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Sample records for african american samples

  1. Cohesive Adequacy in the Narrative Samples of School-Age Children Who Use African American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…

  2. Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Perez-Cabello, M. Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A. Stephen; Dyson, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual’s length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25866486

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  5. The Nurturant Fathering Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis with an African American Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Otima; Pecukonis, Edward; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the "Nurturant Fathering Scale" (NFS) among an African American sample in the mid-Atlantic region that have neither Caribbean heritage nor immigration experiences but who do have diverse family structures (N = 212). Method: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted…

  6. Intentions to Donate to a Biobank in a National Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Vadaparampil, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Magwood, Gayenell; Obeid, Jihad S.; Jefferson, Melanie; Drake, Richard; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite the investments being made to develop biobanks, African Americans are under-represented in genomic studies. We identified factors having significant independent associations with intentions to donate personal health information and blood and/or tissue samples to a biobank in a national, random sample of African Americans (n=1,033). Methods National survey conducted from October 2010 through February 2011. Results 23% of respondents reported that it was not at all likely that they would donate to a biobank, 18% reported a little likely, 36% reported somewhat likely, and 23% reported very likely. Respondents who were likely to donate to a biobank had greater positive expectations about participating in cancer genetics research and reported more participation facilitators relative to barriers. Respondents who were distrustful of researchers had a significantly lower likelihood of being willing to donate to a biobank compared to those who were less distrustful. Conclusions African Americans have diverse attitudes about participating in genetics research and many are likely to donate to a biobank based on expectations of positive outcomes. It may be important to address attitudes about genetics research as part of recruitment to enhance the quality of informed consent for participation in biobanks among African Americans. PMID:24942180

  7. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  8. Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Tiffany L.; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Gregg, Edward W.; Williams, Desmond E.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Miller, Edgar J.; Engelgau, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African Americans experience high rates of obesity and other chronic diseases, which may be related, in part, to diet. However, little is known about dietary patterns in this population, particularly from population-based data sources. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2,172 African-American adults in Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together). A baseline assessment was conducted using a multistaged population-based probability sample from Raleigh and Greensboro, NC. Daily fruit, vegetable and fat intake was evaluated using a modified version of the Block questionnaire, and then stratified results were analyzed by sociodemographic, health and behavior characteristics. STATA Survey commands were used to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall, a very small number of participants met national recommendations for > or = 2 servings of fruit (8%) and > or = 3 servings of vegetables (16%) per day. Many participants reported eating high-fat foods; the average daily fat intake was 86 g, and the average daily intake from saturated fat was 24 g. People with more education and higher incomes had a higher average daily fruit intake (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that participants' fruit, vegetable and fat intake deviated greatly from national guidelines; older people, women, participants with higher socioeconomic status and those who were physically active consumed healthier foods. These data may be useful in developing dietary and weight loss interventions for African Americans. PMID:15622690

  9. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  10. A Factor Analytic Study of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale in a Sample of African-American and Hispanic-American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Storch, Eric A.; Roberti, Jonathan W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale (LSDS) in a sample of African-American and Hispanic-American children. Participants were a non-clinical sample (N = 186) of children ages 11 to 13 in the fifth and sixth grades in a school in the Metropolitan New York area. Confirmatory factor…

  11. Heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a highly traumatized low income, urban, African American sample.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Nicole R; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2012-12-01

    Trauma is associated with a range of outcomes; identification of homogeneous profiles of posttrauma symptoms may inform theory, diagnostic refinement, and intervention. The present investigation applies a novel analytic technique to the identification of homogeneous subgroups of post-traumatic symptomatology in a large sample of African American adults reporting high levels of trauma. Latent profiles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity were tested using latent profile analysis. Pseudo-class draws were used to characterize class differences across types of trauma, diagnostic comorbidities, and clinically-relevant features. Participants consisted of 2915 highly traumatized African Americans living in low income, urban setting and recruited from medical clinics in Atlanta, GA. Findings supported the presence of six distinct subgroups of posttraumatic stress symptom profiles described as resilient, moderate with amnesia, moderate with diminished interest, moderate without diminished interest and amnesia severe without amnesia, and severe overall. Observed subgroups differed across numerous historical and concurrent factors including childhood trauma, current and lifetime diagnoses of PTSD and major depression, lifetime substance use diagnosis, dissociation, depressive symptoms, emotional dysregulation, negative and positive affect, and history of hospitalization and suicidality. Posttraumatic stress disorder as currently defined is comprised of homogeneous subgroups with important differences in posttraumatic stress symptom endorsement as well as concomitant differentiation of associated diagnoses and clinically-relevant associated features. PMID:22906539

  12. A Scale To Assess African American Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Hines, Alice M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated an acculturation scale designed for use in the African-American population. Responses from more than 900 African Americans generally indicate an African-American orientation within the sample, although there are notable variations on all 10 scale items. Discusses evidence for scale reliability and validity. (SLD)

  13. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C

    2016-02-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  14. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J.; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50–75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57 % of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95 % CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient– provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  15. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  16. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  17. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  18. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2008-01-01

    The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…

  20. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  1. Service-Learning and Civic Responsibility in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; Rochester, Shana E.; Watkins, Angela Farris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of past and current service-learning on the civic attitudes of African American college women: 44 students enrolled in either service-learning or non-service-learning courses were given pretests and posttests measuring civic attitudes. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine the…

  2. Parenting Dimensionality and Typology in a Disadvantaged, African American Sample: A Cultural Variance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examined the parenting cognitions of single, adolescent, disadvantaged, African American mothers. Maternal reports highlighted three parenting dimensions: warmth, control, and anger. Mother-child dyads were periodically observed and interviewed. Mothers were classified as dismissive, permissive, authoritative, or affectionate-distressed.…

  3. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R

    2004-12-01

    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students. PMID:15666916

  4. Acculturation and Drug Use Stigma Among Latinos and African Americans: An Examination of a Church-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Karen R; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Breslau, Joshua; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C; Kanouse, David E; Stucky, Brian D; Williams, Malcolm V

    2015-12-01

    Substance use patterns among Latinos likely reflect changes in attitudes resulting from acculturation, but little is known about Latinos' attitudes regarding drug addiction. We surveyed a church-based sample of Latinos and African Americans (N = 1,235) about attitudes toward drug addiction and socio-demographics. Linear regression models compared Latino subgroups with African-Americans. In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher drug addiction stigma scores compared to African Americans across all subgroups (US-born Latinos, β = 0.22, p < .05; foreign-born Latinos with high English proficiency, β = 0.30, p < .05; and foreign-born Latinos with low English proficiency, β = 0.49, p < .001). Additionally, Latinos with low English proficiency had significantly higher mean levels of drug use stigma compared Latinos with high proficiency (both foreign-born and US-born). In this church-affiliated sample, Latinos' drug addiction stigma decreases with acculturation, but remains higher among the most acculturated Latinos compared to African-Americans. These attitudes may pose a barrier to treatment for Latino drug users. PMID:25612923

  5. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  6. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  7. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  8. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  9. Risk factors for isolated sleep paralysis in an African American sample: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2008-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research. PMID:19027435

  10. Multiple Sexual Partnerships in a Sample of African-American Crack Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark L.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    The sample for this study consisted of 692 sexually active African-American crack cocaine users living in Houston, TX who reported more than one sexual partner in the previous 30 days. Participants were asked to describe each of their two most recent partners from a list of eight choices: spouse/like a spouse/lover; close friend/friend/acquaintance/customer you like/customer. Analyses were conducted on the 1,384 partners and 692 partnership combinations reported. Partnerships and partnership patterns were examined with respect to three risk behaviors—unprotected sex, alcohol use to accompany sex, and drug use to accompany sex—and with respect to three affective measures—partner intimacy, condom use responsibility, and condom use self-efficacy. Results indicate that while many partnerships were based on trading sex for money or drugs, many participants reported partners they considered a spouse or friend. Risk behaviors and affective measures were found to differ by partner type. PMID:18161020

  11. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  12. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  13. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  14. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  15. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry. PMID:20822220

  16. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  17. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  18. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less vulnerable to experiencing depression as a result of weight concerns. Several scholars have suggested that membership in African American culture provides social resources that protect black females from experiencing high levels of weight-based psychological distress. We examine the relationship between body size and depression and the potentially moderating role of African American cultural experiences using data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Assessing a cohort of 342 African American girls ages 12-14, we found support for a link between weight and depression. There was no evidence, however, that exposure to African American culture moderated this relationship. PMID:19834569

  19. Mothers' physical interventions in toddler play in a low-income, African American sample.

    PubMed

    Ispa, Jean M; Claire Cook, J; Harmeyer, Erin; Rudy, Duane

    2015-11-01

    This mixed method study examined 28 low-income African American mothers' physical interventions in their 14-month-old toddlers' play. Inductive methods were used to identify six physical intervention behaviors, the affect accompanying physical interventions, and apparent reasons for intervening. Nonparametric statistical analyses determined that toddlers experienced physical intervention largely in the context of positive maternal affect. Mothers of boys expressed highly positive affect while physically intervening more than mothers of girls. Most physically intervening acts seemed to be motivated by maternal intent to show or tell children how to play or to correct play deemed incorrect. Neutral affect was the most common toddler affect type following physical intervention, but boys were more likely than girls to be upset immediately after physical interventions. Physical interventions intended to protect health and safety seemed the least likely to elicit toddler upset. PMID:26376213

  20. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. PMID:23647329

  1. Social Support and Self-Reported Stress Levels in a Predominantly African American Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Edith Marie; Zhang, Jiajia; Anderson, Judith; Bruner, Larisa; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene

    2015-01-01

    Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required. PMID:26442156

  2. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783

  3. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  4. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  5. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  6. Associations between the SS Variant of 5-HTTLPR and PTSD Among Adults with Histories of Childhood Emotional Abuse: Results from Two African American Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Bradley-Davino, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) interacts with stressful life events to increase general risk for PTSD, but this association has not extended to African American samples. Further, little is known about the effects of this interaction on specific PTSD symptom clusters, despite indications that clusters may have different biological substrates. The current study examined the interaction between exposure to childhood emotional abuse and 5-HTTLPR genotype on risk for PTSD symptom severity and severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters in two African American samples. Methods Participants were 136 African American household residents from Detroit, MI and 546 African American patients recruited from waiting rooms in primary care clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants reported emotional abuse exposure and PTSD symptom severity, and provided DNA for triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotyping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine main effects and interactions. Results In both African American samples, 5-HTTLPR genotype modified the effect of emotional abuse on PTSD symptom severity. Participants with the low-expression SS genotype who were exposed to emotional abuse had significantly lower reexperiencing and arousal symptom severity scores. Limitations The DNHS genetic sample size was small, and abuse data were assessed retrospectively. Conclusions The SS variant of 5-HTTLPR appears to buffer against developing the reexperiencing and arousal symptoms of PTSD in two independent African American samples exposed to childhood emotional abuse. Findings also highlight the importance of considering emotional abuse experiences in patients with suspected PTSD. PMID:24751314

  7. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  8. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, KANTAHYANEE W.; HAYNIE, DENISE L.; HOWARD, DONNA E.; CHENG, TINA L.; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers’ support and knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers’ exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed. PMID:26855618

  9. Internalizing Antecedents and Consequences of Binge-Eating Behaviors in a Community-Based, Urban Sample of African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475

  10. Differences in psychological health and family dysfunction by sexual victimization type in a clinical sample of African American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced. PMID:19817034

