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Sample records for african american identity

  1. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  2. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  3. African American Racial Identity across the Lifespan: Identity Status, Identity Content, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analytic methods were used to create 4 theorized ethnic identity statuses (achieved, foreclosed, moratorium, and diffused) among 940 African American adolescents (13-17 years old), college students (18-23 years old), and adults (27-78 years old). Evidence for the existence of 4 identity statuses was found across the 3 age groups. The…

  4. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  5. Academic, Racial and Mathematics Identities of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, A'kilah Tienda

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the experiences of African American community college mathematics students' in the Nyame Scholars Program at Promise Community College. The purpose of the study was to identify through narrative analysis what aspects of the program impact students' racial, academic, and mathematics identities. A comparison group…

  6. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  7. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  8. Mentoring and Professional Identity Development for African American Female Doctoral Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nettavia Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…

  9. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  10. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  11. Racial Identity and Psychological Symptoms among African Americans Attending a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; So, Dominicus; Russell, Tina Maria; Wessel, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research found racial identity predictive of psychological distress among African American students at predominantly White colleges. This study examined these relationships among 154 African American undergraduates attending a historically Black university. Racial identity was independent of psychological distress, suggesting that African…

  12. Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

  13. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  14. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  15. The Relation of Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Race-Related Stress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…

  16. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  17. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  18. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  19. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  20. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  1. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  2. Reading and the African American Male: Identity, Equity, and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    1999-01-01

    Recounts the author's experiences as he developed a love for reading in elementary school, discovered in high school the element of power that reading held, and endured isolation in college. Describes his work with struggling African-American adolescent readers. (SR)

  3. Enhancing the Cultural Identity of Early Adolescent Male African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christopher K.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    This paper reports on the development of a school-based Afrocentric intervention for middle school male adolescents who are at risk for academic failure or underachievement. The intervention combined the principles of the rites of passage movement within African American communities and current thinking on the process of second culture acquisition…

  4. Racial Identity, Maternal Support, and Psychological Distress among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bernat, Debra Hilkene; Sellers, Robert M.; Notaro, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the role of racial identity and maternal support in reducing psychological distress among African American twelfth-graders. Results provided little support for a direct association between racial identity or maternal support and depressive symptoms and anxiety within a multivariate context. Influence of racial identity and…

  5. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283

  6. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  7. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  8. Intersection of identities: food, role, and the African-American pastor.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brook E; Blake, Christine E; Armstead, Cheryl A; Hébert, James R

    2013-08-01

    African-American pastors can foster health-related innovations as gatekeepers and advocates within their churches. Personal experiences with food and health likely influence their support of such programs. Identities or meanings attached to societal roles have been shown to motivate individuals' attitudes and behaviors. Understanding role and eating identities of African-American pastors may have important implications for participation in faith-based health promotion programs. This study aimed to describe the eating and pastoral identities of African-American pastors, explore intersections between these identities, and highlight implications for nutrition programs. In-depth interviews with 30 African-American pastors were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using theory-guided and grounded-theory approaches. Pastors described affinity across one or more dimensions including healthy, picky, meat, and over-eater identities. In describing themselves as pastors, the dimensions pastor's heart, teacher, motivator, and role model emerged. Pastors who described themselves as healthy eaters were more likely to see themselves as role models. Pastors with healthier eating identities and more complex pastoral identities described greater support for health programming while unhealthy, picky, and over-eaters did not. These findings provide guidance for understanding eating and role identities among pastors and should be considered when designing and implementing faith-based programs. PMID:23538172

  9. Changes in Racial Identity among African American College Students Following the Election of Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M[subscript age] = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private…

  10. Meet Me at the Crossroads: African American Athletic and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain.…

  11. Parental Attachment, Family Communalism, and Racial Identity among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carrie L.; Love, Keisha M.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Garriot, Patton O.; Thomas, Deneia; Roan-Belle, Clarissa

    2013-01-01

    Parental attachment and familial communalism were examined as contributors to the racial identity of 165 African American college students. Students with secure attachments and high reports of communalism were in the later stage of their racial identity development, whereas students with insecure attachments and lacking communalism were in the…

  12. Identity Transformation and Family Caregiving: Narratives of African American Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Wright, Christie

    2006-01-01

    This article explores connections between informal caregiving and identity transformation as experienced by pregnant teens. Based on in-depth interviews with 51 African American teen mothers, the article examines teens' pregnancy narratives as an example of narrative repair, illuminating how attending to processes that connect one's identity to…

  13. A Review of the Racial Identity Development of African American Adolescents: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review and etiology of research on racial identity development of African American adolescents in the field of education. This review explores the Black racial identity (BRI) literature, focusing on how BRI has been examined. In particular, the review concentrates on the literature's use of surveying…

  14. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  15. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  16. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  17. Young African American Children Constructing Identities in an Urban Integrated Science-Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which…

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  19. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  20. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Acculturative Stress among African American Students in Counselor Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…

  1. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  2. Chill, Be Cool Man: African American Men, Identity, Coping, and Aggressive Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alvin; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among African American males (N = 128) drawn from 2 large Midwestern universities. Using the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory and person-centered methodology as a guide, hierarchical cluster analysis grouped participants into profile groups based on their responses to both a measure of racial identity and a measure of masculine identity. Results from the cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct identity clusters: Identity Ambivalent, Identity Appraising, and Identity Consolidated. Although these cluster groups did not differ with regard to coping, significant differences were observed between cluster groups in relation to aggressive ideation. Further, a full model with identity profile clusters, coping, and aggressive ideation indicates that cluster membership significantly moderates the relationship between coping and aggressive ideation. The implications of these data for intersecting identities of African American men, and the association of identity and outcomes related to risk for mental health and violence, are discussed. PMID:25090145

  3. Chill, be cool man: African American men, identity, coping, and aggressive ideation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alvin; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Kohn-Wood, Laura P

    2015-07-01

    Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among African American males (N = 128) drawn from 2 large Midwestern universities. Using the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory and person-centered methodology as a guide, hierarchical cluster analysis grouped participants into profile groups based on their responses to both a measure of racial identity and a measure of masculine identity. Results from the cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct identity clusters: Identity Ambivalent, Identity Appraising, and Identity Consolidated. Although these cluster groups did not differ with regard to coping, significant differences were observed between cluster groups in relation to aggressive ideation. Further, a full model with identity profile clusters, coping, and aggressive ideation indicates that cluster membership significantly moderates the relationship between coping and aggressive ideation. The implications of these data for intersecting identities of African American men, and the association of identity and outcomes related to risk for mental health and violence, are discussed. PMID:25090145

  4. Social identity contingencies: how diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions.

    PubMed

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Steele, Claude M; Davies, Paul G; Ditlmann, Ruth; Crosby, Jennifer Randall

    2008-04-01

    This research demonstrates that people at risk of devaluation based on group membership are attuned to cues that signal social identity contingencies--judgments, stereotypes, opportunities, restrictions, and treatments that are tied to one's social identity in a given setting. In 3 experiments, African American professionals were attuned to minority representation and diversity philosophy cues when they were presented as a part of workplace settings. Low minority representation cues coupled with colorblindness (as opposed to valuing diversity) led African American professionals to perceive threatening identity contingencies and to distrust the setting (Experiment 1). The authors then verified that the mechanism mediating the effect of setting cues on trust was identity contingent evaluations (Experiments 2 & 3). The power of social identity contingencies as they relate to underrepresented groups in mainstream institutions is discussed. PMID:18361675

  5. Ethnic Identity Assessment among Inner-City African American Children: Evaluating the Applicability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Le'Roy E.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the reliability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale (MEIM) (J. Phinney, 1992) in measuring feelings of ethnic affirmation and belongings, ethnic behaviors, and ethnic knowledge with 118 inner-city African American children aged 8 to 12 years. Results of reliability analyses are mixed and indicate that constructs of ethnic behavior and…

  6. What Does it Mean to Be African American? Constructions of Race and Academic Identity in an Urban Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…

  7. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  8. Racial Identity and the MMPI in African American Male College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, P. Richard; Allen, James; Dana, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Black, Short Form (RIAS-B) was examined among 50 African American male college students Results indicated RIAS-B scale scores functioned as predictors of MMPI scale scores. Implications of these findings for MMPI-2 research with…

  9. Racial Identity, Language Attitudes and Educational Experiences: The Voices of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the language attitudes, racial identity and educational experiences of 75 African American university and community college students. This study is motivated by the hypothesis that the power of language attitudes dictates, to a large extent, the language one speaks, which is intimately tied to one's sense of…

  10. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  11. Student Organizations as Venues for Black Identity Expression and Development among African American Male Student Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2007-01-01

    Ways in which membership in student organizations, both predominantly Black and mainstream, provide space for Black identity expression and development were explored in this study. Based on individual interviews conducted with African American male student leaders at six predominantly White universities, findings reveal a nexus between Black…

