Bell, Edward E.
Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…
Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…
Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…
Green, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…
Watkins, Audrey P.
This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…
Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.
This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.
More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…
Freeman, Kassie, Ed.
Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…
When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…
Mitchell, Roland W.
This special issue on "The Role of Spirituality, Religion and the African American Church on Educational Outcomes" is extremely timely. Moreover, the fact that this conversation is taking place in "The Journal of Negro Education" ("JNE") demonstrates once again that the "JNE" has its finger firmly on the pulse of significant educational and…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius
Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…
This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…
Hale, Janice E.
This book critiques existing initiatives for improving the education of African American children, maintaining that the current focus of school reform movements (teacher training and testing, child testing, child retention, and one-size-fits-all models of parent involvement) are not very useful. It argues that the model for creating educational…
Bonds, Michael; Farmer-Hinton, Raquel L.; Epps, Edgar G.
This article summarizes African Americans' ongoing struggle for quality education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin by utilizing school district data and secondary sources. The historic integration effort in the Milwaukee Public Schools system is outlined and the impact of sustained segregation, in the midst of significant changes to Milwaukee's social and…
Jett, Christopher C.
In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…
Wimbush, Jason D.
This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Johnson, Jarrett; Ross, Levi; Iwanenko, Walter; Schiffert, Judith; Sen, Arup
Education is a critical component of the National Blueprint to eliminate racial disparities in diabetes. Research indicates that traditional methods of diabetes education has had limited effectiveness with minority populations and suggests that different educational approaches be explored. The purpose of the research was to explore the effectiveness of an emergent technology (podcast) for use in educating inner-city, African American men about diabetes prevention. Thirty African American men participated in self-administered, pretest-posttest surveys in August 2009. Surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, perceptions of diabetes, and diabetes knowledge. Paired samples t test was computed to evaluate pretest-posttest changes in overall knowledge. McNemar or binomial tests were computed to evaluate pretest-posttest knowledge changes on each of the 15 individual knowledge items. Diabetes knowledge scores for the sample increased from 8.27 at pretest to 10.47 at posttest (p = .001). Posttest knowledge scores increased for 77% of men, stayed the same for 13%, and decreased for 10%. Men who listened to the podcast correctly answered 40% more knowledge questions on their posttest assessments. Results from this exploratory study suggest that podcasts are useful for helping inner-city, African American men recall diabetes prevention information. Additional research is recommended with larger randomly selected samples using more rigorous research designs.
Jones, Lee, Ed.
This collection discusses some of the issues surrounding the retention of African Americans in higher education, and it challenges traditional paradigms for retaining African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly White colleges. The chapters of part 1, "Retaining African-American Students," are: (1) "Creating an Affirming…
Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton
This essay addresses a call for research involving African Americans to interpret data from the historical, contemporary, and cultural experiences of African Americans. The essay argues for a science education research approach that explicitly considers the positionality of African Americans in the United States. This positionality involves the…
Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed.
African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an…
Although the trend of marital dissolution has diverged by education in recent decades, literature was not clear about whether African Americans experienced a significant educational difference in marital dissolution. This study hypothesized that educational differences within the African American community have emerged and that the growth in this…
Croom, Dan B.; Alston, Antoine
The model of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans in the United States was created by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Armstrong developed a paternal approach to educating African Americans and developed the Hampton Institute curriculum with moral education as its base. Booker…
The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…
Rivers, Celeste A.
For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Harvey, William B.; Harvey, Adia M.; King, Mark
Significant changes in the higher education enrollment patterns of African American students following the Brown v. Board decision are discussed. Even though African American students enroll in predominantly American colleges and universities, many of them still interact and socialize in racially homogeneous settings and groups.
Research on the history of civic education in United States has rarely reflected the perspectives of African American teachers and students. Through analysis of archival data, I document how African American educators in one Southern state reported teaching civic values to students in a racially segregated society before the modern Civil Rights…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2000
Presents statistics on the progress of African Americans in U.S. institutions of higher education, including data from the Black-White Higher Education Equality Index; statistics measuring the state of racial inequality in the United States; data ranking the nation's law schools according to percentages of African American students; and data on…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002
Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in U.S. higher education institutions, focusing on the black-white higher education equality index, statistics that measure the state of racial inequality, ranking the nation's law schools by percentages of black students, state-by-state review of African American enrollments in…
Rodriguez, Andrea B.
This study compared the number of special education referrals for African American boys before and after the implementation of the training program, "Schools Attuned". The purpose of the research was to ascertain if the number of special education referrals for African American boys generated in schools with teachers trained in "Schools Attuned"…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2014
The current state of low academic achievement among a large majority of African American students is complex. While the U.S. has long professed that a world-class education is the right of every child, there are still major inequities in the education system that leave African American children with fewer opportunities to receive a quality…
African American male teachers represent a disproportionately low number of educators in the American public school system. This lack of representation has implications for understanding, interacting with and educating the growing population of students of African descent in public schools. In addition, all students benefit from experiencing…
This article encourages educators and speech-language pathologists to look beyond the language of African American English speakers for an explanation of the Black-White achievement gap in education. A brief historical overview shows that the attention to the performance of African American children in school began many years ago but gained…
Polite, Vernon C., Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster…
The path to quality education for African Americans has been rough and fraught with resistance from the time that they were denied any education to "separate" education to even "no child left behind" education. Any significant achievement for them in the American educational system required blood, sweat and tears on the part of…
The path to quality education for African Americans has been rough and often fraught with resistance from the time that they were denied any education, to "separate" education, and even to "no child left behind" education. Any significant achievement for them in the American educational system required blood, sweat, and tears…
The ongoing research concerning African American males enrolled in teacher education programs is essential for a number of reasons. Research specifically addressing preservice teaching, teacher education, and the African American male student is needed to promote the well-being of any school of education. According to McCray, Sindelar, Kilgore,…
Watkins, William H., Ed.; Lewis, James H., Ed.; Chou, Victoria, Ed.
This book contains a collection of papers on race in U.S. education written by scholars who believe that improvement in the educational achievement of African American children will not occur by changing the curriculum or achieving desegregation. True change requires innovations based on replacing constructs rooted in past white hegemony and its…
Archie-Booker, D. Elaine; Cervero, Ronald M.; Langone, Christine A.
Interviews and observations of three AIDS-prevention programs revealed that in this agency, AIDS education overall was not culturally relevant for African-American women for several reasons: (1) organization image and financing were geared toward White gay males; (2) interpretation of the mission did not include African-American women; and (3)…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…
Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris, Mateba K.; Offor, MaxMary T.; Beachum, Floyd D.
Problems facing African American students with special needs are numerous and complex. Although processes and procedures are in place to properly serve these students, far too many become ensnared in webs of bureaucracy and benign neglect. This article examines African American students? experiences with special education in Milwaukee Public…
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
Dandridge, Janae' K.
This study examines the perspective of public secondary education through the lived experiences and voices of 10 African American male students. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized an action research case study design. The researcher conducted semi structured interviews with a randomly selected group of African American male students…
Ausmer, Nicole M.
There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…
Beachum, Floyd D.; Lewis, Chance W.
Problems facing African Americans students are complex and numerous. In this article, we describe current educational contexts (i.e., high standards, accountability, and standardized test scores). In addition, we discuss the realities confronting African American students through West?s (1994) lenses of paranoia and poverty. Finally, we present…
Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.
This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…
This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…
Nicks, Myrick Lamon
African American students make up 17% of the public school population nationwide. Ironically, 41% percent of students in special education are African American (Kunjufu, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teacher demographics on the overrepresentation of African American males in special education in a coastal school…
Hilton, Louis R., III
In using the autobiographies of African-Americans as a heuristic, educators are provided with a context to view African-American educational history. The autobiographies of African-Americans tell stories of triumph over adversity as also revealed in Melba Beals' autobiography, "Warriors Don't Cry," a recount of the struggle to integrate…
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather
Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.
South Carolina Univ., Columbia. McKissick Museum.
This guide is designed to help teachers incorporate African American history into the classroom curriculum. Designed to increase self-awareness and cultural sensitivity, the guide contains a variety of flexible lesson plans and activities for grades 3 through 12. The first section, "Teacher Background Information," presents introductory…
Tate, William F., IV
The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…
Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa
Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…
The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle schools…
Stiff, MaNesha M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…
Thompson, Pamela W.
The disproportional representation of Black students in special education has been an issue of concern for many years in the United States. A review of the literature illustrates the struggle of African American children in the American educational system: from the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation to the re-segregation of these same…
Johnson, Larry; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara
The history of public higher education for African Americans in Florida provides an excellent opportunity to examine American institutional and political dynamics. Following World War II, Florida public higher education expanded dramatically, while at the same time, state leaders maintained racial segregation well after "Brown v. Board of…
Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly
African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.
Since a federal appeals court dropped a case 3 years ago, ruling that states, not the federal government, are responsible for ensuring equal educational opportunity, educators feel African-American education has lost ground. The case argued states sanctioned dual systems of education. States' elimination of some programs now threatens…
Boon, Ebru Tuncer
The purpose of this study was to explore the violin experiences of African American students at an Elementary School in northern Florida to consider the potential for culturally-responsive string education. The hermeneutical approach was used to answer the research questions: (1) What are the personal musical worlds of these African American…
Winbush, Raymond A.
Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too "radical" by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in…
Greene, Mark Brandon
The purpose of this body of work was to examine barriers that lead to high school non-completion for African-American males and to propose strategies to better support this group. Specifically, it examined how African-American male high school graduates vary from African-American male non-graduates. Across personal and environmental factors, this…
Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly
African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations.
Ajose, Sunday A.
Judged by its results, the current system for educating African American students in mathematics is a distinct failure. For years, educators either ignored this problem or simply blamed the failure of the system on its victims. In 1984 the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education drew national attention to the problem by devoting an entire…
Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.
"African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African
Wiggins, David K; Wiggins, Brenda P
This study analyzes the experiences of African Americans in the physical education and kinesiology profession since the late 1850s. Using a variety of primary and secondary source material, we place special emphasis on the experiences of African American physical educators in higher education and in the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and its southern, regional, and state chapters. Apparent from this examination is that African Americans have experienced various forms of racially discriminatory practices in physical education and kinesiology and have found it extraordinarily difficult to assume leader ship positions in the profession and be acknowledged for their scholarly and academic accomplishments.
