Science.gov

Sample records for african american public

  1. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  2. Publication Productivity of African-American Social Work Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1991-01-01

    The first national survey to focus specifically on publication productivity of African-American social work faculty is reported. Results (respondents, n=300) reveal productivity is associated more with individual than structural factors, a few faculty are producing most of the publications, and this subgroup is slightly less productive than the…

  3. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  4. Evaluating Academic Achievement of African-American Male Students in Relationship to African-American Male Teachers in Guilford County, North Carolina Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Byron L.

    2010-01-01

    The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…

  5. The Public Returns to Public Educational Investments in African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Belfield, Clive; Muennig, Peter; Rouse, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper calculates the public savings (financial benefits) from greater public investments in the education of African-American males. Over one-fifth of each age cohort of black males in US is not a high school graduate. We identify five interventions that would--based on credible research--increase the graduation rate; we also report the…

  6. Supporting African American Student Success through Prophetic Activism: New Possibilities for Public School-Church Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Diedria H.; Wilson, Camille M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how African American students' success can be improved via the increased support of Black churches and their partnerships with public schools. Findings and implications from a comparative case study of two North Carolina churches that strive to educationally assist African American public school students are detailed. Both…

  7. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  9. The Perception of Public Secondary Education through the Lens of African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandridge, Janae' K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perspective of public secondary education through the lived experiences and voices of 10 African American male students. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized an action research case study design. The researcher conducted semi structured interviews with a randomly selected group of African American male students…

  10. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  11. End of an era? Managerial losses of African American and Latinos in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we examine whether "new governance" reforms in public sector work over the last two decades have generated managerial wage losses for African Americans and Latinos. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data across three time points indicate that the new "business logic" encompassing, most notably, increased employer discretion has progressively disadvantaged African American and Latino men and women relative to their White and gender counterparts. Indeed, for both African Americans and Latinos in the managerial ranks, relative parity in wages that were witnessed in the public sector progressively eroded between 2000 and 2010. Qualifications to these findings indicate that levels of inequality become pronounced for African Americans, and more so among men than women. We discuss the historical niche status of public sector work for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. and the importance of conducting further analyses of the public sector because of its fluid nature as a locus of racial stratification.

  12. African Americans and the Struggle for Opportunity in Florida Public Higher Education, 1947-1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The history of public higher education for African Americans in Florida provides an excellent opportunity to examine American institutional and political dynamics. Following World War II, Florida public higher education expanded dramatically, while at the same time, state leaders maintained racial segregation well after "Brown v. Board of…

  13. "There wasn't a lot of comforts in those days:" African Americans, public health, and the 1918 influenza epidemic.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2010-04-01

    When the 1918 influenza epidemic began, African American communities were already beset by many public health, medical, and social problems, including racist theories of black biological inferiority, racial barriers in medicine and public health, and poor health status. To address these problems, African Americans mounted efforts such as establishing separate hospitals and professional organizations and repudiating racist scientific theories. Contradicting prevailing theories about African Americans' increased susceptibility to disease, it appears that during the 1918 epidemic the incidence of influenza was lower in African Americans. Although the epidemic had a less devastating impact on African American communities, it still overwhelmed their medical and public health resources. Observations about the lower rates of influenza in African Americans did not derail racist theories about the biological inferiority of black people or overturn conceptualizations of black people as disease threats to white people. When the epidemic ended, the major problems that African Americans faced still remained.

  14. A Composite Counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American Military Students in Hawaii Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Kimetta R.

    2010-01-01

    There are social, educational and behavioral problems for African American students in Hawaii public schools. Utilizing Critical Race Theory as a lens for analysis, the perceptions and experiences of these students regarding race, ethnic identity, military lineage, and self-definition are addressed. A composite counterstory of the researcher's and…

  15. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  16. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Stacey W; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-02-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and resources available to reduce transmission. Participants consistently identified the public schools' sex education policies and practices as major barriers toward preventing HIV infection among youth in their community. Ideas for decreasing youth's risk of HIV included public schools providing access to health services and sex education. Policymakers, school administrators, and other stakeholders should consider the public school setting as a place to provide HIV prevention education for youth in rural areas.

  17. A Comparison of African and Mainstream Culture on African-American Students in Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Gibson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This mixed, causal-comparative study was an investigation of culture infusion methods and AYP of two different public schools in Chicago, a school that infuses African culture and a school that does not. The purpose of the study was to identify if there was a significant causative relationship between culture infusion methods and Adequate Yearly…

  18. The Vestiges of Brown: An Analysis of the Placements of African American Principals in Florida Public Schools (2010-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Leo, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…

  19. A Phenomenological Study Exploring Shortages of African American Male Teachers in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimbush, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…

  20. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  1. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  2. The perception of optimal profile in African Americans versus white Americans as assessed by orthodontists and the lay public.

    PubMed

    Hall, D; Taylor, R W; Jacobson, A; Sadowsky, P L; Bartolucci, A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the perceived optimal profiles of African Americans versus white Americans. A survey was conducted using profile silhouettes of 30 African American and 30 white patients, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Twenty white orthodontists, 18 African American orthodontists, 20 white laypersons, and 20 African American laypersons evaluated the profiles. The preference of each rater for each of the 60 profiles was scored on an attached visual analog scale. Eighteen cephalometric variables were measured for each profile, and statistical analyses were performed on the profiles that had a mean rating of 60 or greater from an analog scale of 0 to 100. The results show the following 6 cephalometric variables were significant: Z-angle, skeletal convexity at A-point, upper lip prominence, lower lip prominence, nasomental angle, and mentolabial sulcus. All raters preferred the African American sample to have a greater profile convexity than they preferred for the white sample. The raters preferred the African American sample with upper and lower lips that were more prominent compared with the white sample. However, only the choice of the African American orthodontists for the African American sample was significantly different for this parameter. The white orthodontists gave the highest mean scores for the profile chosen, whereas the African American laypersons gave the lowest scores.

  3. Examining the Achievement Gap: The Effectiveness of African American Teachers Instructing African American Students in Kansas City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Judith Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Over several years the American public educational system has failed to address one of the most infuriating problems faced by our nation, narrowing the achievement gap in urban districts with urban learners. Historically, minority students have not paralleled the academic performance of their White counterparts. This holds true with standardized…

  4. The Perceptions of African American Women Principals Who Have Been Influential in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta

    2009-01-01

    This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…

  5. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  6. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  7. Using Cooperative Efforts between the African American Church and Local Public Libraries To Expand the Use of Library Services by African Americans. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Frederick A.; Innes, Elizabeth A.

    The African American church has a long history of service to its community. The church in African American life has always served as a source of support, learning, information, and improvement for its members and the community it serves. This project directed its resources and energies toward developing meaningful and effective strategies for…

  8. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  9. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  10. Texas Public School Counselors' Perceptions of Family Strengths in African American Hurricane Katrina Evacuee Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…

  11. Determinants of Parental Monitoring and Preadolescent Sexual Risk Situations among African American Families Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…

  12. Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse and Parental Incarceration among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter R; Tirmazi, M Taqi

    2017-02-01

    Mass incarceration, substance use, and adolescent early onset of sex (e.g., initiate sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger) are social problems with disparate impacts on low-income African American communities. Two out of every five inmates in state and federal prisons are African American and the vast majority of these inmates are from low-income communities. Furthermore, this population experiences more severe consequences of substance use and abuse compared to other populations. In sum, African American youth endure the lion share of problems that mass incarceration and substance use leave in their wake. It is likely that the early onset of sex reported by African American youth in national data is related to mass incarceration and substance use in their communities. Using a sample of 142 African American youth, this paper assesses whether parental incarceration or substance, or both, are related to the likelihood of early onset of sex. Analytic procedures included chi-square and sequential logistic regression. The sample reported a mean age of 19 and 36% reported early onset of sex. Being male, paternal incarcerated, and maternal alcohol problems were associated with an increased likelihood of early onset of sex. Results point to a need for supportive services for the children of incarcerated parents, particularly those living in urban public housing developments.

  13. A Comparison of African & Mainstream Culture on African-American Students in Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Gibson, Andrea; Collett, April

    2014-01-01

    The public educational system is comprised of diverse demographics wherein each student has a distinct cultural personal history (O'Brien, 1998). In America, the traditional perception was that a melting pot society existed. But deMarrais and LeCompte (1999) maintain that a stew pot or salad bowl would be a more appropriate analogy. Melting pot…

  14. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2016-05-20

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring.