  11. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  12. Influences of behavior and academic problems at school entry on marijuana use transitions during adolescence in an African American sample

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Green, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African Americans. Methods: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted on a community sample of 458 low-income, urban-dwelling African-Americans. Results: Two behavior problem classes emerged at school entry; externalizing and attention/concentration. Academic problems co-occurred with both problem behavior classes although more strongly with attention/concentration. Youth in the attention/ concentration problem class were more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to use and problems beginning in 7th grade and to use and problems given the opportunity to use marijuana early in high school compared to youth with no problems. Youth in the externalizing behavior problem class were significantly more likely to transition from no involvement to having a marijuana opportunity during the transition to high school compared to youth in the attention/concentration problems class. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of developing prevention programs and providing school services that address the co-occurrence of academic and behavior problems, as well as their subtype specific risks for marijuana involvement, particularly for low-income minority youth who may be entering school less ready than their non-minority peers. These findings also provide evidence for a need to continue to deliver interventions in middle and high school focused on factors that may protect youth during these critical transition periods when they may be especially vulnerable to opportunities to use marijuana based on their academic and behavioral risk profile. PMID:25305658

  13. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  14. Culture Counts: Improving Non-Cognitive Assessment for Predicting Retention and Academic Success in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Taisha L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of non-cognitive variables in predicting GPA, institutional commitment, and retention in a sample of African American college students. Specifically, the researcher examined the validity in measuring and utilizing culture specific factors in identifying and intervening with first-year college…

  15. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the SCARED in an Outpatient Sample of African American and Non-Hispanic White Youths and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin; Warnick, Erin; Scahill, Lawrence; Woolston, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the measurement equivalence of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a clinical sample of non-Hispanic White (NHW) and African American (AA) youths and parents. In addition, we explored the concurrent criterion validity of parent report on the SCARED to a parent diagnostic interview.…

  16. Ethnic Differences in the Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in a Sample of African American and European American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Komarraju, Meera; King, Aisha; Cunningham, Dana; Muhammed, Grace

    2003-01-01

    Examined the validity and reliability of scores on the Academic Self-Concept Scale (W. Reynolds and others, 1980) in groups of 291 European American and 396 African American college students. Results suggest important ethnic differences in the structure of academic self-concept regarding beliefs about ability and the relationship between effort…

  17. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  18. Impostorism as a Mediator between Survivor Guilt and Depression in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Chammie C.; Clark, Eddie M.; Ross, Michael J.; Taylor, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the mediating effects of impostorism on the association between survivor guilt feelings and self-report depressive symptomatology. Ninety-seven African American college students were asked to complete measures of empathy based survivor guilt, impostor feelings, and depression. Results indicated that…

  19. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  20. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  1. Searching in the Dark: Phenotyping Diabetic Retinopathy in a De-Identified Electronic Medical Record Sample of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Nicole A; Farber-Eger, Eric; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    A hurdle to EMR-based studies is the characterization and extraction of complex phenotypes not readily defined by single diagnostic/procedural codes. Here we developed an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify a diabetic retinopathy (DR) cohort of type-2 diabetic African Americans from the Vanderbilt University de-identified EMR system. The algorithm incorporates a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, medications, and text matching to identify DR when gold-standard digital photography results were unavailable. DR cases were identified with a positive predictive value of 75.3% and an accuracy of 84.8%. Controls were classified with a negative predictive value of 1.0% as could be assessed. Limited studies of DR have been performed in African Americans who are at an elevated risk of DR. Identification of EMR-based African American cohorts may help stimulate new biomedical studies that could elucidate differences in risk for the development of DR and other complex diseases. PMID:27570675

  2. Searching in the Dark: Phenotyping Diabetic Retinopathy in a De-Identified Electronic Medical Record Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Nicole A.; Farber-Eger, Eric; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    A hurdle to EMR-based studies is the characterization and extraction of complex phenotypes not readily defined by single diagnostic/procedural codes. Here we developed an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify a diabetic retinopathy (DR) cohort of type-2 diabetic African Americans from the Vanderbilt University de-identified EMR system. The algorithm incorporates a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, medications, and text matching to identify DR when gold-standard digital photography results were unavailable. DR cases were identified with a positive predictive value of 75.3% and an accuracy of 84.8%. Controls were classified with a negative predictive value of 1.0% as could be assessed. Limited studies of DR have been performed in African Americans who are at an elevated risk of DR. Identification of EMR-based African American cohorts may help stimulate new biomedical studies that could elucidate differences in risk for the development of DR and other complex diseases. PMID:27570675

  3. Profiling the African American Student Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ehlert, John; Dade, Shari

    2011-01-01

    The African American Student Network (AFAM) originated at a large Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the Midwest. Including a sample of 163 network participants, the current paper profiles the academic performance of students in the network over its first 4 years. Findings indicate that although participants were similar to the average…

  4. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  5. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  6. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  7. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  8. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  9. The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

  10. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  11. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  12. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  13. African American rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

  14. African-American Children's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Patricia C.

    Examination of representative stories told by black American children of West African descent in South Carolina shows that specific cultural motifs have been preserved in the oral tradition of black communities. Typical stories are tales of the supernatural, such as the Hag story about mortals who shed their skin at night to do evil deeds.…

  15. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  16. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  17. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  18. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  19. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  20. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  1. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade. PMID:20080753

  2. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  3. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  4. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  5. Predicting Incongruence between Self-reported and Documented Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Sample of African American Medicare Recipients.

    PubMed

    Manning, Mark; Burnett, Janice; Chapman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates typically rely on self-reported screening data, which are often incongruent with medical records. We used multilevel models to examine health-related, socio-demographic and psychological predictors of incongruent self-reports for CRC screening among Medicare-insured African Americans (N = 3,740). Results indicated that living alone decreased, and income increased, the odds of congruently self-reporting endoscopic CRC screening. Being male and having greater number of comorbidities decreased, and having less than a high school education increased, the odds of congruently self-reported fecal occult blood tests. Living alone, age and income had the most robust effects across classifications into one of four mutually exclusive categories defined by screening status (screened/unscreened) and congruence of self-reports. The results underscore the clinical importance of gathering socio-demographic data via patient interviews, and the relevance of these data for judging the veracity of self-reported CRC screenings behaviors. PMID:25961362

  6. Social distance and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia: findings in an urban, African-American community sample.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings. PMID:23124176

  7. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  8. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans. PMID:9395569

  9. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  10. Exploring risk in early adolescent African American youth.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Thomas W; Price, LeShawndra N; O'Neal, Keri K; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B; Cairns, Beverley D; Reese, Le'Roy E

    2004-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to explore the degree to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in samples of African American early adolescents in low-income inner-city, rural, and suburban schools. Study 1 examined early adolescent risk status (i.e., single, multiple) in relation to later adjustment in a representative sample (70% European American, 30% African American). Youth who experienced a single risk in early adolescence had moderately increased levels of school dropout and criminal arrests, whereas youth with multiple risks (i.e., combination of 2 or more risks) had significantly increased levels of school dropout, criminal arrests, and teen parenthood. Study 2 examined the extent to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in cross-sectional samples of African American youth from low-income inner-city and rural areas. About one fourth of both the inner-city and rural samples of African American youth were composed of youth in the single-risk category. A significantly greater proportion of boys in the inner-city sample (20%) than boys in the rural sample (13%) experienced multiple risks. Girls across the rural and inner-city samples did not differ in terms of risk. Overall, more than 60% of African American youth in these two low-income samples did not evidence risk for later adjustment problems. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15055754

  11. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles, the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children’s eating behavior, are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls and anthropometry collected from 3-18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet and weight–for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids while restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. PMID:23592664

  12. Life-Space and Cognitive Decline in a Community-Based Sample of African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia G.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Life-space, a measure of movement through one’s environment, may be viewed as one aspect of environmental complexity for older adults. We examined the relationship between life-space and subsequent change in cognitive function. Methods Participants were 624 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (49% African American) who completed in-home assessments at baseline and follow-up 4 years later. The Life-Space Assessment was used at baseline to measure extent, frequency, and independence of participants’ movement within and outside the home. Cognitive decline was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results In a regression model adjusted for baseline MMSE, age, gender, race, residence (rural/urban), and education, greater life-space at baseline predicted reduced cognitive decline (β = −.177, p < .001). This association remained statistically significant in subsequent models that examined what proportion of the observed association was explained by baseline physical activity, physical function, vascular risk factors, comorbidity, and psychosocial factors. Physical function accounted for the largest proportion (37.3%) of the association between life-space and cognitive decline. There was no significant interaction between life-space and race, gender, or age in predicting cognitive decline. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the highest quartile of life-space had 53% reduced odds of substantial cognitive decline (≥4 points on MMSE) compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that life-space may be a useful identifier of older adults at risk for cognitive decline. Future research should investigate the potential reciprocal relationship between life-space and cognitive function as well as the interrelationship between these factors and physical function. PMID:19038840

  13. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  14. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  15. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  16. African American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Eboni M.

    2003-01-01

    African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

  17. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  18. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  19. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  20. Beyond Afrocentricism: Alternatives for African American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses new directions for African-American studies curricula. Argues that the Afrocentrist perspective presents a static model that does not adequately address the dynamic interaction of Afrocentric sensibility with Western-dominated economic, cultural, and political structures. The African-American studies discipline should be conceptualized…

  1. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  2. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  3. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  4. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  5. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  6. Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

  7. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  8. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  9. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

  10. A CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DRUG USE AND SEXUAL HIV RISKS AND THEIR CORRELATES IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS WITH HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson; Atkinson, John; Williams, Mark L.; Bowen, Anne; Ross, Michael W.; Timpson, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV seropositive African American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences. PMID:18495380

  11. A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson; Atkinson, John; Williams, Mark L; Bowen, Anne; Ross, Michael W; Timpson, Sandra C

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences. PMID:18495380

  12. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  13. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  14. Discrimination, religious coping, and tobacco use among White, African American, and Mexican American vocational school students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether religious coping moderates the impact of racial/ethnic discrimination on current (past 30 day) cigarette and cigar/cigarillo use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 984 technical/vocational school students (47.1% women; mean age = 25 years). Results indicate that discrimination increased the likelihood of current cigarette use among African American students and current cigar/cigarillo use among white and African American students. Positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of cigarette and cigar/cigarillo smoking for white students only. Negative religious coping increased the likelihood of cigarette use for white students and cigar/cigarillo use for white and African American students. Two 2-way interactions indicate that positive and negative religious coping moderate the discrimination-cigarette smoking relationship for African American and Mexican American students, respectively. PMID:21249522

  15. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  16. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  18. African Americans: Diverse People, Diverse Career Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Verna D.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the many subgroups within the African-American population and suggests guidelines for career counseling with different subcultures: rural and urban lower class, middle class, and underclass. (SK)

  19. The African Student in the American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Doris

    This paper gathers information on the values, cognition, and educational background of African students studying at universities in the United States. The section on values notes that Americans are task-oriented individualists, while Africans are primarily relationship-oriented collectivists. These values of sharing and relationship orientation…

  20. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  1. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  2. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between complimentary sexual stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23421336

  3. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  4. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  5. Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised Scale Validation for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.; Irvin, Tawana

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) were examined in a sample of 213 African American college students. Results indicated that the 12-values scales were as reliable and as valid in a sample of African Americans as has been demonstrated within a predominantly White college student sample. Values of…

  6. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  7. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  8. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  9. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  10. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  11. African Literature and the American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  12. GI Bill Expands Access for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1994-01-01