Jones, Keiwana O'Neal
The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2006
On June 9, 2003, the Task Force on the Education of Maryland's African-American Males was convened by the Maryland K-16 Leadership Council (chaired by the University System of Maryland Chancellor William E. Kirwan, former Maryland Acting Secretary of Higher Education John A. Sabatini, Jr., and Maryland State Superintendent of Schools Nancy S.…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003
Presents a statistical record of African Americans' progress in U.S. higher education institutions, discussing: the black-white higher education equality index; statistics that measure racial inequality; ranking law schools by percentage of black students; black enrollments at the nation's highest-ranked universities and highest-ranked liberal…
Brandon, Regina R.; Brown, Monica R.
African American children continue to be overrepresented in special education classrooms. Despite this overrepresentation, there is a noticeable void in the literature concerning the family perceptions of special education and the impact these perceptions may have on parents' level of involvement. Therefore, this article discusses (a) African…
Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda
In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…
Isaac, E. Paulette; Rowland, Michael L.
Historically, the Black Church was culturally responsive to the needs of their community. In order to meet the needs of African American adult learners, the church had to assume many roles one of which was that of educator. Like many informal institutions of learning, the Black Church has been overlooked as a site for adult education research. Ten…
Moss, Hilary J.
While white residents of antebellum Boston and New Haven forcefully opposed the education of black residents, their counterparts in slaveholding Baltimore did little to resist the establishment of African American schools. Such discrepancies, Hilary Moss argues, suggest that white opposition to black education was not a foregone conclusion.…
Green, Robert L.
This document was produced as a position paper for background for a summit convened by the San Francisco Unified School District (California) to focus on the education and achievement of African American students. The Education Partnership Summit had the principal goal of developing strategies and techniques to increase the mathematics and reading…
Mawhinney, Lynnette; Mulero, Loribel; Perez, Cynthia
This paper aims to better understand African American pre-service teachers' perspectives on urban education. Over a 2-year period, pre-experience and post-experience surveys were conducted at a Historically Black University (HBCU) after pre-service teachers completed an urban education immersion course in order to frame their understanding of…
This study interviewed 15 incarcerated African American males about their participation in correctional education. The data was considered in light of various motivation theories with particular emphasis on a sociocultural theory of motivation. The largest amount of data described non-educational reasons subjects participate in correctional…
Moyo, Tawonga Timothy
The academic achievement gap persists in spite of much concern and talk in both the educational and political arenas. Moreover, literature on the education of African American male students at the college level is scarce; the existing literature is on the achievement gap issue in general. In this phenomenological study, the academic achievement…
Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.
The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…
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Gosa, Travis L.; Alexander, Karl L.
While the educational difficulties of poor black students are well documented and have been discussed extensively, the academic performance of well-off African American children has received much less attention. Even with economic and educational resources in the home, well-off African American youth are not achieving at the levels of their white…
McCallum, Carmen Michelle
African Americans have made great advancements in postsecondary education. Over the last thirty years, enrollment and degree attainment has increased over 65% at undergraduate and graduate degree levels (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). Yet despite these gains, African Americans continue to severely trail behind other racial and…
Previous research has investigated the impact of demographic variables upon African American students in higher education (Pascarella et al., 2004; Patitu, 2000: Tinto, 1993). Few investigations have focused on African American graduate students particularly in Counselor Education. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of the level…
Anderson, Kenneth A.; Sadler, Camelia I.
Longitudinal research on reading curricula and skills that predict future reading achievement for African American males in special education is quite limited. Using a national sample over a five-year period, this study highlights reading skills most associated with later reading achievement for African American males in special education. For…
Scott, Sonya V.; Rodriguez, Louie F.
This study draws from a larger phenomenological study on African American academic persistence and career aspirations in education. This article highlights three African American males' experiences with concentrated forms of stereotype threat in teacher education. Their voices revealed dimensions of how power and privilege operate in teacher…
Johnson, Odis, Jr.
The "underclass" debate of the 1980s often concerned the relative importance of neighborhood racial and economic isolation to the educational challenges facing many African Americans. This review organizes the neighborhood effects research that has emerged since that time according to these differing perspectives. The review's triangulated…
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
Interviews with four African-American recent high school students in a predominantly black rural North Carolina town focus on the individual's perceptions of society with regard to definitions and decisions about education. It is evident that school is regarded differently by those who graduate and those who drop out. (SLD)
Simmons, Jake; Lowery-Hart, Russell; Wahl, Shawn T.; McBride, M. Chad
In this study, we sought to understand African-American students' higher-education experiences in predominantly White universities. We utilized Baxter's relational dialectics theory to study components of focus-group discussions in order to understand the discourse and meaning-making process of participants. Our findings provide insight into the…
Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
This book presents the results and implications of a major new national study exploring the effects of institutional racial composition on African American students' development and their educational outcomes, taking into account individuals' background characteristics, their perceptions of the institutional environment, and their experiences in…
Dingus, Jeannine E.
Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…
Shujaa, Mwalimu J., Ed.
School desegregation strategies are examined in political contexts to focus on the politics of quality schooling for African Americans. Through this approach, racialized uses of power in white self-interest are shown to influence policy making and policy implementation related to education. Essays include: (1) "Reclaiming Historical Visions…
Wolfe, Brandon L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson
In this article, we present findings from a review and synthesis of historical and contemporary research to examine the concept of diversity leadership in higher education as it pertains to African American administrators at predominantly White colleges and universities. Through the use of critical race theory, we first argue that to understand…
Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin
This report presents findings of a study on the higher education progress of African Americans in the nation and by region, including both private and public sectors, two-year and four-year colleges and universities, historically black colleges and universities, and traditionally white institutions. Overall findings indicate steady progress by…
This study explored and described the experience of female African-American nursing faculty seeking employment in higher education in nursing. The lack of diversity in the nursing workforce has been attributed as a major underlying cause of disparity in healthcare in the United States. The importance of increasing the number of minority nursing…
Muth, Bill; Gehring, Thom; Puffer, Margaret; Mayers, Camille; Kamusikiri, Sandra; Pressley, Glenda
One problem with the literature of correctional education (CE) and prison reform is that the contributions of African Americans have been generally neglected. This is the first of three essays that will begin to fill that gap. Janie Porter Barrett was an important Virginia leader in the period before and after the turn of the 20th century. She…
Cade, Al R., Jr.; Payne, Gloria J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psycho-social factors (attitudes, identity, and perceptions) affecting pre-service teacher education majors in a cross-cultural pedagogical environment (African American professors and white students). The two main objectives that was explored in this study consisted of; (1) student learning and factors…
Williams, Joseph M.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe
This qualitative study examined high-achieving urban African American high school graduates' (N = 5) retrospective appraisal of what K-12 students from high-risk urban areas need to succeed academically despite seemingly insurmountable social, financial, and educational barriers. Findings revealed 6 themes: shared responsibility for…
Ballard, Harlan E.; Cintron, Rosa
While access to higher education for racial and ethnic minorities improved over the last half of the 20th century, the percentage of these populations obtaining terminal degrees does not approach their respective percentage of society at large. By interviewing five African American males who completed a doctoral program at a Majority White…
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…
Becton, Alicia B.; Foster, Amanda L.; Chen, Roy K.
Being a part of an ethnic minority group and a student with a disability (SWD) often presents as a barrier to college retention and graduation rates among members of this marginalized group. Purpose: To examine educators' awareness of racial and institutional influences that impact African American SWD. Method: Data for this study were gathered…
African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…
Adedokun, Aderemi D.
The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between the variables of career mentoring, leadership behaviors, and career success of African American female faculty and administrators in higher education positions. The aim is to determine whether mentoring is related to leadership behavior and career success of African…
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
This article reports on a program of research that examined the background, planning, implementation, and evaluation of an after-school preventive intervention program within an ongoing urban alternative education program targeting African American students referred to the school because of their problematic behavior in regular schools. The…
Jackson, Kara; Remillard, Janine T.
This article presents initial findings from a study that examined how African American mothers from a low-income neighborhood conceptualized their roles in their children's mathematics learning. Based on interviews and observations focusing on ten mothers' involvement in their children's education, we offer a framework that expands typical…
Levin, Henry M.; Belfield, Clive; Muennig, Peter; Rouse, Cecilia
This paper calculates the public savings (financial benefits) from greater public investments in the education of African-American males. Over one-fifth of each age cohort of black males in US is not a high school graduate. We identify five interventions that would--based on credible research--increase the graduation rate; we also report the…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2007
In 1993, the Governor's Commission on Black Males, chaired by then Delegate Elijah E. Cummings, issued a report that studied the conditions of African-American males in Maryland as they related to employment, health conditions, criminal justice, and education. The Commission provided a "snapshot of the plight of the black males in…
Mack, Yejide S.
African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
This study examined the link between developmental risk and protective factors and risky sexual activity among 222 urban African American youth attending an alternative education program (AEP) because of problematic behavior. Self-report information provided by these AEP participants revealed that, for the risk and protective factors examined, the…
Stewart, Gail A.
The current study examines the language attitudes, racial identity and educational experiences of 75 African American university and community college students. This study is motivated by the hypothesis that the power of language attitudes dictates, to a large extent, the language one speaks, which is intimately tied to one's sense of…
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Bernard, Amy L.; King, Keith A.
African American youth are at risk for negative sexual behaviors such as early initiation and unplanned pregnancy. The purpose of the article is to identify the effective parent connectedness components in sexuality education interventions solely targeting African American youth. A total of 12 articles were found describing six intervention…
Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.
African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…
Dalton, Cecil Jerome
This study represents a review of the literature along with an analysis of secondary data. The study analyzes and highlights the disparities in the quality of education provided to African American males. High school graduation rates among African American males as compared to other races suggest that there are factors that have created such…
A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…
Gill, Wanda E.
The U.S. Department of Education Chapter of Blacks in Government (BIG) reviewed and responded to the EEOC [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Office] African American Workgroup Report. The BIG ED Chapter considered whether: There is any evidence indicating that the number and percentage of African Americans employed by any federal government…
Bradley, Patricia K; Berry, Audrey; Lang, Cheryl; Myers, Ronald E
Focus groups with African American women who had experienced a breast biopsy were conducted during the process of "getting ready" for a breast biopsy educational study in which the intervention's educational materials and study instruments were developed and pre-tested. Recommendations were made for revising the breast biopsy educational booklet. As a result of the focus group discussions, changes were made in several of the graphics, the design and size of the booklet, and the tone of the piece. In addition, language describing the biopsy procedure was further simplified. The outcomes of this study were culturally tailored study materials to be used in an educational intervention to prepare African American women undergoing a breast biopsy procedure.
Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.; Dancy, T. Elon, II, Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This book's predecessor, "Black Sons to Mothers: Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education" (Peter Lang, 2000), sparked a decade of meaningful scholarship on the educational experiences and academic outcomes of African American males. "Black Sons to Mothers" proffered seminal contributions to the academic literature…
Blakeney, Natasha; Michaels, Margo; Green, Melissa; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra; Robinson, William S; Spicer, Carmelita; Elliott-Bynum, Sharon; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
This paper describes the use of a unique "Learning and Feedbackˮ approach to customize cancer clinical trials education programs for Community Bridges, a peer training intervention designed for African-American communities in North Carolina. Generic community education modules were demonstrated with key community leaders who were designated as trainers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were provided on understanding of content, comfort with material, and cultural relevance. The generic materials were adapted into three revised modules, all featuring key messages about cancer clinical trials, discussion regarding distrust of medical research, common misconceptions about trials, patient protections, and a call to action to prompt increased inquiry about locally available trials. The revised modules were then used as part of a train-the-trainer program with 12 African-American community leaders. ENACCT's use of the Learning and Feedback process is an innovative method for culturally adapting clinical trials education.
This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…
Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Risley, Brian
Background HIV-positive African Americans have been shown to have lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) than those of other races/ethnicities, yet adherence interventions have rarely been tailored to the needs of this population. Objective We developed and will evaluate a treatment education adherence intervention (called Rise) that was culturally adapted to address the needs of African Americans living with HIV. Methods This randomized controlled trial will examine the effects of the Rise intervention on ART adherence and HIV viral load. African Americans on ART who report adherence problems will be recruited from the community and randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for 6 months. The intervention consists of 6-10 individual counseling sessions, with more sessions provided to those who demonstrate lower adherence. Primary outcomes include adherence as monitored continuously with Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) caps, and viral load data received from the participant’s medical provider. Survey assessments will be administered at baseline and month 6. Results The trial is ongoing. Conclusions If effective, the Rise intervention will provide community-based organizations with an intervention tailored to address the needs of African Americans for promoting optimal ART adherence and HIV clinical outcomes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01350544; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01350544 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fjqqnmn0). PMID:27025399
Fletcher, Stephanie A.
The study investigates the education phenomenon of nonresidential African American fathers as boys across educational policy. These fathers give narratives of their lived education experiences as children through various education reforms. Described in the research are restrictive learning environments, education socialization, and the…
Ross, Levi; Iwanenko, Walter; Schiffert, Judith; Sen, Arup
Education is a critical component of the National Blueprint to eliminate racial disparities in diabetes. Research indicates that traditional methods of diabetes education has had limited effectiveness with minority populations and suggest that different educational approaches be explored. The purpose of the research was to explore the effectiveness of an emergent technology (podcast) for use in educating inner-city, African-American men about diabetes prevention. Thirty African-American men participated in self-administered, pretest-posttest surveys in August 2009. Surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, perceptions of diabetes and diabetes knowledge. Paired samples t-test was computed to evaluate pretest-posttest changes in overall knowledge. McNemar or binomial tests were computed to evaluate pretest-posttest knowledge changes on each of the 15 individual knowledge items. Diabetes knowledge scores for the sample increased from 8.27 at pretest to 10.47 at posttest (p = .001). Posttest knowledge scores increased for 77% of men, stayed the same for 13%, and decreased for 10%. Men who listened to the podcast correctly answered 40% more knowledge questions on their posttest assessments. Results from this exploratory study suggest that podcasts are useful for helping inner-city, African-American men recall diabetes prevention information. Additional research is recommended with larger randomly selected samples using more rigorous research designs. PMID:22516566
Mencke, Bernadette Kristine Buchanan
This study examined the impact of the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944 (the GI Bill) on African Americans' quest for higher education. The central question guiding this study follows: Why has higher education been so elusive for African Americans? With reference to this question, the following sub-questions were addressed: (1) How can the…
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
Bynum, Gregory Lewis
Immanuel Kant envisioned a kind of respect in which one recognizes each human (1) as being not fully comprehensible by any human understanding, (2) as being an end in him- or herself, and (3) as being a potential source of moral law. In this essay, Gregory Lewis Bynum uses this conception of respect as a lens with which to examine African American…
Jackson, Jerlando F. L.
In spite of repeated considerations and positive action to engage, retain and advance African Americans in executive positions, there are only a few African Americans in executive level administration posts in colleges and universities. An analysis of the status of African Americans in higher and post secondary education shows that legislation…
Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.
This collection offer a much-needed and critical focus on African Americans and women in the United States. The politics of race, gender, and power influence education at every level as these chapters, written primarily from the perspectives of students, demonstrate. The following are included: (1) "What Does It Mean? Exploring the Myths of…
Blanchett, Wanda J.
This article places the problem of disproportionate representation of African American students in special education in the context of the White privilege and racism that exist in American society as a whole. The author discusses how educational resource allocation, inappropriate curriculum and pedagogy, and inadequate teacher preparation have…
Walker, Eleanor A; Stevens, Karen A; Persaud, Sabita
Diabetes is a major national health problem that affects African Americans more seriously than other population groups. The purpose of this project was to increase knowledge and self-management of diabetes among African American adults 40 years of age and older diagnosed with type II diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test comparison group design was used. Three educational sessions were provided to participants in the intervention group. Content included information about diabetes and its complications, risk factors, proper diet, recommendations for exercise, medications, and monitoring blood glucose. Teaching strategies included discussion, games, and demonstrations. Patient navigators provided follow-up by phone at the scheduled intervals. Preliminary results indicated significantly increased knowledge among intervention group participants between the pre- and post-test and the pre-test and follow-up. Findings for HbA1c values, body mass index, and weight were not significant.
Sawyer, Debra T.
Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect…
Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Johnson, George L., Jr.
Educators often do not recognize biliteracy and bidialectalism in African American Language (AAL) speakers. Chronicling the experiences of twin four/five-year old AAL and emergent Standard English speakers, we discuss the importance of recognizing and building on the routines and identities of African American children and families. We present…
... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…
African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…
Clayton, Taffye Benson
From 1995 to 2005 education doctoral degrees conferred to African American females increased by 92%, however the increase in availability among this population for higher education administrator positions has not kept pace with the growth of African American female higher education doctoral graduates (Ryu, 2008). Such data have spurred inquiry…
Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta
This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…
Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…
Brown, Alanka P.
The purpose of this study was to identify the nonacademic reasons that preclude African American males from enrolling in college after high school completion. The examination of this study evolved as a result of an abundance of African American males choosing not to enroll in college after completing high school. A mixed-methods research design…
Patitu, Carol Logan; Hinton, Kandace G.
This chapter explores factors of concern for, and overall experiences of, African American female faculty and administrators, including salary issues, affirmative action, racism, sexism, homophobia, campus climate, isolation, tenure and promotion processes, and salary. The data reported here were gathered during a study of African American women…
The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the effects of teachers' certification on the achievement of African American students. The impetus for this exploration resided in the reading achievement disparities between African American and Caucasian students in the study district. Guided by the principles of total…
Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…
Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.
This qualitative study takes account of the salience of activism in informing the worldviews and professional practices of a multigenerational sample of 42 African American educators in Birmingham, Alabama. Framed by life course, Black feminist thought, and hip-hop educational research perspectives, the study highlights how the participants…
Deveaux, Eneas Ruel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that educators in a large, suburban, public school district in the southeastern United States believe contribute to African American and English Language Learners (ELL) being referred to special education at a higher rate than traditional students by exploring the attitudes and perceptions…
Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P
This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…
Hunter, Iris Renell
This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel
Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L
Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann
Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…
James, Sylvia M.
Science education researchers are recognizing the need to consider identity and other sociocultural factors when examining causes of the science achievement gap for African American students. Non-school settings may hold greater promise than formal schooling to promote identities that are conductive to science learning in African Americans. This mixed-methods study explored the relationship between participation in out-of-school-time (OST) science enrichment programs and African American middle and high school students' racial and ethnic identity (RED, social identity as science learners, and achievement. Pre-post questionnaires used a previously validated model of REI combined with an original subscale that was developed to measure social identity as science learners. Case studies of two programs allowed for an analysis of the informal learning setting. The treatment group (N = 36) consisted of African American middle and high school students in five OST science programs, while the control group (N = 54) students were enrolled in science classes in public schools in the mid-Atlantic region. Results of a t-test of independent means indicated that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of REI or science identity. However, the treatment group earned significantly higher science grades compared to the control group, and an ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between science identity and the intention to pursue post-secondary science studies. Although not significant, MANOVA results indicated that students who participated in OST programs exhibited gradual increases in RD and science identity over time according to grade level and gender. Follow-up analysis revealed significant relationships between awareness of racism, gender, and length of time in OST programs. The case studies illustrated that a unique community of practice exists within the OST programs. Access to authentic science learning experiences, youth
Making the Connection: Language and Academic Achievement among African American Students. Proceedings of a Conference of the Coalition on Language Diversity in Education (January 1998). Language in Education 92.
Adger, Carolyn Temple, Ed.; Christian, Donna, Ed.; Taylor, Orlando, Ed.
Papers from a conference on the role of language in the academic achievement of African Americans include: "Language Diversity and Academic Achievement in the Education of African American Students: An Overview of the Issues" (John R. Rickford); "The Language of African American Students in Classroom Discourse" (Courtney B.…
King, LaGarrett J.
The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…
Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657
Henderson, Davetta A.
Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…
Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…
Thomas, KaMala S; Nelesen, Richard A; Ziegler, Michael G; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E
Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microg PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning.
Thomas, KaMala S.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E.
Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, Phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microgram PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning. PMID:19427353
Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy
The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…
Baytop, Chanza M.