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  16. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  17. African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity. Duke Series in Child Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C., Ed.; Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines to offer new perspectives on contemporary African American families. A wealth of knowledge is presented on the heterogeneity of Black family life today; the challenges and opportunities facing parents, children, and communities; and the impact on health and development of key…

  18. African American Women Principals' Reflections on Social Change, Community Othermothering, and Chicago Public School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.

    2005-01-01

    Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…

  19. Submission Rates among African-American Faculty: The Forgotten Side of Publication Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 264 full-time African American social work faculty explored effects of gender, degree level, rank, tenure, and program type on manuscript submission to journals. Most manuscripts were submitted by a minority of subjects, about half were accepted, and high submission rates correlated with being male and having a doctorate. (Author/MSE)

  20. Digital divide and stability of access in African American women visiting urban public health centers.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Lorna Tanya; Kreuter, Matthew; Hall, Jasmine; Holt, Cheryl L; Wheetley, Eric

    2005-05-01

    This exploratory study examines access to communication technologies, its association with health-related variables and study attrition, and its stability over time in a study of lower income African American women visiting urban public health centers. Participants (n = 1,227) provided information about cancer-related behaviors in a baseline questionnaire that also assessed their e-mail and cell phone/pager access. Interviews conducted at 1-, 6-, and 18-month follow up determined attrition, and an e-mail message sent to participants at 6-month follow up determined stability of access. Fewer than 10% of women reported e-mail access; 26% reported cell/phone pager access. At 6-month follow up, 45% of e-mail accounts were inactive; accounts from pay access providers were more likely to be inactive than work- or school-based accounts (58% versus 25%). Cell phone/pager access was positively associated with mammography knowledge. Attrition rates were lower among women with access than among those without access. Priorities for future research based on these preliminary findings are discussed.

  1. Screening of Imported Infectious Diseases among Asymptomatic Sub-Saharan African and Latin American Immigrants: A Public Health Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F.; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

  2. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  3. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  4. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  5. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  7. On the Road to Success: Helping African-American Males Improve Their Academic Achievement in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Tami

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the researcher intended to provide insights into the lives of African-American male students who are striving to become better students. The researcher also attempted to answer the following question: How can African-American males learn to be more successful not only in school but in their lives in general? The mixed-methods…

  8. What Does it Mean to Be African American? Constructions of Race and Academic Identity in an Urban Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…

  9. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  11. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  12. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  13. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  14. Predicting the Persistence of Full-Time African-American Students Attending 4-Year Public Colleges: A Disaggregation of Financial Aid Packaging and Social and Academic Integration Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Curt L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent do demographic characteristics, high school experience, aspirations and achievement, college experience-academic integration, college experience-social integration, financial aid, and price influence the first-year persistence of African-American students attending 4-year public colleges.…

  15. African American Women in Public Higher Education Administrative Leadership in the State of Missouri: Perspectives on a Half Century of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Vida A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of six African American female administrators in Missouri public higher educational institutions. The Black Feminist Thought theory as espoused by Patricia Collins is the framework with which this research examines their leadership. The conceptual lens of race, gender, and class offers an opportunity to…

  16. African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

  17. The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.

    This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…

  18. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  19. A Mixed Methods Study Identifying Antecedents to the Later Disengagement of African American Males in Public Schools by Examining Attitudes and Behaviors of Students and Teachers at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Deirdre L.

    2012-01-01

    African American males have not experienced the academic successes throughout their school careers that males of other cultures have experienced. This mixed methods study identified possible antecedents to the later disengagement of poorly performing African American male students in an inner city public elementary school by examining data…

  20. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  1. Mothers' Stressful Events and the Adjustment of African-American Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Organization. Publication Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.

    This study explored the possibility that family organization may moderate the impact of stressful events experienced in the home on adolescents' functioning. Participants were 80 African-American adolescents and their mothers in a large northeastern city. (47 one-parent and 33 two-parent families). A factor analysis was used to measure…

  2. Through a Heavy Fog: Public High Schools in Texas for African Americans, 1900-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morowski, Deborah L.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    "Race, ethnicity, and poverty are poor excuses for low expectations" (Monroe 1997, 111). Negro educators who forged an academic haven for secondary students in the early twentieth century held as strongly to this belief as did Monroe, an urban Black educator, a century and a half later. Whereas the American high school movement gained…

  3. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  4. Scholarly Productivity and Social Work Doctorates: Patterns among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)

  5. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  6. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  7. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  8. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  9. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  10. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  11. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  12. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  13. Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

  14. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  15. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  16. Correlates of the sex trade among African-American youth living in urban public housing: assessing the role of parental incarceration and parental substance use.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby

    2014-04-01

    African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.

  17. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  18. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

  19. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  20. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  1. Examining the African American K-12 Public Superintendency from a Critical Race Theory Perspective: Counter-Stories about Hiring and Retention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Anthony Gene

    2012-01-01

    For the last decade, research has shown concern about the pool of African American candidates for the superintendency. Nationally, African American candidates make up two percent of superintendents and fourteen percent of the teaching force, the pool from which superintendents are traditionally chosen. Increasing demands to meet the needs of…

  2. Saving Our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional and Academic Progress of Young African American Males from Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…

  3. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  4. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  5. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  6. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  7. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  8. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  9. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  10. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  11. African Expressions in Hispano-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben C.

    This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…

  12. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

  13. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  14. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  15. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  16. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  17. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  18. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  19. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  20. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  1. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  2. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  3. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  4. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  5. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  6. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  7. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  8. The Hidden Side of Zero Tolerance Policies: The African American Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Several papers have documented the disproportionate representation of African Americans in school discipline and incarceration settings as a result of zero tolerance policies. In 2009, a federal study of the Chicago Public School system found African American boys represented 23 percent of the school age population, 44 percent of students who were suspended, and 61 percent of students who were expelled within the 2007 school year. Twenty years after the implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, studies show African Americans comprised a startling 74 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses despite being only 15 percent of America’s drug users. Despite overwhelming evidence that suggests African Americans are adversely affected by zero tolerance policies, African American perceptions of zero tolerance policies remain relatively hidden in the literature. The current review seeks to explore a seemingly bidirectional process that involves how zero tolerance impacts African Americans and how African Americans perceive zero tolerance policies. PMID:25893006

  9. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  10. Recruitment and Retention of Kindergarten through Grade 12 African American Male Educators in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    African American male teachers represent a disproportionately low number of educators in the American public school system. This lack of representation has implications for understanding, interacting with and educating the growing population of students of African descent in public schools. In addition, all students benefit from experiencing…

  11. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  12. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  14. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  15. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  16. An Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of African American Boys' Educational Status in a Rural School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Chantrell Anita

    2012-01-01

    African American boys are the lowest achieving academic group in public schools. Current research has delved into why this occurs and into implications for African American boys and communities. However, current research has focused on this in urban populations and has not looked at length at the status of African American boys in rural…

  17. "Are You Sure You Know What You Are Doing?"--The Lived Experiences of an African American Male Kindergarten Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Nathaniel; Browder, Jamison K.

    2013-01-01

    As of 2012, data indicate that only one percent of public school teachers are African American males. Numerous reports urge decision makers and higher education professionals to aggressively recruit and retain African American males as teachers in an effort to improve the academic outcomes of African American children in our educational system…

  18. The Impact of Teacher Demographics on the Overrepresentation of African American Males in Special Education in a Coastal School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicks, Myrick Lamon

    2012-01-01

    African American students make up 17% of the public school population nationwide. Ironically, 41% percent of students in special education are African American (Kunjufu, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teacher demographics on the overrepresentation of African American males in special education in a coastal school…

  19. Toward a Multicultural American Public Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Cheryl Knott

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the view that public libraries are institutions that advance the dominant culture's ideology; considers the multicultural society in which libraries operate; and reviews selected books and articles, particularly those related to African-American experiences in and around libraries, and suggests ways to move toward a more inclusive public…

  20. African Americans' Continuing Struggle for Quality Education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds, Michael; Farmer-Hinton, Raquel L.; Epps, Edgar G.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes African Americans' ongoing struggle for quality education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin by utilizing school district data and secondary sources. The historic integration effort in the Milwaukee Public Schools system is outlined and the impact of sustained segregation, in the midst of significant changes to Milwaukee's social and…

  1. Are the Standards Adequate for Organizing African American Studies Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Dorothy Ann

    Standards of bibliographic organization often are inadequate for those libraries with extensive African American studies collections or those with active user groups. This essay identifies areas where the standards are least effective. The experiences of the staff at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library,…