    The GI Bill is seen as the most revolutionary and radically empowering federal legislation to affect American higher education in the 20th century. The bill gave African American veterans more access to higher education than ever before, at government expense, and helped improve the quality of education at black colleges. (MSE)

  13. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  14. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  15. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  16. Parenting within Cultural Context: Comparisons between African-American and Asian-American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen

    2005-01-01

    Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…

  17. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  18. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  19. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  20. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  1. Gender and the tobacco-depression relationship: a sample of African American college students at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Browne, Dorothy C; Storr, Carla L; Wagner, Fernando A

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between tobacco use and depression and its possible variation by gender among African American young adults. A paper-and-pencil survey was administered to African American college students graduating in 2003 from a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). Tobacco use measures included lifetime involvement. Depression symptoms were assessed using a revised version of the CES-D. Male smokers were found to be four times more likely to be depressed than male non-smokers (OR=4.4; 95% CI, 1.4, 14.3; p=0.012). However, female smokers were not more likely to be depressed than female non-smokers (OR=1.0; 95% CI, 0.5, 2.1). Findings from this study suggest the need of gender-specific tobacco or depression interventions among HBCU students. PMID:16022938

  2. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  3. Examining the Affects of Literacy Enablers and Obstacles African-American Males Face in an Arkansas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…

  4. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126

  5. Dopamine Receptor Gene D4 Polymorphisms and Early Sexual Onset: Gender and Environmental Moderation in a Sample of African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Windle, Michael; Lee, Sunbok; MacKillop, James; Chen, Yi-fu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Early sexual onset and its consequences disproportionately affect African American youth, particularly male youth. The dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4, has been linked to sexual activity and other forms of appetitive behavior, particularly for male youth and in combination with environmental factors [gene × environment (G × E) effects]. The differential susceptibility perspective suggests that DRD4 may exert this effect by amplifying the effects of both positive and negative environments. We hypothesized that DRD4 status would amplify the influence of both positive and negative neighborhood environments on early sexual onset among male, but not female, African Americans. Methods Hypotheses were tested with self-report, biospecimen, and census data from 5 prospective studies of male and female African American youth in rural Georgia communities, N = 1677. Early sexual onset was defined as intercourse before age 14. Results No significant G × E findings emerged for female youth. Male youth with a DRD4-long allele were more likely than those with 2 DRD4-short alleles to report early sexual onset in negative community environments and not to report early onset in positive community environments. Conclusions Dopaminergic regulation of adolescent sexual behaviors may operate differently by gender. DRD4 operated as an environmental amplification, rather than a vulnerability, factor. PMID:24742759

  6. Feasibility of Delivering Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Programming to A Community Sample of African-American Teen Girls via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Jones, Andrea; Borkman, April O.; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the feasibility of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for African American female adolescents. The intervention, SiHLEWeb, is a web-based adaptation of the evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE). Participants were 41 African-American girls aged 13 to 18 years, recruited in collaboration with community partners (local high schools, Department of Juvenile Justice, child advocacy center, medical university). Results support the feasibility of recruitment, screening, and follow-up retention methods. The majority (63.4%) of recruited participants completed the intervention, taking an average of 4.5 site visits. Completers of SiHLEWeb demonstrated increases in knowledge regarding HIV/STI risks and risk reduction behavior, as well as significant increases in condom use self-efficacy. Findings provide preliminary support for the large-scale, randomized-controlled trial of the efficacy of SiHLEWeb to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among female African-American adolescents. PMID:24059877

  7. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  8. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated. PMID:22239385

  9. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  10. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  12. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  13. Pubertal Maturation and African American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10-12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  15. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  16. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  17. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  18. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  19. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  20. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  1. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  2. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  3. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  4. School and peer influences on the academic outcomes of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D

    2015-10-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  5. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  6. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  7. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  8. Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freemen A., III; Maton, Kenneth I.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    This book on African American males presents the first step in an ongoing exploration of the relationship between parenting and academic achievement among African American children. Subjects of the study were high-achieving members of the Meyerhoff Scholars, young African Americans distinguished for their achievement. The Meyerhoff Scholar program…

  9. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  10. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  11. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  12. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  13. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  14. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  15. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  16. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  17. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  18. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  19. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  20. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  1. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  2. African American and Non-African American Patients’ and Families’ Decision Making About Renal Replacement Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Johanna; Ephraim, Patti L.; Powe, Neil R.; Rabb, Hamid; Senga, Mikiko; Evans, Kira E.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Crews, Deidra C.; Greer, Raquel C.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    We conducted focus group meetings of African American and non-African American patients with end-stage renal disease (six groups) and their family members (six groups), stratified by race/ethnicity and treatment. We elicited differences in participants’ experiences with shared decision making about initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT; that is, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant). Patients were often very sick when initiating RRT, and had little, if any, time to make a decision about what type of RRT to initiate. They also lacked sufficient information about alternative treatment options prior to initiation. Family members played supportive roles and shared in decision making when possible. Reports were similar for African American and non-African American participants. Our findings suggest that a greater emphasis on the improved engagement of patients and their families in shared decision making about RRT initiation is needed for both ethnic/racial minorities and nonminorities. PMID:22645225

  3. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  4. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  5. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  6. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  7. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  8. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  9. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  10. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  11. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  12. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  13. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  14. The Complexity of African American Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed adult African Americans regarding four parameters of racial identification (psychological, physical, cultural, and sociopolitical). Results indicated generally high levels of racial identification across participants, though scores varied across parameters. The highest level of racial identification was obtained on the cultural…

  15. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  16. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  17. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  18. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  1. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  2. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  3. The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  4. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  5. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  6. Debunking Anti-Intellectualism: An Examination of African American College Students' Intellectual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the debate on African American "anti-intellectualism," this study examined a longitudinal sample of 460 African American students' intellectual self-concept and college grades (GPA) through regression analyses resulting from their college experiences. The findings showed that the college environment had a modest influence on African…

  7. African American Female Faculty in Predominantly White Graduate Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janice Berry; Clark, Trenette T.; Bryant, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This study of African American female faculty in predominantly White schools of social work was designed to examine the unique experience of these faculties. The examination also aimed to develop a better understanding of the challenges and the experiences of these faculty members. This exploratory study sampled African American female social work…

  8. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  9. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  10. Effects of Living on Campus on African American Students' Educational Gains in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of living on campus on educational gains were estimated for a sample of African American college students. This study also examined the effects of specific residence hall experiences on African American students' educational gains in college. Controlling for an extensive array of demographic characteristics, institutional…

  11. The Relationship between Motivational Orientation & Educational Aspirations in Urban, African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Cheryl B.; Phelps, Rosemary E.

    2008-01-01

    African American youth are characterized as experiencing declining academic motivation and engagement while simultaneously maintaining optimism for their future success. Thus, researchers hypothesize academic motivation to be a negative factor for educational aspirations when applied to an urban sample of African American middle school students (N…

  12. A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

  13. A Multidimensional Look at Religious Involvement and Psychological Well Being among Urban Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…

  14. Another Look at HIV in African American Women: The Impact of Psychosocial and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Cotton, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model that integrates structural and psychological determinants of HIV prevention for African American women. The sample consisted of African American mothers (N = 129) of children in Head Start programs. Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of HIV risk; higher levels of perceived…

  15. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  16. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  17. In Their Own Words: Perceived Barriers to Achievement by African American and Latino High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…

  18. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  19. Not Just Pushing and Shoving: School Bullying among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Dulin, Akilah J.; Piko, Bettina F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying among a sample of African American adolescents and the risk factors associated with odds that a student engages in bullying behavior. Methods: Using a self-report school-based survey, 1542 African American adolescents from a single school district (grades 5-12)…

  20. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  1. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  2. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  3. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  4. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  5. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  6. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  7. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  8. Karla Holloway to Lead African and African-American Studies at Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1996-01-01

    The appointment of Karla F. C. Holloway, an African American woman, as director of the Duke University (North Carolina) African American Studies program is representative of an institutional effort to stabilize the program and to recruit African American scholars to the institution, across disciplines. During Holloway's interim directorship,…

  9. The African-American Legacy in American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarry, Abu

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of African-American poetry to the development of English literature from the earliest Black orator through the works of Langston Hughes. Emphasizes the work of Phillis Wheatley, Paul Lawrence Dunbar,"The New Negro" writers, and Hughes. (FMW)

  10. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  11. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  12. Multiple Loci Associated with Renal Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R.; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P.; Christman, Michael F.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

  13. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

  14. HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E. Maxwell; Banks, Denedria; Bing, Eric G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract HIV-related stigma and discrimination negatively impact African Americans living with HIV. Social support theory hypothesizes that social support can serve to protect individuals against the negative effects of stressors, such as discrimination, by leading them to interpret stressful occasions less negatively. This study sought to examine the relationship between perceived social support and perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 283 HIV-positive African Americans was recruited from three social service agencies. Bivariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine the variables predicting perceived HIV stigma. The study participants were found to have a wide variety of opinions concerning perceived HIV stigma. Of the three different sources of perceived social support examined (from family, friends and a “special person”), only perceived social support from friends was found to be related to perceived HIV stigma when controlling for the presence of other relevant factors. High perceived social support from friends was associated with less perceived HIV stigma. Other factors associated with low perceived HIV stigma included a lack of current symptoms of major depression, a longer time since HIV diagnosis and higher education. Information about the beneficial effects of perceived social support from friends and other factors can help to provide guidance to those working to decrease the negative impact of HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. PMID:18373417

  15. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  16. Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and white American youth.

    PubMed

    Judd, C M; Park, B; Ryan, C S; Brauer, M; Kraus, S

    1995-09-01

    Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society. PMID:7562391

  17. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  18. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  19. Charting the ancestry of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-10-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th-19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  20. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  1. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  2. Take up the caregiver's burden: stories of care for urban African American elders with dementia.

    PubMed

    Fox, K; Hinton, W L; Levkoff, S

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study uses an anthropological gaze to analyze transcripts of extended in-home interviews among a set of ten caregivers of African-American elders with dementia. How are race and ethnicity made to matter in the recognition of, the meaning-making around and the responses to dementing illness among a sample of African-American caregivers? The essay contrasts prevailing cultural representations of African-American caregiver burden with caregiver interview data. What we find is that current constructs which consistently demonstrate "lesser burden" among African-American caregivers compared with Whites may not adequately capture these caregivers' experiences. Interpretations of experiences, meanings of "burden" and the logic of symptoms in the illness narratives generated by these African-American caregivers of elders with dementia require attention to the embodiment of large scale sociopolitical and historical forces like residential, educational and occupational segregation, institutional racism, and economic exploitation over the life course. PMID:10647946

  3. Risk and protection for HIV/AIDS in African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M

    2008-07-01

    African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined. PMID:18807775

  4. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  5. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  6. Predictors of Achievement in African American Students at Risk for Academic Failure: The Roles of Achievement Values and Behavioral Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darensbourg, Alicia M.; Blake, Jamilia J.