  12. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  13. "I Do but I Don't": The Search for Identity in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of…

  14. Racial Identity Development of African American Students during Their First Semester at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Patricia Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of background characteristics, initial interaction with the environment, and first-year experiences at a public, research extensive University on the racial identity and racial attitudes of African American/Black first-time, first-year University students. This study is concerned with the changes…

  15. The Stuff of Stereotypes: Toward Unpacking Identity Threats amid African American Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larnell, Gregory V.; Boston, Denise; Bragelman, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on scenarios in which threatening stereotypes unfold, specifically in an institutional context in which African Americans are overrepresented. Drawing on data and findings from a recent study examining mathematics learning and identity in non-credit-bearing remedial math courses, we present three…

  16. Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

  17. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  18. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  19. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  20. Social identity and arterial blood pressure in the African-American community.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that racism may account in part for health inequalities between African Americans and other ethnic groups in the United States. While there is a strong plausibility to this suggestion, specifying the causal pathways through which enduring patterns of prejudice and discrimination affect pathophysiologic processes has proven difficult. The aim of this paper is to suggest just such a specification of this effect, building on prior work locating this process in social interaction. It is argued that, in mundane social interaction, African-American ethnicity as a status attribute overrides the other social attributes through which individuals structure the social identities that mediate mundane social interaction. Three specific variables that influence social identity are examined: lifestyle incongruity, stressful life events, and identity accumulation. Using data collected in an African-American community in the rural South, it was found that these three variables are related to blood pressure in interaction with socioeconomic status. Additionally, each of the three variables is related to individuals' perceptions of racism in mundane interactions. This pattern of results suggests that the attribution of lower social status to African-American ethnicity within the color-conscious society of the U.S., and the subsequent effect of this attribution on social interaction, in part account for observed health inequalities. PMID:8882846

  1. An examination of the identity development of African American undergraduate engineering students attending an HBCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Kenneth J.

    This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.

  2. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  3. African American Women Working in the Twin Cities during the Mid-Twentieth Century: Discovering Their Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    Existing scholarship has no examination of attributing the discourse on vocational identity to African American women, which in this study, has been defined as what a woman ought to be and do. African American women have been a subject of scholarly inquiry on having the longest history of paid work. This qualitative dissertation contains their…

  4. Sex Differences in the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of African American Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…

  5. The Influence of College Choice on the Success, Ethnic Identity, and Professional Sense of Belonging of African American Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and…

  6. Changes in racial identity among African American college students following the election of Barack Obama.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Burrow, Anthony L; Ong, Anthony D

    2011-11-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M(age) = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard) 2 weeks before and 5 months after the election, and the daily diary component assessed racial identity and identity exploration on the days immediately before and after the election. Daily items measuring identity exploration focused on how much individuals thought about issues relating to their race. Analyses considered the immediate effects of the election on identity exploration and the extent to which changes in exploration were shaped by racial identity measured prior to the election. We also considered immediate and longer term changes in racial identity following the election and the extent to which longer term changes were conditioned by identity exploration. Findings suggest that the election served as an "encounter" experience (Cross, 1991, 1995, pp. 60-61), which led to increases in identity exploration. Moreover, analyses confirmed that changes in identity exploration were most pronounced among those with higher levels of racial centrality. Results also suggest that the election had both an immediate and a longer term influence on racial identity, which in some instances was conditioned by identity exploration. PMID:21910535

  7. Racial identity, social context, and race-related social cognition in African Americans during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320

  8. Natural mentors, racial identity, and educational attainment among african american adolescents: exploring pathways to success.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sánchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at Time 1 was 17.8 (SD = .64) and slightly over half (54%) of study participants were female. Results of the current study indicated that relationships with natural mentors promoted more positive long-term educational attainment among participants through increased private regard (a dimension of racial identity) and stronger beliefs in the importance of doing well in school for future success. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22537308

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public regard at Time 2. Nested analyses using age were conducted and perceptions of racial discrimination at Time 2 were negatively linked to private regard at Time 3 among older adolescents. The findings imply that perceived racial discrimination is linked to negative views that the broader society has of African Americans. PMID:19467000

  10. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  11. Identity and science learning in African American students in informal science education contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Sylvia M.

    2007-12-01

    Science education researchers are recognizing the need to consider identity and other sociocultural factors when examining causes of the science achievement gap for African American students. Non-school settings may hold greater promise than formal schooling to promote identities that are conductive to science learning in African Americans. This mixed-methods study explored the relationship between participation in out-of-school-time (OST) science enrichment programs and African American middle and high school students' racial and ethnic identity (RED, social identity as science learners, and achievement. Pre-post questionnaires used a previously validated model of REI combined with an original subscale that was developed to measure social identity as science learners. Case studies of two programs allowed for an analysis of the informal learning setting. The treatment group (N = 36) consisted of African American middle and high school students in five OST science programs, while the control group (N = 54) students were enrolled in science classes in public schools in the mid-Atlantic region. Results of a t-test of independent means indicated that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of REI or science identity. However, the treatment group earned significantly higher science grades compared to the control group, and an ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between science identity and the intention to pursue post-secondary science studies. Although not significant, MANOVA results indicated that students who participated in OST programs exhibited gradual increases in RD and science identity over time according to grade level and gender. Follow-up analysis revealed significant relationships between awareness of racism, gender, and length of time in OST programs. The case studies illustrated that a unique community of practice exists within the OST programs. Access to authentic science learning experiences, youth

  12. “I Do But I Don't”: The Search for Identity in Urban African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of oneself as an individual and in relation to the world are impeded by mixed messages on African American culture and achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of teaching and working with urban African American adolescents in a way that promotes positive identity development. PMID:25485041

  13. Perspectives on Identity, Disclosure, and the Campus Environment among African American Gay and Bisexual Men at One Historically Black College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how 6 African American men at one historically Black college made meaning of their gay or bisexual identity, made decisions about to whom they disclosed this identity, and how their sexual identity experiences were mediated given the context of the campus environment. The findings suggest although this particular…

  14. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  15. The Politics of Public Discourse: Discourse, Identity and African-Americans in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bryan A.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…

  16. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  17. Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry Kay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

  18. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  19. Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

  20. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  1. The Identity Status of African Americans in Middle Adolescence: A Replication and Extension of Forbes and Ashton (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Curtis W.; Boothe, Barrington

    2002-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both ideological and…

  2. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  3. Interracial and Intraracial Contact, School-Level Diversity, and Change in Racial Identity Status among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age = 14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined.…

  4. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  5. Beyond the Scores: Mathematics Identities of African American and Hispanic Fifth Graders in an Urban Elementary Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleshman, Paula Jenniver

    2012-01-01

    As mathematics identity affects students' learning and doing of mathematics, it is critical to understand the mathematics identities of African American and Hispanic students as the mathematical performance and pursuits of far too many continue to lag behind. Further, as community schools have been shown to positively impact students in urban…

  6. A Measure of Racial Identity in African American Adolescents: The Development of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-Teen

    PubMed Central

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Sellers, Robert M.; Nguyên, Hòa X.

    2009-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-teen (MIBI-t) is designed to assess the three cross-situationally stable dimensions (Centrality, Regard, and Ideology) of the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI; Sellers, Smith, Shelton, Rowley, & Chavous, 1998) within teenagers. Adolescent responses (N = 489) to the MIBI-t were subjected to several analyses to evaluate the psychometric character of the measure. Findings indicated that the MIBI-t represents a valid framework for African American adolescents, that its internal structure is consistent with the conceptual framework of the MMRI, and support its construct validity. Findings also indicate model invariance across grade level and gender, as well as suggest evidence of predictive validity. Further information about the MIBI-t and the full set of items are presented. PMID:18954165

  7. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  8. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African…

  9. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism. PMID:24482547

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Academic Disidentification, Racial Identity, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…

  11. Prosocial Involvement among African American Young Adults: Considering Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial involvement is conceptualized as support for or engaging in behaviors that contribute to or benefit African American communities. The current study examines the relationship between prosocial involvement and race-related factors among 303 African American college students. Using two underlying dimensions of prosocial involvement,…

  12. African American Students in Private, Independent Schools: Parents and School Influences on Racial Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…

  13. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  14. Ethnic Identity and Implicit Anti-fat Bias: Similarities and Differences between African American and Caucasian Women.