  2. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  3. The Grit of African American Male Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lucian, III; Moore, Jerrel; Vairez, Mathias R., Jr.; Barber-Freeman, Pamela T.; Ross, William; Parker, William H.; Bautista, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    While the population of America's public schools is becoming more diverse, the percentage of minority teachers is steadily decreasing. While over 44% of all students in America are minority, only 12-14% of teachers are minorities and less than 2% are African American males. The challenge for colleges of education is to recruit more African…

  4. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  5. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  6. African-Americans, Violence, Disabilities, and Public Policy: A Call for a Workable Approach to Alleviating the Pains of Inner-City Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James E.; Dyson, Laronistine; Grandison, Terry

    1998-01-01

    Reviews problems associated with urban crime, describing the extent and costs of victimization and discussing criminal justice and health care approaches to reducing violence. Research suggests that the health care approach can successfully reduce crime and violence in African-American communities. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  7. What Works for African American Children and Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2011-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The disproportionate vulnerability of African American youth to certain negative outcomes, including teen pregnancy, low academic achievement, HIV infection, and violent death, has emphasized the need for out-of-school time program providers and funders to seek programs that have been found to have positive impacts for this population.…

  8. College in Black and White: African American Students in Predominantly White and in Historically Black Public Universities. State University of New York Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R., Ed.; And Others

    This collection contains 15 papers on issues surrounding equal opportunities in higher education for African Americans during the decades since predominantly white campuses became desegregated. Papers are organized in four parts: (1) Orienting Perspectives to the Study of Black Students in U.S. Higher Education; (2) The Under Graduate Years:…

  9. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  10. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  11. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  12. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  14. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  15. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  16. Teaching African American Children through Cultural Learning Styles to Improve Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert-Hill, Catrice L.

    With the large numbers of African American children who are not successful in school, more attention needs to be devoted to developing methods and processes by which they can effectively learn, achieve, and be empowered. The performance statistics for African American students in public schools are alarming. Their suspension rates are high, and 20…

  17. African American Students in Private, Independent Schools: Parents and School Influences on Racial Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…

  18. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  19. The Nairobi Day School: An African American Independent School, 1966-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Nairobi Day School in East Palo Alto (California), an independent African-American institution. Its history is traced from its founding in 1966 to its closing in 1984. The Nairobi method and model are proposed as solutions to several contemporary educational problems that African Americans face in public schools. (SLD)

  20. African-American Principals in the Midwest: Voices of the Sojourner Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David Byron

    2012-01-01

    In an era of accountability and high standards for public schools, some African American principals decided to work in predominantly white schools. Their experiences were challenging because they were racial newcomers in schools with students different from their own race. In this case study, 12 African-American principals and assistant principals…

  1. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  2. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  3. When Aspiration Meets Opportunity: Examining Transitional Experiences of African American Males in College Readiness Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2014-01-01

    The lack of postsecondary success for African American males has garnered significant attention from academic scholars and public policy leaders. While this scholarship provides a strong portrait on issues related to African American males, there are still significant gaps to be addressed. Most notably, current research tends to focus on students…

  4. Stony the Road They Trod: The African American Male. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffery M.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Stereotypes of the African American male in the popular media have imprinted a harsh and unflattering image in the public consciousness that has negatively affected the self-image of African Americans. Additionally, those stereotypes affect the decision making of employers, police officers, teachers, and other authority figures, resulting in a…

  5. Factors That Promote the Academic Success of African American Male Students in High School Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tyrone J.

    2014-01-01

    Low performance of African American male students in high school math is an ongoing concern of Maryland's public schools. Because disproportionately large numbers of African American male students enroll in Algebra 2 in Grade 11, the use of early academic counseling to promote enrollment in Algebra 2 in Grade 9 and to increase self-regulation may…

  6. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.

    2013-01-01

    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  7. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Chandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  8. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  10. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  12. Why aren't there more African-American physicians? A qualitative study and exploratory inquiry of African-American students' perspectives on careers in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijaya; Flores, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: African Americans comprise 13% of Americans but only 4% of U.S. physicians. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify African-American high-school student perspectives on barriers to African Americans pursuing careers in medicine. METHOD: Focus group interviews (consisting of 15 questions) were conducted of African-American high-school juniors attending a Milwaukee public high school in which 89% of students are African Americans. The two focus groups were conducted in 2006, transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: The 12 students interviewed in two focus groups had a mean age of 17 years; 41% of students' parents were high-school graduates. Major barriers to becoming a physician cited by students included financial constraints, lack of knowledge about medicine, little/no encouragement at home or in school, negative peer views on excelling academically, lack of African-American role models in the community and on TV, racism in medicine, and easier and more appealing alternatives for making money. Students stated that increasing the number of African-American physicians would enhance patient-physician communication and relationships, and more African Americans would become physicians if there were greater exposure to medicine in schools, more guidance at a younger age and more role models. CONCLUSION: Financial constraints, insufficient exposure to medicine as a career, little encouragement at home and in schools, lack of role models, and negative peer pressure may contribute to racial disparities in the physician workforce for African Americans. Exposure at a young age to role models and to medicine as a profession might increase the number of African American physicians. PMID:17913107

  13. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  14. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  15. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  16. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  17. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  18. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  19. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  20. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  1. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  2. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  3. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  4. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  5. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  6. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  7. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from

  8. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  9. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  10. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  11. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  12. Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

  13. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  14. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  15. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  16. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  17. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  18. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  19. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  20. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  1. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  2. Five Types of African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  3. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  4. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  5. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  6. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  7. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  8. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  9. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  10. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  11. Healthcare reconsidered: forging community wellness among African Americans in the south.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article details the history of Slossfield Hospital, an African American hospital and community center founded in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1937. During its New Deal-era existence it provided African American physicians institutional support for their medical practices. Additionally, as a community center, it addressed the socioeconomics of good health. This paper uses Slossfield as a case study to explore how some African Americans included the socioeconomic in their definition of public health during the New Deal, as well as to understand how these ideas were subsumed by more mainstream ideas about public health promulgated by black and white physicians and the local and federal governments.

  12. Informational Publications on Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Contains a bibliography of free or inexpensive informational publications on American Indian culture, history, and problems. The list will also acquaint teachers with some of the educational centers across the nation that have significant materials on Native Americans. (AM)

  13. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  14. The Experiences of African American Physical Education Teacher Candidates at Secondary Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…

  15. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  16. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  17. African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)

  18. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  19. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  20. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  1. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  2. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  3. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday

  4. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787

  5. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    PubMed

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  6. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  7. An In-Depth Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis to Determine the Factors That Affect the Existence of African American Women Superintendents in the North Carolina K-12 Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James E.; Webb, Renita L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study how race, gender, values, attitudes and power perceptions of leaders contribute to the recruitment, retention, and training of African American female superintendents. This study is focused on African American female superintendents and their experiences that led to the acquisition of the position. The…

  8. Alzheimer's disease in African Americans: risk factors and challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2014-04-01

    As the US elderly population continues to expand rapidly, Alzheimer's disease poses a major and increasing public health challenge, and older African Americans may be disproportionately burdened by the disease. Although African Americans were generally underincluded in previous research studies, new and growing evidence suggests that they may be at increased risk of the disease and that they differ from the non-Hispanic white population in risk factors and disease manifestation. This article offers an overview of the challenges of Alzheimer's disease in African Americans, including diagnosis issues, disparities in risk factors and clinical presentation of disease, and community-based recommendations to enhance research with this population.

  9. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  10. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...

  11. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians...

  12. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  13. Math Blitz Afterschool Program: Reclaiming Excellence for African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ruth R.

    2013-01-01

    An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…

  14. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  15. Exploration of Depressive Symptoms in African American Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890

  16. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  17. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  18. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  19. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    cancer syndromes that are prevalent among African Americans? Little information exists about other familial cancer syndromes unique to African...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...familial syndromes based on pedigree analysis, calculation of risk estimates, and effective communication of risk status at a level that the patient can

  20. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-06-01

    Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.