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between African American and European American youth is a pervasive problem in the United States. This study explored how achievement values and behavioral engagement affect the academic attainment of an academically at-risk sample of 167 African American youth in late elementary school. Results indicate that achievement values…

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  9. Subjective Social Status and Health Behaviors Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Nguyen, Nga; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of the US and community subjective social status (SSS) ladders with smoking status, at-risk drinking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body mass index among 1467 church-going African American adults from a larger cohort study. Methods Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographics, examined associations between SSS ladders and health behaviors. Results The SSS-US ladder was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (p = .007) and physical activity (p = .005). The SSS-community ladder was not significantly associated with any health behaviors. Conclusions Among this sample of African Americans, the SSS-US ladder is more predictive of some health behaviors than is the SSS-community ladder. PMID:22943107

  10. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

    2015-10-01

    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  11. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-08-11

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution. PMID:21775986

  12. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  13. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  14. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  15. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  16. Victimization among African-American adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Gotham, Heather J; Cho, Dong

    2008-03-01

    Victimization is regarded as a significant public health issue, especially among adolescents in urban areas. Although victimization is linked to substance use, the research on victimization among adolescents in treatment is underdeveloped. Given the high rate of victimization among African-American adolescents, further research on the prevalence and correlates of victimization for this population is needed. This knowledge can guide the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. This study contributed to the research by examining the rate and different types of victimization among a sample of African-American adolescents in an urban substance abuse treatment program, testing whether victimization is associated with increased levels of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors; and comparing the rates and associations with existing studies of adolescent victimization. It reports on a sample of 259 African-American adolescents receiving substance abuse treatment in an inner-city program. Fifty-four percent of the subjects reported lifetime victimization. Severity of victimization was associated with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, although the effect sizes were relatively small. Lifetime victimization exhibited a relationship of small to moderate strength with high-risk behaviors (i.e., illegal activity, gang membership, multiple sex partners and unprotected sex). Service implications and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:18472666

  17. Coping With Perceived Racism: A Significant Factor in the Development of Obesity in African American Women?

    PubMed Central

    Mwendwa, Denee T.; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C. Jules; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2016-01-01

    Background African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. Objective The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. Methods A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Conclusion Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity. PMID:21999035

  18. Communication between African Americans and Korean Americans: Before and after the Los Angeles Riots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ella

    1993-01-01

    Follows up a 1989 study of communication patterns between Korean-American merchants and African-American patrons in South Central Los Angeles (California), and expands the study to include a wider population of 58 African Americans and 21 Korean Americans. Effects of the 1992 riots on attitudes are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  20. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  1. Beliefs and perceived norms concerning body image among African-American and Latino teenagers.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy

    2010-09-01

    Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents. PMID:20453045

  2. African Americans' perceived sociocultural determinants of suicide: afrocentric implications for public health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Borum, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex. PMID:25350896

  3. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  4. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  5. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  6. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined. PMID:21052487

  7. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  8. Avoiding Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Allen, Kimberly; Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The timing and social context of pregnancy have significant implications for the well-being of African American young people. Rarely, however, do studies focus on identifying the developmental processes associated with young people’s avoidance of pregnancy until after adolescence. Methods We tested hypotheses regarding the factors associated with delayed fertility (no experience of a pregnancy by age 19) among a sample of 889 African American youth recruited at age 11 and assessed longitudinally through age 19. We hypothesized that, during preadolescence (age 11), health-promoting environmental processes would be linked to nurturant-responsive parenting, which in turn would be linked to youths’ conventional future orientations and risky sexual behavior in midadolescence (age 16) and to pregnancy experience by late adolescence (age 19). Hypotheses were tested with logistic structural equation modeling. Results Our conceptual model fit the data well. We identified a cascade process whereby protective environments were associated with nurturant-responsive parenting, which was associated with youths’ conventional future orientations; conventional future orientations were associated with avoidance of sexual risk behaviors at age 16 and avoidance of pregnancy by age 19. We identified an additional direct effect between nurturant-responsive parenting and avoidance of risky sexual behavior. Conclusions The results suggest processes that may be targeted to facilitate delayed fertility among African American youth. PMID:23583506

  9. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  10. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  11. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  12. Health Literacy, Smoking, and Health Indicators in African American Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A; Cano, Miguel A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical health (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after we controlled for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  13. The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

  14. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  15. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  16. Phonological Milestones for African American English-Speaking Children Learning Mainstream American English as a Second Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Barbara Z.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Bryant, Timothy J.; Charko, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides milestones for phonological development in African American English (AAE) speakers who are learning Mainstream American English (MAE) as a second dialect. Method: The Dialect Sensitive Language Test (DSLT; H. Seymour, T. Roeper, & J. G. de Villiers, 2000) was administered to a nationwide sample of typically developing…

  17. Vitamin D in African Americans with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, J.M.; Cree, B.A.C.; McElroy, J.; Oksenberg, J.; Green, R.; Mowry, E.M.; Miller, J.W.; Hauser, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether vitamin D is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) status and disease severity in African Americans. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was compared in a cross-sectional sample of 339 African Americans with MS and 342 African American controls. Correlations between disease severity (Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score [MSSS]) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were sought. Results: A total of 71% of controls and 77% of patients with MS were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L; <20 ng/mL), and 93% of controls and 94% of patients with MS were vitamin D insufficient (<75 nmol/L; <30 ng/mL). Median unadjusted (29.7 vs 36.6 nmol/L, p = 0.0001) and deseasonalized (p = 0.0013) 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in the MS group. Multivariable analysis revealed that differences in latitude and ultraviolet index accounted for much of this association. The median (interquartile range) MSSS was 6.1 (4.8–8.1). There was no apparent association between the MSSS and vitamin D status. A greater proportion of European genetic ancestry, a measure of genetic admixture, was positively correlated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in African Americans with MS than controls, an observation primarily explained by differences in climate and geography. There was no apparent association between vitamin D status and disease severity. These results are consistent with observations in other populations that lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with having MS, but also highlight the importance of climate and ancestry in determining vitamin D status. PMID:21606454

  18. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  19. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  20. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  1. Self care for chronic illness: older African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M; Musa, D; Kirsch, B; Siminoff, L A

    1999-06-01

    In-person interviews with two hundred and twenty-one older African Americans and whites in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on their use of self care activities in the care of one of four chronic illnesses (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis, addressed which types of self care they used for each of these illnesses) the similarities and differences between African Americans and whites in their use of self care and how self care is initiated, modified and integrated into a context that includes help from others. The most common response in each of the illnesses was the use of medications or medical treatments by both African Americans and whites. However, there were some differences in the self care practices used by these two groups by illness type. Whites reported monitoring their illness significantly more than African Americans for diabetes and using assistive devices in the management of COPD significantly more than African Americans. While both African Americans and whites practice self care similarly in the management of heart disease, African Americans reported greater use of exercise in their management of arthritis. The amount of assistance provided by others in support of self care varied by illness and by African American and white. The differences in self care usage may be attributed to many factors, among them, differences in cultural experiences with the illness, health beliefs regarding its efficacy and the amount of assistance received from informal supports. PMID:14617891

  2. African-American Students and Foreign Language Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James J.

    The performance and attitudes of African-American students of foreign languages are discussed in this digest. Three major areas are reported: (1) Black English and foreign language learning, including theories of language deficiency, sociolinguistic research, phonology and syntax; (2) research on the performance of African-American students of…

  3. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  4. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  5. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  6. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  7. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  8. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  9. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  10. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  11. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  12. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  13. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  14. Servitude to Service: African-American Women as Wage Earners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines how the employment position of African-American women changed due to southern economic policies established after emancipation. Uses primary documents to assist in analyzing social and economic discrimination against African-American women in the work force. (MJP)

  15. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  16. Brother to Brother: Success for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…

  17. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  18. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  19. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  20. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  1. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  2. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  3. Resiliency Instructional Tactics: African American Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…

  4. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  5. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  6. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  7. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  8. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

  9. African-American Attitudes towards United States Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Explores attitudes of African Americans about U.S. immigration policy, from slavery to the present. Fourteen contemporary polls reveal a long-standing preference among blacks in the United States for restricting immigration rather than maintaining or increasing it, in spite of beliefs that make it difficult for African Americans to see the…

  10. The Guide for Choosing African American Parenting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingo, Robin R.; Mertensmeyer, Carol

    This guide is designed to help professionals working with African American parents to be better prepared to select culturally sensitive materials, to program more effectively, and to draw from the richness within the African American culture. The guide is one in a series of culturally specific guides produced as part of ParentLink's Review of…

  11. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  12. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  13. African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    2005-01-01

    While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

  14. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  15. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  16. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  17. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  18. Experiences of African American Empowerment: A Jamesian Perspective on Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Tweed, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    This essay draws from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth. The focus is on Jamesian agency as a function of the individual's awareness of options in context, the self-empowerment…

  19. Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

  20. African American College Students: Establishing HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cecil

    African American college students are among the age group of African Americans who are at significantly higher risk for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Much of the research in this area suggests that for the majority of these students, there is little or no relationship between the knowledge of HIV transmission and…

  1. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-2616 Filed 2-2-12; 8... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  2. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-02756 Filed 2-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  3. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  4. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  5. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  6. African American Men and College: Understanding How They Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkey, Eschelle

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study used qualitative methods to discover the reasons and factors these African American men persisted to degree completion, while the large majority of this group fail. The participants for this study were eight African American males who have successfully graduated from an accredited, predominantly white…

  7. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  8. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  9. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13643 Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States...

  10. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  11. Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

  12. "Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

  13. Social Support Structures and African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry-El, Judith A.; And Others

    An issue currently facing the African-American community is the incidence of divorce, which is presently at a higher rate than that of other groups. This study focused on the supportive networks of African-American couples utilizing a network analysis approach to examine the relationship between the networks, and marital satisfaction among the…

  14. Board Books Featuring African Americans: Vanishing but Not Entirely Gone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongo, Jonella A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring African Americans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature African Americans in…

  15. African American Educators' Perspectives on the Advanced Placement Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Jocelyn DeVance; DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines perspectives of educators on the advanced placement opportunity gap for African American students. Using interviews with 11 educators from 10 high schools, we explored their perceptions regarding the impact of a local academic achievement program on the enrollment of African American students in honors and advanced placement…

  16. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  17. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans. PMID:18954169

  18. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  19. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  20. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations. PMID:24102597

  1. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Derek C.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W.; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M.; Aissani, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations. PMID:24102597

  2. Ancestry of African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Hartley, Stephen W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Taylor, James G.; Kato, Gregory J.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The inheritance of genetic disease depends on ancestry that must be considered when interpreting genetic association studies and can provide insights when comparing traits in a population. We compared the genetic profiles of African Americans with sickle cell disease to those of Black Africans and Caucasian populations of European descent and found that they are less genetically admixed than other African Americans and have an ancestry similar to Yorubans, Mandenkas and Bantu. PMID:21546286

  3. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  4. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  5. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  6. Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly Y; Brutus, Andre; Cathcart, Ronald; Gathe, Joseph; Johnson, William; Jordan, Wilbert; Kwakwa, Helena A; Nkwanyou, Joseph; Page, Carlos; Scott, Robert; Vaughn, Anita C; Virgil, Luther A; Williamson, Diana

    2003-10-01

    The African-American community has been disproportionately affected HIV/AIDS, as noted by higher reported rates of HIV infection, higher proportion of AIDS cases, and more deaths caused by complications of AIDS than whites and other ethnic groups. In addition, epidemiologic trends suggest that African Americans with HIV infection are more often diagnosed later in the course of HIV disease than whites. Numerous reasons account for this disparity, including the lack of perception of risk and knowledge about HIV transmission as well as a delays in HIV testing and diagnosis in the African-American community. Understanding the important considerations in the management of HIV infection in the African-American patient may create awareness among health care professionals and broaden the knowledge of HIV-infected patients within the African-American community. PMID:14588093

  7. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  8. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  9. Thriving in stepfamilies: exploring competence and well-being among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Russell, Christiana; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Pittman, Joe; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Bradford, Angela; Stringer, Kate

    2010-04-01

    Although scholars conclude that children/adolescents in two-parent nuclear families have an advantage over those in stepfamilies, emerging evidence indicates that the experiences of African American youths have been overshadowed. In three replicated studies, we detected no differences on several important and commonly assessed well-being and competence indicators among samples of African American youth in two-parent nuclear and stepfamilies. PMID:20307831

  10. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  11. The Role of African American-Owned Radio in Health Promotion: Community Service Projects Targeting Young African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)

  12. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  13. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  14. Mental health and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American and European American female dementia family caregivers.