    PubMed

    Hart, Erica A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M

    2016-01-01

    Research using self-report or explicit measures of body image suggests African American women have a more accepting view of larger figures than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. However, increasing research indicates that explicit views may vary from those held at a deeper, implicit level. Our study examined whether African American women held an implicit negative bias toward overweight/fat individuals, despite a greater explicit acceptance of larger body size. Additionally, ethnic identity was measured to assess if strength of identity related to bias. Anti-fat bias was compared within and between ethnic groups using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measures the strength of automatic associations between two concepts. This online IAT measured spontaneous thoughts about figures of various body weights (underweight, overweight, obese) and positive and negative terms (eg, attractive and unattractive or healthy and unhealthy). A pervasive anti-fat bias was found in African American as well as NHW women. For both groups, this bias was related to ethnic identity when thinking about figure size and health. Specifically, African American women with lower ethnic identity were more negatively biased and NHW women with higher ethnic identity were more negatively biased. Findings from this study indicate that implicitly there are few differences in the way these two ethnicities classify heavy figures, and therefore African Americans may not be immune to weight stigma. Given the prevalence of obesity and the lack of research on weight stigma among African American women, there is need to address this issue and its impact on well-being. PMID:26843798

  15. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  16. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. PMID:25748108

  17. African-American women: considering diverse identities and societal barriers in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Greene, B

    1996-06-18

    Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of

  18. African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing…

  19. Racial Identity as a Predictor of the Psychological Health of African American Students at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Yegan

    2005-01-01

    This study examined racial identity attitudes, acculturation, and gender as predictors of psychological health in a sample of African American college students. The participants were 136 undergraduate students who attended a predominantly White midwestern university. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that gender was a significant…

  20. Constructing Membership Identity through Language and Social Interaction: The Case of African American Children at Faith Missionary Baptist Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele-Eady, Tryphenia B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how African American children in a Black church Sunday school community in northern California developed positive membership identity. Focal participants were Sunday school children ages 9 to 12 and their Sunday school teachers. Drawn from a two-year ethnographic study, data showed that adults prepared children…

  1. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  2. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  3. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  4. Racial Identity Attitudes, Perceived Barriers, Career Self-Efficacy, and Career Outcome Expectations among African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsel, Norman L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) holds that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are primary predictors of career choice goals and actions, with contextual influences moderating those choices and actions. Racial identity research indicates that African American adolescents perceive more barriers than their White counterparts. The current…

  5. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity. PMID:23075205

  6. Narratives of Identity in Everyday Spaces: An Examination of African American Students' Science Career Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades the under-representation of African Americans in school science and the workplace has been a central concern for educators, policy makers, and researchers. Existing literature provides many accounts of the barriers to science career attainment. This study examined the science career trajectories of fourteen African American…

  7. Racial(ized) Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Afrocentric Values: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Understanding African American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of the literature reveals that there is conceptual confusion and inconsistent and sometimes inappropriate usage of the terms racial identity, ethnic identity, and Afrocentric values. This study explored the extent to which Black racial(ized) identity attitudes were related to ethnic identity and Afrocentric cultural values. Two hundred…

  8. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women’s risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

  9. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

  10. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2010-01-01

    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  11. Voices of Identity and Responsibility: A Description of the Development of Identity, Using Cross' Theory of Nigrescence, and the Manifestation of Responsibility among African-American Urban School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Clavon, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    This research described the retrospective formation of identity and manifestation of responsibility of four African-American female leaders who served as urban school principals. Cross (1971, 1991) determined that African-Americans undergo a four step process of identity development that he coined Nigrescence. Within these four stages of identity…

  12. "Sounds like something a white man should be doing": Academic identity in African American female engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitt, Rashunda LaRuth

    This study exposed the way African American female engineering students constructed their academic identities by focusing on their lived experiences. Participants included nine engineering students at Mid-South University (pseudonym) who identified as African American females. Participants were required to sit for one semi-structured academic life history interview that focused on their academic experiences from early childhood to present. This study employed two levels of theory in order to obtain a comprehensive view of participants' experiences. Black feminist theory, which accounts for the intersectionality of participants' race and gender, served as the macro level theory and academic identity, which accounts for the individual's sense of identity within an academic context, served as the mid-level theory. I engaged in thematic analysis, narrative analysis, and creative analytic practice in order to highlight similarities between participants' stories, differences between participants' experiences, and to make this research accessible to individuals outside of academia. As a result, the following three themes emerged to highlight the similarities between participants: (a) just because you struggle, does not mean you should quit; (b) engineering is something you cannot do alone; and (c) I can be creative and do math and science? That's cool! Narrative analysis exposed the academic identity statuses of participants to be either identity achieved, identity moratorium, identity foreclosed or identity diffused. The final piece of analysis involved creating a play that highlights the experiences of an African American girl's pursuit of her engineering degree. Additionally, the final chapter provides conclusions, implications, suggestions for future research, and limitations of the current study.

  13. I Know Who I Am, Do You?: Identity and Academic Achievement of Successful African American Male Adolescents in an Urban Pilot High School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores racial-ethnic identity and academic achievement of five young African American men in 11th and 12th grade in an urban pilot high school. Data gathered through individual and group interviews and a questionnaire were analyzed to understand how academically successful African American male adolescents interpret their social and…

  14. Negotiating Identity in a Bubble: A Critical Race Analysis of African American High School Students' Experiences in an Elite, Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.

    2007-01-01

    This study used critical race theory to examine how African American adolescents negotiated race and class identity at Wells Academy, a predominately white, independent school. Interviews were conducted, exploring the experiences of six African American high school students. Their counterstories were analyzed focusing on the critique of…

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity Between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being Over Time among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel D.; Sellers, Robert M.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relationship between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial discrimination predicted the intercept (initial levels) and the slope (rate of change) of psychological well-being over time, and whether racial identity moderates these relationships. The results indicated that African American adolescents who reported higher psychological responses to discrimination frequency levels at the first time point had lower initial levels of well-being. Regressing the slope factor for psychological well-being on frequency of discrimination also revealed a non-significant result for subsequent well-being levels. PMID:21954919

  17. Father Stories: A Life Course Examination of Paternal Identity among Low-Income African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin M.

    2006-01-01

    Life history interviews were conducted with 40 low-income noncustodial African American men in three age cohorts. Using four elements of a life course perspective (human agency, linked lives, social context, and multiple rhythms of time), the author explored how the stories that men told of their fathers' life experiences shaped their own paternal…

  18. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  19. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  20. Deconstructing Black History Month: Three African American Boys' Exploration of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Melissa Hare

    2012-01-01

    Every February, schools celebrate Black History Month and teachers teach the grand narrative of famous African Americans such as Martin Luther King, Jr. While the stories communicate bravery, they are also about racism and violence. Here, through narrative inquiry, a teacher deconstructs Black History Month, inviting student responses to stories…

  1. From Access to Success: Identity Contingencies & African-American Pathways to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bryan A.; Henderson, J. Bryan; Gray, Salina; Donovan, Brian; Sullivan, Shayna

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a mixed-methodological study of matriculation issues for African-American students in science. The project compares the experiences of students currently majoring in science (N = 304) with the experiences of those who have succeeded in earning science degrees (N = 307). Using a 57-item Likert scale questionnaire, participants were…

  2. Narratives of Identity: Perceptions on Persistence a Qualitative Study of Successful African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millane, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Persistence by minority students is recognized as critical in increasing the number of college graduates. Little research has been conducted on the select, but not elite, universities where the majority of students matriculate. This study provided the voices of 25 urban low SES African American college students who have successfully persisted at a…

  3. Differences in Self-Concept, Racial Identity, Self-Efficacy, Resilience, and Achievement among African-American Gifted and Non-Gifted Students: Implications for Retention and Persistence of African Americans in Gifted Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Lakeisha Jourdan

    2010-01-01

    This comparative study investigated differences in self-concept, racial identity, self-efficacy, resilience, and achievement among African-American gifted and non-gifted students. Specifically, the study evaluated if gifted students are more resilient, report higher self-efficacy and self-concept, express differing attitudes of racial identity,…

  4. The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

  5. Effects of Perceived Racism and Sexism on Psychological Well Being and the Moderating Effects of Identity Development among African and European American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highlen, Pamela S.; Tom, David M.; Ashton, Kathleen R.; Thompson, Kenya I.

    The combined and singular effects of racism and sexism on African American females (AAF), males (AAM), and European American females (EAF) are examined with identity development as a moderator of psychological well being. Samples of AAF, AAM, EAF and a control group of European American Males (EAM) completed counterbalanced instruments that…

  6. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  7. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  8. Deviant bodies, stigmatized identities, and racist acts: examining the experiences of African-American gamers in Xbox Live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how minority gamers, particularly African-American males, are subject to the label of deviant within the virtual gaming community of Xbox Live. They are labeled deviant based on the stigma of their physical identity - blackness, through a process of linguistic profiling. By employing virtual ethnography, the author identifies a process that leads to racism based on how the black gamer sounds within the space. The act of racism emerges through a process involving questioning, provoking, instigating, and ultimately racism. Many black gamers have normalized these racist experiences and have accepted the label of deviant placed upon their bodies.