  1. Adherence discourse among African-American women taking HAART

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, A.; Luborsky, M.; Schuman, P.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Low adherence is the single most important challenge to controlling HIV through the use of high acting anti-retrovirals (HAART). Non-adherence poses an immediate threat to individuals who develop resistant forms of the virus as well as a public health threat if those individuals pass on treatment-resistant forms of the virus. To understand the concerns and perceptions that promote or deter adherence to antiretroviral medication by HIV-positive African-American women, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 African-American women taking HAART. We focused on the discourse and narratives women use in talking about their adherence practice. Discourse analysis was utilized to identify and explore the sources of influence used by these women in describing their adherence practice. Roughly a third of the sample fell into each of the three self-assessed adherence categories: always adherent, mostly adherent and somewhat adherent. Among the ‘always adherent’, 80% of the sources of influence cited supported adherence, while only 48% and 47% of the authoritative sources cited by women in the ‘mostly’ and ‘somewhat’ categories supported adherence. Each self-assessed adherence group was characterized by its own distinctive discourse style. Findings suggest that adherence to HAART among African-American HIV-positive women would be improved by identifying those influences undermining adherence. Focused study of the ‘always adherent’ types is recommended. PMID:11940279

  2. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

  3. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  4. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  5. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  6. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  8. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  9. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  10. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  11. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  12. The Effect of Using Rapping To Teach Selected Musical Forms to Urban African American Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintunde, Omowale

    A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…

  13. Protective Factors and Resiliency: A Case Study of How African American Women Overcome Barriers en Route to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre

    2015-01-01

    An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…

  14. Teacher and Parent Perceptions of Classroom Experiences of African American Male Students in a High School Alternative Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kimberly C.

    2013-01-01

    A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…

  15. Factors That Influence African American Male Retention and Graduation: The Case of Gateway University, a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Errick D.; Hope, Warren C.

    2015-01-01

    African American males face major challenges in retention and graduation from institutions of higher education. The 6-year graduation rate for African American males at 4-year public institutions and private nonprofit colleges is less than 40%. This figure suggests that persistence toward degree attainment is a problem. The purpose of this study…

  16. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  17. Exploration of African-American Males and the Influence of Race, Gender and Teacher Beliefs about Their Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlet, Conrad E.

    2012-01-01

    There has been no shortage of calls to improve teaching. Even the federal law, the No Child Left Behind Act, has mandated high quality teaching in the nation's public schools. But the question still remains "What makes an effective teacher, particularly of African-American males in an urban environment?" African-American males in…

  18. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  19. Administrator Perceptions of the Achievement Gap between African American Students and Other Subpopulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The consistent underperformance of African American students casts a disparaging shadow on the success of American public schools. Research was necessary to understand the reason for such a difference in scores. Parents, teachers, and administrators must understand the reason for the gap in order to determine the strategies and support systems…

  20. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  1. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  2. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be responsible for this disparity. We here report genome-wide copy number variations, single nucleotide mutations and DNA methylation findings that might be specific to this population. PMID:27917406

  3. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  4. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  5. The role of the African-American physician in reducing traffic-related injury and death among African Americans: consensus report of the National Medical Association.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.

    2002-01-01

    ISSUE: Traffic-related injuries and fatalities disproportionately affect the African American community. These high rates of traffic-related death and injury among African Americans manifest in multiple areas of traffic safety, including: Failure to use seat belts and child restraints. High incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Failure to follow child passenger and seat belt safety laws and recommendations. High rates of pedestrian accidents, ofen brought on by impairments of drivers and/or pedestrians. Research indicates that national public information campaigns, with general messages only slightly modified for African American audiences, have not been culturally appropriate or effective in changing traffic safety behavior. In addition, traditional distribution mechanisms for these messages have not effectively reached the target population. Evidence suggests that in the African American community, there is a pervasive lack of knowledge of the devastating impact of traffic-related accidents on the overall health status of the community. This lack of information has resulted in a tragic cycle, in which parents fail to model safe operation of motor vehicles, and generation after generation copy this behavior, increasing the community's vulnerability to serious injuries and untimely deaths. This trend toward improper traffic safety habits among African Americans persists despite federal, state and local laws to enforce and promote sound traffic safety practices. OBJECTIVE: To study the existence of disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans and to determine what kinds of traffic safety messages and campaigns will be effective in encouraging African Americans to respond to safety laws in sufficient numbers to reduce the disproportionately high rate of injury and death. Traffic safety issues were examined to effectively recommend policy, address barriers, best practices, and intervention strategies for the National Medical Association

  6. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Public Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Climate Change Gun Violence Environmental Health Health Equity Health Reform ... to AJPH Public Health Newswire April 14 news: Climate change, mumps outbreak in Texas, type 2 diabetes in ...

  7. Treatment Disparities among African American Men with Depression: Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2015-01-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

  8. Treatment disparities among African American men with depression: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research.

  9. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  10. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  11. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  12. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  13. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  14. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  15. Educating African American Males: Examining Teacher Perceptions and Cultural Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Celeste A.

    2010-01-01

    For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…

  16. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  17. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  18. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  19. A Lifeline to Science Careers for African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean

    1996-01-01

    Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…

  20. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  1. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…

  2. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  3. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  4. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  5. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  6. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  7. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  8. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  9. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  10. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  11. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  12. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  13. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  14. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Cancer.gov

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  15. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  16. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  17. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  18. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  19. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  20. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  1. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  2. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  3. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  4. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  5. Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

  6. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for much of our Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  7. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  8. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  9. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  10. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  11. Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

  12. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  13. Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

  14. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  15. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  16. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national...

  17. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story..., music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month,...

  18. These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gerri

    2007-01-01

    Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

  19. Recent African American Migration Trends in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…

  20. Counseling African American Clients: Professional Counselors and Religious Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…

  1. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  2. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  3. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  4. African-American Women's Voices: Expanding Theories of Women's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Diane J.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)

  5. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  6. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  7. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  8. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  9. Bone and mineral metabolism in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H

    1997-08-01

    Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.

  10. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  11. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  12. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  13. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.

  14. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  15. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  16. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  17. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  18. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  19. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.

  20. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  1. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  2. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  3. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  4. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  5. A Dietary Intervention in Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not

  6. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  7. Interpersonal- and community-level predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration among African American men.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.

  8. Takotsubo Syndrome in African American vs. Non-African American Women

    PubMed Central

    QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531

  9. Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

  10. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  11. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  12. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  13. Effective screening for Alzheimer's disease among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A

    2001-05-01

    Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.

  14. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  15. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  16. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  17. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  18. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  19. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings.

  20. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  1. 75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    .... Structural inequalities--from disparities in education and health care to the vicious cycle of poverty--still... Economic Empowerment,'' calls upon us to honor the African Americans who overcame injustice and...

  2. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  3. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  4. Structural and Social Contexts of HIV Risk Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519

  5. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  6. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Narrative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.

  7. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.

  8. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  9. ASHE: Improvisation & Recycling in African-American Visionary Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Tom

    This exhibition guide provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and brief biographies of 15 self-taught African-American artists whose works were displayed. "Ashe," an African word meaning "the power to make things happen," was used as the theme of the exhibition. The guide verbalizes the exhibit's investigation of…

  10. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  11. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  12. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living…

  13. In Our Own Image: An African American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This textbook for elementary school children is a history of African Americans from 800 A.D. to 1992 in 24 chapters. Each chapter closes with a review that lists vocabulary words to learn, and offers thinking and writing questions. Some chapters also contain activity sheets. Chapter topics include African origins, black explorers and settlers in…

  14. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    African American women. J Couns Dev 1992;71: 184–90. [35] Myers LJ. Understanding an Afrocentric worldview: introduction to an optimal psychology Dubuque...this study is to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic Counseling (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on psychological ...prophylactic surgery. Reductions in psychological distress will be mediated by increased use of spiritual coping strategies. Secondary Aim To identify

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    genetic testing in African Americans must include the entire coding and flanking non-coding regions of the BRCA2 gene . "* It is noteworthy that BRCA ...Over 80% of inherited breast cancer is due to mutations in the breast cancer predisposing genes BRCA ] and BRCA2. In one of the largest studies of high...population 25-27,32. Therefore, genetic testing in African Americans must include complete sequencing of both BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes . Familial cancer

  16. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, K

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.

  17. Unique Genomic Alterations in Prostate Cancers in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    analysis of DNAs and RNAs from cancer and benign tissues from African American men with prostate followed by an in depth analysis of the 4p16.3 region...Cancer Tissue Bank. Samples will be from African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer and were...collected with informed consent. Prostate cancer (PCa) samples will have 80% tumor and will have a matched benign tissue available from the same patient

  18. Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B

    2006-05-01

    Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05), and higher serum creatinine (1.66 +/- 1.3, 1.25 +/- 1.0, and 1.31 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.025). African Americans had lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P < 0.05), and lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P < 0.05). Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P < 0.05), as was the development of renal events or death (34, 20, and 10%; P < 0.025). Our results suggest that both biological factors indicating an aggressive disease and low household income are common in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.