    PubMed

    McCallum, T J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Fritsch, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Using a sociocultural stress and coping model, this pilot study examines the influence of depressive symptoms and stress on diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American (N=30) and European American (N=24) female dementia caregivers and noncaregivers (African American, N=48; European American, N=15). Caregiving participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS) as respective measures of depressive symptoms, stress, and stress resilience. Participants also collected five saliva samples daily for two consecutive days. African American caregivers scored significantly higher than European American caregivers on the SRGS, but they did not differ on the PSS and CES-D scales. Regression analyses with age, ethnicity, caregiving status, and depressive symptoms as predictors, and cortisol slope as criterion, showed that only age and ethnicity predicted cortisol slope. African Americans had flatter slopes than the European Americans sampled, regardless of caregiving status. Findings highlight the role of cultural beliefs and of ethnicity in explaining cortisol function. PMID:16861373

  15. African Sojourn: Two Narratives of African American Women Educators' Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Mignonne Y.

    This paper examines how the educational philosophies of two representative African American women university professors were influenced by multiple sojourns between Africa and North America. Two African American women born in the 1940s were interviewed about their early educational experiences, racial identity, and experiences in Africa. Each…

  16. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  17. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    PubMed

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  18. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799

  19. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  20. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  1. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  2. Sex Differences in the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of African American Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…

  3. Evaluating Career Success of African American Males: It's What You Know and Who You Are that Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Douglas; Eby, Lillian T.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the factors related to career success of college educated, African American men and to explore the relative importance of human capital, social capital, individual differences, and demographic attributes in predicting career success. Using a sample of 247 African American males, we found some…

  4. The Role of Person-Environment Fit in the Job Satisfaction and Tenure Intentions of African American Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Heather Z.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of speculation that the determinants of job satisfaction and tenure for African American employees may not be adequately captured by the theory of work adjustment (TWA; Dawis & Lofquist, 1984), in the present study the authors tested assumptions of the TWA with an African American sample by (a) examining the strength of fit-satisfaction…

  5. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  6. The Psychometric Properties of the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children with At-Risk African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter K.; Roberts, Michael C.; Kim, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    The Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) is one of the most commonly used measures of childhood self-esteem, yet there is little research assessing the psychometric properties of the SPPC for use with an African American population. A sample of 92 African American adolescent females (M age = 12.33) was administered the SPPC in order…

  7. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  8. Poverty and the Development of African American Children: Testing an Adaptation of McLoyd's Theoretical Model with the NLSY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    Based on McLoyd's (1990) model of African American children's development, this study examined the linkages between poverty, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, the home environment, and children's outcomes among a sample of 805 African American 4- to 9-year-olds whose families were interviewed in 1992 as part of the National…

  9. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  10. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  11. A Comparison of the Persistence of African American and White Students Using NPSAS:96. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Patricia; Cofer, James; Hall, Margaret Martin; Vander Putten, Jim

    This study examines within-year persistence of undergraduate white and African American college students, focusing on how this information can be used to inform initiatives on retention. Data was collected from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study of 1996; the sample included 1,482 African American and 11,292 white four-year undergraduate…

  12. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  13. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  14. Who wants to adopt and who wants to be adopted: a sample of American families and sub-Saharan African orphans.

    PubMed

    Balding, Christopher; Feng, Yan; Atashband, Armita

    2015-12-01

    The debate between pro- and anti-international adoption advocates relies heavily on rhetoric and little on data analysis. To better understand the state of orphans and potential adopters in this debate, we utilize the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to study who adopts internationally and the status of orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa. According to NSFG data adopters are church going, highly educated, stable families aware of the challenges faced by international adoption, with high rates of infertility and rates of child abuse half the population average. According to the DHS data, orphans in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from significantly higher deprivation, reduced schooling and increased levels of stunting and underweight reported than their cohort. Using this data, we estimate conservatively that that 1 50 000 orphans from our sample of sub-Saharan African countries died from their 5-year birth cohort. Given the large number of families seeking to adopt and the high number of orphan deaths, it seems counterproductive to restrict international adoptions given the significantly lower risks faced by children in adopted families compared with remaining orphaned. PMID:25769738

  15. Experiences of African American adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, C M; Chen, S P

    1998-04-01

    Social and cultural factors influence the experience of fatherhood. This descriptive focus-group study describes the lived experience of fatherhood from the perspectives of 5 unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent fathers in a Midwestern urban area. Naturalistic inquiry approach guided the study. Seven themes of fatherhood emerged: barriers to fatherhood, value of fatherhood, introduction to fatherhood, competencies of fatherhood, role-set relationships, social norms of fatherhood, and father-child contact. This study suggests that nurses should support the involvement of adolescent fathers with their children. Future study may determine the influence of adult female family members on the decisions of adolescent fathers to remain involved with their children. PMID:9550932

  16. Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White…

  17. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  18. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  19. Are benefits conferred with greater socioeconomic position undermined by racial discrimination among African American men?

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Darrell L.; Bullard, Kai M.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Yang, Juan; Jackson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background conventional wisdom suggests that increased socioeconomic resources should be related to better health. Considering the body of evidence demonstrating the significant association between racial discrimination and depression, we examined whether exposure to racial discrimination could attenuate the positive effects of increased levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) among African Americans. Specifically, this paper investigated the joint interactive effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression among African Americans. Methods racial discrimination was measured using two measures, major and everyday discrimination. Study objectives were achieved using data from the National Survey of American Life, which included a nationally representative sample of African Americans (n =3570). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression. Results reports of racial discrimination were associated with increased risk of depression among American African men who possessed greater levels of education and income. Among African American men, significant, positive interactions were observed between education and experiences of major discrimination, which were associated with greater odds of depression (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were positive interactions between income and both measures of racial discrimination (income x everyday discrimination, P = 0.013; income x major discrimination, P = 0.02), which were associated with increased odds of depression (P = 0.02). Conclusions it is possible that experiences of racial discrimination could, in part, diminish the effects of increased SEP among African American men. PMID:22707995

  20. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. PMID:25147096

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

  2. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  3. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention. PMID:25572831

  4. Alcoholism and African-American women: a medical sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.

    1996-01-01

    Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062

  5. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  6. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  7. Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Monnica T

    2016-05-01

    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375429

  8. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  9. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  10. HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, T. G.; Kelly, J. A.; Bogart, L. M.; Kalichman, S. C.; Rompa, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    African-American men who have sex with men remain at disproportionately greater risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While high HIV seroincidence has been documented among homosexual African-American men, behavioral research has rarely studied the HIV risk issues confronting these men. This study assessed a sample of 253 men who have sex with men to determine if African-American (n = 79) and white (n = 174) men report different rates of HIV risk behaviors and differ in characteristics indicative of risk. African-American men who have sex with men were more likely to be HIV-seropositive, to report past treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis, and to have a recent unprotected sex partner known or believed to be HIV-seropositive. Multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for group differences in age, education, and income, revealed that African-American men who have sex with men were less open about their sexual orientation, scored lower in HIV risk behavior knowledge, had more female sexual partners, and more frequently used cocaine in association with sex relative to white men who have sex with men. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention programs tailored to the needs and risk issues of African-American men who have sex with men are needed. PMID:10083778

  11. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  12. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449

  13. Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families

    PubMed Central

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

  14. Descriptors and Perception of Dyspnea in African-American Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Trochtenberg, D. Scott; BeLue, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study explores self-reported perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Methods Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the responses from African-Americans within focus groups from Nashville, Tennessee. Results Common symptoms were chest tightness, “breathing problems,” and wheeze. Less commonly reported symptoms included cough, chest pain, dizziness, sweating, and “short of breath.” A single participant reported nocturnal wheezing. Conclusions This study provides insight into the descriptors and perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Understanding the descriptors of symptoms and disease severity in African-American patients may lead to more accurate diagnosis, treatment, and reduced mortality within this high-risk population. PMID:18097855

  15. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture.

    PubMed

    Drisdom, Sheronda

    2013-08-01

    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:23899976

  16. Preparing African American Counselor Education Students for the Professorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phillip D.; Bradley, Carla R.; Knight, Donald E.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the underrepresentation of African American faculty in CACREP-Accredited counseling programs and to discuss ways of creating and sustaining a pipeline of potential counselor educators for the academy. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Issues in Reconstructing Earlier African-American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the major issues that need to be confronted in resolving the controversy over the historical roots of African American Vernacular English. and discusses their implications for reconstruction. (Author/VWL)

  18. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  19. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  20. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  1. Engaging Depressed African American Adolescents in Treatment: Lessons From The AAKOMA PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate means of engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment. Twenty-eight youth participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Using grounded theory and transcript based analysis, they derived 5 themes describing African American adolescents’ experience of depression and suggested mechanisms for improving African American youth treatment engagement. Practitioners can educate African American youth about depression as a medical disorder, build trust, and apply innovative approaches to recognizing differential manifestations of depression in African American youth. PMID:20564682

  2. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  3. Introduction: Psychosocial Aspects of AIDS Prevention among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Articles in this special issue are devoted to psychosocial aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention in the African-American community. The core assumption is that the values, beliefs, and world views of people of African descent must be understood for AIDS prevention to be effective. (SLD)

  4. In Our Own Image: An African American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This textbook for elementary school children is a history of African Americans from 800 A.D. to 1992 in 24 chapters. Each chapter closes with a review that lists vocabulary words to learn, and offers thinking and writing questions. Some chapters also contain activity sheets. Chapter topics include African origins, black explorers and settlers in…

  5. ASHE: Improvisation & Recycling in African-American Visionary Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Tom

    This exhibition guide provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and brief biographies of 15 self-taught African-American artists whose works were displayed. "Ashe," an African word meaning "the power to make things happen," was used as the theme of the exhibition. The guide verbalizes the exhibit's investigation of the methods of making…

  6. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  7. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

  8. Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Damali N.; Boersma, Brenda J.; Yi, Ming; Reimers, Mark; Howe, Tiffany M.; Yfantis, Harry G.; Tsai, Yien Che; Williams, Erica H.; Lee, Dong H.; Stephens, Robert M.; Weissman, Allan M.; Ambs, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Conclusions The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current

  9. Youth development: a positive strategy for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The concept of positive youth development has been discussed and implemented for over ten years. The more recent emphasis on the connection between community and youth development is as important to the African American community in general as it is to African American youth. Opportunities to experience responsibility and involvement in their community, under the guidance of supportive adults, provide youth the chance of success for themselves and, ultimately, their communities. PMID:12413103

  10. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  11. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  12. Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder. PMID:9231535

