Green, Aundria Chephan
The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.
Jeffers, Adam R.
This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Black, Helen K.; White, Tracela; Hannum, Susan M.
Objectives This article focuses on the lived experience of depression in 20 elderly African American women. Methods Data on depression emerged from research that qualitatively explored experiences of depression, sadness, and suffering in 120 community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older, stratified by gender, ethnicity, and self-reported health. Results We placed women’s narratives under three general themes: Depression was (a) linked with diminishment of personal strength, (b) related to sadness and suffering, and (c) preventable or resolvable through personal responsibility. Brief accounts illustrate how themes emerged in women’s discussion of depression. Discussion African American women created a language for depression that was rooted in their personal and cultural history and presented in vivid vignettes through their life stories. Their belief systems and the language they used to describe depression are integral aspects of the lived experience of depression. PMID:18079427
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Brown, Anthony L.
Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…
There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…
Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya
Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participated. Using qualitative phenomenological data analysis, results showed the women held beliefs about factors that can cause depression including experiences of trauma, poverty, and disempowerment. Results also indicated the women believed that depression is a normal reaction to life circumstances and did not see the need to seek professional treatment for depression. They coped by use of culturally-sanctioned behaviours including religious practices and resilience. It appears these women’s beliefs about depression and use of culturally-sanctioned coping behaviours might potentially be a barrier to seeking professional mental health care, which could result in missed opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of depression among this group. Implications for research, educational and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23742034
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation
Jones, Joffery, III.
Purpose: This study examined African American teachers' perceptions of their teaching experiences in schools that were once primarily populated with African American students but have experienced shifts in demographics to primarily consisting of Hispanic students. The study focused on three areas. The first area was African American teachers'…
Burnette, Samara Fleming
Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…
Hilliard, Asa G., III
Explores the history of KMT (ancient Egypt) and its importance for contemporary African-American experience. Reviews evidence that ancient Egypt was a black African population bound by history and culture to the rest of Africa. The rescue of Kemetic history can restore a sense of heritage to African Americans. (SLD)
Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.
This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924
Williams, Jeanine L.
Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…
Holmes, Kimberly Monique
The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…
This study focuses on how social class affects the college experiences and outcomes for African American students in 4-year colleges and universities. Using a national, longitudinal data base, the findings indicate that low SES African American students have less contact with faculty, study less, are less involved with student organizations, work…
Patitu, Carol Logan; Hinton, Kandace G.
This chapter explores factors of concern for, and overall experiences of, African American female faculty and administrators, including salary issues, affirmative action, racism, sexism, homophobia, campus climate, isolation, tenure and promotion processes, and salary. The data reported here were gathered during a study of African American women…
Powell, Clark R.
This phenomenological research explored the lived experiences of successful African American men attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in the Midwest. The guiding questions for the study were (a) What positive characteristics do successful African American men demonstrate at HBCUs that offset major problems, concerns, and…
Huff, Carlton L.
Although there are more African American male students in higher education, they do not succeed to the same extent as other demographic groups. The purpose of this Action Research qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis is to explore the lived experiences of African American male high school students in regards to their academic…
Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs typically require their graduates to learn to swim proficiently. However, the research base is underdeveloped regarding the aquatic experiences of African Americans in PETE programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning African American PETE teacher candidates ascribe to their…
Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.
This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…
McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman
This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…
Oaks, D'Arcy John; Duckett, Kirstan; Suddeth, Todd; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance
Qualitative interviews were employed to assess the effectiveness of a leadership program geared toward African American male personal and professional development, and to examine the relationship between program participation and connectedness. Elements of both social engagement (mentoring and being mentored, peer-to-peer relationships, and…
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Spencer, Natalie Faye
The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…
Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Perry, Sylvia P; Najdowski, Cynthia J
Little is known about African American families' experiences with mental health services. A purposive sample of 40 dyads of African American youth (aged 13 to 19) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews that elicited information about their past experiences and satisfaction with mental health services. Though rarely received, group and family therapy were perceived favorably. However, both mothers and youth reported dissatisfaction centered on medication and lack of professionalism, confidentiality, and concern by providers. The failure of mental health services providers to meet basic standards of quality and professionalism may explain the low rate of service use by African Americans.