  19. A Comparison of Depressive Symptoms in African Americans and Caucasian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Young, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined group differences in depressive symptomatology among African Americans and whites seeking psychotherapy. African Americans reported less pessimism, dissatisfaction, self-blame, and suicidal ideation and more sense of punishment and weight change, but for reasons unrelated to depression. Self-dislike was a stronger manifestation of…

  20. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  1. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  2. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  3. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  4. Advancing Breast Cancer Survivorship among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  5. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder.

  7. Physical activity interventions in African American women: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284

  8. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  9. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  10. Cultural Self Meets Cultural Other in the African American Experience: Teachers' Responses to a Curriculum Content Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shujaa, Mwalimu J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…

  11. Exploring First Generation African American Graduate Students: Motivating Factors for Pursuing a Doctoral Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephanie G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose for conducting the study was to examine the factors that motivate African-American first-generation students to pursue doctoral education at a four-year public university. There has been little research on the influence academic or nonacademic factors have on first-generation graduate student motivation. Similarly, little research…

  12. Two Decades of Progress: African Americans Moving Forward in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin

    This report presents findings of a study on the higher education progress of African Americans in the nation and by region, including both private and public sectors, two-year and four-year colleges and universities, historically black colleges and universities, and traditionally white institutions. Overall findings indicate steady progress by…

  13. Critical Multimodal Hip Hop Production: A Social Justice Approach to African American Language and Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat; Hayes, Nini, Visaya; Way, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article features key findings from a study that highlights the transformative impact of a pedagogical approach that employs Critical Multimodal Hip Hop Production (CMHHP). The study took place in an extended day program in a northern California public middle school among a group of 30, urban, African American, Chicano/a/Latino/a, and Asian…

  14. Racial Identity Development of African American Students during Their First Semester at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Patricia Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of background characteristics, initial interaction with the environment, and first-year experiences at a public, research extensive University on the racial identity and racial attitudes of African American/Black first-time, first-year University students. This study is concerned with the changes…

  15. Pathways to the Doctorate Degree: A Phenomenological Study of African American Women in Doctorate Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Luciana Janee'

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the number of advanced degree recipients is more than an educational issue; it is also a key social issue. "A college-educated population results in pivotal benefits to society" (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004, p. 1). Although African Americans have made steady and notable progress in doctorate degree…

  16. Influence of Mentoring on African American and Hispanic Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…

  17. Correlates of African-American Undergraduate Student Achievement: Implications for the Prize Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Brian C.; Ghee, Kenneth L.; Langmeyer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Male and female African-American college students (n = 131) at a large urban predominately White publicly funded institution participated in a survey measuring the effect of a multitude of psychosocial constructs and factors on grade point average (GPA). Part One of the study's analysis focused on three of the six total constructs examined within…

  18. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  19. Discrimination at School: Latino and African American Male High School Students' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, W. David; Fajardo, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male Latino and African American adolescents' experiences with racial discrimination at school. Participants (N = 85) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their experiences with racial discrimination. Overall, Latino and African…

  20. From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Secondary School Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

    This secondary school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and…

  1. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  2. On the Outside Looking in: An African American Family's Experience in an Individualized Education Plan Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…

  3. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  4. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  5. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English

    PubMed Central

    Rickford, John R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E.; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-01-01

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10–15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  6. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English.

    PubMed

    Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-09-22

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not.

  7. Dimensions of Religion, Depression Symptomatology, and Substance Use Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Bryant, Keneshia J.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a relationship between depression, substance use, and religiosity but, few have investigated this relationship in a community sample of drug-using African Americans. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of religion (positive and negative religious coping, private and public religious participation, religious preference, and God-based, clergy-based, and congregation-based religious support), depression symptomatology, and substance use among 223 African American cocaine users. After controlling for gender, employment, and age, greater congregation-based support and greater clergy-based support were associated with fewer reported depressive symptoms. Additionally, greater congregation-based support was associated with less alcohol use. PMID:24564561

  8. Independent and linked migrants: determinants of African American interstate migration.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Roseman, C C

    1997-01-01

    "Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These ¿linked' migrants contrast to ¿independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."

  9. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed

    Gollop, C J

    1997-04-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults.

  10. Am I My Brother's Keeper? African American Men's Health Within the Context of Equity and Policy.

    PubMed

    Enyia, Okechuku Kelechi; Watkins, Yashika J; Williams, Quintin

    2016-01-01

    African American men's health has at times been regarded as irrelevant to the health and well-being of the communities where they are born, grow, live, work, and age. The uniqueness of being male and of African descent calls for a critical examination and deeper understanding of the psycho-socio-historical context in which African American men have lived. There is a critical need for scholarship that better contextualizes African American Male Theory and cultural humility in terms of public health. Furthermore, the focus of much of the social determinants of health and health equity policy literature has been on advocacy, but few researchers have examined why health-related public policies have not been adopted and implemented from a political and theoretical policy analysis perspective. The purpose of this article will be to examine African American men's health within the context of social determinants of health status, health behavior, and health inequalities-elucidating policy implications for system change and providing recommendations from the vantage point of health equity.

  11. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  12. Discrimination and unfair treatment: relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Guyll, M; Matthews, K A; Bromberger, J T

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the relationship of cardiovascular reactivity to both interpersonal mistreatment and discrimination in a community-based sample of African American and European American women (N=363) in midlife. Subtle mistreatment related positively to diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity for African American participants but not their European American counterparts. Moreover, among the African American participants, those who attributed mistreatment to racial discrimination exhibited greater average DBP reactivity. In particular, these women demonstrated greater DBP reactivity to the speech task, which bore similarities to an encounter with racial prejudice but not to a nonsocial mirror tracing task. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that racial discrimination is a chronic stressor that can negatively impact the cardiovascular health of African Americans through pathogenic processes associated with physiologic reactivity.

  13. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in African American and Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Aloia, John F.; Dugas, Lara R.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Shoham, David A.; Bertino, Anne-Marie; Yeh, James K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives African Americans have substantially lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D than whites. We compared population-based samples of 25(OH)D in women of African descent from Nigeria and metropolitan Chicago. Methods 100 Women of Yoruba ethnicity from southwest Nigeria and 94 African American women from metropolitan Chicago were recruited and compared using a standardized survey protocol and the same laboratory assay for 25(OH)D. Results Mean 25(OH)D levels were 64 nmol/L among the Nigerians and 29 nmol/L among the African Americans. Only 10% of the values were shared in common between the groups, and 76% of the Nigerians were above the currently defined threshold for adequate circulating 25(OH)D compared to 5% of the African Americans. Modest associations were seen between 25(OH)D and measures of obesity, although adjustment for these traits did not materially affect the group differences. Conclusion These data support the presumption that skin color is an adaptive trait which has evolved in part to regulate 25(OH)D. It remains undetermined, however, whether lower values observed in African Americans have negative health consequences. PMID:23559500

  14. Beliefs and Preferences for Medical Research Among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107

  15. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton’s Apology

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the “cultural paranoia” of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  16. Hepatitis B and C in African Americans: current status and continued challenges.

    PubMed

    Forde, Kimberly A; Tanapanpanit, Orapin; Reddy, K Rajender

    2014-05-01

    Viral hepatitis remains a public health concern in the United States, resulting in excess morbidity and mortality for the individual and representing a burden to societies as evidenced by billions of dollars in health care expenditures. As with many chronic diseases, race and ethnicity influence various aspects of disease pathogenesis, including mechanisms of persistence, disease progression, disease sequelae, and response to therapy. For hepatitis B and C infections, African Americans disproportionately bear a large burden of disease in the United States. The role and importance of African American race, however, have been less well-characterized in the literature among the population of viral hepatitis-infected individuals. The differences in epidemiology, manifestations of liver disease, response to therapy, and differential trends in liver transplantation in African Americans compared with other racial and ethnic groups deserve special attention. This review will address the current status of hepatitis B and C infection in African Americans in the United States and identify some of the remaining challenges in diagnosis, characterization of natural history, and treatment. For the purposes of this review, the terms African American and black will be used interchangeably throughout the text.

  17. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.

  18. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.

