20. Discrimination and unfair treatment: relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Guyll, M; Matthews, K A; Bromberger, J T

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the relationship of cardiovascular reactivity to both interpersonal mistreatment and discrimination in a community-based sample of African American and European American women (N=363) in midlife. Subtle mistreatment related positively to diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity for African American participants but not their European American counterparts. Moreover, among the African American participants, those who attributed mistreatment to racial discrimination exhibited greater average DBP reactivity. In particular, these women demonstrated greater DBP reactivity to the speech task, which bore similarities to an encounter with racial prejudice but not to a nonsocial mirror tracing task. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that racial discrimination is a chronic stressor that can negatively impact the cardiovascular health of African Americans through pathogenic processes associated with physiologic reactivity.

  1. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in African American and Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Aloia, John F.; Dugas, Lara R.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Shoham, David A.; Bertino, Anne-Marie; Yeh, James K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives African Americans have substantially lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D than whites. We compared population-based samples of 25(OH)D in women of African descent from Nigeria and metropolitan Chicago. Methods 100 Women of Yoruba ethnicity from southwest Nigeria and 94 African American women from metropolitan Chicago were recruited and compared using a standardized survey protocol and the same laboratory assay for 25(OH)D. Results Mean 25(OH)D levels were 64 nmol/L among the Nigerians and 29 nmol/L among the African Americans. Only 10% of the values were shared in common between the groups, and 76% of the Nigerians were above the currently defined threshold for adequate circulating 25(OH)D compared to 5% of the African Americans. Modest associations were seen between 25(OH)D and measures of obesity, although adjustment for these traits did not materially affect the group differences. Conclusion These data support the presumption that skin color is an adaptive trait which has evolved in part to regulate 25(OH)D. It remains undetermined, however, whether lower values observed in African Americans have negative health consequences. PMID:23559500

  2. Beliefs and Preferences for Medical Research Among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107

  3. Relationship of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with the renin-angiotensin system in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Hooper, W Craig; Dowling, Nicole F; Wenger, Nanette K; Dilley, Anne; Ellingsen, Dorothy; Evatt, Bruce L

    2002-05-01

    Genetic polymorphisms/mutations associated with venous thrombosis have largely been confined to the genes that encode for proteins in either the coagulant or the anticoagulant pathway. Although genetic alterations in the renin-angiotensin system have been reported to have a role in myocardial infarction and hypertension, there is recent evidence to suggest that there may also be an association with venous thrombosis. To extend our earlier observation of an association between the ACE DD genotype in African-American males and venous thrombosis, other genes in the renin-angiotensin pathway were investigated for possible disease association and were compared with African-Americans with myocardial infarction. African-American patients with a documented history of venous thrombosis or a history of myocardial infarction were eligible for participation as cases in the study. Control subjects were African-American outpatients attending a clinical laboratory for routine blood tests who had comparable age and gender distributions to the cases. Persons with a history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or thrombosis were excluded. Genes that were analyzed for known polymorphisms included angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and the angiotensin II type I receptor. Our results showed that the ACE DD genotype was also associated with MI in African-American males but not in females. Racial/ethnic and sex differences were also found with respect to the genotype distribution of the ACE 4656(CT)(2/3) polymorphism. It was observed that the 2/2 genotype had a protective effective in males for myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis. The data also demonstrated that the allele frequencies of the A1166C variant of the angiotensin II type I receptor were different in African-Americans as compared to Caucasians.

  4. Adiponectin pathway polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in African Americans and Hispanics in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kaklamani, Virginia G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Thornton, Timothy A; Hayes, Geoffrey; Chlebowski, Rowan; Van Horn, Linda; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-06-01

    Adiponectin, a protein secreted by the adipose tissue, is an endogenous insulin sensitizer with circulating levels that are decreased in obese and diabetic subjects. Recently, circulating levels of adiponectin have been correlated with breast cancer risk. Our previous work showed that polymorphisms of the adiponectin pathway are associated with breast cancer risk. We conducted the first study of adiponectin pathways in African Americans and Hispanics in the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource cohort of 3,642 self-identified Hispanic women and 8,515 self-identified African American women who provided consent for DNA analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from three genes were included in this analysis: ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2. The genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 (909,622 SNPs) ( www.affymetrix.com ) was used. We found that rs1501299, a functional SNP of ADIPOQ that we previously reported was associated with breast cancer risk in a mostly Caucasian population, was also significantly associated with breast cancer incidence (HR for the GG/TG genotype: 1.23; 95 % CI 1.059-1.43) in African American women. We did not find any other SNPs in these genes to be associated with breast cancer incidence. This is the first study assessing the role of adiponectin pathway SNPs in breast cancer risk in African Americans and Hispanics. RS1501299 is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in African American women. As the rates of obesity and diabetes increase in African Americans and Hispanics, adiponectin and its functional SNPs may aid in breast cancer risk assessment.