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
Njie-Carr, Veronica; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria
This qualitative study examined the experiences of HIV-positive African-American and African Caribbean childbearing women related to decisions about HIV testing, status disclosure, adhering to treatment, decisions about childbearing, and experiences in violent intimate relationships. Twenty-three women completed a 60-minute in-depth interview. Six themes emerged: perceived vulnerability to HIV infection; feelings about getting tested for HIV; knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors after HIV diagnosis; disclosure of HIV status; living with HIV (positivity, strength, and prayer); and, experiences with physical and sexual violence. Three women (13%) reported perinatal abuse and 10 women (n = 23, 43.4%) reported lifetime abuse. Positive experiences and resilience were gained from faith and prayer. Most important to the women were the perceived benefits of protecting the health of their baby. Findings suggest that policies supporting early identification of HIV-positive childbearing women are critical in order to provide counseling and education in forming their decisions for safety precautions in violent intimate partner relationships. PMID:23061166
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier
Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith
Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Clay, LaTasha K.
Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…
Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.
The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…
Wakefield, W. David; Fajardo, Gabriela
This study investigated male Latino and African American adolescents' experiences with racial discrimination at school. Participants (N = 85) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their experiences with racial discrimination. Overall, Latino and African…
Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.
Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860
Johnson, Avonda C.
The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…
Littleton, Robert A.
Describes the experiences of 16 African American students who attended four small, predominantly White colleges in the Southern Appalachian region of the United States. The African American community at these small colleges can sometimes be an unforeseen cultural experience especially for Black male and female nonathletes. Qualitative methodology…
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted.
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Obeng, Cecilia S.; Emetu, Roberta E.; Curtis, Terry J.
There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African-American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study is to explore how African-American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N = 20, 10 in each group) were conducted with African-American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population. PMID:26734597
Simmons, Jake; Lowery-Hart, Russell; Wahl, Shawn T.; McBride, M. Chad
In this study, we sought to understand African-American students' higher-education experiences in predominantly White universities. We utilized Baxter's relational dialectics theory to study components of focus-group discussions in order to understand the discourse and meaning-making process of participants. Our findings provide insight into the…
Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.
Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Moore, Thomas E.; Houchen, Deidre F.; Roberts, Kellie W.
The purpose of this study was: 1) to explore the pre-tenure experiences of an African American female faculty member in a counselor education program; and 2) to compare the themes that ascended from a precursor study to the current one. By using critical ethnography and case study format, this research gave voice to the participant by prompting…
This study explored and described the experience of female African-American nursing faculty seeking employment in higher education in nursing. The lack of diversity in the nursing workforce has been attributed as a major underlying cause of disparity in healthcare in the United States. The importance of increasing the number of minority nursing…
The purpose of this research project is to study the experiences of Sub-Saharan African students, who have earned professional degrees from American institutions and are currently living in the United States. Acculturative stressors have been identified by researchers as predictors of loneliness, depression, homesickness, and poor mental health…
Moon, Natasha S.; Singh, Anneliese A.
The authors use a phenomenological research tradition grounded in CRT tenets to describe the daily lived experiences that 12 male African American youth had in relation to the achievement gap. Researchers collected individual semi-structured interviews and focus group data related to the study phenomenon. There were five themes identified in…
Jackson, Sandra; Harris, Sandra
This study was an investigation of the experiences and perceptions of barriers to the presidency of 43 African American female college and university presidents. Findings suggested that exclusion from informal networks, lack of preparation and lack of career goals were primary barriers. Strategies to overcome these barriers included exceeding job…
Wingate, Crystal Nicole
This dissertation will focus on the lived experiences of African-American school counselors in majority school districts and the lack of retention among this population. The lack of retention and representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce has been the subject of much discussion throughout the United States (Ingersoll, 2004). The…
Pollard, Tamica McClarty
The purpose of this study was to examine how five African American middle school students, who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina represent their literacy experiences before, during, and after their displacement. Specifically, the two research questions were: (a) What are the stories that these middle school students tell about their lives,…
Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.