    2016-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  19. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    PubMed Central

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it rampant and universal, as some press accounts have it, or are the images portrayed by the news media, by popular movies, and by other communication outlets fueling harmful stereotypes? The campaign's market research consisted of in-depth reviews of the literature, of personal communications, conference proceedings, grant and contract reports, monographs, newspaper and magazine articles, and of national survey results, and the analysis of findings from focus groups conducted with 143 African American children living in several urban environments. Although information and conclusions gleaned from the market research revealed a longstanding trend of comparatively lower rates of alcohol and drug use by African American youth, also disclosed was a need for an expanded framework to address the problems of substance abuse within the African American community. An expanded framework acknowledges the dimension of substance use and abuse but also addresses three other dimensions--involvement, exposure, and victimization--that unfold as having major significance for this population of youth who live in urban, high-risk environments. PMID:8210277

  20. Beauty salons: a promising health promotion setting for reaching and promoting health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Linnan, Laura A; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens

    2007-06-01

    African American women suffer disproportionately from a wide range of health disparities. This article clarifies how beauty salons can be mobilized at all levels of the social-ecological framework to address disparities in health among African American women. The North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project is a randomized, controlled intervention trial that takes into account the unique and multilevel features of the beauty salon setting with interventions that address owners, customers, stylists; interactions between customers and stylists; and the salon environment. The authors make explicit the role of the political economy of health theoretical perspective for understanding important factors (social, political, historical, and economic) that should be considered if the goal is to create successful, beauty-salon-based interventions. Despite some important challenges, the authors contend that beauty salons represent a promising setting for maximizing reach, reinforcement, and the impact of public health interventions aimed at addressing health disparities among African American women.

  1. Understanding African American men's perceptions of racism, male gender socialization, and social capital through photovoice.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-04-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach--photovoice--to collect information about African American men's perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the "Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health" project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men's health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.

  2. On interpreting stereotype threat as accounting for African American-White differences on cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Paul R; Hardison, Chaitra M; Cullen, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    C. M. Steele and J. Aronson (1995) showed that making race salient when taking a difficult test affected the performance of high-ability African American students, a phenomenon they termed stereotype threat. The authors document that this research is widely misinterpreted in both popular and scholarly publications as showing that eliminating stereotype threat eliminates the African American-White difference in test performance. In fact, scores were statistically adjusted for differences in students' prior SAT performance, and thus, Steele and Aronson's findings actually showed that absent stereotype threat, the two groups differ to the degree that would be expected based on differences in prior SAT scores. The authors caution against interpreting the Steele and Aronson experiment as evidence that stereotype threat is the primary cause of African American-White differences in test performance.

  3. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  4. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  5. A Celebration of African-American Artistry and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the traveling exhibition, "Free within Ourselves," that features the works of 31 African American artists taken from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art. Provides biographical information and examples of the work of seven artists: Lois Mailou Jones; Frederick Brown; Bob Thompson; Bill Traylor; Sam Gilliam; Edmonia Lewis;…

  6. Self-Hatred in Americans of African Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    In spite of attempts to destigmatize themselves with the "black is beautiful" rhetoric, efforts by Americans of African descent to disavow their imputed inferiority have not been successful. The black is reacted to as a handicapped person by the white American. Whites look with disdain on black-white sexual relationships, black language, and…

  7. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  8. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  9. African American Pioneers in Aviation: 1920-Present. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flahavan, Leslie

    This teacher's guide provides activities about the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC) for students to complete. The guide includes primary and secondary source materials for teachers to photocopy and use during their study of African Americans in aviation based on the exhibition "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation."…

  10. Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rosetta

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

  11. Genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Kessler, Lisa Jay; Mitchell, Edith

    2005-01-01

    As genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations is increasingly integrated into the clinical management of high-risk women, it will be important to understand barriers and motivations for genetic counseling among women from underserved minority groups to ensure equitable access to these services. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling and testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans. We also review studies that evaluated genetic testing intentions in this population. We conducted a search of the PubMed database to identify studies related to BRCA1/2 testing in African Americans that were published between 1995 and 2003. Overall, studies have evaluated ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing or have compared African American and Caucasian women in terms of genetic testing intentions. These studies have shown that knowledge about breast cancer genetics and exposure to information about the availability of testing is low among African Americans, whereas expectations about the benefits of genetic testing are endorsed highly. However, much less is known about the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in African Americans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers and motivations for participating in genetic testing for inherited cancer risk in African Americans. The lack of studies on psychological functioning, cancer surveillance, and preventive behaviors following testing is a significant void; however, for these studies to be conducted, greater access to genetic counseling and testing in African Americans will be needed.

  12. Professional motivation and career plan differences between African-American and Caucasian dental students: implications for improving workforce diversity.

    PubMed

    Butters, Janice M; Winter, Paul A

    2002-06-01

    Vast disparities in oral health status coupled with projected decreases in African Americans enrolling in and graduating from dental school have heightened concern about the underrepresentation of African Americans in the dental profession. The purpose of this study was to explore differences between African-American and white American students regarding demographics, professional motivations, and career plans. African-American (n = 104) and white American (n = 226) dental students completed a biographical data survey instrument, which included information about family background and professional motivations and plans, and rated descriptions of three practice arrangements. African-American students were more motivated to become a dentist to serve the public, plan to specialize, work in an urban area, and work part-time. White American students were more motivated to become a dentist based on factors related to family commitments. Race was a significant predictor for student ratings for both solo and employee practice. Study results have implications for health professions educators, administrators, and policy makers in their efforts to improve the recruitment and retention of African-American students, shape dental curricula to meet diverse student needs, and implement loan forgiveness programs to enhance minority student recruitment.

  13. Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.

    2012-01-01

    Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…

  14. The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…

  15. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  16. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume II: Research on the African-American Family: A Holistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.; Billingsley, Andrew; Ingram, Eleanor; Malson, Michelene R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Stack, Carol B.; Stewart, James B.; Teele, James E.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  17. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume V: Health and Medical Care of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  18. African-American college student attitudes toward physics and their effect on achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p < .001. Hypothesis II states that there is a statistically significant difference in domain scores between African-American males and African-American females in the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. It was found using a MANOVA that there was not a significant difference between the domain scores of African-American males and African-American females, F(8, 116) = .38, p > .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement

  19. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  20. Discrimination, religious coping, and tobacco use among White, African American, and Mexican American vocational school students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether religious coping moderates the impact of racial/ethnic discrimination on current (past 30 day) cigarette and cigar/cigarillo use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 984 technical/vocational school students (47.1% women; mean age = 25 years). Results indicate that discrimination increased the likelihood of current cigarette use among African American students and current cigar/cigarillo use among white and African American students. Positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of cigarette and cigar/cigarillo smoking for white students only. Negative religious coping increased the likelihood of cigarette use for white students and cigar/cigarillo use for white and African American students. Two 2-way interactions indicate that positive and negative religious coping moderate the discrimination-cigarette smoking relationship for African American and Mexican American students, respectively.

  1. Serious Psychological Distress Among African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-08-01

    Despite their low social standing, there remains a paucity of research on psychological distress among African Americans. We use data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life to explore a wide array of social and economic predictors of psychological distress among African American adults ages 18 and older, including previous incarceration, history of welfare receipt, and having a family member who is either currently incarcerated or homeless. Younger age, lower income, lower educational attainment, and lower self-rated health and childhood health are associated with higher levels of psychological distress among African Americans. We also find a strong association between higher levels of material hardship, previous incarceration history, and the presence of a family member who is either incarcerated or homeless and higher levels of psychological distress. The findings highlight the importance of considering unique types of social disadvantage experienced by African Americans living in a highly stratified society.

  2. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336

  3. A Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Mortality Among African Americans and Non-African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439

  4. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

    2013-01-15

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.

  5. The Underrepresentation of African American Women Faculty: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of McKnight Doctoral Fellow Alumna Serving in the Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dionne J.

    2013-01-01

    While African American women have been participating in higher education for more than a century, they remain significantly underrepresented among college and university professors in America. This study was pursued in an attempt to address the underrepresentation of African American women faculty at public and private universities within the…

  6. Hematologic reference values for African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robins, Edwin B; Blum, Steve

    2007-07-01

    Anemia is prevalent among African American children. When evaluating pediatric patients for anemia, clinicians refer to the normative hematological reference values in reference textbooks. These reference values are used in spite of evidence that healthy African American people of all ages have average hemoglobin concentrations from 0.5 to 0.73 g/dl below those of Whites. In an earlier study, using samples from 2,161 healthy African American children from 2 to 18 years old, we found a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the mean hemoglobin value for each age group as compared to reference normative mean hemoglobin values. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the data set from our previous study and the data set from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (NHANES III) 1988-1994. We found no statistically significant difference between these data sets with respect to the hemoglobin values for any age or sex group, confirming that African American children and adolescents have lower mean hemoglobin values than do Whites. Use of the reference hemoglobin values presented here will help prevent the misdiagnosis of anemia in African American children and thereby minimize unnecessary hematological workups and treatment.