  9. The Protective Role of Ethnic and Racial Identity and Aspects of an Africentric Orientation against Drug Use among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined (a) the protective potential of multiple components of ethnic and racial identity and (b) the aspects of an Africentric orientation for moderating psychobehavioral risk and protective factors for drug use among a sample of 333 urban low-income African American young adults. Ethnic and racial identity and…

  10. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    PubMed Central

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, 6th through 12th grade African American adolescents from working and middle class two-parent families. In home interviews youth described their ethnic identity, discrimination experiences at school, and school engagement (school bonding, school grades, school self-esteem), and parents rated their racial socialization practices. Analyses revealed that discrimination was negatively related to school self-esteem and school bonding. Racial socialization had additive effects on school self-esteem and school bonding, but did not moderate the discrimination -- school engagement association. For boys, ethnic identity had additive effects on school bonding, but for girls, ethnic identity moderated the relation between discrimination and school bonding: When girls experienced more discrimination and had lower ethnic identity, they reported lower school bonding. Discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic identity were not related to school grades. PMID:27134516

  11. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  12. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783

  13. Exploring Generational Identity in the Professional Lives of African-American Women: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the professional lives of African-American women in relation to their affiliations to a generation. Relationships between race, gender, generation, and class are explored. This study builds on the work of generational theorists and feminist scholars, and seeks to understand the experiences of African-American women in an…

  14. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  15. The Relationship among Support, Ethnic Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations in African American High School Students: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…

  16. Promoting Academic Achievement: The Role of Racial Identity in Buffering Perceptions of Teacher Discrimination on Academic Achievement among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela N.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Faison, Nkesha; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of different dimensions racial identity (i.e., racial centrality and public regard) on perceptions of teacher discrimination and academic achievement among a nationally represented sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescents. The findings revealed that perceived teacher…

  17. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  18. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism. PMID:27294743

  19. Racial and Disability Identity: Implications for the Career Counseling of African Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Elias; Harley, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    Racial and disability identities are separate issues, yet they both contribute to the multiple social identities that influence career counseling outcomes for persons of color with disabilities. Few studies have examined the effects of racial and disability identity on the career outcomes of members of this group. This article discusses racial and…

  20. African American Identity and a Theory for Primary Cultural Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael K.; Columbus, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is on the strange confluence of culture, identity, learning, and systemic design. We argue that the work of instructional design is, essentially, work on culture and identity. A person's culture and identity fully and inextricably situate their thought, action, and interaction. For this reason, this inherent situatedness of culture…

  1. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:25151117

  2. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  3. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  4. Identity-Linked Perceptions of the Police among African American Juvenile Offenders: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna M.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic identity development can play a role in youths' perceptions and attitudes concerning police, but this process has not been explored in delinquent samples. In this article, we examine how youths' perceptions of police legitimacy and levels of legal cynicism are related to processes of ethnic identity development. Participants were 561 black…

  5. Emotional Self-Awareness, Eating Disorders, and Racial Identity Attitudes in African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Britta Davis; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Certain racial identity attitudes may involve diminished internal emotional awareness, features of a syndrome known as "alexithymia," which has been observed in survivors of extreme trauma. This study found that levels of alexithymia, but not eating disorders, were related to attitudes characteristic of early stages of racial identity development…

  6. Identity-linked perceptions of the police among African American juvenile offenders: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna M; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic identity development can play a role in youths' perceptions and attitudes concerning police, but this process has not been explored in delinquent samples. In this article, we examine how youths' perceptions of police legitimacy and levels of legal cynicism are related to processes of ethnic identity development. Participants were 561 black youth ages 14-18 (12% female) who were adjudicated of a felony or serious misdemeanor. Data were taken from semi-annual interviews conducted over 3 years. Increased ethnic identity exploration was related to positive perceptions of police legitimacy and lower legal cynicism. Higher ethnic identity affirmation predicted higher perceived legitimacy over time, but affirmation was not related to legal cynicism after accounting for psychosocial maturity. This study provides evidence that ethnic identity development operates similarly among high risk youth as in non-delinquent samples, and that it is connected to beliefs that can have implications for juvenile offenders' future compliance with the law. PMID:20499145

  7. Exploring Racial and Gender Identity for American Women of African Descent through Self-Defense Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that one of the most effective responses for women to thwart sexual assault is through competence in physical fighting techniques. Various studies also reveal multiple benefits beyond the actual defensive moves learned and the impact of women's self-defense classes on gender identity; however, the primary focus has been on white…

  8. Racial Identity and the Development of Body Image Issues among African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy; Howling, Stephanie A.; Leavy, Patricia; Lovejoy, Meg

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of race, and its intersection with gender, in influencing and/or preventing the development of disordered body image. Specifically, Black samples are examined to see the role that racial identity plays in the process of developing such attitudes. Using qualitative data analysis methods rooted in grounded theory,…

  9. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  10. Definition, Identification, Identity, and Culture: A Unique Alchemy Impacting the Success of Gifted African American Millennial Males in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Fred A., II; Lewis, Chance W.; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Hill-Jackson, Valerie; James, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the underrepresentation of African American males in gifted and talented programs, and offers a number of key recommendations to practitioners and researchers who seek viable strategies to circumvent this problem. Beyond the focus on underrepresentation, several additional topics for discussion are excogitated to provide a…

  11. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  12. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  13. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Identity, and Substance Abuse Among Low-Income Bisexual and Non-Gay-Identifying African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Williams, John K.; Ramamurthi, Hema C.; Manago, Cleo; Avina, Sergio; Jones, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of drug use and addiction in same-sex sexuality among non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/MSMW). Between July 2005 and February 2006, we conducted seven focus groups with 46 predominately low socioeconomic status African American MSM/MSMW. A total of 29 men self-identified as HIV-infected and 17 self-identified as uninfected. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using consensual qualitative research techniques. Alcohol, crack cocaine, and crystal methamphetamine were the primary drugs mentioned by participants. Drug use was identified as playing a central role in same-sex sexuality for many African American MSM/MSMW. Participants described alcohol use and drug transactions, use, and addiction as motivating sex with men, allowing and rationalizing same-sex activity and unprotected sex, and facilitating access to male sex partners. Some of those in treatment for substance abuse indicated that a readiness to admit their same-sex activity and come to terms with their homosexuality/bisexuality was necessary for recovery. Because successful engagement of non-gay-identifying African American MSM/MSMW is essential to the reduction of HIV transmission and substance abuse in Black communities, findings call for drug treatment approaches that acknowledge and accept diverse sexuality in clients. Service providers and policy-makers may be guided by these findings toward building cultural competency among direct service staff. Future research should examine interrelated dynamics of sexual activity, identity, and drug use as they evolve within individual African American MSM/MSMW and compare the frequency with which sex, condom use, and substance use co-occur with male versus female partners. PMID:18546069

  14. Sexual behavior, sexual identity, and substance abuse among low-income bisexual and non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Manago, Cleo; Avina, Sergio; Jones, Marvin

    2008-10-01

    We examined the role of drug use and addiction in same-sex sexuality among non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/MSMW). Between July 2005 and February 2006, we conducted seven focus groups with 46 predominately low socioeconomic status African American MSM/MSMW. A total of 29 men self-identified as HIV-infected and 17 self-identified as uninfected. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using consensual qualitative research techniques. Alcohol, crack cocaine, and crystal methamphetamine were the primary drugs mentioned by participants. Drug use was identified as playing a central role in same-sex sexuality for many African American MSM/MSMW. Participants described alcohol use and drug transactions, use, and addiction as motivating sex with men, allowing and rationalizing same-sex activity and unprotected sex, and facilitating access to male sex partners. Some of those in treatment for substance abuse indicated that a readiness to admit their same-sex activity and come to terms with their homosexuality/bisexuality was necessary for recovery. Because successful engagement of non-gay-identifying African American MSM/MSMW is essential to the reduction of HIV transmission and substance abuse in Black communities, findings call for drug treatment approaches that acknowledge and accept diverse sexuality in clients. Service providers and policy-makers may be guided by these findings toward building cultural competency among direct service staff. Future research should examine interrelated dynamics of sexual activity, identity, and drug use as they evolve within individual African American MSM/MSMW and compare the frequency with which sex, condom use, and substance use co-occur with male versus female partners. PMID:18546069

  15. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  16. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  17. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

  18. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  19. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  20. Pilipino American Identity Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the identity development of F/Pilipino Americans. Because of a distinct history and culture that differentiates them from other Asian groups, F/Pilipino Americans may experience a different ethnic identity development than other Asian Americans. A nonlinear 6-stage ethnic identity development model is proposed to promote…

  1. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  2. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  3. Navigating Race and Cultural Identity: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of African American Secondary Principals on the U.S.-Mexico Border of El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Natashia J.