This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…
Ivory, Shirley Clark
This study was an IRB approved qualitative investigation of experiences of the single low-income African American mothers in their maternal protective role. In-depth interviews and a focus group were conducted with 13 single-low income women who met the criteria for participation in the study, in an effort to understand the social context in which…
Banks, Kira Hudson
The current study examines the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. In particular, it investigated whether college hassles moderated or mediated the relationship. Participants included 194 African American students from a large, Midwestern, state university. Participants provided self-report of their experience of…
This study examined the fatherhood experiences of 50 low-income, urban, African American fathers and father figures whose children were enrolled in an Early Head Start Program. Information was gathered via qualitative interviews conducted within participants' homes and communities and participant observation. Quantitative methods were used to…
The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…
Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine
Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…
Jobe, LaWanda D.
African American women are enrolling and returning to college in large numbers across many community college campuses, especially those women who would be characterized as nontraditional students. This qualitative study examined and analyzed the experiences, stresses, and coping mechanisms of first generation, nontraditional, single parent,…
Robinson, Armentress D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the personal, professional, and sociocultural experiences of ten African American female school leaders serving as assistant principals, principals, and central office administrators in four suburban school districts in the southeast region of the…
Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.
The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…
Stewart, Gail A.
The current study examines the language attitudes, racial identity and educational experiences of 75 African American university and community college students. This study is motivated by the hypothesis that the power of language attitudes dictates, to a large extent, the language one speaks, which is intimately tied to one's sense of…
Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace
Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.
Johnson, Kimberly C.
A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…
Explored factors contributing to addiction in 140 African-American males in an inner-city homeless shelter. A common theme in their life stories is that of negative and painful experiences with father figures. Suggestions are made for research into this area and policy strategies to enhance the African-American father's role. (SLD)
Journal of American College Health, 2005
Sixteen African American students participated in semi-structured, open-ended interviews about their experiences at small, predominantly white colleges in the Appalachian region. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: community among minorities and minority within a minority. The students described community among African Americans on campus…
Scott, Sonya V.; Rodriguez, Louie F.
This study draws from a larger phenomenological study on African American academic persistence and career aspirations in education. This article highlights three African American males' experiences with concentrated forms of stereotype threat in teacher education. Their voices revealed dimensions of how power and privilege operate in teacher…
Wiggins, David K; Wiggins, Brenda P
This study analyzes the experiences of African Americans in the physical education and kinesiology profession since the late 1850s. Using a variety of primary and secondary source material, we place special emphasis on the experiences of African American physical educators in higher education and in the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and its southern, regional, and state chapters. Apparent from this examination is that African Americans have experienced various forms of racially discriminatory practices in physical education and kinesiology and have found it extraordinarily difficult to assume leader ship positions in the profession and be acknowledged for their scholarly and academic accomplishments.
Bulls, Domonique L.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are the fastest growing sectors of the economy, nationally and globally. In order for the United States (U.S.) to maintain its competitiveness, it is important to address STEM experiences at the precollege level. In early years, science education serves as a foundation and pipeline for students to pursue STEM in college and beyond. Alternative approaches to instruction in formal classrooms have been introduced to engage more students in science. One alternative is informal science education. Informal science education is an avenue used to promote science education literacy. Because it is less regulated than science teaching in formal classroom settings, it allows for the incorporation of culture into science instruction. Culturally relevant science teaching is one way to relate science to African American students, a population that continually underperforms in K-12 science education. This study explores the science perspectives and experiences of African American middle school students participating in an informal science program. The research is framed by the tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy and shaped by the following questions: (1) What specific aspects of the Carver Program make it unique to African American students? (2) How is culturally relevant pedagogy incorporated into the informal science program? (3) How does the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy into the informal science program influence African American students' perceptions about science? The findings to the previously stated questions add to the limited research on African American students in informal science learning environments and contribute to the growing research on culturally relevant science. This study is unique in that it explores the cultural components of an informal science program.
Whitfield, Tracy N.
The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…
Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes
Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.
Lesane, Everick S.
This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…
Burrell, Leon F.; Walsh, Robert L.