  7. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126

  8. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  9. Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.

    1996-01-01

    African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067

  10. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  12. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  13. African American men's perceptions of power in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Seward, Derek X

    2009-12-01

    Power in intimate relationships is an important predictor of sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to better understand African American men's perceptions of interpersonal power. A total of 20 African American men participated in focus groups to elicit their perceptions of power in intimate relationships; their responses were analyzed using grounded theory. From this analysis, a conceptual framework was developed that, among African American men, power in relationships was largely determined by the contribution of financial resources, and/or withholding sex. These findings were then considered in light of existing social-psychological theories of power in relationships. Future research should consider how to incorporate this understanding of interpersonal power into current theories of sexual risk behavior in order to develop more effective HIV risk reduction programs.

  14. Religiosity, self-efficacy for exercise, and African American women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bridget K; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2012-09-01

    Physical inactivity among African American women persists despite health promotion efforts targeting this population. In the African American faith community, thinking patterns related to personal versus divine control over health status could affect self-efficacy beliefs and physical activity behavior. Religiosity, a determinate of self-efficacy for exercise, is influenced by culture. This exploratory pilot study assessed the psychometric properties and relevance of selected study instruments and relationships among the study variables in African American women recruited through a rural church. Findings indicated a trend toward significance among study variables and that the God Locus of Health Control and Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scales were reliable for capturing attitudes about ability to engage in physical activity and religiosity in this sample. Six of the twenty-five women recruited failed to complete the Stanford Brief Activity Survey for Work and Leisure Time Activity correctly, suggesting the need to revise instructions prior to future instrument administration.

  15. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  16. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  17. Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, Y; Gorelick, P B; Samuels, P; Bempong, I

    1996-10-01

    African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies.

  18. Pilot study of INSIGHT therapy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Wicks, Mona; Bolden, Lois

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if treatment with INSIGHT therapy, designed specifically for women, could reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and loneliness in African American women. Prevalence of mental illness differs in African Americans and Caucasians. The nonexperimental one-group pretest posttest design study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week INSIGHT group intervention. Due to the stigma of mental illness, groups met at an African American church. Reliability and validity of instruments were effectively demonstrated. Statistically significant difference was found in the level of depression but the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness. Clinically significant improvement occurred for some participants in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness.

  19. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice project and presented their phototexts to the Washington State asthma planning committee. Critical discourse analysis methodology was used to analyze adolescent phototexts and the State asthma plan. We found that the State plan did not address AMD in African American adolescents. Adolescents discussed more topics on AMD than the State plan presented, and they introduced new topics concerning residential mobility, poor nutrition, inadequate athletic opportunities, and schools with stairs. Current health policy may be constraining effective responses to asthma disparities in youth. School nursing leadership can use photovoice to advance youth voice in transforming structural inequities in urban school environments.

  20. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-08-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States.

  1. An HIV/AIDS crisis among African American women: a summary for prevention and care in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michelle A; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Raliegh, Kathleen; Reid, Laurie; Foley, Megan; Cleveland, Janet

    2008-04-01

    The meeting, HIV/AIDS and African American Women: A Consultation Supporting CDC's Heightened National Response to the HIV/AIDS Crisis among African Americans, provided a forum to address gaps in prevention and HIV/AIDS infection for African American women. Health researchers, community-based organization leaders, and representatives from both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors took this opportunity to discuss and develop a variety of priorities and suggestions for HIV/AIDS prevention. Four focus areas were provided for meeting attendees to promote discussion and strategy development. The resulting list of priorities and suggestions for HIV/AIDS prevention may provide future steps for researchers, communities, and physicians to increase prevention and decrease infection rates. Novel, innovative, and participatory approaches are needed within and outside the public arena to decrease the gaps in HIV/AIDS prevention for African American women.

  2. The influence of cultural and racial identification on the psychosocial adjustment of inner-city African American children in school.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Townsend, Tiffany G; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and combined influence of racial identity and Africentric values on African American children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 104 (53 males, 51 females) African American fourth-grade students attending an inner-city public school in a northeastern city. Child and teacher ratings were used to assess the relationship between racial identity, Africentric values, and several indices of child psychosocial adjustment, including child behavior control, school interest, and teacher perceptions of child strengths and problems in the classroom. Child self-esteem and the effects of gender and cohort were used as covariates in several analyses in the study. Overall, findings from the study supported the usefulness of combining racial identity and Africentric values into a single model of ethnic identification for African American children. Implications for risk prevention and enhancement of psychosocial functioning among African American children are discussed.

  3. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  4. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  5. Central scalp alopecia photographic scale in African American women.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A; Callender, V; Sperling, L; McMichael, A; Anstrom, K J; Bergfeld, W; Durden, F; Roberts, J; Shapiro, J; Whiting, D A

    2008-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a common but poorly understood cause of hair loss in African American women. A photographic scale was developed that captures the pattern and severity of the central hair loss seen with CCCA in order to help identify this problem in the general community and to potentially correlate clinical data with hair loss. The utility and reproducibility of this photographic scale was determined in a group of 150 African American women gathered for a health and beauty day who were evaluated by both four investigators experienced in the diagnosis of hair disorders and by the subjects themselves.

  6. An exploration of mental health literacy among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Kim L; Peterson, Tina L; Beecher, Blake

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine mental health literacy (MHL) with 28 African American elders who reside in Kentucky. Collectively, all elders were partially literate of mental disorders and familiar with self-help and professional interventions and Alzheimer's and depression were the most recognized mental disorders. An awareness of MHL is an essential first step to understanding African American elders' views about mental health which then can facilitate the design and development of culturally relevant psychoeducational programs geared to this subset of the aging population.

  7. Defining Physiologically “Normal” Vitamin D in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicole C.; Chen, Lang; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Javiad, Kassim; Nevitt, Michael A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D levels ≥30 ng/ml are commonly considered “normal” based upon maximal suppression of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); however, this has recently been challenged and the optimal 25(OH)D level among non-Caucasians is unclear. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in a sample of Caucasian and African American adults. Method We used baseline serum samples of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) for this analysis, and used three methods to model the relationship between 25(OH)D and iPTH: ordinary least squares regression (OLS), segmented regression, and Helmert contrasts. Results Among Caucasians (n=1,258), 25(OH)D and iPTH ranged from 4-51 ng/ml and 2-120 pg/ml and from 3-32 ng/ml and 3-119 pg/ml in African Americans (n=423). We observed different thresholds between African Americans and Caucasians using each analytic technique. Using 25(OH)D as a categorical variable in OLS, iPTH was statistically higher at lower 25(OH)D categories than the 24-32 ng/ml referent group among Caucasians. However, in African Americans, the mean iPTH was only significantly higher at 25(OH)D levels below 15 ng/ml. Using segmented regression, iPTH appeared to stabilize at a lower 25(OH)D level in African Americans (19-23 ng/ml) compared to in Caucasians (>32 ng/ml). Helmert contrasts also revealed a lower threshold in African Americans than Caucasians. Conclusion Among MOST participants, the 25(OH)D thresholds at which no further change in iPTH was observed was approximately 20 ng/ml in African Americans versus approximately 30 ng/ml in Caucasians, suggesting optimal vitamin D levels in Caucasians may not be applicable to African Americans. PMID:22189572

  8. Marriage and romantic involvement among aged African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.

  9. Stress-related disorders in African-American children.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.

    1997-01-01

    Children exposed to traumatic stress are vulnerable to a variety of stress-related disorders other than classical post-traumatic stress disorder. Several case histories are presented to illustrate some of the diversity of how traumatic stress may manifest in children. African-American children are the main focus of this article as political, economic, social, and morbidity and mortality indicators suggest that African-American children are at high risk for exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Different presentations of traumatic, stress are discussed in an effort to broaden our understanding of the outcome of traumatic stress to fully help traumatized children. PMID:9170834

  10. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families.

  11. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  12. Writing Differences in Teacher Performance Assessments: An Investigation of African American Language and Edited American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…

  13. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  14. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization.