  5. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  6. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  7. A Celebration of African-American Artistry and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the traveling exhibition, "Free within Ourselves," that features the works of 31 African American artists taken from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art. Provides biographical information and examples of the work of seven artists: Lois Mailou Jones; Frederick Brown; Bob Thompson; Bill Traylor; Sam Gilliam; Edmonia Lewis;…

  8. Self-Hatred in Americans of African Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    In spite of attempts to destigmatize themselves with the "black is beautiful" rhetoric, efforts by Americans of African descent to disavow their imputed inferiority have not been successful. The black is reacted to as a handicapped person by the white American. Whites look with disdain on black-white sexual relationships, black language, and…

  9. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  10. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  11. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  12. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  13. African American Pioneers in Aviation: 1920-Present. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flahavan, Leslie

    This teacher's guide provides activities about the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC) for students to complete. The guide includes primary and secondary source materials for teachers to photocopy and use during their study of African Americans in aviation based on the exhibition "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation."…

  14. Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rosetta

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

  15. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  16. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native Americans and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  17. Is ApoE ε4 Associated with Cognitive Functioning in African Americans Diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease? An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Mount, David L.; Ashley, Angela V.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Goldstein, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of the apolipoprotein ε4 allele (ApoE ε4) on cognitive performance in patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied in primarily Caucasian samples. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether the presence of ApoE ε4 is associated with cognitive performance in African American AD patients. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used to address the study objective. Data were extracted from the records of 65 African American patients who participated in the National Institutes of Health-National Institute on Aging (NIH-NIA) Emory University Alzheimer Disease Center Registry. Inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of probable AD, cognitive testing using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, and ApoE genotyping. Results Seventy percent of the patients were ApoE ε4 positive. Multiple regression analyses indicated that ApoE ε4 was significantly associated with poorer design copying (CERAD Constructional Praxis subtest), but other significant relationships were not observed between positive ε4 status and cognitive performance. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that the ApoE ε4 allele is not strongly associated with a particular pattern of cognitive functioning in African Americans once they are diagnosed with AD. However, these findings require replication in a large prospectively recruited and population-based sample of African American AD patients before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:19668025

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in end-stage kidney failure-survival paradoxes in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Agodoa, Lawrence; Eggers, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The risk of death is nearly 45% lower in African-Americans than Caucasians undergoing chronic hemodialysis. In light of the higher mortality rate in African-Americans in the general US population, this paradox requires explanation and further investigation. Factors that may contribute to this survival advantage include a younger age at which African-Americans arrive at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the slightly higher body mass index. On the other hand, factors, such as lower residual renal function, lower mean hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased prevalence of hypertension, a higher prevalence of catheter use for initial dialysis, and generally lower dose of dialysis should put African-Americans on dialysis at a higher risk of death. This survival advantage seems to be completely annulled with a successful renal transplant. Finally, it should be noted that ESRD carries with it a very high mortality rate in all racial and ethnic groups. A successful renal transplant improves but does not restore the expected remaining life times. Therefore, aggressive approach is required in investigating the factors that confer such high mortality risk on ESRD patients.

  19. The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…

  20. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  1. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume II: Research on the African-American Family: A Holistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.; Billingsley, Andrew; Ingram, Eleanor; Malson, Michelene R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Stack, Carol B.; Stewart, James B.; Teele, James E.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  2. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume V: Health and Medical Care of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  3. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  4. Discrimination, religious coping, and tobacco use among White, African American, and Mexican American vocational school students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether religious coping moderates the impact of racial/ethnic discrimination on current (past 30 day) cigarette and cigar/cigarillo use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 984 technical/vocational school students (47.1% women; mean age = 25 years). Results indicate that discrimination increased the likelihood of current cigarette use among African American students and current cigar/cigarillo use among white and African American students. Positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of cigarette and cigar/cigarillo smoking for white students only. Negative religious coping increased the likelihood of cigarette use for white students and cigar/cigarillo use for white and African American students. Two 2-way interactions indicate that positive and negative religious coping moderate the discrimination-cigarette smoking relationship for African American and Mexican American students, respectively.