Many white students are barely exposed to African-American history throughout their schooling. When students do examine the other side of American history, the one not generally found in their textbooks, they often wonder why they have not learned this before. An understanding of African-American history is central to any effort to eliminate…
Foster, Clarence E; Philosophe, Benjamin; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Colonna, John O; Farney, Alan C; Jarrell, Bruce; Anderson, Leslie; Bartlett, Stephen T
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the strategies instituted by the authors' center to decrease the time to transplantation and increase the rate of transplantation for African-Americans, consisting of a formal education program concerning the benefits of living organ donation that is oriented to minorities; a laparoscopic living donation program; use of hepatitis C-positive donors in documented positive recipients; and encouraging vaccination for hepatitis B, allowing the use of hepatitis B core Ab-positive donors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The national shortage of suitable kidney donor organs has disproportional and adverse effects on African-Americans for several reasons. Type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension, major etiologic factors for end-stage renal disease, are more prevalent in African-Americans than in the general population. Once kidney failure has developed, African-Americans are disadvantaged for the following reasons: this patient cohort has longer median waiting times on the renal transplant list; African-Americans have higher rates of acute rejection, which affects long-term allograft survival; and once they are transplanted, the long-term graft survival rates are lower in this population than in other groups. METHODS From March 1990 to November 2001 the authors' center performed 2,167 renal transplants; 944 were in African-Americans (663 primary cadaver renal transplants and 253 primary Living donor renal transplants). The retransplants consisted of 83 cadaver transplants and 17 living donor transplants. Outcome measures of this retrospective analysis included median waiting time, graft and patient survival rates, and the rate of living donation in African-Americans and comparable non-African-Americans. Where applicable, data are compared to United Network for Organ Sharing national statistics. Statistical analysis employed appropriate SPSS applications. RESULTS One- and 5-year patient survival rates for living donor kidneys were 97.1% and 91.3% for non-African-Americans
Blockus, Linda Helen
The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models
Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.
Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…
Wilson, Deborah W
This phenomenological study described the lived experience of African American registered nurses providing nursing care to individuals, families, and communities in southeast Louisiana. Data were collected from 13 African American registered nurses using semistructured interviews and a focus group. Analysis of the phenomenological data revealed two essential themes, (a) connecting with the patient and (b) proving yourself; and four incidental themes, (a) a fulfilling dream, (b) being invisible and voiceless, (c) surviving and persevering, and (d) mentoring and role modeling. The findings revealed that the general perception among participants was that they were not fully accepted as equal professionals by their Caucasian nurse colleagues, other health care providers, and sometimes patients. The findings of the study indicate the immediate need to address and resolve the issues of diversity within the nursing profession. Nursing will also have to reform its system and practices to embrace and support diversity.
The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.
Crim, Sharan R.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
Vescio, Vicki A.
As a group, African American males face some pervasive obstacles to school success. Collectively they are expelled, suspended, disciplined, retained, and referred to special education at disproportionately high percentages when compared to their peers. As a result of this persistent treatment, African American males have a tendency to disidentify…
The large number of suspensions of African American high school males is one of the primary concerns facing high school administrators nationwide. At high schools in the southern United States, African American males are suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. Suspensions affect their levels of achievement, attitudes towards school,…
Harper, Shaun R.
More than two-thirds of all African American males who begin college never finish. This and a legion of other discouraging facts about African American males are the usual headlines. Sharon Fries-Britt suggests that "the disproportionate focus on Black underachievement in the literature not only distorts the image of the community of Black…
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
The lack of postsecondary success for African American males has garnered significant attention from academic scholars and public policy leaders. While this scholarship provides a strong portrait on issues related to African American males, there are still significant gaps to be addressed. Most notably, current research tends to focus on students…
Jenkins, Shantelle K.
Many studies involving African American male students have focused on achievement gaps and student retention models of those attending four-year institutions. However, there are limited investigations of African American male students at the community college and very few that focus on faculty perceptions. This study employed a mixed Delphi…
Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Wells, Anita M.; Simon, Nolanna; Schiffer, Linda
Breast-cancer survival rates are lower among African American women compared to White women. Obesity may contribute to this disparity. More than 77% of African American women are overweight or obese. Adopting health behaviors that promote a healthy weight status may be beneficial because obesity increases risk for recurrence. Studies among White…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.
Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…
Rosenbloom, Susan Rakosi; Way, Niobe
Interviews and participant observation are used to describe how ethnic minority students in an urban high school experience discrimination. The findings suggest critical variations among students that contributed to a hostile school environment. Asian American students discussed physical and verbal harassment by peers, while Black and Latino…
McNeilly, M D; Anderson, N B; Armstead, C A; Clark, R; Corbett, M; Robinson, E L; Pieper, C F; Lepisto, E M
The experience of racism is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon. At present, there are few instruments that attempt to capture the experience of racism in all of its complexity. For this study, a new instrument, the Perceived Racism Scale, has been constructed to assess the experience of racism in African Americans in a multidimensional manner. The scale not only provides a measure of the frequency of exposure to many manifestations of racism (including individual and institutional, overt and covert, attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural), but takes a step forward in more comprehensively measuring the experience of racism by assessing emotional and behavioral coping responses to racism. These responses are measured with respect to exposure to racism in three situational domains: on the job, in academic settings, and in the public realm. Measurement of responses to a fourth domain, that of exposure to racist statements, is also included. It is hoped that the Perceived Racism Scale will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the experience of racism among African Americans and, through its use in research and clinical settings, will ultimately move us closer to reducing the prevalence and potentially untoward effects of racism.
Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea; Oser, Carrie
Research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilise preventative care services than Americans of European descent, and that these patterns may contribute to racial health disparities in the United States. Despite the persistence of inequalities in preventative care utilisation, culturally relevant factors influencing the use of these gateway health services have been understudied among marginalised groups. Using a stratified sample of 205 low-income African American women, this research examines the predictors of receiving a physical exam, with a particular emphasis on how differing levels of social support from friend and family networks and experiences of racial discrimination and cultural mistrust shape utilisation. The findings underscore the importance of traditional predictors of utilisation, including insurance status and having a usual physician. However, they also indicate that supportive ties to friendship networks are associated with higher predicted rates of having an annual physical exam, while social support from family and sentiments of cultural mistrust are associated with lower rates of utilisation. Broadly, the findings indicate that even as traditional predictors of help-seeking become less relevant, it will be critical to explore how variations in discrimination experiences and social relationships across marginalised groups drive patterns of preventative care utilisation.
Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…
Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D
This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships.
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
Squires, Stephanie Michelle
This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will
Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa
Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…
Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770
... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...
Smith, Craig A.
Continued research on the first-year experience of African American male students entering institutions of higher learning is necessary and can provide a deeper look at institutional and individual factors that African American male students may encounter, and impact their academic success. Understanding the issues that affect African American…
Bell, Edward E.
Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…
Muhammad, Rhonda K.
This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S
Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Guevarra, Josephine S.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.
This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research. PMID:12856911
Colbert, Daveda Jean
There is a leadership crisis that exists in our schools creating an urgent need for effective leadership. Even though African American women have made slight gains, throughout the country people of color and women are dramatically underrepresented in the superintendency. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to provide African American…
Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S
This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma.
Coats, Heather; Crist, Janice D; Berger, Ann; Sternberg, Esther; Rosenfeld, Anne G
The foundation of culturally sensitive patient-centered palliative care is formed from one's social, spiritual, psychological, and physical experiences of serious illness. The purpose of this study was to describe categories and patterns of psychological, social, and spiritual healing from the perspectives of aging seriously ill African American (AA) elders. Using narrative analysis methodology, 13 open-ended interviews were collected. Three main patterns were "prior experiences," "I changed," and "across past, present experiences and future expectations." Themes were categorized within each pattern: been through it . . . made me strong, I thought about . . . others, went down little hills . . . got me down, I grew stronger, changed priorities, do things I never would have done, quit doing, God did and will take care of me, close-knit relationships, and life is better. "Faith" in God helped the aging seriously ill AA elders "overcome things," whether their current illness or other life difficulties.
Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.
African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further
Walker, Taurean Mashawn
The purpose of this research is to explore the social context (the nature and cultural environment) of the aeronautical training experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots. This research highlights the challenges African-American pilots are exposed to in addition to drawing parallels between the social context and the obstacles they are subjected to along the way. This study is valuable for stakeholders, African-American pilot aspirants, aviation corporations, Federal Aviation Administration, flight schools - in the aviation industry in understanding ways to initiate a paradigm shift and increase awareness about representation and participation of African-American aviation professionals. The qualitative approach was selected to gather a better understanding of the sociological hurdles black aviators face while going through the journey of becoming a pilot. Hardiman (2010) states, "While quantitative research is valuable, qualitative research provides the researcher the ability to view real world situations as they naturally unfold" ( p. 25). According to OBAP (2014), less than 2% of pilots in the United States are African-American. The experiences shared by the participants can provide helpful insight of possible policy implications for the aeronautical industry. There were three research questions in the study: 1) What factors hindered pilot training? 2) What were the resilience factors experienced during pilot training? 3) What were the defining features of the social context surrounding pilot training? Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted of six professional pilots. A qualitative data analysis was conducted to illustrate the context of the social challenges during the course of pilot training. Three themes were revealed: 1) access, 2) perception of inferiority, and 3) support. Implications of the significance of providing social networks to expose African-Americans to aviation were discussed. Additional means of
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed.