    2013-01-01

    Presently the paucity of scholarship available is often unitary in nature and usually focuses on the lived experiences of African Americans principals in a predominately African American urban context and as well as emphasizes the necessity of same race principals for the purpose of mentorship and racial representation. Race and cultural identity…

  4. (Im)migrations, Relations, and Identities of African Peoples: Toward an Endarkened Transnational Feminist Praxis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpalaoka, Chinwe L.; Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the sense of what an "African" (American) identity could mean when viewed through the processes of migrations and fluid identities of contemporary African immigrant children as they interact with their African (Americans) peers in schools. The purpose of this article is to use data from a study of West African immigrant…

  5. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  6. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

  7. African Sojourn: Two Narratives of African American Women Educators' Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Mignonne Y.

    This paper examines how the educational philosophies of two representative African American women university professors were influenced by multiple sojourns between Africa and North America. Two African American women born in the 1940s were interviewed about their early educational experiences, racial identity, and experiences in Africa. Each…

  8. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  9. Content Learning and Identity Construction: A Framework to Strengthen African American Students' Mathematics and Science Learning in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, M.; Martin, D. B.; Kane, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that views learning as a process involving content learning (CL) "and" identity construction (IC). We view identities as lenses through which people make sense of, and position themselves, through stories and actions, and as lenses for understanding how they are positioned by others. As people become more (or…

  10. Dream Chasers: An Exploration of How Role Identity Is Related to Career Development Attitudes among African American Male Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Charles Lamar

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop an identity, individuals undergo the process of role-taking. During this process, they slowly develop an identity as they gain greater comprehension of social meanings in the culture. The individual is able to assume the group culture or perspective as they interact with others and better understand their role in those…

  11. Pilipino American Identity Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    This paper uses a nonlinear, six-stage ethnic identity development model to promote proper therapeutic treatment of Filipino (Pilipino) Americans, introducing the terms panethnic assimilation and ethnocentric consciousness in relation to the Filipino and Asian American communities. After examining the social, cultural, economic, and mental…

  12. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  13. Examining the Relationship between Career Decision Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Self-Concept and Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bounds, Patrice Sheri Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of African American adolescents' career development has gained increasing attention in light of literature describing various barriers impacting their educational and career development and goals. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) was used as a theoretical framework to help shed light on the contextual factors that influence…

  14. Unreflective Detachment as a Contextualized Racial Identity: A Case Study of Cultural Practices of a White Teacher in an African-American Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Galia D.

    A case study of the practices of a white teacher working in an urban elementary school with a large majority of African American students shows the problems caused by detached and unreflective teaching practice. The study emerges from a joint ethnographic research and classroom-based educational project at the school. The teacher worked with…

  15. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  16. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  17. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  18. The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

  19. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  20. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  1. A Scale To Assess African American Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Hines, Alice M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated an acculturation scale designed for use in the African-American population. Responses from more than 900 African Americans generally indicate an African-American orientation within the sample, although there are notable variations on all 10 scale items. Discusses evidence for scale reliability and validity. (SLD)

  2. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  3. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  4. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  5. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? The Variable Bases for African American, Asian American, and European American Adolescents' Selection of Similar Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2000-01-01

    Examined variability in adolescent-friend similarity in African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Found greatest similarity for substance use, modest for academic orientation, and low for ethnic identity. Found that compared with other groups, African Americans chose friends who were less similar in academic orientation…

  6. African American rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

  7. African-American Children's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Patricia C.

    Examination of representative stories told by black American children of West African descent in South Carolina shows that specific cultural motifs have been preserved in the oral tradition of black communities. Typical stories are tales of the supernatural, such as the Hag story about mortals who shed their skin at night to do evil deeds.…

  8. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  9. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  10. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  11. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  12. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  13. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  14. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  15. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  16. The African American Adolescent Respect Scale: A Measure of a Prosocial Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Joy D.; Brennan, Eileen M.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The respect that African American youth feel promotes psychological wellness and social identity; conversely, a lack of respect compromises their identities and is viewed as a threat to safety. This article describes the development, psychometric analysis, and validation of the African American Respect Scale, a 20-item instrument…

  17. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  18. Shades of American Identity: Implicit Relations between Ethnic and National Identities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Mohamed, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being more American than African, Asian, Latino, and even Native Americans. This implicit American = White effect emerges when explicit knowledge or perceptions point in the opposite direction. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets (individuals or groups) are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities. Implicit ethnic–national associations fluctuate as a function of perceivers’ ethnic identity and political orientation, but also contextual or situational factors. The tendency to equate being American with being White accounts for the strength of national identification (among European Americans) and behavioral responses including hiring recommendations and voting intentions. The robust propensity to deny the American identity to ethnic minority groups reflects an exclusionary national identity. PMID:27011765

  19. The Role of Coparents in African American Single-Mother Families: The Indirect Effect of Coparent identity On Youth Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K.

    2014-01-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in childrearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this non-marital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family-focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23398615

  20. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-08-11

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution. PMID:21775986

  1. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  2. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  3. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  4. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans. PMID:9395569

  5. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  6. Balm in Gilead: Spiritual Dimensions in Counseling African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun; Green, Evelyn L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes African American cultural and spiritual traditions that are the bedrock for therapeutic work with this population. States women who present for counseling with emotional themes of isolation, devaluation, internalized oppression, and low self-esteem and quest for positive racial identity are especially receptive to interventions that…

  7. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  8. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  9. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  10. African American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Eboni M.

    2003-01-01

    African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

  11. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  12. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  13. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  14. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  15. Beyond Afrocentricism: Alternatives for African American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses new directions for African-American studies curricula. Argues that the Afrocentrist perspective presents a static model that does not adequately address the dynamic interaction of Afrocentric sensibility with Western-dominated economic, cultural, and political structures. The African-American studies discipline should be conceptualized…

  16. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  17. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  18. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  19. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  20. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  1. Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

  2. Using Racial Identity Theory To Explore Racial Mistrust and Interracial Contact among Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Dulay, Michael; Lam, Cynthia; Concepcion, William; Perez, Patricia; Lopez, Cynthia; Euler, Jennie

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of racial identity attitudes as predictors of racial mistrust of African Americans and other racial contact variables among Asian Americans. Results of study reveal that racial identity attitudes significantly predicted racial mistrust, overall group impression, four racial stereotypes, and two quality of racial contact variables…

  3. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  4. Understanding and Assessment of Intragroup Dynamics in Family Foster Care: African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the requirements of culturally competent practice with African-American social service clients. Notes that ethnic identity, differential levels of cultural assimilation, social class, and cultural values affect the provision of clinical services in family foster care. Examines possible points of stress between African-American case…

  5. Representations of the Racialized Experiences of African Americans in Developmental Reading Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…

  6. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  7. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  8. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  9. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  10. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  11. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  12. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  13. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  14. Cultivating a Morality of Care in African American Adolescents: A Culture-Based Model of Violence Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janie V.

    1995-01-01

    Aggression against others violates the care and connectedness implicit in African American racial identity and community culture. Reconnecting youth to communal values and traditions of identity and solidarity may be the solution to youth violence. (SK)

  15. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  16. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  18. African Americans: Diverse People, Diverse Career Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Verna D.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the many subgroups within the African-American population and suggests guidelines for career counseling with different subcultures: rural and urban lower class, middle class, and underclass. (SK)

  19. The African Student in the American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Doris

    This paper gathers information on the values, cognition, and educational background of African students studying at universities in the United States. The section on values notes that Americans are task-oriented individualists, while Africans are primarily relationship-oriented collectivists. These values of sharing and relationship orientation…

  20. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook. PMID:22536626

  1. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  2. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  3. Muslim American Identities and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…

  4. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  5. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  6. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  7. African Literature and the American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  8. GI Bill Expands Access for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1994-01-01

    The GI Bill is seen as the most revolutionary and radically empowering federal legislation to affect American higher education in the 20th century. The bill gave African American veterans more access to higher education than ever before, at government expense, and helped improve the quality of education at black colleges. (MSE)

  9. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  11. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  13. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  14. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  15. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  18. Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and white American youth.

    PubMed

    Judd, C M; Park, B; Ryan, C S; Brauer, M; Kraus, S

    1995-09-01

    Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society. PMID:7562391

  19. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  20. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  1. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  2. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  3. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  4. Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freemen A., III; Maton, Kenneth I.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    This book on African American males presents the first step in an ongoing exploration of the relationship between parenting and academic achievement among African American children. Subjects of the study were high-achieving members of the Meyerhoff Scholars, young African Americans distinguished for their achievement. The Meyerhoff Scholar program…

  5. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  6. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  7. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  8. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  9. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  10. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  11. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  12. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  13. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  14. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  15. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  16. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  17. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  18. The Influence of Both Race and Gender on the Experiences of African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa R.