A study implements meta-analytic methods to synthesize the findings and analyze the effects of interventions, including secondary teen pregnancy prevention programs, on educational achievement among unwed African American teen mothers. Results indicate that secondary teen pregnancy prevention programs and other interventions for adolescent mothers…
A study analyzed the degree to which an African American verbal tradition (Black English Vernacular) survives in the writing of Black students across a generational time span. A total of 867 essays from the 1984 and the 1988/89 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) were subjected to primary trait and holistic scoring analysis, and…
Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason
The impact of state funding of higher education and corrections on African American men was studied by analyzing the National Association of State Budget Officers' annual state expenditure reports for the 15-year period from 1985 to 2000. To ensure proper scale, all 1985 figures were converted to 2000-year dollars by using the Bureau of Labor…
Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina
The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…
Canterbury, Connecticut, and Little Rock, Arkansas, are links in a chain of events representing the struggle for equal educational opportunity for African Americans. Focusing on these two communities, this lesson plan highlights two important historic places and the role each played in testing the prevailing assumptions of the time regarding…
Parker, DeJuan Dennis
In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…
Grant, Cosette M.
There is a sparse literature base which currently informs our knowledge about the connection between mentoring African-American female doctoral students in educational leadership programs at predominantly white institutions (PWIs) interested in faculty careers and their matriculation into the academy. This has left a void in our understanding of…
Williams, Joesph M.; Greenleaf, Arie T.; Albert, Tracey; Barnes, Erin F.
While the educational difficulties of African American students from low-income households are well documented and widely discussed in the literature, far less attention has been paid to students who succeed in school despite significant challenges such as poverty, housing instability, and food insecurity. A review of the literature identifies the…
This study sought to document the schooling experiences and perceptions of African American students who attended segregated schools in Edgecombe County, North Carolina. Through counter-narratives the participants provided insight into education in Edgecombe County during the 1960s. Findings suggested that schools were social and academic…
Choi, Eunjung; Keith, Laura J.
Contemporary African-American classical composers Cedric Adderley, John Lane, and Trevor Weston intertwine strands of culture and individual experience to produce musical works whose distinct designs offer cultural resources that music educators can use to integrate diversity into instructional settings. Of special interest is their ability to…
Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi
The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…
Kaba, Amadu J.
This research argues that despite all of the obstacles that African Americans have confronted in the history of the United States, they have made substantial progress in higher education attainment from the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century. It reveals that the rise in attainment of college and university degrees has resulted in a…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.
The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with…
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.
This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)
Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela
Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women.
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Holloway, Yolanda Boyd
Racial integration and its outcomes have been critiqued for nearly 60 years. While the impact on teachers was vast, data on the impact on teachers outside of the American South is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of 6 African American teachers who described experiences of racial integration and its progress in a…
McCoy, Shuntay Z.
Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…
Petersen, Amy J.
This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…
Hoyt, DaVina J.
It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
Charles H. Thompson is best known as the founder and the first editor-in-chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" (1932-1963). Throughout his career, Thompson sought to extend educational opportunity in ways that were "for the good of Negro education as a whole." His main concern was in educating future leaders for service in African American…
Wallington, Sherrie Flynt
The lives of African American men with prostate cancer are greatly influenced by the information available to them, some of which is accessed on the Internet. Research indicates that the Internet can enhance consumer health knowledge but has not reached socioeconomic groups at highest risk for health disparities, such as African American men with prostate cancer. In this study, focus groups were used to explore the perceptions and uses of the Internet as a patient education tool among 39 African American men aged 39 years and older with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Nineteen (49%) participants reported using the Internet, 15 (38%) reported no use but indicated it was used on their behalf, and 5 (13%) reported no use and no use on their behalf. The findings revealed varying degrees of Internet use for information and social support. Prostate cancer diagnosis, poor patient-doctor communications, and accessibility influenced Internet use. Accessibility related more to lack of ease and familiarity with Internet use than lack of computer access. With training and awareness, the Internet has potential as a patient education tool among African American men with prostate cancer.
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Guy, Talmadge C., Ed.; And Others
The following papers were presented at a research preconference on the implications of Afrocentrism for adult education: "The African American Adult Education Pre-Conference: Historical Reflections" (Colin); "The Perspective 'Is' the Paradigm: The Congruence of World View and Research Methodology" (Dozier-Henry);…
Bruton, Chantrell Anita
African American boys are the lowest achieving academic group in public schools. Current research has delved into why this occurs and into implications for African American boys and communities. However, current research has focused on this in urban populations and has not looked at length at the status of African American boys in rural…
McCallum, Carmen M.
Large disparities exist among African Americans and other cultural groups in doctoral degree enrollment and degree attainment. To address this concern, scholars have focused on why African Americans do not pursue doctoral degrees. Although informative, this deficit perspective does not explain the factors that encourage African Americans to enroll…
Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.
African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional surveys evaluated the intervention effect on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and perceived fruit and vegetable consumption in this quasi-experimental study with a comparison group. Hypertension (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.38–0.71) and BMI (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52–1.02) were lower in the intervention county at mid-intervention. Participation in nutrition education (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.63–4.40) and access to fruits and vegetables from a community garden (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.20–3.15) were independently associated with perceived fruit and vegetable consumption. The strongest effect on perceived fruit and vegetable consumption occurred with high participation in nutrition education and access to community gardens (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.24–3.81). Those with access but without education had a reduced likelihood of consuming recommended servings of fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.95). Education plus access interventions may be best at increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in a rural African American population. PMID:26338985
In 1920, the Phelps-Stokes Fund, based in New York, sent a commission to investigate educational conditions in West, South, and Equatorial Africa. After the first Phelps-Stokes Commission, two additional commissions were sent from the United States to investigate African educational practices and conditions until the mid-1940s. These efforts to…
Bronner, Yvonne L; Hawkins, Anita S; Holt, Mckessa L; Hossain, Mian B; Rowel, Randolph H; Sydnor, Kim L; Divers, Shaquana P
Calcium and dairy consumption are documented to be low among African Americans and have demonstrated benefits to bone growth, overall nutritional status, and health throughout the life cycle. There is also an emerging relationship to the prevention of obesity. This low consumption has been attributed to both cultural and community/environmental barriers. Using a life course construct and an ecological model of health behavior, this paper will illustrate why nutrition education and food consumption behavior at one stage of the life cycle may influence health status at that stage as well as influence health and consumption of calcium and dairy products at subsequent stages. The life course construct recognizes that both past and present behavior and experiences (in this case food and nutrient intake) are shaped by the wider social, economic, and cultural context and therefore may provide clues to current patterns of health and disease. The ecological model, concerned with constructs of environmental change, behavior, and policies that may help people make choices in their daily life, complements the life course approach when examining the potential influence of nutrition education provided by federally funded food and nutrition programs on calcium and dairy consumption behavior across the life cycle. The "critical period model" within the life course construct is operative for calcium, a nutrient for which adequate intake is critically important during adolescence when peak bone density development, necessary for later protection against osteoporosis, is important.
... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...
peer pressure from other students and low student expectations by 60% of the teachers. Both of these conditions discouraged academic achievement and...students values, etiquette, morality, and lessons that counteract negative peer pressure - encourage students to participate in extracurricular...number of African American males elementary 17 teachers and counselors in the school system to reinforce positive peer pressure toward the students
The purpose of this research project is to study the experiences of Sub-Saharan African students, who have earned professional degrees from American institutions and are currently living in the United States. Acculturative stressors have been identified by researchers as predictors of loneliness, depression, homesickness, and poor mental health…
Diemer, Matthew A.
Negotiating 2 worlds, a predominantly White opportunity structure and one's community of origin, often produces distress among persons of color. In this qualitative study, the author examines the perspectives and competencies of African American men who negotiate 2 worlds and suggests that bicultural competence may facilitate participation in the…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole
Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…
Butner, Bonita K.
Religious denominations have a long history of benevolent outreach to individuals considered "less fortunate." The institution of slavery in the United States created an opportunity for most denominations in the North to advance an image of "patron saint" to an oppressed African American community. Immediately following the…
Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Richter, Kim; Choi, Won S.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Resnicow, Ken
This study examines the efficacy of targeted versus standard care smoking cessation materials among urban African American smokers. Five hundred smokers (250 to each group) are randomized to receive a culturally targeted or standard care videotape and print guide. Both groups receive 8 weeks of nicotine patches and reminder telephone calls at…
Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael
Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…
Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia
This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…
America's civic community from the end of the Great Depression through the post World War II years was hardly rational or racially neutral in its uneven and unequal treatment of African Americans and other underrepresented groups. Conventional civic scholarship of the era has ignored the complexities of a racially segregated society that in theory…
Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.
Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.
The authors use traumatic stress theory to develop an ecosystemic understanding of hegemony and systemic barriers to educational success for culturally diverse students. Scholarship on trauma and systemic oppression are applied to students' academic experiences, and recommendations for improving educational outcomes include assessing for and…
Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J
Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory
This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J
The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.
Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E. Lisako J.
Purpose: To investigate African-American fathers’ (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health. Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n = 3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n = 20) with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18 years old. Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Conclusion: Understanding AAFs’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities. PMID:25538938
Bail, Jennifer; Nolan, Timiya S; Vo, Jacqueline B; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Meneses, Karen
Little is known about cognitive changes among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS). Here, we report our experience with engagement of leaders of urban AA churches in Birmingham, Alabama to deliver and evaluate Think Well: Healthy Living to Improve Cognitive Function, an educational cognitive health program for BCS. The Think Well team engaged leaders of urban AA churches using a 7-step process: 1) identify leaders, 2) develop connection with leaders, 3) assess AA community preferences, 4) tailor for cultural relevance, 5) plan seminars, 6) deliver seminars, and 7) evaluate cultural relevance and overall program quality. Program evaluation was via a 22-item survey and sociodemographic questionnaire. Data from AA participants were analyzed using SPSS. The engagement process resulted in sustained partnerships with three urban AA churches and delivery of three Think Well seminars to 172 participants. Of the 172 participants, 138 (80%) AA participants (40 BCS, 98 co-survivors) returned the program survey. Respondents reported Think Well to be culturally relevant (90%) and of high quality (94%). Think Well was developed and evaluated with the collaboration of urban AA church leaders. Engaging church leaders facilitated reach of AA BCS. Partnership facilitated a culturally relevant, high quality program for AA BCS and co-survivors.
Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…
Yeakey, Carol Camp, Ed.; Henderson, Ronald D., Ed.