  15. Equality for all? White Americans' willingness to address inequality with Asian and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bikmen, Nida; Durkin, Kristine

    2014-10-01

    White Americans' willingness to engage in dialogues about intergroup commonalities and power inequalities with Asian and African Americans were examined in two experiments. Because Whites perceive that African Americans experience greater discrimination than do Asian Americans, we predicted that they would be more willing to engage in dialogues that would interrogate injustice and inequality with them. We also explored the role of common in-group identity (as Americans) on willingness for dialogue about inequality. In both studies, Whites were less interested in engaging in power talk with Asian Americans than with African Americans, but the difference in willingness for commonality talk was smaller. Asian Americans were perceived as experiencing lower levels of discrimination (Studies 1 and 2) and identify less with America (Study 2) both of which predicted lower willingness for power talk with them. Common in-group identity manipulations had marginal effects on willingness for power talk with African Americans and no effect on power talk with Asian Americans. Implications for improving social disparities between various groups were discussed.

  16. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  17. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sernak, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  18. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  19. Cardiovascular risk reduction among African Americans: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Watson, Karol E

    2008-01-01

    African Americans are at greater risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than European Americans or Asians. They also bear a disproportionately greater burden from type-2 diabetes mellitus. Not as much access to healthcare and less intensive use of available therapies may explain some of these disparities. However, the high prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors, particularly hypertension and dyslipidemia, in African Americans also provides great opportunity for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in this population. In addition to lifestyle approaches, achieving aggressive goals for blood pressure (< or =130/80 mmHg) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (<100 mg/dL, or <70 mg/dL for patients at very high cardiovascular risk, including those with diabetes) will necessitate the use of effective pharmacologic therapies. Clinical trial data indicate that antihypertensive regimens, particularly those that include a diuretic, are as effective in African Americans as in other racial/ethnic groups. Moreover, potent statins have been shown to decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol to goal levels in African-American patients.

  20. Obesity intervention among African-American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin, M L; Ahluwalia, H K; Resnicow, K

    2001-08-01

    Often, researchers and clinicians approach the African-American community from a deficit model with African Americans viewed as having less desirable health practices and higher disease risk; however, in developing interventions for African Americans, it is important to keep in mind positive aspects of black culture as they relate to obesity. For example, the cultural acceptance of a larger body type and less negative views toward overweight individuals need not be viewed as problematic or abnormal. In fact, it could be argued that majority culture has a dysfunctional view of body image and obesity. The fact that whites are less likely to be overweight than African Americans may stem from a value system that places undue emphasis on thinness, youth, and external beauty and a culture that imbues women with shame about how they look and what they eat. Thus, rather than holding whites and majority culture as the ideal, it may be important to incorporate the positive elements of black culture regarding body image and food rather than attempting to shift their values toward those of European Americans. How best to achieve a reduction in obesity and its medical consequences, without inducing undesirable shifts in body image and attitudes toward food, is a formidable but important challenge.

  1. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  2. Tobacco and Marijuana Initiation Among African American and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sara M.; Patel, Roshni P.; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V.

    2016-01-01

    marijuana before tobacco in 2012 compared with 2005. Tobacco control policy may benefit from a broader understanding of the patterns of initiation to tobacco and marijuana use. Some public health interventions aimed at preventing and reducing combustible tobacco use among African American young adults may be strengthened by considering marijuana use. PMID:26391577

  3. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  4. Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

  5. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  6. Communication Development and Disorders in African American Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G., Ed.; And Others

    The collection of papers on language development and African-American children includes: "The Challenges of Conducting Language Research with African American Children" (Holly K. Craig); "Issues in Recruiting African American Participants for Research" (Joyce L. Harris); "Issues in Assessing the Language Abilities of…

  7. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  8. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  9. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  10. African Americans' Perceptions of Their Teaching Experiences in Urban Schools Primarily Consisting of Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joffery, III.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American teachers' perceptions of their teaching experiences in schools that were once primarily populated with African American students but have experienced shifts in demographics to primarily consisting of Hispanic students. The study focused on three areas. The first area was African American teachers'…

  11. Retaining African Americans in Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms for Retaining Students, Faculty and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lee, Ed.

    This collection discusses some of the issues surrounding the retention of African Americans in higher education, and it challenges traditional paradigms for retaining African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly White colleges. The chapters of part 1, "Retaining African-American Students," are: (1) "Creating an Affirming…

  12. A Model for School Counselors Supporting African American Youth with Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Russell, Jaquaye L.; Sorenson, Carey L.; Ward, Earlise C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe how practicing school counselors can appropriately and effectively work with African American youth regarding forgiveness. Further, the authors discuss the challenges that African American youth face. They illuminate how school counselors can help emotionally injured African American youth. As a school counseling intervention…

  13. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  14. Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stacey Marvetta

    2012-01-01

    The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

  15. Performance of African American Preschool and Kindergarten Students on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Washington, Julie; Craig, Holly; Packard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the validity of the Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT; K. Williams, 1997) for assessing the expressive vocabulary skills of African American students. Method/Results: One hundred sixty-five African American preschool and kindergarten students were administered the EVT. The mean EVT score for these African American students was…

  16. African American and Latino Men's Recommendations for an Improved Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…

  17. Crossing Over: Narratives of Successful Border Crossings of African American Teachers during Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Renarta

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the narratives of three African American teachers who participated in an early desegregation plan that transferred selected African American teachers into all-White schools in the late 1960s and early 1970s. While many of these teachers experienced rejection in their new schools, the three African American teachers in this…

  18. Effects of Race and Dialect of Examiner on Language Samples Elicited from Southern African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agerton, Emily P.; Moran, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Language samples were elicited from 17 African American preschoolers by 3 examiners; a white female using standard English and 2 African American females using either standard English or black English. Samples elicited by the African American examiners contained more different Black English features, with examiner usage of Black English eliciting…

  19. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  20. Referral of African American Children for Evaluation of Emotional or Behavioral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.

    2003-01-01

    Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…

  1. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janie Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  2. How Involvement in African American Student Organizations Supports and Hinders Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    The perspectives of 84 African American students attending a predominantly White institution (PWI) were qualitatively analyzed to identify the conditions under which African American student organizations were perceived as assets and liabilities to academic success. Results indicate that involvement in African American student organizations can…

  3. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  4. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  5. "The Brown Face of Hope": Reading Engagement and African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terry

    2015-01-01

    African American children's literature has a potentially powerful role to play in increasing reading engagement for African American boys. Unfortunately, this body of literature is not always used effectively in schools. Many teachers use African American books as an add-on to pre-exisiting curriculum rather than fully exploring the topics,…

  6. Addressing Reading Underachievement in African American Boys through a Multi-Contextual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about reading disparities between African American males and other student groups. Interestingly, the majority of this scholarship focuses on African American males at preadolescent states of development and beyond. To date, relatively little has been documented relative to improving reading outcomes in African American males…

  7. Missed Education: An Examination of Educational Outcomes for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mark Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this body of work was to examine barriers that lead to high school non-completion for African-American males and to propose strategies to better support this group. Specifically, it examined how African-American male high school graduates vary from African-American male non-graduates. Across personal and environmental factors, this…

  8. 3 CFR 8627 - Proclamation 8627 of February 1, 2011. National African American History Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... African American History Month, 2011 8627 Proclamation 8627 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8627 of February 1, 2011 Proc. 8627 National African American History Month, 2011By the President... History Month, we celebrate the vast contributions of African Americans to our Nation’s history...

  9. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  10. The All White World of Children's Books & African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense, Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore African American children's literature and the view it provides of the African American community. Of particular interest is the relationship between African American folktales and those of subSaharan Africa. The following essays are included: (1) "The All-White World of Children's Books" (Nancy…

  11. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  12. "Brother Where Art Thou?" African American Male Instructors' Perceptions of the Counselor Education Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.

  13. Pedagogies of Experience: A Case of the African American Male Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…

  14. African American Males' Success in Completing High School: The Impact of Mentoring Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Williams, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Within a local school district, the dropout rate among African American males is among the highest in the United States. There is ample research on these dropout rates among African American males; however, what remains understudied are the experiences of young African American males who have successfully negotiated 4 years of high school to…

  15. A Phenomenological Study: African-American Males in the Educational Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristopher

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…

  16. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  17. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  18. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  19. An Examination of African American Female College Presidents' Professional Ascendancy and Mentoring Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Ligon, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…

  20. Positionality of African Americans and a Theoretical Accommodation of It: Rethinking Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This essay addresses a call for research involving African Americans to interpret data from the historical, contemporary, and cultural experiences of African Americans. The essay argues for a science education research approach that explicitly considers the positionality of African Americans in the United States. This positionality involves the…