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…
Haywood, Jerry L.
The goal of this study was to examine the experience of African American males who did not achieve academic success in their first year of college at a predominately White institution (PWI) in Southwestern Georgia. This study used a qualitative case study design to investigate the experience held by this target group. The qualitative case study…
Loustalot, Fleetwood; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Sims, Mario; Ellison, Christopher G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Underwood, Lynn
This study provided the first examination of the psychometric properties of the 6-item Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a large African American sample, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The JHS included measures of spiritual (DSES) and religious practices. Internal reliability, dimensionality, fit indices, and correlation were assessed. DSES scores reflected frequent daily spiritual experiences (12.84 ± 4.72) and reliability scores were high (α = 0.85; 95% CI 0.84–0.86). The DSES loaded on a single factor, with significant goodness-of-fit scores (RMSEA = 0.094, P < 0.01). Moderate significant correlations were noted among DSES items. Our findings confirm that the 6-item DSES had excellent psychometric properties in this sample. PMID:19693673
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel
Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L
Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.
Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463
Barnett-Johnson, Kim R.
The purpose of this case/phenomenological study was to examine a collegiate administrative search and selection process and the experience of an African American woman who was selected to the position of chancellor. A case concerning the search process of a regional campus of Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana was identified and chosen.…
Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa
This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…
Thornhill, Theodore E.
African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…
Allen, Ayana Ma-el
A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…
Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657
Wilson, Rahshida S.
This study uses qualitative methods to explore and understand the experiences of African American female STEM majors at a single-sex historically Black university (HBCU). The study focuses on the perspectives of Black women and how they perceive the strategies and practices utilized at a single-sex HBCU that aid in fostering the successful development of Black women in STEM fields. Although limited to one institution, the findings shed light on the ways in which African American women experience the single-sex HBCU, and how the institution aids in their persistence in STEM majors. This study also discusses how such strategies and practices at a single-sex HBCU aid in mitigating the challenges and barriers that limit the attainment of African American women in STEM fields, and provides an opportunity for them to develop strong identities in STEM. Drawing on the findings, the paper concludes with recommendations for improving implementation of strategies revealed in historically Black colleges/universities and predominantly White colleges/ universities (PWIs). Recommendations for future research suggest that the experiences of African American women in single-sex and co-educational historically Black and predominantly White institutions could be further explored.
Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…
This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…
Cannon Dawson, Candice
This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…
Kersten, Andrew E.
Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)
Bryan, Nathaniel; Browder, Jamison K.
As of 2012, data indicate that only one percent of public school teachers are African American males. Numerous reports urge decision makers and higher education professionals to aggressively recruit and retain African American males as teachers in an effort to improve the academic outcomes of African American children in our educational system…
Petersen, Amy J.
This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…
Hill, Natashia J.
Presently the paucity of scholarship available is often unitary in nature and usually focuses on the lived experiences of African Americans principals in a predominately African American urban context and as well as emphasizes the necessity of same race principals for the purpose of mentorship and racial representation. Race and cultural identity…
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.
News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…
Green, Andre M.
Due to a negative stigma that has been established about African Americans, many live their entire lives trying to "refute the degrading, humiliating and offensive racial images and stereotypes" that have plagued their race in scientific fields and in other areas of life. The images that are perpetuated have caused frustration as well as…
White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…
Siefert, Bobbi; Salas, Spencer; D'amico, Mark M.
Although TESOL in-service teacher education committed to "culturally sustaining pedagogy" (Paris, 2012) has underscored the critical role of teachers' professional subjectivities for student achievement, relatively few studies have attempted to capture the perspectives of African American classroom teachers working with English language…
African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…
Larnell, Gregory V.; Boston, Denise; Bragelman, John
The purpose of this article is to shed light on scenarios in which threatening stereotypes unfold, specifically in an institutional context in which African Americans are overrepresented. Drawing on data and findings from a recent study examining mathematics learning and identity in non-credit-bearing remedial math courses, we present three…
Young, Timothy Perry
African-American students who attend a CCCU institution do not complete their degrees as frequently as other student groups. The average gap at CCCU institutions between "overall and Black graduation rates is more than 19%. This is greater than the gap at other private institutions" (Smith, 2009, p.80). While the six-year graduation rate…
Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.