    1998-01-01

    At four colleges, 135 African American women students completed measures of self-concept, gender identity, and ethnic identity, and were interviewed. Results suggest that women's self-concepts of race and gender are experienced differently depending on their school's racial and gender composition. Colleges should reexamine diversity efforts to…

  19. Changing Stories: Trajectories of Identification among African American Youth in a Science Outreach Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.; Miller, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a descriptive study of youth identity as developing through "trajectories of identification" in a science outreach apprenticeship program designed to transition urban African American youth to professional work and career aspirations. A sociocultural framework of identity development is utilized, incorporating the notions…

  20. African American and Non-African American Patients’ and Families’ Decision Making About Renal Replacement Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Johanna; Ephraim, Patti L.; Powe, Neil R.; Rabb, Hamid; Senga, Mikiko; Evans, Kira E.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Crews, Deidra C.; Greer, Raquel C.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    We conducted focus group meetings of African American and non-African American patients with end-stage renal disease (six groups) and their family members (six groups), stratified by race/ethnicity and treatment. We elicited differences in participants’ experiences with shared decision making about initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT; that is, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant). Patients were often very sick when initiating RRT, and had little, if any, time to make a decision about what type of RRT to initiate. They also lacked sufficient information about alternative treatment options prior to initiation. Family members played supportive roles and shared in decision making when possible. Reports were similar for African American and non-African American participants. Our findings suggest that a greater emphasis on the improved engagement of patients and their families in shared decision making about RRT initiation is needed for both ethnic/racial minorities and nonminorities. PMID:22645225

  1. The Academic Success of First-Generation African American Male College Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewing, Venus

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…

  2. Profiling the African American Student Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ehlert, John; Dade, Shari

    2011-01-01

    The African American Student Network (AFAM) originated at a large Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the Midwest. Including a sample of 163 network participants, the current paper profiles the academic performance of students in the network over its first 4 years. Findings indicate that although participants were similar to the average…

  3. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  4. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  5. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  6. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  7. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  8. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  9. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  10. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  11. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  12. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  13. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  14. The Complexity of African American Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed adult African Americans regarding four parameters of racial identification (psychological, physical, cultural, and sociopolitical). Results indicated generally high levels of racial identification across participants, though scores varied across parameters. The highest level of racial identification was obtained on the cultural…

  15. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  16. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  17. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  18. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  1. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  2. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  3. The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  4. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  5. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  6. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  7. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  8. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  9. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  10. Karla Holloway to Lead African and African-American Studies at Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1996-01-01

    The appointment of Karla F. C. Holloway, an African American woman, as director of the Duke University (North Carolina) African American Studies program is representative of an institutional effort to stabilize the program and to recruit African American scholars to the institution, across disciplines. During Holloway's interim directorship,…

  11. The African-American Legacy in American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarry, Abu

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of African-American poetry to the development of English literature from the earliest Black orator through the works of Langston Hughes. Emphasizes the work of Phillis Wheatley, Paul Lawrence Dunbar,"The New Negro" writers, and Hughes. (FMW)

  12. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  13. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  14. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  15. An exploration of the down-low identity: nongay-identified young African-American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges that strategies are needed to increase the proportion of young men who have sex with men (MSM) who are linked to primary care and prevention services. One subgroup of young men engaging in male-male sex, those that do not identify as gay, may be less likely to be reached by prevention and intervention services that are aimed at the broader MSM community. Additionally, nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex may have risk-reduction needs that are different from those that identify as gay. At present, very little is known about this subgroup of men. This study qualitatively interviewed six nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex about their sexual identity, their relationships with both men and women, their perceptions of their own sexual risk behavior and their comfort in accessing primary care services. The information gathered in these interviews can be used to increase the understanding of this understudied population while improving prevention and primary care services aimed at these youth. PMID:16173325

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Medical Mistrust Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The current study proposed and tested a conceptual model of medical mistrust in a sample of African American men (N = 216) recruited primarily from barbershops in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States. Potential psychosocial correlates were grouped into background factors, masculine role identity/socialization factors, recent healthcare experiences, recent socioenvironmental experiences (e.g., discrimination), and healthcare system outcome expectations (e.g., perceived racism in healthcare). Direct and mediated relationships were assessed. Results from the hierarchical regression analyses suggest that perceived racism in healthcare was the most powerful correlate of medical mistrust even after controlling for other factors. Direct effects were found for age, masculine role identity, recent patient–physician interaction quality, and discrimination experiences. Also, perceived racism in healthcare mediated the relationship between discrimination experiences and medical mistrust. These findings suggest that African American men’s mistrust of healthcare organizations is related to personal characteristics, previous negative social/healthcare experiences, and expectations of disparate treatment on the basis of race. These findings also imply that aspects of masculine role identity shape the tone of patient–physician interactions in ways that impede trust building processes. PMID:20077134

  17. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  18. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  19. Charting the ancestry of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-10-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th-19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  20. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  1. Sufis on parade: the performance of Black, African, and Muslim identities.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Zain

    2009-01-01

    For over twenty years, West African Muslims from the Murid Sufi Brotherhood have organized the annual Cheikh Amadou Bamba Day parade in New York City. It is a major site where they redefine the boundaries of their African identities, cope with the stigma of blackness, and counteract an anti-Muslim backlash. Rather than viewing religion as a subset of ethnicity, this study shows how African Murids interrogate the meanings of religion, race and ethnicity as intersecting constructs. National flags from Senegal, Islamic chants, and banners advocating Black solidarity all indicate a negotiation of terms. Clothes worn during the parade act as symbols and afford them another opportunity to work out these borderlands, especially in contradistinction to African American converts who follow a slightly different course. This article examines how their religious procession creates a Murid cosmopolitanism, allowing them a space in which to reconcile multiple belongings. PMID:20681085

  2. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  3. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  4. Ambivalent Urban, Immigrant Identities: The Incompleteness of Lao American Student Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author elucidates the identity work of Lao American urban, immigrant students, highlighting ambivalent identities that do not fit into notions of bicultural or binary identities. It examines the various discourses and practices that inform and shape the experiences and identities of urban, Lao American high school students. It…

  5. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  6. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  7. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  8. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  9. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  10. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  11. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  12. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  13. Raising African American boys: an exploration of gender and racial socialization practices.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A

    2013-01-01

    Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities. PMID:23889014

  14. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner. PMID:24895047

  15. Communication between African Americans and Korean Americans: Before and after the Los Angeles Riots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ella

    1993-01-01

    Follows up a 1989 study of communication patterns between Korean-American merchants and African-American patrons in South Central Los Angeles (California), and expands the study to include a wider population of 58 African Americans and 21 Korean Americans. Effects of the 1992 riots on attitudes are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  17. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  18. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  19. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  20. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  1. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  2. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  3. Applying Ethnic Equivalence and Cultural Values Models to African-American Teens' Perceptions of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Felbab, Amanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from African American adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…

  4. Wellness and College Type in African American Male College Students: An Examination of Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgeon, Shawn L.

    2009-01-01

    African American male students (N = 203) attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI) participated in a study to determine differences in wellness. HBCU students scored significantly higher than did PWI students on Friendship, Love, Sense of Control, and Gender Identity. PWI students…

  5. A Composite Counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American Military Students in Hawaii Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Kimetta R.

    2010-01-01

    There are social, educational and behavioral problems for African American students in Hawaii public schools. Utilizing Critical Race Theory as a lens for analysis, the perceptions and experiences of these students regarding race, ethnic identity, military lineage, and self-definition are addressed. A composite counterstory of the researcher's and…

  6. The Time Is Now! Talking with African American Youth about College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephanie Power; Damico, James S.; Kumasi-Johnson, Kafi

    2008-01-01

    This article explores our work with African American youth in an after-school community literacy program. We examine how a group of these students used a set of Internet-based technology tools to evaluate whether or not a group of colleges would affirm their cultural identity and help them succeed. What we learned from the students has caused us…

  7. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  8. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  9. Understanding "masculinity" and the challenges of managing type-2 diabetes among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Leandris C.; Namageyo-Funa, Apophia; Jack, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    African-American men bear a greater burden of type-2 diabetes and its associated complications. The purpose of this analysis was to explore in greater depth themes that emerged in illness narratives of a small sample of African-American men living with type-2 diabetes. The primary theme that is the focus of this article is the lived experience of black manhood and masculinity and its intersection with the challenges of diabetes self-management. In-depth interviews with 16 African-American men who had established type-2 diabetes yielded thematic analyses of four questions: (1) What do you fear most about having diabetes? (2) In what ways have people in your life treated you differently after learning you have diabetes? (3) In what ways has knowing you have diabetes affected the way you see yourself? and (4) What are some reactions when you tell people you have diabetes? This preliminary study suggests that the requirements of diabetes self-management often run counter to the traditional sex roles and learned behaviors of African-American men, and this can contribute to nonadherence to medications and poor glycemic control. Gender identity is a key cultural factor that influences health-related behaviors, including how men with type-2 diabetes engage with the healthcare system and manage their diabetes. Understanding African-American men's gender identity is an important component of cultural competency for physicians and can be consequential in patient outcomes. PMID:17534013