  5. Serious Psychological Distress Among African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-08-01

    Despite their low social standing, there remains a paucity of research on psychological distress among African Americans. We use data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life to explore a wide array of social and economic predictors of psychological distress among African American adults ages 18 and older, including previous incarceration, history of welfare receipt, and having a family member who is either currently incarcerated or homeless. Younger age, lower income, lower educational attainment, and lower self-rated health and childhood health are associated with higher levels of psychological distress among African Americans. We also find a strong association between higher levels of material hardship, previous incarceration history, and the presence of a family member who is either incarcerated or homeless and higher levels of psychological distress. The findings highlight the importance of considering unique types of social disadvantage experienced by African Americans living in a highly stratified society.

  6. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336

  7. Gambling Outcome Expectancies and Gambling Behavior Among African-American Adolescents: Gender as a Moderating Variable.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jessica L; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Wickwire, Emerson M

    2016-03-01

    Most high school adolescents have reported past year gambling, and males gamble more frequently and problematically than females. Ethnic minority adolescents appear to be gambling at a higher rate than Caucasian adolescents. There is evidence indicating that adolescent gambling outcome expectancies are correlated with gambling behavior, but limited evidence that this relation differs by gender. In the present study gender was evaluated as a moderator in the relation between gambling outcome expectancies and gambling behaviors in an African-American high school sample. Males gambled more frequently, gambled more problematically and held more positive gambling outcome expectancies than females. Gender was found to moderate the relations between gambling frequency and the expectations of material gain, affect, self-evaluation and parental approval. Gender also moderated the relations between gambling problems and expectations of affect and self-evaluation. These findings should inform future adolescent gambling prevention and intervention programs.

  8. A Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Mortality Among African Americans and Non-African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439

  9. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

    2013-01-15

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.

  10. Hematologic reference values for African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robins, Edwin B; Blum, Steve

    2007-07-01

    Anemia is prevalent among African American children. When evaluating pediatric patients for anemia, clinicians refer to the normative hematological reference values in reference textbooks. These reference values are used in spite of evidence that healthy African American people of all ages have average hemoglobin concentrations from 0.5 to 0.73 g/dl below those of Whites. In an earlier study, using samples from 2,161 healthy African American children from 2 to 18 years old, we found a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the mean hemoglobin value for each age group as compared to reference normative mean hemoglobin values. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the data set from our previous study and the data set from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (NHANES III) 1988-1994. We found no statistically significant difference between these data sets with respect to the hemoglobin values for any age or sex group, confirming that African American children and adolescents have lower mean hemoglobin values than do Whites. Use of the reference hemoglobin values presented here will help prevent the misdiagnosis of anemia in African American children and thereby minimize unnecessary hematological workups and treatment.

  11. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126

  12. Tobacco policies and on-premise smoking in bars and clubs that cater to young African Americans following the Maryland Clean Indoor Air Act of 2007.

    PubMed

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee R; Stillman, Frances A; Smart, Mieka J; Hoke, Kathleen S; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2016-07-12

    African American young adults ages 18-25 smoke less than their Caucasian peers, yet the burden of tobacco-related illness is significantly higher in African Americans than in Caucasians across the lifespan. Little is known about how clean indoor air laws affect tobacco smoking among African American young adults. We conducted a systematic observation of bars and clubs with events targeted to African American adults 18-25 in Baltimore City at two timepoints (October and November of 2008 and 2010) after enforcement of the Maryland Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA). Twenty venues-selected on the basis of youth reports of popular venues-were rated during peak hours. All surveillance checklist items were restricted to what was observable in the public domain. There was a significant decrease in observed indoor smoking after CIAA enforcement. Observed outdoor smoking also decreased, but this change was not significant. Facilities for smoking outdoors increased significantly. The statewide smoking ban became effective February 1, 2008, yet measurable changes in smoking behavior in bars were not evident until the City engaged in stringent enforcement of the ban several months later.

  13. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    , exposure to science, parent influence, peer influence, teacher expectations, strategies for academic success in science, and perception of self in a predominantly Caucasian population. This information should be used to create interactive suburban middle school science classrooms that encourage the participation of African American females. These females should experience increased involvement with activities that expose them to science that is relevant to their lives. As a result, these females will be inspired to excel in science and one day enter into science careers.

  14. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students.

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-12-30

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences.

  15. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  16. Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.

    1996-01-01

    African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067

  17. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  19. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  20. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.