This volume includes papers 16-32 in a 32-paper collection: (16) "Mining the Fields of Teacher Education: Preparing Teachers to Teach African American Children in Urban Schools" (Patricia A. Edwards, Gwendolyn T. McMillon, and Clifford T. Bennett); (17) "Mentoring Adolescents At Risk or At Promise" (Tammie M. Causey and Kassie…
Yeakey, Carol Camp, Ed.; Henderson, Ronald D., Ed.
This volume includes the first 15 papers in a 32-paper collection. After a prologue by Mkhululi David Graham Du Bois entitled "Seeking Truth in Research", the papers are: (1) "`Knowledge is Light, Knowledge is Power': African American Education in Antebellum America" (Christopher M. Span); (2) "Curriculum, Culture, and…
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred
Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…
Zellner Lawrence, Tiffany; Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia; Archie-Booker, Elaine; Johnson, Tarita; Evans, Donoria
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12-18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008-2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651) and comparison (n = 112) groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005). Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60). Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Zellner Lawrence, Tiffany; Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia; Archie-Booker, Elaine; Johnson, Tarita; Evans, Donoria
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651) and comparison (n = 112) groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005). Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60). Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions. PMID:28029131
Phillips, Roy G.
The view that people of black African descent have made few significant contributions to the history of mankind is a widely held concept in the social science and humanities curricula of U.S. secondary and higher education. Prior to celebrating the cultural diversity of the United States, the curriculum and materials should be analyzed and…
Smalls, Ruth R.
An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…
McMillian, M. Monique
To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…
Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.
Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…
Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor
Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)
Smith, W; Burns, C
In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.
Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz
The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.
Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S
Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.
Harvey, William B., Ed.
This book addresses difficulties faced by African Americans in reaching the highest levels of administration in white colleges and universities. The nine chapters were written by African Americans who currently hold or have held senior-level administrative positions (deans, vice-presidents, and presidents) in predominantly white colleges and…
Dowdy, June Pickett
This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…
Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Angus, David L.
Characterizes the school attendance of African Americans in rural Cass County (Michigan) prior to and following the Civil War. Before the war a substantial difference between the races existed in school enrollment, but in the 1860s and 1870s, African American school enrollment rose, superseding that of whites by the 1880s. (SLD)
Gartland, John J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Christian, Edward B.; Callahan, Clara A.; Nasca, Thomas J.
Surveyed African American and White physicians to compare their satisfaction with medical school, their medical career, and their professional and research activities and achievements. Found that respondents were comparable as to their careers, professional activities, and achievements. African Americans' practice patterns reflected a greater…
Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.
Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
Background To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born Black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women’s perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the US. Methods Forty in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semi-structured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Results Adopting Boerma and Weir’s Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. While African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Conclusions Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among Black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered in order to resonate with these different audiences. PMID:26766523
Straus, Emily E.
This article discusses the role of education within communities and underscores the changing nature of minority groups in the United States. It specifically examines the struggle between African Americans and Latinos over education, employment, and empowerment in Compton, California. The story of Compton and its school district exposes…
Sutton, Allison M.
The development of a little-known library education program hosted on four historically Black colleges and university campuses and credited with training more than 200 African American teacher-librarians is explored. The program's importance to the evolvement of secondary education of the largely undereducated and disenfranchised people of the…
Allen, Walter R., Ed.; And Others
This collection contains 15 papers on issues surrounding equal opportunities in higher education for African Americans during the decades since predominantly white campuses became desegregated. Papers are organized in four parts: (1) Orienting Perspectives to the Study of Black Students in U.S. Higher Education; (2) The Under Graduate Years:…
Brown, Stacey Marvetta
The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…
Bowie, Stan L; Hall, J Camille; Johnson, Oliver J
The study surveyed a national sample of 100 African American master of social work graduates to retroactively assess perceived diversity content in Human Behavior courses before and after the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) established accreditation standards on diversity. Seventy-one percent of the respondents were females, the mean age was 45.8 years, and their graduation years ranged from 1958 to 2002. Most graduated from northeastern schools (34%), followed by midwestern (28%), southeastern (22%), northwestern (11%), and southwestern (5%) schools. Investigators used the Preparation for Graduate Education Social Work Education Scale and the Human Behavior Survey Addendum (alpha = .97). There were no statistically significant differences on diversity content scores for participants enrolled before and after CSWE diversity standards were established, but graduates of historically Black colleges gave higher diversity content scores in every area. Study includes discussion and implications for Afrocentric theory and the need to prepare practitioners for future social work careers in multicultural communities.
Sieverdes, John Christopher; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell S; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Patel, Sachin K; Ruggiero, Kenneth J
Background There is a critical need to expand the pool of available kidneys for African Americans who are on the transplant wait-list due to the disproportionally lower availability of deceased donor kidneys compared with other races/ethnic groups. Encouraging living donation is one method to fill this need. Incorporating mHealth strategies may be a way to deliver educational and supportive services to African American transplant-eligible patients and improve reach to those living in remote areas or unable to attend traditional group-session-based programs. Before program development, it is essential to perform formative research with target populations to determine acceptability and cultivate a patient-centered and culturally relevant approach to be used for program development. Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate African American kidney transplant recipients’ and kidney donors’/potential donors’ attitudes and perceptions toward mobile technology and its viability in an mHealth program aimed at educating patients about the process of living kidney donation. Methods Using frameworks from the technology acceptance model and self-determination theory, 9 focus groups (n=57) were administered to African Americans at a southeastern medical center, which included deceased/living donor kidney recipients and living donors/potential donors. After a demonstration of a tablet-based video education session and explanation of a group-based videoconferencing session, focus groups examined members’ perceptions about how educational messages should be presented on topics pertaining to the process of living kidney donation and the transplantation. Questionnaires were administered on technology use and perceptions of the potential program communication platform. Transcripts were coded and themes were examined using NVivo 10 software. Results Qualitative findings found 5 major themes common among all participants. These included the following: (1
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney
African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (p<.001), and prostate-specific antigen screening from 22.1% to 62.8%. Men without high school diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed.
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.
Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…
Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy
The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.
Chin, Alexander L.; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E.; Hamilton, Roy
The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n=51) or WNHs (n=193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD. PMID:22300593
... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.
Whitfield, Tracy N.
The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…
Yancy, Clyde W
The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.
Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.
English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States.
Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.
Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…
Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia
African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Robinson, Courtney; Pahlke, Erin
Although research on African American family socialization is increasing, little is known about the beliefs, goals, and strategies of middle-class parents of young children. This study's aim was to address this research gap by examining three key aspects of parental socialization. First, the authors investigated whether and how African American…
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…
Malloy, Carol E., Ed.; Brader-Araje, Laura, Ed.
Focus of these proceedings is placed on three strands: teaching and learning, policy, and professional development. Following the opening comments, "Charge to Mathematics Educators: What We Want in Mathematics Classrooms" (Margaret B. Cozzens), individual presentations include: "It Doesn't Add Up: African American Students'…
Jones, Jayatta D.
Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…
Hudson, Wayne V.
The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore, examine, and analyze the United States (US) Zero Tolerance (ZT) educational policies and practices of the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon. This study specifically explored the influence of the ZT policy on African American males becoming part of that system. The study was guided by three…
This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…
Mays, Vida A.
This study explores the lived experiences of six African American female administrators in Missouri public higher educational institutions. The Black Feminist Thought theory as espoused by Patricia Collins is the framework with which this research examines their leadership. The conceptual lens of race, gender, and class offers an opportunity to…
Span, Christopher M.
This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.
Phipps, Jonathan Lanier
This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…
Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Williams, James L.
Explores the idea that the Reagan and Bush administrations, through their policies on the funding of higher education in particular, have had a negative impact on gains in the comparative rate of entry into professional occupations of African-American women. Such effects are the result of attempts to reestablish monopoly capitalism. (SLD)
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…
Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.
This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…
Jones, Deborah E; Weaver, Michael T; Grimley, Diane; Appel, Susan J; Ard, Jamy
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African-American women in the United States. Although African-American women experience higher rates of heart disease with earlier onset and more severe consequences than White women do, they are not aware of their risk for the disease. The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been commonly used to guide preventive interventions in cardiovascular health. However, the HBM has not been evaluated for African-American women regarding its effectiveness. This study explored the perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of heart disease, and the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), age, and knowledge of heart disease and its risk factors among 194 educated African-American women from the southern United States. Participants did not perceive themselves to be at high risk for developing heart disease while perceiving heart disease as serious. African-American women who were older perceived heart disease to be more serious than their younger counterparts did. Older women and those with higher SES knew more about heart disease and risk factors. Neither SES nor age moderated the relationship between knowledge and perceived susceptibility or seriousness.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use and/or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants’ experiences with oppression and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities. PMID:23216440
Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
O'Bryant, Sid E; Lucas, John A; Willis, Floyd B; Smith, Glenn E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ivnik, Robert J
The influence of education on cognition has received a great deal of attention in the literature. Although there is general consensus regarding the importance of education on cognitive functioning, the extent to which self-reported level of education corresponds to true educational attainment remains unclear, especially in ethnic minority populations where equal access to education has not always been available. Several investigators have suggested that reading skill may serve as a quantitative estimate of true education experience. Among African-Americans, however, research has shown that self-reported educational level consistently over predicts estimated reading level. The current study analyzed the discrepancy between self-reported years of education completed and estimated reading level in a sample of community-dwelling, elderly African-Americans participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) (Lucas, J.A., Ivnik, R.J., Willis, F.B., Ferman, T.J., Smith, G.E., Parfitt, F.C., Petersen, R.C., & Graff-Radford, N.R. (2005). Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19, 162-183). In this sample, 29% of the participants read at a level that was 3 or more years below what would be expected based on self-report of education attained. This study also sought to evaluate the extent to which this discrepancy fluctuated as a function of demographic variables such as location of schooling (urban, suburban, rural; North vs. South), parental education and literacy, and percentage of segregation in schooling. Implications of these results are discussed, as are areas for further inquiry.
.... Structural inequalities--from disparities in education and health care to the vicious cycle of poverty--still... Economic Empowerment,'' calls upon us to honor the African Americans who overcame injustice and...
Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark s.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129
Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.