  10. South African-ness Among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called “Birth to Twenty” in Johannesburg, South Africa. We examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South African, the centrality of their personal, racial and linguistic, and South African identities in their self-definition, and their perceptions of South African life and society today. These results reflect a historical opportunity for full citizenship and national enfranchisement that the end of Apartheid heralded for Black and Colored individuals. Black and Colored youth tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have a more positive perception around South Africa. In contrast, White and Indian youth are less certain about their South African-ness, have a more individualistic identity, and have a less positive perception about South Africa today. PMID:19461896

  11. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  12. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  13. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  14. Self care for chronic illness: older African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M; Musa, D; Kirsch, B; Siminoff, L A

    1999-06-01

    In-person interviews with two hundred and twenty-one older African Americans and whites in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on their use of self care activities in the care of one of four chronic illnesses (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis, addressed which types of self care they used for each of these illnesses) the similarities and differences between African Americans and whites in their use of self care and how self care is initiated, modified and integrated into a context that includes help from others. The most common response in each of the illnesses was the use of medications or medical treatments by both African Americans and whites. However, there were some differences in the self care practices used by these two groups by illness type. Whites reported monitoring their illness significantly more than African Americans for diabetes and using assistive devices in the management of COPD significantly more than African Americans. While both African Americans and whites practice self care similarly in the management of heart disease, African Americans reported greater use of exercise in their management of arthritis. The amount of assistance provided by others in support of self care varied by illness and by African American and white. The differences in self care usage may be attributed to many factors, among them, differences in cultural experiences with the illness, health beliefs regarding its efficacy and the amount of assistance received from informal supports. PMID:14617891

  15. African-American Students and Foreign Language Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James J.

    The performance and attitudes of African-American students of foreign languages are discussed in this digest. Three major areas are reported: (1) Black English and foreign language learning, including theories of language deficiency, sociolinguistic research, phonology and syntax; (2) research on the performance of African-American students of…

  16. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  17. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  18. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  19. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  20. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  1. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  2. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  3. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  4. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  5. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  6. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  7. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  8. Servitude to Service: African-American Women as Wage Earners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines how the employment position of African-American women changed due to southern economic policies established after emancipation. Uses primary documents to assist in analyzing social and economic discrimination against African-American women in the work force. (MJP)

  9. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  10. Brother to Brother: Success for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…

  11. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  12. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  13. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  14. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  15. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  16. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  17. Resiliency Instructional Tactics: African American Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…

  18. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  19. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  20. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  1. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  2. African-American Attitudes towards United States Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Explores attitudes of African Americans about U.S. immigration policy, from slavery to the present. Fourteen contemporary polls reveal a long-standing preference among blacks in the United States for restricting immigration rather than maintaining or increasing it, in spite of beliefs that make it difficult for African Americans to see the…

  3. The Guide for Choosing African American Parenting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingo, Robin R.; Mertensmeyer, Carol

    This guide is designed to help professionals working with African American parents to be better prepared to select culturally sensitive materials, to program more effectively, and to draw from the richness within the African American culture. The guide is one in a series of culturally specific guides produced as part of ParentLink's Review of…

  4. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  5. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  6. African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    2005-01-01

    While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

  7. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  8. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  9. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  10. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  11. Experiences of African American Empowerment: A Jamesian Perspective on Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Tweed, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    This essay draws from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth. The focus is on Jamesian agency as a function of the individual's awareness of options in context, the self-empowerment…

  12. Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

  13. African American College Students: Establishing HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cecil

    African American college students are among the age group of African Americans who are at significantly higher risk for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Much of the research in this area suggests that for the majority of these students, there is little or no relationship between the knowledge of HIV transmission and…

  14. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-2616 Filed 2-2-12; 8... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  15. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-02756 Filed 2-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  16. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  17. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  18. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  19. African American Men and College: Understanding How They Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkey, Eschelle

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study used qualitative methods to discover the reasons and factors these African American men persisted to degree completion, while the large majority of this group fail. The participants for this study were eight African American males who have successfully graduated from an accredited, predominantly white…

  20. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  1. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  2. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13643 Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States...

  3. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  4. Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

  5. "Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

  6. Social Support Structures and African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry-El, Judith A.; And Others

    An issue currently facing the African-American community is the incidence of divorce, which is presently at a higher rate than that of other groups. This study focused on the supportive networks of African-American couples utilizing a network analysis approach to examine the relationship between the networks, and marital satisfaction among the…

  7. Board Books Featuring African Americans: Vanishing but Not Entirely Gone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongo, Jonella A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring African Americans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature African Americans in…

  8. African American Educators' Perspectives on the Advanced Placement Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Jocelyn DeVance; DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines perspectives of educators on the advanced placement opportunity gap for African American students. Using interviews with 11 educators from 10 high schools, we explored their perceptions regarding the impact of a local academic achievement program on the enrollment of African American students in honors and advanced placement…

  9. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  10. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans. PMID:18954169

  11. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  12. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade. PMID:20080753

  13. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  14. Ancestry of African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Hartley, Stephen W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Taylor, James G.; Kato, Gregory J.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The inheritance of genetic disease depends on ancestry that must be considered when interpreting genetic association studies and can provide insights when comparing traits in a population. We compared the genetic profiles of African Americans with sickle cell disease to those of Black Africans and Caucasian populations of European descent and found that they are less genetically admixed than other African Americans and have an ancestry similar to Yorubans, Mandenkas and Bantu. PMID:21546286

  15. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  16. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  17. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  18. Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly Y; Brutus, Andre; Cathcart, Ronald; Gathe, Joseph; Johnson, William; Jordan, Wilbert; Kwakwa, Helena A; Nkwanyou, Joseph; Page, Carlos; Scott, Robert; Vaughn, Anita C; Virgil, Luther A; Williamson, Diana

    2003-10-01

    The African-American community has been disproportionately affected HIV/AIDS, as noted by higher reported rates of HIV infection, higher proportion of AIDS cases, and more deaths caused by complications of AIDS than whites and other ethnic groups. In addition, epidemiologic trends suggest that African Americans with HIV infection are more often diagnosed later in the course of HIV disease than whites. Numerous reasons account for this disparity, including the lack of perception of risk and knowledge about HIV transmission as well as a delays in HIV testing and diagnosis in the African-American community. Understanding the important considerations in the management of HIV infection in the African-American patient may create awareness among health care professionals and broaden the knowledge of HIV-infected patients within the African-American community. PMID:14588093

  19. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  20. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  1. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  2. The Role of African American-Owned Radio in Health Promotion: Community Service Projects Targeting Young African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)

  3. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  4. Applying ethnic equivalence and cultural values models to African-American teens' perceptions of parents.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Susie D; Felbab, Amanda J

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from 93 14- and 15-year-old African-American adolescents. The parenting styles model was more strongly represented in both open-ended and structured interview responses. Using variables from the structured interview as independent variables, regression analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self-esteem, self-reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, the findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models provides a richer understanding of African-American families. PMID:12972272

  5. A Peculiar Sensation: Double Consciousness and the Lived Experiences of African American Art Historians at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaidan, Christina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…

  6. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  7. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  8. Do Educators See and Honor Biliteracy and Bidialectalism in African American Language Speakers? Apprehensions and Reflections of Two Grandparents/Professional Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Johnson, George L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators often do not recognize biliteracy and bidialectalism in African American Language (AAL) speakers. Chronicling the experiences of twin four/five-year old AAL and emergent Standard English speakers, we discuss the importance of recognizing and building on the routines and identities of African American children and families. We present…

  9. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  10. Experiences of African American adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, C M; Chen, S P

    1998-04-01

    Social and cultural factors influence the experience of fatherhood. This descriptive focus-group study describes the lived experience of fatherhood from the perspectives of 5 unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent fathers in a Midwestern urban area. Naturalistic inquiry approach guided the study. Seven themes of fatherhood emerged: barriers to fatherhood, value of fatherhood, introduction to fatherhood, competencies of fatherhood, role-set relationships, social norms of fatherhood, and father-child contact. This study suggests that nurses should support the involvement of adolescent fathers with their children. Future study may determine the influence of adult female family members on the decisions of adolescent fathers to remain involved with their children. PMID:9550932

  11. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  12. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. PMID:25147096

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

  14. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  15. From Black to Biracial: Transforming Racial Identity among Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korgen, Kathleen Odell

    This book describes the transformation in the racial self-identification of Americans who have both an African American and a white parent. Using data from extensive research and interviews, the book examines how the transformation has its roots in the historical and cultural transitions in U.S. society since the civil rights era. Chapter 1,…

  16. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English.

    PubMed

    Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-09-22

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  17. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English

    PubMed Central

    Rickford, John R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E.; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-01-01

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10–15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  18. A Phenomenological Investigation on the Role of Mentoring in the Academic Development of African American Male Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inge, Jillian

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.