  14. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  15. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective study on liver transplantation for HBV infection were analyzed. A total of 274 patients (116 Caucasians, 135 Asians, and 23 African Americans) from 15 centers in the United States were enrolled. African Americans were younger and more Asian Americans had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of liver transplant listing. The probability of undergoing transplantation and the probability of survival on the waitlist were comparable in the 3 racial groups. Of the 170 patients transplanted, 19 died during a median follow-up of 31 months. The probability of post-transplant survival at 5 years was 94% for African Americans, 85% for Asian Americans, and 89% for Caucasians (P = 0.93). HCC recurrence was the only predictor of post-transplant survival, and recurrence rates were similar in the 3 racial groups. Caucasians had a higher rate of HBV recurrence: 4-year recurrence was 19% versus 7% and 6% for Asian Americans and African Americans, respectively (P = 0.043). In conclusion, we found similar waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with hepatitis B. Our finding of a higher rate of HBV recurrence among Caucasians needs to be validated in other studies. PMID:19718627

  16. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  17. A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13-19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the three and six months prior to confinement. These differences may be explained by multiple factors, including differences in acculturation levels among the Cuban American adolescents, differences in health messages targeted at the two groups, and family mores and norms. PMID:19096724

  18. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  19. Competence, Self-Esteem, and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of Ecological Risk and Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…

  20. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  1. Rural African American Parents’ Knowledge and Decisions About Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tami Lynn; Strickland, Ora L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Higgins, Melinda; Haber, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among rural African American families. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study in schools in three rural counties in southeastern United States. The sample consisted of African American parents or caregivers with children 9 to 13 years of age who attended elementary or middle school in 2010–2011. Methods Using an anonymous, 26-item survey, we collected descriptive data during parent-teacher events from African American parents with children in elementary or middle school. The main outcome was measured as a response of “yes” to the statement “I have or will vaccinate my child with the HPV vaccine.” In addition, composite scores of knowledge and positive attitudes and beliefs were compared. No interventions were conducted. Findings We identified predictors of HPV vaccination and found that religious affiliation had a correlation with vaccinating or planning to vaccinate a child. Conclusions Results indicate a need for further research on the role of local culture, including religion and faith, in rural African Americans’ decisions about giving their children the HPV vaccination. Clinical Relevance This study emphasizes the importance of understanding rural African American parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and spiritual beliefs when designing health education programs and public health interventions to increase HPV vaccination uptake among African American boys and girls living in rural areas. PMID:23126428

  2. Attitudes Toward Contraceptive Methods Among African American Men and Women: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Men’s attitudes toward contraceptives are an understudied area, even though many men participate in contraceptive decision-making. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes and perceptions regarding a selection of contraceptive methods among a national sample of African Americans, with a particular focus on gender differences. Methods Data come from a telephone survey of African Americans (aged 15–44 years) living in the contiguous U.S. For the present analyses, the sample was restricted to 152 men and 281 women who reported having had a sexual partner of the opposite gender at some point in their lives. Bivariate analyses compared men and women’s ratings of birth control pills, male condoms, female condoms, Norplant, Depo Provera, female sterilization, and male sterilization along several dimensions: bad/good, harmful/beneficial, difficult/easy, dangerous/safe, immoral/moral, and effectiveness. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between gender and contraceptive attitudes, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Results Male condoms were given the most favorable ratings along most dimensions by both African American men and women. In general, ratings of male condoms, female condoms, and Norplant did not significantly differ by gender. African American men did, however, give female and male sterilization, birth control pills, and Depo Provera significantly poorer ratings than did African American women. Conclusion African American men had less favorable evaluations of some contraceptive methods than did African American women. Further research is needed to examine how such gender differences may play a role in contraceptive decisions. PMID:17321945

  3. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  4. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Trevon D.

    2009-01-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status—former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants. PMID:20161107

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Medical Mistrust Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The current study proposed and tested a conceptual model of medical mistrust in a sample of African American men (N = 216) recruited primarily from barbershops in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States. Potential psychosocial correlates were grouped into background factors, masculine role identity/socialization factors, recent healthcare experiences, recent socioenvironmental experiences (e.g., discrimination), and healthcare system outcome expectations (e.g., perceived racism in healthcare). Direct and mediated relationships were assessed. Results from the hierarchical regression analyses suggest that perceived racism in healthcare was the most powerful correlate of medical mistrust even after controlling for other factors. Direct effects were found for age, masculine role identity, recent patient–physician interaction quality, and discrimination experiences. Also, perceived racism in healthcare mediated the relationship between discrimination experiences and medical mistrust. These findings suggest that African American men’s mistrust of healthcare organizations is related to personal characteristics, previous negative social/healthcare experiences, and expectations of disparate treatment on the basis of race. These findings also imply that aspects of masculine role identity shape the tone of patient–physician interactions in ways that impede trust building processes. PMID:20077134

  6. Breast Cancer Survival among African-Americans Living in the Midwest: Disparities and Recommendations to Decrease Mortality.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jackie; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Shostrom, Valerie; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis

    2015-07-01

    Socioeconomic status is highly correlated with breast cancer risk and outcomes. Omaha, Nebraska has the third highest African-American poverty rate of the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Access to healthcare is a major issue in this community. This study analyzed the state cancer registry data to establish a baseline for breast cancer survivorship among African-American women in Nebraska. Specifically, the study examined the 5-year survivorship difference between African-American women and White women and the factors associated with poor survival. It was found that the 5-year survival rate for African-American women was 43% compared to 75% for White women and that this disparity persisted after taking into consideration the staging differences. The multivariable analysis results indicated that in addition to being African-American, increasing age, late-stage diagnosis, and lower socioeconomic status were factors independently associated with reduced survival in this sample. Because of the younger age at diagnosis among African-American women, we recommend that health promotion and educational programs be directed toward younger women. A significantly larger proportion of African-Americans being diagnosed at a late stage also underscores the importance of education of women of all ages. Future research should examine quality and timing of treatment as well as comorbidity issues affecting African-American women. PMID:26371355

  7. An Investigation of African American Parents' Perception of School Leaders as It Relates to Parent Engagement and the African American Male Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Delvon Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…

  8. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  9. Relationships between Discretionary Time Activities, Emotional Experiences, Delinquency and Depressive Symptoms among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse; Kohl, Krista; Randall, Edin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), this cross-sectional study examined mediated and moderated associations between different types of discretionary time activities and depressive symptoms and delinquency among a sample of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents. More time spent in passive…

  10. Childhood Giftedness and Adulthood Genius: A Historiometric Analysis of 291 Eminent African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2008-01-01

    Although the association between giftedness and genius has been the subject of several retrospective, longitudinal, and historiometric studies, this research concentrated on majority-culture samples. In the current study, Cox's (1926) findings regarding 301 geniuses were replicated on a sample of 291 eminent African Americans. Relative genius was…

  11. Bullying and Depressive Symptomatology among Low-Income, African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Dulin, Akilah; Piko, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a risk and protective factors approach, this research examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptomatology, group membership (bully, victim, bully-victim) risks, and protection among a sample of African-American youths. Self-report data were collected in spring, 2002. Youth in grades 5-12 were sampled (n = 1,542; 51%…

  12. The Status of African American Physicists within the DOE Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith

    2005-03-01

    In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.

  13. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  14. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  15. Religious Coping Among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African American, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White differences in attitudes regarding religious coping with higher endorsements of religious coping among African Americans and Black Caribbeans (Caribbean Blacks). Comparisons of African Americans and Black Caribbeans revealed both similar and divergent patterns of demographic effects. For both African Americans and Black Caribbeans, women were more likely to utilize religious coping than men and married respondents were more likely than never married respondents to report utilizing prayer when dealing with a stressful situation. Further, for both groups, higher levels of education were associated with lower endorsements of the importance of prayer in dealing with stressful situations. Among African Americans only, Southerners were more likely than respondents who resided in other regions to endorse religious coping. Among Black Caribbeans, those who emigrated from Haiti were more likely than Jamaicans to utilize religious coping when dealing with a stressful episode. PMID:21048887

  16. Prevalence of Youth-Reported DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders among African, European, and Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area and examine the association of DSM-IV diagnoses with functional impairment and selected demographic correlates among European Americans (EA), African Americans (AA), and Mexican (MA) Americans. Method: The authors sampled 4,175 youths ages 11 to 17 years…

  17. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Wang, Jen C.; Grucza, Richard A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Johnson, Eric O.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect risk for nicotine dependence in a new sample of African-Americans (N = 710). We also analyzed this African-American sample together with a European-American sample (N=2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7, and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the African-American sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6, and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor SNPs that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the African-American sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in European-Americans and also 1.9% in African-Americans; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside of chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. PMID:20584212

  18. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  19. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  20. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  1. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Outlined in this booklet are key competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in kindergarten through grade six in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have…

  2. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This booklet identifies major competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in grades seven through 12 in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have shaped…

  3. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  4. A Celebration of African-American Artistry and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the traveling exhibition, "Free within Ourselves," that features the works of 31 African American artists taken from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art. Provides biographical information and examples of the work of seven artists: Lois Mailou Jones; Frederick Brown; Bob Thompson; Bill Traylor; Sam Gilliam; Edmonia Lewis;…

  5. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  6. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13944 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our...

  7. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  8. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  9. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations. PMID:25090126

  10. Breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by physicians and WIC counselors.

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Anne C.; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perrin, James M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined rates of breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by medical providers and WIC nutrition counselors, and sought to determine whether racial differences in advice contributed to racial differences in rates of breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of mothers with a live birth, infant death, or fetal death in 1988. The authors compared white women (n=3,966) and African American women (n=4,791) with a live birth in 1988 on self-reported rates of medical provider and WIC advice to breastfeed, WIC advice to bottlefeed, and breastfeeding. RESULTS: Self-reported racial identification did not predict medical provider advice. However, being African American was associated with less likelihood of breastfeeding advice and greater likelihood of bottlefeeding advice from WIC nutrition counselors. In multivariate analyses controlling for differences in advice, being African American was independently associated with lower breastfeeding rates (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41, 95% CI 0.32, 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: African American women were less likely than white women to report having received breastfeeding advice from WIC counselors and more likely to report having received bottlefeeding advice from WIC counselors. However, African American and white women were equally likely to report having received breastfeeding advice from medical providers. Lower rates of breastfeeding advice from medical or nutritional professionals do not account for lower rates of breastfeeding among African American women. PMID:12815087

  11. Evaluation of decision rules for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E.; Holiday, David; Turner, Lori W.; Keenum, Amy J.; Pearman, Cynthia M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While African-American women tend to have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than caucasian women, they are still at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Clinical decision rules (i.e., algorithms) have been developed to assist clinicians identify women at greatest risk of low BMD. However, such tools have only been validated in caucasian and Asian populations. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of five clinical decision rules in identifying postmenopausal African-American women at greatest risk for low femoral BMD. METHODOLOGY: One hundred-seventy-four (n=174) postmenopausal African-American women completed a valid and reliable oral questionnaire to assess lifestyle characteristics, and completed height and weight measures. BMD at the femoral neck was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying African-American women with low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) using five clinical decision rules: Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and body weight less than 70 kg. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of African-American women had low BMD, half of whom had osteoporosis (BMD T-Score < or = -2.5 SD). Sensitivity for identifying women with a low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) ranged from 65.57-83.61%, while specificity ranged from 53.85-78.85%. Positive predictive values ranged from 80.95-87.91%, while negative predictive values ranged from 48.44-58.33%. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the clinical decision rules analyzed in this study have some usefulness for identifying postmenopausal African-American women with low BMD. However, there is a need to establish cut-points for these clinical decision rules in a larger, more diverse sample of African-American women

  12. An Exploratory Study of Responses to Low-Dose Lithium in African Americans and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Salcedo, Stephanie; Ketter, Terrence A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Rabideau, Dustin J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Bazan, Melissa; Leon, Andrew C.; Friedman, Edward S.; Iosifescu, Dan; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Ostacher, Michael; Thase, Michael; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Bowden, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Few prospective studies examine the impact of ethnicity or race on outcomes with lithium for bipolar disorder. This exploratory study examines differences in lithium response and treatment outcomes in Hispanics, African Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites with bipolar disorder in the Lithium Treatment Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS). Methods LiTMUS was a six-site randomized controlled trial of low-dose lithium added to optimized treatment (OPT; personalized, evidence-based pharmacotherapy) versus OPT alone in outpatients with bipolar disorder. Of 283 participants, 47 African Americans, 39 Hispanics, and 175 non-Hispanic whites were examined. We predicted minority groups would have more negative medication attitudes and higher attrition rates, but better clinical outcomes. Results African Americans in the lithium group improved more on depression and life functioning compared to whites over the 6 month study. African Americans in the OPT only group had marginal improvement on depression symptoms. For Hispanics, satisfaction with life did not significantly improve in the OPT only group, in contrast to whites and African Americans who improved over time on all measures. Attitudes toward medications did not differ across ethnic/racial groups. Conclusions African Americans show some greater improvements with lithium than non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics showed more consistent improvements in the lithium group. The impact of low-dose lithium should be studied in a larger sample as there may be particular benefit for African Americans and Hispanics. Given that the control group (regardless of ethnicity/race) had significant improvements, optimized treatment may be beneficial for any ethnic group. PMID:25827507

  13. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  14. Community leaders' perspectives on engaging African Americans in biobanks and other human genetics initiatives.