Walker, Taurean Mashawn
The purpose of this research is to explore the social context (the nature and cultural environment) of the aeronautical training experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots. This research highlights the challenges African-American pilots are exposed to in addition to drawing parallels between the social context and the obstacles they are subjected to along the way. This study is valuable for stakeholders, African-American pilot aspirants, aviation corporations, Federal Aviation Administration, flight schools - in the aviation industry in understanding ways to initiate a paradigm shift and increase awareness about representation and participation of African-American aviation professionals. The qualitative approach was selected to gather a better understanding of the sociological hurdles black aviators face while going through the journey of becoming a pilot. Hardiman (2010) states, "While quantitative research is valuable, qualitative research provides the researcher the ability to view real world situations as they naturally unfold" ( p. 25). According to OBAP (2014), less than 2% of pilots in the United States are African-American. The experiences shared by the participants can provide helpful insight of possible policy implications for the aeronautical industry. There were three research questions in the study: 1) What factors hindered pilot training? 2) What were the resilience factors experienced during pilot training? 3) What were the defining features of the social context surrounding pilot training? Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted of six professional pilots. A qualitative data analysis was conducted to illustrate the context of the social challenges during the course of pilot training. Three themes were revealed: 1) access, 2) perception of inferiority, and 3) support. Implications of the significance of providing social networks to expose African-Americans to aviation were discussed. Additional means of
Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.
Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…
Shockley, Kmt G.
African centered educationists view the problems that Black children are facing in schools as a part of the disenfranchisement and disorganization of the Black community at large. In that vein, they do not believe that the problems which Black children are experiencing in America's public (and many private) schools are solvable by taking them out…
Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Suggs, Vickie L.
In this article we provide a brief history of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) as a part of the sociopolitical context framing this special issue. The aim of this issue is to situate HBCUs as centers of leadership, change, and influence as well as repositories of Black education and the Black American experience through their…
Green, Andre; Glasson, George
One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…
Romney, Paulette B.
High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…
Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn
This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Brown, Anthony L.
Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…
There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…
Madyun, Na'im H.
African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan
This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth. PMID:20054423
Faubert; Locke; Sprinthall; Howland
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a role-taking, action learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African-American rural high school students. The program employed instruction in scientific problem-solving in relation to past and current contributions of African-American scientists. There were two experimental and two comparison groups during the one semester program. The main effects were assessed in two related domains: (1) concrete to abstract thinking (a Piagetian measure); and (2) self-concept development (Loevinger's Ego Stages). The results indicated statistically significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. Implications for school curriculum modification are also detailed.
James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.
This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living…
Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…
Burrow, Rufus, Jr.
Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)
Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336
Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.
Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S
Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R
Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.
Gill, Wanda E.
In December 2012, the "U.S. Department of Education Chapter of Blacks In Government (BIG) Report: The Status of the African American Workforce at the U.S. Department of Education" (ED538186) described racial and demographic data by grade levels for Pay Period 11 in 2012 compared to similar data towards the end of the Bush administration.…
Wayland, J; Rawlins, R
The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.
Lampley-Dallas, V. T.
Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287
This study highlights the factors that contribute to excellence in urban science teaching as pinpointed by five urban African-American science teachers who have taught successfully in the urban system for over 10 years. These teachers shared their experiences and reflections on the qualities that contributed to their success and persistence as…
Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa
This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…
Rashid, Hakim M.
The preschool and early elementary years play a major role in transforming young African American boys from "brilliant babies" into "children placed at risk". A preschool to prison pipeline now exists that is becoming increasingly apparent. It runs from preschool settings through elementary and middle school, into the high schools from which young…
Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.
This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…
Faubert, Marie; And Others
Investigates the effects of a role-taking, action-learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African American rural high school students. Main effects were assessed in two related domains: concrete to abstract thinking, and self-concept development. Results indicate significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. (RJM)
This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…
Muhammad, Rhonda K.
This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…
Hollingsworth, Charles H.
Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)
Bower, Beverly L.; Wolverton, Mimi
Although much has been written about leaders and leadership, we unfortunately know little about women, particularly minority women, who fill this particular role. This book--the second in a series that explores women leaders in different contexts--presents the stories, and the reflections on their paths to leadership, of seven African American…
Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.
Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107
Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Long, Nathan A.; Jackson, Eric R.
In the Fall 2003 issue of Educational Studies, Ian Harris provided a historical assessment of the progress of peace education in the United States, in which he concluded with the sobering observation that, "peace education remains peripheral to mainstream educational endeavors" (349). Harris attributed the failures of peace education to the…
Winston, Deborah L.
A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…
Coleman, Ben C.
This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…
Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…
Harris, Violet J.
Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…
This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…
Cannon Dawson, Candice
This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…
Green, Aundria Chephan
The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…
Nash, Gary B.
Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)
Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David
The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36
Mims, Adrian B.
This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…
Kersten, Andrew E.
Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)
Hill, Robert B.; Billingsley, Andrew; Ingram, Eleanor; Malson, Michelene R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Stack, Carol B.; Stewart, James B.; Teele, James E.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.
This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official…
Franklin, M E
This article discusses the cultural and educational needs of African-American learners with disabilities. Six theoretical assumptions establish some basic suppositions about culturally and linguistically diverse learners and effective instructional practices. A review of the literature describes African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; highlights the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students; and includes patterns of teacher-student and peer-group interactions that promote high academic achievement among African-American learners. Recommendations include organizing teaching, learning, and performance in ways that are compatible with the social structure of African-American students with disabilities.
The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.
Kimmel, Allison; Williams, Terrinieka T.; Veinot, Tiffany C.; Campbell, Bettina; Campbell, Terrance R.; Valacak, Mark; Kruger, Daniel J.
High rates of youth pregnancy and STIs play a major role in the physical, mental, and emotional health of young people. Despite efforts to provide sexuality education through diverse channels, we know little about the ways in which young people perceive school- and community-based efforts to educate them about sexual health. Forty-eight African-American young people participated in six focus groups to discuss their sexuality education experiences. Three major themes emerged that highlight experiences and perspectives on optimal strategies for promoting sexual health. These themes were: 1) experiences with school-based sexuality education (SBSE); 2) seeking information outside of schools; and 3) general principles of youth-centered sexuality education. Young people in the focus groups expressed their varying satisfaction with SBSE due to the restricted content covered and lack of comfort with the instruction methods. Participants described how they reached outside of SBSE for sexuality education, turning to those in the community, including local organisations, health care providers, and peers, also expressing variability in satisfaction with these sources. Finally, participants identified three important principles for youth-centred sexuality education: trust and confidentiality, credibility, and self-determination. These findings give voice to the often-unheard perspectives of African-American young people. Based on their responses, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the optimal combination of school, family, peer and community-based efforts to support them as they move towards adulthood. PMID:23585729
A review of research on US Catholic education reveals that race is not treated as an important area of analysis like class and gender. Black Catholics are rarely studied in education let alone mainstream writings. This article examines the social and educational history of blacks in the US Catholic Church and the dual reality of inclusion and…
Hilliard, Asa G., III
The effects of language in education are rarely accounted for in (1) measurement of intelligence; (2) diagnosis of language, speech, or learning pathology; (3) reading ability measurement; and (4) educator attitudes toward language variations. Educational malpractice in these areas may have negative effects on identity development among…
Bryan, Nathaniel; Browder, Jamison K.
As of 2012, data indicate that only one percent of public school teachers are African American males. Numerous reports urge decision makers and higher education professionals to aggressively recruit and retain African American males as teachers in an effort to improve the academic outcomes of African American children in our educational system…
Dinani, Thandiwe T.
African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…
Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Russell, Melody L.
Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…
Holt, Cheryl L; Roberts, Chastity; Scarinci, Isabel; Wiley, Shereta R; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Litaker, Mark S; Southward, Vivian; Coughlin, Steven S
This study describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening through African American churches by framing the health message with spiritual themes and scripture. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas from an advisory panel and core content identified in focus groups. In the pilot-testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were tested for graphic appeal in additional focus groups, and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension in cognitive interviews. Participants preferred materials showing a variety of African Americans in real settings, bright color schemes, and an uplifting message emphasizing prevention and early detection. Spiritual themes such as stewardship over the body, being well to serve God, and using faith to overcome fear, were well received. The materials were then finalized for implementation and will be used by community health advisors to encourage screening.
Jones, Lee, Ed.
The chapters in this book examine the complex intersection between "the white supremacist realities of the American Academy and the presence of brilliant black men in the Academy." The chapters are: (1) A Message from Our Elders (Lee Jones); (2) The Data Speak: No Rest for the Weary (William B. Harvey); (3) The Psychological Dilemma of…
Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael
African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.
Cornick, Shayla L.
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
In recent years, much research has documented the benefits of parent involvement and offered strategies on how educators can encourage parents' trade; participation in their children's education. While the literature has brought much needed attention to school-family relationships, little is known about parents who are activists for educational…
Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Johnson, Regina Jones; Meshack, Angela; Savage, Charles
Many sexuality education interventions focusing on determinants such as attitudes, knowledge, and skills have shown meager impact on sexual behavior. In addition, these determinants have been developed and evaluated for mixed gender or female-only priority populations. More specifically, sexuality education interventions have not been designed…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Gunby, Norris W., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of racial microaggressions, racial/ethnic identity, and coping, as they relate to job satisfaction. We found that the experiencing of racial microaggressions negatively affects job satisfaction and that educators in higher education contexts often engage in detachment coping. Job satisfaction was…
Jenkins, Toby S.
Throughout many ethnic communities, culture, place, and education have always been important to each other. There are countless creative strategies and approaches to education, inclusion, and personal development that can be derived from studying cultural spaces within any culture. In this article, the author looks specifically at the African…
Whitfield, Keith E.; Wiggins, Sebrina A.
Examined the influence of educational desegregation on cognitive performance. Data from African American adults who had attended desegregated (DS) versus segregated (SS) schools indicated that DS adults had significantly higher mean cognitive scores than SS adults. After controlling for age, gender, years of education, and years in desegregated…
Sianjina, Rayton R.; Phillips, Richard
The National Center for Educational Statistics, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Education, compiles statistical data for U.S. schools. As charts indicate, in 2001, it reported that nationwide, 76% of high-income graduates immediately enroll in colleges or trade schools. However, only 49% of Hispanic and 59% of African Americans enroll…
Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj
Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M
Despite their low social standing, there remains a paucity of research on psychological distress among African Americans. We use data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life to explore a wide array of social and economic predictors of psychological distress among African American adults ages 18 and older, including previous incarceration, history of welfare receipt, and having a family member who is either currently incarcerated or homeless. Younger age, lower income, lower educational attainment, and lower self-rated health and childhood health are associated with higher levels of psychological distress among African Americans. We also find a strong association between higher levels of material hardship, previous incarceration history, and the presence of a family member who is either incarcerated or homeless and higher levels of psychological distress. The findings highlight the importance of considering unique types of social disadvantage experienced by African Americans living in a highly stratified society.
Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George
Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.
Patient-Centered Community Diabetes Education Program Improves Glycemic Control in African-American Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: Importance of Point of Care Metabolic Measurements.
Gaillard, Trudy; Amponsah, Grace; Osei, Kwame
African-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have higher morbidity and mortality partly attributed to poor glucose control and lack of formal diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs compared to Whites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters during DSMES vs. standard care in African-Americans with T2DM attending primary care inner city clinics. We recruited 124 African-American patients with T2DM, randomized into Group 1-DSMES (n = 58) and Group 2-standard care group (n = 38) for 6 months. Body weight, blood pressure, random blood sugars and point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and lipids/lipoproteins were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. At 6 months, Group 1 had significant reduction in A1C (8.2 ± 1.4% vs. 7.5 ± 1.5%, p = 0.02) and random glucose (190.4 ± 77.6 vs. 160.6 ± 59.8 mg/dl, p = 0.03). However, there were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoprotein levels. We found no significant changes in the clinical/metabolic parameters in Group 2. We concluded that DSMES, supplemented with POC testing, was associated with significant improvements in glycemic control without changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoproteins. We recommend the inclusion of DSMES with POC testing in managing African-American patients with T2DM attending inner city primary care clinics.
Osborne, Taneisha L.
Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to examine the factors that influence African American community college students' decisions to pursue a higher education. Studies have also examined the causes of the achievement gap between African-Americans and European American community college students. However, there is limited research about…
Campbell, Santiba D.
Research by the American Council on Education (Wilds, 2000) has shown that while graduation rates for African Americans have increased, they are still below that of Whites. This difference may be explained by race. It is probable that African American students are facing more experiences with racial discrimination or other factors that make their…
Harrington, Susan G.
This paper identifies and explores three major factors that affect the career choices of African Americans. First, the future of the American employment market is strongly based in technology, yet approximately two-thirds of the African American population reported their level of education at high school completion and lower. Second, African…
Madyun, Na'im; Williams, Sheneka M.; McGee, Ebony O.; Milner, H. Richard, IV
In this article, the authors argue that the presence, influence, and contributions of faculty of Color can help higher education students achieve intercultural competence. The authors define intercultural competence as "people's ability to communicate and function effectively across varying cultures." The question guiding this article…
Cole-Morton, Gladys S.
Since the Post-9/11 GI Bill an increasing number of veterans and military students are seeking to complete degrees online and through enrollment at campuses across the nation (Brown 2011). The increased number of military students in postsecondary education settings presents challenges and opportunities for both the veteran student and institution…
... Secretary of Education (Secretary). The Initiative shall be supported by the Interagency Working Group... and completion. (5) The Initiative shall periodically publish reports on its activities. The Secretary and the Executive Director of the Initiative, in consultation with the Working Group and the Chair...
Blackmon, Angelicque Tucker
Conceptual change as a professional development model has moved elementary science teaching beyond lecture and the memorization of facts to science instruction congruent with the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996). However, research on the effectiveness of conceptual change teaching reveals some of its…
Simon, Cassandra E.; Perry, Armon R.; Roff, Lucinda L.
There is a scarcity of knowledge on the mentoring experiences of Black women in social work academia. Using a survey methodology, this pilot study examines the mentoring experiences of 10 Black, female leaders in social work education as protegees. It also examines how they describe their current mentoring behavior toward recent proteges. The…
Hamrick, Florence A.; Stage, Frances K.
This study tested a causal model of student college predisposition that incorporated traditional measures of influences (parents' education, income, gender, parents' expectations, grades, school activities), as well as two additional influences (first-generation status and mentoring) identified in qualitative studies of pre-college through early…
Harper, Shaun R.; Patton, Lori D.; Wooden, Ontario S.
Higher education has been characterized as "one of the greatest hopes for intellectual and civic progress in this country. Yet for many Americans, however, it has been seen as part of the problem rather than the solution" (Boyer, 1997, p. 85). Some have acknowledged that higher education is a public good through which individual participation…
Hubbard, Philip G.
This autobiography recounts the life story of an African American educator at the University of Iowa from 1965 to 1991, as its first African American professor and then as its first African American administrator. The book recounts his childhood and family relations, his student years at the university and his graduation as an electrical engineer,…
Haizlip, Breyan N.
Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…
Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean
The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…
Barnett, Steve; Carolan, Megan; Johns, David
The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African-Americans (WHIEEAA) has a mandate on behalf of African-American students to close the achievement gap. This goal requires attention to the full education continuum, from the early childhood years through adulthood. Learning begins at birth and the preparation for learning starts well…
Williams, Jeanine L.
Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…
Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs typically require their graduates to learn to swim proficiently. However, the research base is underdeveloped regarding the aquatic experiences of African Americans in PETE programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning African American PETE teacher candidates ascribe to their…
Giscombe, Claudette Leanora
This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and
Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.
There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…
This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…
Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others
Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…
Smith, Charisse F.
Statistically, African-Americans, women, and the disabled are underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Historically, these underrepresented students, are described as being unrecognized and underdeveloped in the American STEM circuit. Many experience deficient and inadequate educational resources, are not encouraged to pursue STEM education and careers, and are confronted with copious obstructions. In this quantitative study, the researcher collected pretest and posttest survey data from a group of 4th, 5th, and 6th-grade African-American students in Title I funded schools. The reseacher used quantitative analysis to determine any significant differences in the science related attitudes between and within groups who participated in Out of School-Time Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes between the groups of the students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not. Results also revealed no significant differences in the science related attitudes within the groups of students who participated in the Out of School Time-Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics programs and those who did not.
Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.
... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...
Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Friedman, Batya
African American communities are disproportionately subjected to large amounts of environmental pollution and environmental hazards. However, little is known about their environmental concerns, understandings, and values. In the study reported in this paper, 24 African American parents from Houston, Texas were interviewed on their perspectives…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.
Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter
Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…
Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.
This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Kane, Justine M.
The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…
King, Susan E.
Case studies are presented of three African-American women who earned doctoral degrees in physical education and sport disciplines between 1971 and 1990. Personal interviews were conducted with the informants on issues related to the campus environment as well as financial and academic factors. The case studies are analyzed in terms of the women's…
Jeffers, Adam R.
This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…
Yates, Lucian, III; Moore, Jerrel; Vairez, Mathias R., Jr.; Barber-Freeman, Pamela T.; Ross, William; Parker, William H.; Bautista, Ramiro
While the population of America's public schools is becoming more diverse, the percentage of minority teachers is steadily decreasing. While over 44% of all students in America are minority, only 12-14% of teachers are minorities and less than 2% are African American males. The challenge for colleges of education is to recruit more African…
Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C
This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…
Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie
Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.
Nichols, Robert L.
Many predominantly White universities and colleges are seeking ways to both recruit and retain Black students (Simmons, J., Lowery-Hart, R., Wahl, S. T., & McBride, M. C. (2013). "Understanding the African-American student experience in higher education through a relational dialectics perspective." "Communication…
Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.
African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067
Harris, Y; Gorelick, P B; Samuels, P; Bempong, I
African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies.
Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.
Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.
Gregory, S T
African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.
Education Trust-West, 2010
California touts some of the highest educational standards in the country. Yet when it comes to the state's African-American students, these standards have proved to be little more than a mirage, forever out of reach. This report analyzes the most recent data on African-American achievement and opportunity gaps from the elementary grades through…
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
Explores African American cultural performance as it exists in education. It focuses on the trickster performance and reveals this community tradition in action through research, designed to increase the recognition and use of cultural performance in schools and create an enhanced learning environment, and conducted with African American educators…
Vescio, Vicki A.
As a group, African American males face some pervasive obstacles to school success. Collectively they are expelled, suspended, disciplined, retained, and referred to special education at disproportionately high percentages when compared to their peers. As a result of this persistent treatment, African American males have a tendency to disidentify…
O'Neal, Anita J.
Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.
Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…
Senegal, Pamela Gibson
This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…
Critically examines the factors continuing to impede the integral presence of African American women in pivotal decision-making positions in colleges and universities. Interviews with three African American women who were among the first deans or associate deans of education at leading schools are presented, detailing their experiences and views…
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Jordan, Diedria H.; Wilson, Camille M.
This article describes how African American students' success can be improved via the increased support of Black churches and their partnerships with public schools. Findings and implications from a comparative case study of two North Carolina churches that strive to educationally assist African American public school students are detailed. Both…
Hammonds, MarTeze D.
The journey of African American student affairs professionals has evolved throughout the history of higher education and student affairs. This study examined the career profiles of ten African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs) at predominately White institutions (PWIs) throughout the United States. By using the curriculum vitae and…
Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes
Describes the Nairobi Day School in East Palo Alto (California), an independent African-American institution. Its history is traced from its founding in 1966 to its closing in 1984. The Nairobi method and model are proposed as solutions to several contemporary educational problems that African Americans face in public schools. (SLD)
Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max
African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…
Sudduth, Charletta D.
Parent involvement may have implications for student achievement (Epstein, 1986; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brisse, 1987; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001). Today African-American parents are frequently criticized for not being involved enough in their students' education (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins, & Weiss, 2006). African-American parent…
Gardner, Levester, Jr.; Barrett, T. Gregory; Pearson, L. Carolyn
Despite literature emphasizing the importance of their presence on college campuses to minority student success, African American administrators are severely underrepresented in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of successful African American student affairs administrators at predominantly…
West, Dorthery Barron
The achievement gap between African American and White students continues to be an issue of great concern for educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher characteristics on African American student math achievement: More specifically, the study examined years of teaching experience, campus teacher turnover, and the…
Lewis, LaToya L.
The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…
Huff, Carlton L.