  19. Alcoholism and African-American women: a medical sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.

    1996-01-01

    Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062

  20. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  1. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  2. Asian American Identity and Drug Consumption: From Acculturation to Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Evans, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between substance use and ethnic identity in the narratives of 206 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine the meaning of drug use and found three types of narratives invoked to explain their drug use. The first noted difficulties arising from their Asian-American identities, the experience of culture clash and stresses associated with acculturation and Americanization. The second viewed their drug consumption as unusual among Asian Americans and saw their drug use as indicative of the degree to which they've grown apart from Asian culture and toward white/American culture. The final group saw neither their identities as Asian Americans, as drug users, nor as Asian American drug users as problematic. Drug use was a normal, accepted, and mundane part of their leisure time, not something they viewed as problematic or unusual. PMID:19064437

  3. Myopic Perceptions and Textbooks: Chinese Americans' Search for Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H.

    1973-01-01

    Narrow stereotypic perceptions of and prejudice toward the Chinese have been so pervasive and tenable that Americans of Chinese ancestry do not perceive themselves with a meaningful identity; examination of American social studies textbooks shows that involvement of Asians in American history is barely mentioned or neglected completely. (Author/JM)

  4. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  5. Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.

    2013-01-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

  6. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  7. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  8. Descriptors and Perception of Dyspnea in African-American Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Trochtenberg, D. Scott; BeLue, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study explores self-reported perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Methods Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the responses from African-Americans within focus groups from Nashville, Tennessee. Results Common symptoms were chest tightness, “breathing problems,” and wheeze. Less commonly reported symptoms included cough, chest pain, dizziness, sweating, and “short of breath.” A single participant reported nocturnal wheezing. Conclusions This study provides insight into the descriptors and perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Understanding the descriptors of symptoms and disease severity in African-American patients may lead to more accurate diagnosis, treatment, and reduced mortality within this high-risk population. PMID:18097855

  9. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture.

    PubMed

    Drisdom, Sheronda

    2013-08-01

    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:23899976

  10. Preparing African American Counselor Education Students for the Professorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phillip D.; Bradley, Carla R.; Knight, Donald E.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the underrepresentation of African American faculty in CACREP-Accredited counseling programs and to discuss ways of creating and sustaining a pipeline of potential counselor educators for the academy. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Issues in Reconstructing Earlier African-American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the major issues that need to be confronted in resolving the controversy over the historical roots of African American Vernacular English. and discusses their implications for reconstruction. (Author/VWL)

  12. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  13. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  14. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  15. Engaging Depressed African American Adolescents in Treatment: Lessons From The AAKOMA PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate means of engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment. Twenty-eight youth participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Using grounded theory and transcript based analysis, they derived 5 themes describing African American adolescents’ experience of depression and suggested mechanisms for improving African American youth treatment engagement. Practitioners can educate African American youth about depression as a medical disorder, build trust, and apply innovative approaches to recognizing differential manifestations of depression in African American youth. PMID:20564682

  16. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  17. American Identity in the USA: Youth Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Parissa

    2011-01-01

    National identity, how one sees oneself as a member of a given nation, is an important form of social identity. Feelings toward one's country are a matter of both individual and collective concern. In an increasingly diverse world, the issue of identifying with a nation is complex and consequential for individual identity formation as well as…

  18. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  19. Introduction: Psychosocial Aspects of AIDS Prevention among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Articles in this special issue are devoted to psychosocial aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention in the African-American community. The core assumption is that the values, beliefs, and world views of people of African descent must be understood for AIDS prevention to be effective. (SLD)

  20. In Our Own Image: An African American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This textbook for elementary school children is a history of African Americans from 800 A.D. to 1992 in 24 chapters. Each chapter closes with a review that lists vocabulary words to learn, and offers thinking and writing questions. Some chapters also contain activity sheets. Chapter topics include African origins, black explorers and settlers in…

  1. ASHE: Improvisation & Recycling in African-American Visionary Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Tom

    This exhibition guide provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and brief biographies of 15 self-taught African-American artists whose works were displayed. "Ashe," an African word meaning "the power to make things happen," was used as the theme of the exhibition. The guide verbalizes the exhibit's investigation of the methods of making…

  2. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  3. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

  4. Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Damali N.; Boersma, Brenda J.; Yi, Ming; Reimers, Mark; Howe, Tiffany M.; Yfantis, Harry G.; Tsai, Yien Che; Williams, Erica H.; Lee, Dong H.; Stephens, Robert M.; Weissman, Allan M.; Ambs, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Conclusions The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current

  5. Youth development: a positive strategy for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The concept of positive youth development has been discussed and implemented for over ten years. The more recent emphasis on the connection between community and youth development is as important to the African American community in general as it is to African American youth. Opportunities to experience responsibility and involvement in their community, under the guidance of supportive adults, provide youth the chance of success for themselves and, ultimately, their communities. PMID:12413103

  6. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  7. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  8. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  9. Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

  10. Isolated sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder. PMID:9231535

  11. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  12. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective study on liver transplantation for HBV infection were analyzed. A total of 274 patients (116 Caucasians, 135 Asians, and 23 African Americans) from 15 centers in the United States were enrolled. African Americans were younger and more Asian Americans had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of liver transplant listing. The probability of undergoing transplantation and the probability of survival on the waitlist were comparable in the 3 racial groups. Of the 170 patients transplanted, 19 died during a median follow-up of 31 months. The probability of post-transplant survival at 5 years was 94% for African Americans, 85% for Asian Americans, and 89% for Caucasians (P = 0.93). HCC recurrence was the only predictor of post-transplant survival, and recurrence rates were similar in the 3 racial groups. Caucasians had a higher rate of HBV recurrence: 4-year recurrence was 19% versus 7% and 6% for Asian Americans and African Americans, respectively (P = 0.043). In conclusion, we found similar waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with hepatitis B. Our finding of a higher rate of HBV recurrence among Caucasians needs to be validated in other studies. PMID:19718627

  13. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  14. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  15. An Investigation of African American Parents' Perception of School Leaders as It Relates to Parent Engagement and the African American Male Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Delvon Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…

  16. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  17. The Status of African American Physicists within the DOE Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith

    2005-03-01

    In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.

  18. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort. PMID:24313257

  19. Normative changes in ethnic and American identities and links with adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C

    2013-09-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed. PMID:23231687

  20. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  1. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  2. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  3. 3 CFR 8627 - Proclamation 8627 of February 1, 2011. National African American History Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identity. This year’s theme, “African Americans and the Civil War,” invites us to reflect on 150 years since the start of the Civil War and on the patriots of a young country who fought for the promises of... once told us, “If there is no struggle, there is no progress.” Progress in America has not come...

  4. Personal Identities and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz’s (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas. PMID:20434070

  5. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas. PMID:20434070

  6. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  7. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  8. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  9. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Outlined in this booklet are key competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in kindergarten through grade six in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have…

  10. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This booklet identifies major competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in grades seven through 12 in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have shaped…

  11. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  12. A Celebration of African-American Artistry and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the traveling exhibition, "Free within Ourselves," that features the works of 31 African American artists taken from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art. Provides biographical information and examples of the work of seven artists: Lois Mailou Jones; Frederick Brown; Bob Thompson; Bill Traylor; Sam Gilliam; Edmonia Lewis;…

  13. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  14. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13944 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our...

  15. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  16. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  17. Asian Americans and Racial Identity: Dealing with Racism and Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Kimura, Erin F.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizes Helms's People of Color racial identity model as the theoretical basis for a case conceptualization involving a fictional Asian American male client coping with racism. Explores counseling strategies in light of the influence of racial identity statuses and cultural variables on the counseling process. (Contains 38 references.) (GCP)

  18. Exploring risk in early adolescent African American youth.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Thomas W; Price, LeShawndra N; O'Neal, Keri K; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B; Cairns, Beverley D; Reese, Le'Roy E

    2004-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to explore the degree to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in samples of African American early adolescents in low-income inner-city, rural, and suburban schools. Study 1 examined early adolescent risk status (i.e., single, multiple) in relation to later adjustment in a representative sample (70% European American, 30% African American). Youth who experienced a single risk in early adolescence had moderately increased levels of school dropout and criminal arrests, whereas youth with multiple risks (i.e., combination of 2 or more risks) had significantly increased levels of school dropout, criminal arrests, and teen parenthood. Study 2 examined the extent to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in cross-sectional samples of African American youth from low-income inner-city and rural areas. About one fourth of both the inner-city and rural samples of African American youth were composed of youth in the single-risk category. A significantly greater proportion of boys in the inner-city sample (20%) than boys in the rural sample (13%) experienced multiple risks. Girls across the rural and inner-city samples did not differ in terms of risk. Overall, more than 60% of African American youth in these two low-income samples did not evidence risk for later adjustment problems. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15055754

  19. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  20. Religious Identity Formation among Bangladeshi American Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Miller, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion in America, very little research has been conducted on the lived experiences of Muslim-Americans. In this pilot study, the first of its kind, the process of religious identity formation among Bangladeshi-American Muslim adolescents is explored. Sixteen participants (6 males) completed semistructured…