    PubMed

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2013-10-01

    There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans' perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain engagement of African Americans in genetics initiatives. As the first phase in a mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups with 21 African American community leaders in one US Midwest city. The sample consisted of executive directors of community organizations and prominent community activists. Data were analyzed thematically. Skepticism about biomedical research and lack of trust characterized discussions about biomedical research and biobanks. The Tuskegee Untreated Syphilis Study and the Henrietta Lacks case influenced their desire to protect their community from harm and exploitation. Connections between genetics and family history made genetics/genomics research personal, pitting intrusion into private affairs against solutions. Participants also expressed concerns about ethical issues involved in genomics research, calling attention to how research had previously been conducted in their community. Participants hoped personalized medicine might bring health benefits to their people and proposed African American communities have a "seat at the table." They called for basic respect, authentic collaboration, bidirectional education, transparency and prerogative, and meaningful benefits and remuneration. Key to building trust and overcoming African Americans' trepidation and resistance to participation in biobanks are early and persistent engagement with the community, partnerships with community stakeholders to map research priorities, ethical conduct of research, and

  15. Hostility, cultural orientation, and casual blood pressure readings in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, I N; Harrell, J P; Floyd, L J; Bell, S R

    2001-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hostility correlates with blood pressure levels in African-American samples. However, some studies have reported an inverse relationship, while others have found the relationship between blood pressure and hostility to be positive. Other literature suggests health outcomes in general, and blood pressure in particular, are related to cultural orientation in African-American samples. In the present study, six casual measures of blood pressure and heart rate in a sample of 90 African-American college students were aggregated and correlated with measures of hostility and cultural orientation. Correlational and regression analyses revealed a weak positive relationship between hostility and systolic blood pressure. The relationships between the cardiovascular measures and cultural orientation were more consistent. The tendency to embrace mainstream Euro-American values, such as materialism, individuality, and competitiveness, was associated with more rapid heart rate and higher diastolic blood pressure levels for both men and women. The relationship between systolic blood pressure and cultural orientation emerged for men only. The findings encourage further research into the relationship between personality variables and cardiovascular activity in African-American samples. PMID:11763302

  16. A prospective evaluation of the transthyretin Ile122 allele frequency in an African-American population.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Hamidi Asl, Kamran; Yazaki, Masahide; Benson, Merrill D

    2005-06-01

    Transthyretin Val122Ile is one of greater than 80 mutations in transthyretin (TTR) that are associated with hereditary amyloidosis. Retrospective studies have shown a prevalence of this mutation as high as 3.9% in African-Americans. The present study was undertaken to determine in a prospective fashion the prevalence of the TTR Val122Ile allele in African-Americans in a Midwestern American city. DNA was isolated from cord bloods collected at the time of birth in the County hospital of Indianapolis, Indiana. Samples were identified only as to ethnic origin of the mother. Analysis was performed by PCR amplification of TTR exon 4 followed by SSCP and RFLP. Cord bloods from 1,973 children born at the County hospital were analyzed. Thirty of 1,000 DNA samples from African-American newborns were positive for TTR Val122Ile (3%). Two of 453 DNA samples from Caucasian newborns were positive (0.44%). Zero of 490 DNA samples from newborns of Hispanic mothers and 0 of 30 from newborns with mothers classified as other (including Asian) were positive. This prospective study demonstrates that 3% of newborns of African-American women in an urban population have the TTR Val122Ile mutation which is associated with late-onset cardiomyopathy. The degree of penetrance of this mutation at the clinical level has not yet been determined. PMID:16011990

  17. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  18. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English.

    PubMed

    Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-09-22

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  19. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English

    PubMed Central

    Rickford, John R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E.; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-01-01

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10–15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  20. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume II: Research on the African-American Family: A Holistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.; Billingsley, Andrew; Ingram, Eleanor; Malson, Michelene R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Stack, Carol B.; Stewart, James B.; Teele, James E.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  1. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume V: Health and Medical Care of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  2. The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…

  3. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  4. A comparison of African American and White American veteran MMPI-2 profiles.

    PubMed

    Munley, P H; Morris, J R; Murray, D A; Baines, T C

    2001-03-01

    The present study compared a matched sample of 180 African American and 180 White American veterans who completed the MMPI-2 as a part of their evaluation while receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment. Findings indicated no significant multivariate or univariate effects associated with race on the basic validity and clinical scales, a significant multivariate effect but no significant univariate effects associated with race across the supplementary scales. Overall the two groups had very similar mean profiles across the basic validity, clinical, and supplementary scales. Comparison of the two groups on the content scales yielded a significant multivariate and significant univariate effects with African Americans scoring higher on the FRS, BIZ, CYN, and ASP scales. Because the two groups differed in terms of frequency and type of drug abuse, follow-up 2 x 2 univariate analyses of variance were conducted for the FRS, BIZ, CYN, and ASP content scales comparing participants classified in terms of presence or absence of a primary or secondary drug abuse diagnosis by race. A significant main effect associated with drug abuse was obtained for ASP. Results are discussed and considered in light of earlier research on the MMPI-2 and race. Content scale differences are also discussed in terms of possible differences in worldview. PMID:11310720

  5. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  6. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044

  7. Mutational Landscape of Aggressive Prostate Tumors in African American Men.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Karla J; Paris, Pamela L; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Cardin, Niall J; Kazma, Rémi; Mefford, Joel A; Simko, Jeffrey P; Ngo, Vy; Chen, Yalei; Levin, Albert M; Chitale, Dhananjay; Helfand, Brian T; Catalona, William J; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Witte, John S

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed and second most fatal nonskin cancer among men in the United States. African American men are two times more likely to develop and die of prostate cancer compared with men of other ancestries. Previous whole genome or exome tumor-sequencing studies of prostate cancer have primarily focused on men of European ancestry. In this study, we sequenced and characterized somatic mutations in aggressive (Gleason ≥7, stage ≥T2b) prostate tumors from 24 African American patients. We describe the locations and prevalence of small somatic mutations (up to 50 bases in length), copy number aberrations, and structural rearrangements in the tumor genomes compared with patient-matched normal genomes. We observed several mutation patterns consistent with previous studies, such as large copy number aberrations in chromosome 8 and complex rearrangement chains. However, TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and PTEN losses occurred in only 21% and 8% of the African American patients, respectively, far less common than in patients of European ancestry. We also identified mutations that appeared specific to or more common in African American patients, including a novel CDC27-OAT gene fusion occurring in 17% of patients. The genomic aberrations reported in this study warrant further investigation of their biologic significant role in the incidence and clinical outcomes of prostate cancer in African Americans. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1860-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921337

  8. A Pilot Program in Collaboration with African American Churches Successfully Increases Awareness of the Importance of Cancer Research and Participation in Cancer Translational Research Studies among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Albertie, Monica; Lesperance, Mary; Weis, Jennifer A.; Coles, Alton; Smith, Nina; Mills, Lynette; Woodward, Timothy; Aspitia, Alvaro Moreno; Vishnu, Prakash; Willis, Floyd; Isley, Amber; Fonseca, Rafael; Vachon, Celine; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in cancer research. We evaluate whether collaboration with African American churches can improve cancer awareness and increase participation in translational research protocols among African Americans. From February to April 2010, the Mayo Clinic partnered with African American Jacksonville churches to provide educational programs focused on cancer research and healthy behaviors. Education on multiple myeloma and on-site access to a translational cancer research pilot project evaluating the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies and t(14,18) in African Americans was offered. Seventy-four percent, 236 out of 318 participants, returned the questionnaires. The majority of participants had never received information on multiple myeloma (67%), had never received clinical research study information (57%), and were enrolled in the translational research studies (55%). Partnerships with African American churches in community education projects that bring research to church venues are effective in improving cancer awareness and in increasing research participation among African Americans. PMID:22072126

  9. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrated a significant predictor of depression, including alcohol (β = .16, p= .03), hallucinogens (β = − .17, p =.021), and ecstasy (β = − .14, p= .05). The study findings indicate a need to consider the role of specific substances with regard to symptoms of depression. The results are discussed in the context of transition planning for jail inmates. PMID:27133518

  10. PARENTAL STRESS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN PARENTS AND GRANDPARENTS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Artinian, Nancy T.; Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental stress, health (defined as level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index), childcare characteristics, and social support. The study used a correlational research design and the setting was the metropolitan Detroit area. The sample consisted of 120 hypertensive African American parents and grandparents who reported caring for 1 to 9 children living in the household. Several variables (average diastolic blood pressure, number of children/grandchildren in home, child/grandchild is physically/mentally disabled, ability to decrease stress) were statistically significant predictors of parental stress. These results indicate that the multiple demands of parenting may become a barrier to making life-style changes for parents and grandparents diagnosed with hypertension. Nursing implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:17454289

  11. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual's substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrated a significant predictor of depression, including alcohol (β = .16, p= .03), hallucinogens (β =-.17, p =.021), and ecstasy (β =-.14, p= .05). The study findings indicate a need to consider the role of specific substances with regard to symptoms of depression. The results are discussed in the context of transition planning for jail inmates. PMID:27133518

  12. Neighborhood environment and internalizing problems in African American children.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2012-02-01

    This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each AOD item present on the block the odds of internalizing problems among girls increased by 17% (OR = 1.17, CI: 1.01, 1.35, P = 0.039). The relationship was not significant among boys. Violence exposure did not predict internalizing problems in boys or girls. These preliminary findings suggest that primary school-aged girls' emotional well-being is more negatively impacted by deleterious environments. Future investigations will examine the relationship between deleterious neighborhood environments and internalizing problems as the children age into adolescence. PMID:21234683