Although there are more African American male students in higher education, they do not succeed to the same extent as other demographic groups. The purpose of this Action Research qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis is to explore the lived experiences of African American male high school students in regards to their academic…
Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…
Beebe, Anthony; Burgess, Terrence; Carroll, Constance; Charlens, Erin
The San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) has implemented programs designed to help African-American students overcome the psychological and cultural obstacles to successful participation in formal learning environments. African-American students suffer low achievement rates in higher education compared with all racial or ethnic groups.…
Powell, Hattie Marie
Although access to postsecondary education for ethnic minorities has increased since desegregation in 1954, the college completion rates for these groups have not, particularly for African Americans. For this reason, it is important to continue to examine strategies that contribute to increases in completion rates for African Americans. The…
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that African American males perceived as influencing their retention in higher education. The purpose was also to discover African American males' perceptions of their freshman year experiences and how the university's initiatives influenced their decision to return their sophomore year.…
Cooper, Terri I.
The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…
Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
Farinde, Abiola A.; Lewis, Chance W.
African American women are underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields (Catsambis, 1994). The socialization and "under-education" of African American female students engenders ideas of inferiority, while the presence of an inferior race, sex and class, in one body, may produce an ideology of mediocrity.…
Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.
Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley A.
This is the first comprehensive account of African American secondary education in the postwar era. Drawing on quantitative datasets, as well as oral history, this compelling narrative examines how African Americans narrowed the racial gap in high school completion. The authors explore regional variations in high school attendance across the…
The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.
Lyles, Lolita Laree
A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718
Duraimani, Shanthi; Schneider, Robert H.; Randall, Otelio S.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Xu, Shichen; Ketete, Muluemebet; Rainforth, Maxwell A.; Gaylord-King, Carolyn; Salerno, John W.; Fagan, John
Background African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans. Methods Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR) or an extensive health education program (EHE) for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR) and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes. Results Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001) and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002). However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001) but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42); the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04). The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors. Conclusion In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education) and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP
Jackson, Dawnyea D.; Owens, Otis L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Dubose-Morris, Ragan
African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to: (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities; (2) refine materials based on findings from Aim 1; (3) share updated materials with participants from Aim 1 for additional improvements; and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and would recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work. PMID:25510370
Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan
African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.
Jiang, Luohua; Ory, Marcia G.; Hollingsworth, Ryan
Purpose. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the efficacy of the “Wisdom, Power, Control” diabetes self-management education (DSME) program with regard to diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care, distress level, and A1C in an African-American population. Methods. A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measure design was employed to measure these outcomes. Study participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks post-intervention, and at a 3-month A1C follow-up. Results. A total of 103 participants were recruited from the intervention counties, and 14 were identified from the control counties. At the post-test, participants in the intervention group reported a significantly higher level of diabetes knowledge (Δ = 9.2%, P <0.0001), higher self-efficacy (Δ = 0.60, P <0.0001), more self-care behaviors (Δ = 0.48, P <0.0001), lower distress level (Δ = –0.15, P = 0.05), and higher health status (Δ = 0.49, P = <0.0001). About 56% of the intervention group completed all six classes, and 25% attended five classes. Conclusions. Findings from this study demonstrate the initial success of translating a culturally adapted DSME program into rural African-American communities. The study highlights important lessons learned in the process of implementing this type of program in a real-world setting with a minority population. PMID:25987809
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise
The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…
Bryant, Jacinta Maria
The issue of the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education is a persistent concern that has negatively impacted African American male students, their families, school districts, and the field of special education. School districts throughout the nation report a higher representation of African American males in special education…
The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…
Former Principals' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) Standards on Raising the Performance of African American Males on the State High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)
Ficklin, Henry Clay
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of former principals on the effect of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) standards in raising the performance of African American males on standardized tests, specifically the State High School Graduation Test (SHSGT) in a southern school district. Since the…
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan
Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia
Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...
... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...
Bates, Marcie Ann
Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…
Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan
The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…
African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.
Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle
The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant.
Foster, Clarence E; Philosophe, Benjamin; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Colonna, John O; Farney, Alan C; Jarrell, Bruce; Anderson, Leslie; Bartlett, Stephen T
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the strategies instituted by the authors' center to decrease the time to transplantation and increase the rate of transplantation for African-Americans, consisting of a formal education program concerning the benefits of living organ donation that is oriented to minorities; a laparoscopic living donation program; use of hepatitis C-positive donors in documented positive recipients; and encouraging vaccination for hepatitis B, allowing the use of hepatitis B core Ab-positive donors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The national shortage of suitable kidney donor organs has disproportional and adverse effects on African-Americans for several reasons. Type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension, major etiologic factors for end-stage renal disease, are more prevalent in African-Americans than in the general population. Once kidney failure has developed, African-Americans are disadvantaged for the following reasons: this patient cohort has longer median waiting times on the renal transplant list; African-Americans have higher rates of acute rejection, which affects long-term allograft survival; and once they are transplanted, the long-term graft survival rates are lower in this population than in other groups. METHODS From March 1990 to November 2001 the authors' center performed 2,167 renal transplants; 944 were in African-Americans (663 primary cadaver renal transplants and 253 primary Living donor renal transplants). The retransplants consisted of 83 cadaver transplants and 17 living donor transplants. Outcome measures of this retrospective analysis included median waiting time, graft and patient survival rates, and the rate of living donation in African-Americans and comparable non-African-Americans. Where applicable, data are compared to United Network for Organ Sharing national statistics. Statistical analysis employed appropriate SPSS applications. RESULTS One- and 5-year patient survival rates for living donor kidneys were 97.1% and 91.3% for non-African-Americans
Based on survey data from 174 Euro-American and 199 African-American newlywed couples, this study analyzed attrition biases by comparing first-year responses of couples who stayed in the study into its third year (133 Euro-American and 115 African-American couples) with responses from the initial sample. Stayers--who were more likely than leavers to be better educated, wealthier, and Euro-American--tended to report happier, more affirming, more communicative marriages. For stayers, compared to a random subsample of the original sample, first-year marital happiness also correlated significantly less strongly with first-year reports of receiving affirmation from a spouse, having an unsupportive spouse, and engaging in marital conflict. Further, race differences in predictors of happiness for the initial sample were not evident among stayers, perhaps due to smaller variances in reported marital happiness and frequency of conflict for African-American stayers compared to African Americans in the original sample. Methodological implications for cross-cultural longitudinal studies are discussed.
Chang, Edward Taehan
Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others
Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.
Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
Johnson, Bernadeia H.
Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.
Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)
Green, Lisa J.
How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Beale, Tyson J.
This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
Perine, Donald Ray
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study
Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert
African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan. A prospective randomized controlled study (March 2006-December 2007) was conducted, with 12 months of follow-up on each subject. A total of 5932 health plan members were randomly selected from the population of self-identified African Americans, age 23 and older, in health maintenance organization plans, with hypertension; 954 accepted, 638 completed initial assessment, and 485 completed follow-up assessment. The intervention consisted of telephonic nurse DM (intervention group) including educational materials, lifestyle and diet counseling, and home BP monitor vs. home BP monitor alone (control group). Measurements included proportion with BP < 120/80, mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and frequency of BP self-monitoring. Results revealed that systolic BP was lower in the intervention group (adjusted means 123.6 vs. 126.7 mm Hg, P = 0.03); there was no difference for diastolic BP. The intervention group was 50% more likely to have BP in control (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.997-2.27, P = 0.052) and 46% more likely to monitor BP at least weekly (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.00, P = 0.02) than the control group. A nurse DM program tailored for African Americans was effective at decreasing systolic BP and increasing the frequency of self-monitoring of BP to a greater extent than home monitoring alone. Recruitment and program completion rates could be improved for maximal impact.
Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.
Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Mason, Marc A.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.
Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake. PMID:25785235
Ross, L J
The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.
Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.
The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…
Mitchell, Jamie A; Thompson, Hayley S; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Modlin, Charles S
Given the benefits of health-related Internet use, we examined whether sociodemographic, medical, and access-related factors predicted this outcome among African American men, a population burdened with health disparities. African American men (n = 329) completed an anonymous survey at a community health fair in 2010; logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Only education (having attended some college or more) predicted health-related Internet use (P < .001). African American men may vary in how they prefer to receive health information; those with less education may need support to engage effectively with health-related Internet use.
Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.
White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.
Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)
Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.
Hewins-Maroney, Barbara; Schumaker, Alice; Williams, Ethel
Disparities in health care and good health between African Americans and other populations while established in the literature are traditionally based on socioeconomic measures of race, income, age, and education (Bailey, 2000; Lillie-Blanton, Brodie, Rowland, Altman and McIntosh, 2000; Ren and Amick, 1996; Watson, 2001; Weinick, Zuvekas, and Cohen, 2000). This study broadens the scope by exploring how sociocultural (poverty, racism, prejudice, and discrimination) and psychosocial factors (perceived health status, the lack of personal efficacy in contributing to decisions about health care. feelings of helplessness, and the lack of trust in the health care providers) relate to health-seeking behaviors of African Americans (Bailey, 1991; Ren and Amick, 1996, Watson, 2001). Interviews were conducted with 111 African American adult patients at a community health center, focusing on health-seeking behaviors, and sociocultural and psychosocial factors. Results suggest that when these negative factors are removed, the health seeking behaviors of African Americans closely mirror the behaviors of the majority population. Subjects did not view themselves in poorer health, fail to seek medical attention when needed, or distrust their primary health care providers. In general, fears associated with health care were attributed to illness rather than health care providers, although a weak linkage was found between patient self-esteem and fear or dislike of future treatment by physicians (adj R2= .362, S.E. =15, F=21, sig. <.001). The study highlights the need for further study in two areas: cultural competency of health care providers, especially those from Asia and Africa who are often assigned to community health centers, and the impact of an accessible community health center on the health seeking behaviors and health status of predominately African American communities.
Hunter, Teressa Sanders
African-American women between 25 and 34 years of age are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Current prevention techniques, including education, have not had a significant influence on decreasing the rates of HIV and increasing safer sexual practices among some African-American women. This pilot study is one step towards increasing the understanding of this serious problem and developing effective interventions to stem the tide of HIV infection in African-American women. A grounded theory approach was used to address the process that unmarried, heterosexual, African-American women used to negotiate condom use with their sexual partner. Major concepts, connections between the categories, and theoretical codes are identified in this study and can be used to predict, speculate, explain, and understand the reported behavior of African-American women in negotiating condom use with their sexual partner.
Hampton, Melvin C; Halkitis, Perry N; Storholm, Erik D; Kupprat, Sandra A; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Jones, Donovan; Steen, Jeff T; Gillen, Sara; McCree, Donna Hubbard
HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education,and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types,unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to different subsets of African American MSM communities as appropriate.