  13. African Ancestry Analysis and Admixture Genetic Mapping for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Arti; Chen, Ching J.; Penman, Alan; Hancock, Heather; James, Maurice; Husain, Deeba; Andreoli, Christopher; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z.; Idowu, Omolola; Riche, Daniel; Papavasilieou, Evangelia; Brauner, Stacey; Smith, Sataria O.; Hoadley, Suzanne; Richardson, Cole; Kieser, Troy; Vazquez, Vanessa; Chi, Cheryl; Fernandez, Marlene; Harden, Maegan; Cotch, Mary Frances; Siscovick, David; Taylor, Herman A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Patterson, Nick; Sobrin, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between proportion of African ancestry (PAA) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to identify genetic loci associated with PDR using admixture mapping in African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Between 1993 and 2013, 1440 participants enrolled in four different studies had fundus photographs graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Cases (n = 305) had PDR while controls (n = 1135) had nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) or no DR. Covariates included diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1C, systolic blood pressure, income, and education. Genotyping was performed on the Affymetrix platform. The association between PAA and PDR was evaluated using logistic regression. Genome-wide admixture scanning was performed using ANCESTRYMAP software. Results. In the univariate analysis, PDR was associated with increased PAA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–1.59, P = 0.0002). In multivariate regression adjusting for traditional DR risk factors, income and education, the association between PAA and PDR was attenuated and no longer significant (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.59–2.47, P = 0.61). For the admixture analyses, the maximum genome-wide score was 1.44 on chromosome 1. Conclusions. In this largest study of PDR in African Americans with T2D to date, an association between PAA and PDR is not present after adjustment for clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. No genome-wide significant locus (defined as having a locus-genome statistic > 5) was identified with admixture analysis. Further analyses with even larger sample sizes are needed to definitively assess if any admixture signal for DR is present. PMID:26098467

  14. Alcohol use and depression among African-American and Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maag, John W; Irvin, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI). Extreme groups were formed using upper (> 75%) and lower (< 25%) quartiles. Three other groups were formed using each instrument's normatively derived cutoff scores: depressed only (RADS > 77), heavy drinking (ADI > 16) and mixed (RADS > 77, ADI > 16). Several results were obtained. First, Caucasians obtained significantly higher scores on the ADI than African-Americans, although no differences were obtained for the RADS. Females scored higher on the RADS but lower on the ADI than males. In terms of extreme scores, females were less likely to belong to the severe depression group, while older adolescents in general and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the heavy-drinking group. Finally, using RADS and ADI cutoff scores, females were less likely than males to belong to the depression only group as were African-Americans. Older adolescents, in general, and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the mixed group than did their counterparts. PMID:15861619

  15. Understanding "masculinity" and the challenges of managing type-2 diabetes among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Leandris C.; Namageyo-Funa, Apophia; Jack, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    African-American men bear a greater burden of type-2 diabetes and its associated complications. The purpose of this analysis was to explore in greater depth themes that emerged in illness narratives of a small sample of African-American men living with type-2 diabetes. The primary theme that is the focus of this article is the lived experience of black manhood and masculinity and its intersection with the challenges of diabetes self-management. In-depth interviews with 16 African-American men who had established type-2 diabetes yielded thematic analyses of four questions: (1) What do you fear most about having diabetes? (2) In what ways have people in your life treated you differently after learning you have diabetes? (3) In what ways has knowing you have diabetes affected the way you see yourself? and (4) What are some reactions when you tell people you have diabetes? This preliminary study suggests that the requirements of diabetes self-management often run counter to the traditional sex roles and learned behaviors of African-American men, and this can contribute to nonadherence to medications and poor glycemic control. Gender identity is a key cultural factor that influences health-related behaviors, including how men with type-2 diabetes engage with the healthcare system and manage their diabetes. Understanding African-American men's gender identity is an important component of cultural competency for physicians and can be consequential in patient outcomes. PMID:17534013

  16. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  17. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  18. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  19. Do the adult criminal careers of African Americans fit the “facts”?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A major gap in the criminal career research is our understanding of offending among African Americans, especially beyond early adulthood. In light of this gap, this study describes the criminal career patterns of a cohort of African American males and females. Methods This paper uses official criminal history data spanning ages 17 to 52 from the Woodlawn Study, a community cohort of 1,242 urban African American males and females. We use basic descriptive statistics as well as group-based modeling to provide a detailed description of the various dimensions of their adult criminal careers. Results We find cumulative prevalence rates similar to those for African Americans from national probability sample estimates, yet participation in offending extends farther into midlife than expected with a substantial proportion of the cohort still engaged in offending into their 30s. Conclusions The descriptive analyses contribute to the larger body of knowledge regarding the relationship between age and crime and the unfolding of the criminal career for African American males and females. The applicability of existing life course and developmental theories is discussed in light of the findings. PMID:25605979

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  1. "I Don't Think Black Men Teach Because How They Get Treated as Students": High-Achieving African American Boys' Perceptions of Teaching as a Career Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Anthony; Erwin, Kimberly D.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation examines the perceptions of the teaching profession as a viable career option by high-achieving high school-aged African American boys. Researchers used random sampling to identify high schools in one large urban school district and criterion sampling to examine the perceptions of 63 African American 11th-grade…

  2. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  3. Transthyretin isoleucine-122 mutation in African and American blacks.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, I; Hamidi Asl, K; Nakamura, M; Jacobs, P; Hendrie, H; Benson, M D

    2000-06-01

    The gene frequency of the transthyretin (TTR) mutation (Val122Ile) was studied in African and African-American populations. The African populations analyzed included the Zulu and Xhosa of South Africa, and Yorubas from the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The African-American population included patients at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Indianapolis, and newborns from a local hospital in Indianapolis. The Val122Ile TTR mutation was identified in 1 of 55 Zulu, 0 of 34 Xhosa, 0 of 9 Nigerian subjects, 5 of 51 Veteran patients, and 3 of 103 newborns. Assuming the 2.91% prevalence in newborns to be the norm, there is a significant increased prevalence in the VA patient population. PMID:10842715

  4. "Eating-together" mealtimes with African-American fathers and their toddlers.

    PubMed

    A Horodynski, Mildred; Arndt, Mary Jo

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in African-American children. Fathers influence mealtime behaviors but are often overlooked in nutrition education. A sample of six African-American fathers of toddlers participated in a focus group to describe mealtime behaviors with their toddlers. The focus group was audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Five thematic categories were identified: mealtime rituals and routines, division of responsibility, family constellation, nutritional knowledge, and tension during mealtimes. Fathers expressed frustration with the toddler's "picky-eater" developmental stage. Fathers need to be included in nutrition education that promotes healthy mealtime habits with their toddlers. PMID:15991109

  5. Dimensions of religion, depression symptomatology, and substance use among rural African American cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E; Bryant, Keneshia J; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a relationship between depression, substance use, and religiosity but, few have investigated this relationship in a community sample of African Americans who use drugs. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of religion (positive and negative religious coping; private and public religious participation; religious preference; and God-, clergy-, and congregation-based religious support), depression symptomatology, and substance use among 223 African American cocaine users. After controlling for gender, employment, and age, greater congregation-based support and greater clergy-based support were associated with fewer reported depressive symptoms. In addition, greater congregation-based support was associated with less alcohol use. PMID:24564561

  6. Naming and Claiming Cancer among African American Women: An Application of Problematic Integration Theory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elisia L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how a sample of African American women understands the uncertainties fundamental to cancer risk communication. Utilizing data from four focus groups, Problematic Integration (PI) theory is applied as an interpretive lens for illustrating their felt difficulties of talking openly about cancer and breast cancer in everyday life. The women describe worry about cancer and its prevalence among African American women; ambivalence and uncertainty; belief that what is not uncertain is certain and awful; fear and avoidance; contradictions in “claiming” and “rebuking” cancer; and hopefulness. PMID:20160969

  7. Dimensions of Religion, Depression Symptomatology, and Substance Use Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Bryant, Keneshia J.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a relationship between depression, substance use, and religiosity but, few have investigated this relationship in a community sample of drug-using African Americans. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of religion (positive and negative religious coping, private and public religious participation, religious preference, and God-based, clergy-based, and congregation-based religious support), depression symptomatology, and substance use among 223 African American cocaine users. After controlling for gender, employment, and age, greater congregation-based support and greater clergy-based support were associated with fewer reported depressive symptoms. Additionally, greater congregation-based support was associated with less alcohol use. PMID:24564561

  8. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later. PMID:22837637

  9. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  10. Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152

  11. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner. PMID:24895047

  12. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  13. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L

    2014-10-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497

  14. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved. PMID:11802488

  15. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk. PMID:7602459

  16. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

  17. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation With African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice project and presented their phototexts to the Washington State asthma planning committee. Critical discourse analysis methodology was used to analyze adolescent phototexts and the State asthma plan. We found that the State plan did not address AMD in African American adolescents. Adolescents discussed more topics on AMD than the State plan presented, and they introduced new topics concerning residential mobility, poor nutrition, inadequate athletic opportunities, and schools with stairs. Current health policy may be constraining effective responses to asthma disparities in youth. School nursing leadership can use photovoice to advance youth voice in transforming structural inequities in urban school environments. PMID:26059203

  18. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  19. Emotion regulation strategies and later externalizing behavior among European American and African American children

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early emotion regulation strategies (ERS) have been related to externalizing problems; however, most studies have included predominantly European American, middle-class children. The current study explores whether ERS use may have differential outcomes as a function of the mother’s ethnic culture. The study utilizes two diverse samples of low-income male toddlers to examine observed ERS during a delay of gratification task in relation to maternal and teacher reports of children’s externalizing behavior 2 to 6 years later. Although the frequencies of ERS were comparable between ethnic groups in both samples, the use of physical comfort seeking and self-soothing was positively related to African American children’s later externalizing behavior but negatively related to externalizing behavior for European American children in Sample 1. Data from Sample 2 appear to support this pattern for self-soothing in maternal, but not teacher, reportof externalizing behavior. Within group differences by income were examined as a possible explanatory factor accounting for the ethnic differences, but it was not supported. Alternative explanations are discussed to explain the pattern of findings. PMID:19338690

  20. Influence of CYP2C9 Genotype on warfarin dose among African American and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Na; Goldstein, Ja; Blaisdell, Ja; Beasley, Tm; Rivers, Ca; Acton, Rt

    2007-05-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) plays a vital role in drug metabolism. There has been an increased effort to identify polymorphisms within the gene and determine their clinical consequences. However, most of these efforts have focused on populations of European descent. Herein we report the influence of CYP2C9 genotype on warfarin dose among European American and African American patients. We also identify two new mutations; one in the coding region and one in the non-coding region of the CYP2C9 gene. METHODS: Patients (≥20 years of age) are enrolled after obtaining medical, lifestyle and concomitant medication history. Changes in International Normalized Ratio (INR), warfarin dose, co-medications, diet, physical activity and the occurrence of complications are documented. CYP2C9 genotype was determined using PCR-RFLP and pyrosequencing. Differences in genotype frequencies and HWE assumptions were assessed using χ(2) statistics and exact tests. The genotype dose association was evaluated using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: This report includes 490 patients (mean age 60.6 ± 15.6, 51.3% men). African American patients comprise 48.9% of the cohort with mean follow-up of 13.5 (±10.6) months. Both the CYP2C9 *2 and *3 allele were more frequent in European Americans (11.24%, 5.1%) compared to African Americans (1.1% and 1.8%). CYP2C9 *5 (0.9%), *6 (0.4%), and *11 (1.1%) variants were only observed in African Americans. The variant genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans (29.8% vs. 9.73%, p<0.0001). Warfarin dose was significantly related to CYP2C9 genotype (p<0.0001) both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariable race-specific analyses highlight the contribution of CYP2C9 genotype among European American but not among African American patients. CONCLUSION: The variant CYP2C9 genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans. Among African Americans the variant