This secondary school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and…
Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.
HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…
Adams, Natasia; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Hardy, Claudia M; Thomas, Tammi F; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen
Disparities in cancer survivorship exist among specific populations of breast cancer survivors, specifically rural African American breast cancer survivors (AA-BCS). While effective survivorship interventions are available to address and improve quality of life, interventions must be culturally tailored for relevance to survivors. Here, we report the results of our formative research using focus groups and in-depth interview to better understand unique rural AA-BCS survivorship experiences and needs in the Alabama Black Belt. Surveys were used to gather sociodemographic and cancer treatment data. Fifteen rural AA-BCS shared their experiences and concerns about keeping their cancer a secret, lack of knowledge about survivorship, lingering symptoms, religion and spirituality, cancer surveillance, and general lack of survivorship education and support. Rural AA-BCS were unwilling to share their cancer diagnosis, preferring to keep it a secret to protect family and friends. Quality-of-life issues like lymphedema body image and sexuality were not well understood. They viewed spirituality and religion as essential in coping and accepting cancer. Participants also discussed the importance of and barriers to maintaining health through regular check-ups. They needed social support from family and friends and health care providers. Overall, rural AA-BCS expressed their need for knowledge about survivorship self-management by providing a vivid picture of the realities of cancer survival based on shared concerns for survivorship support and education within the context of culture.
Donatello, Robin A; De Rosa, Christine J; Moulton, Bret D; Chung, Emily Q; Viola, Rachel; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Afifi, Abdelmonem A
This analysis assessed patterns of sexual experience, the order in which behaviors were initiated, and associated factors, among Latino and African American ninth grade students (average age 15.2) who self-administered audio-computer-assisted surveys on netbooks in classes at 10 Los Angeles-area public high schools. Lifetime experiences with vaginal and oral sex were most common (19% and 16%, respectively); fewer reported anal sex (6%). Of the 23% reporting any sex, 91% fell into four categories: 36% reporting both oral and vaginal sex; 23% vaginal only; 18% all three; and 13% oral only. Most sexually experienced students (88%) initiated with vaginal or oral sex (46% vaginal, 33% oral, 9% both same day). No dominant pathway of sexual onset emerged for those reporting all three types of sex. We found no evidence that oral or anal sex substituted for or delayed vaginal sex. Males, those with a current partner, and those reporting multiple partners were more likely than others to report all three sexual behaviors versus vaginal only (odds ratios [ORs] 2.0, 1.5, 3.0; p = .02, .06, < .01, respectively). Although vaginal intercourse dominated their early sexual behavior, one-fifth of sexually experienced students reported anal intercourse, highlighting the need for specific prevention messages surrounding this higher-risk behavior.
Salm Ward, Trina C; Mazul, Mary; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Harley, Amy E
African American infants die at higher rates and are at greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than White infants in Milwaukee. Though self-reported experiences of racism have been linked to adverse health outcomes, limited research exists on the impact of racism on women's prenatal care experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of racial discrimination during prenatal care from the perspectives of African American women in a low income Milwaukee neighborhood. Transcripts from six focus groups with twenty-nine women and two individual interviews were analyzed to identify important emergent themes. Validity was maintained using an audit trail, peer debriefing, and two individual member validation sessions. Participants identified three areas of perceived discrimination based on: (1) insurance or income status, (2) race, and (3) lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Women described being treated differently by support staff and providers based on type of insurance (public versus private), including perceiving a lower quality of care at clinics that accepted public insurance. While some described personally-mediated racism, the majority of women described experiences that fit within a definition of institutionalized racism-in which the system was designed in a way that worked against their attempts to get quality prenatal care. Women also described lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that African American women with limited incomes perceive many provider practices and personal interactions during prenatal care as discriminatory. Future studies could explore the relationship between perceptions of discrimination and utilization of prenatal care.
Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.
Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…
... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...
Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H
The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.
It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory
This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J
The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.
Willis, Belinda F.
Literature that addresses how the arts enhance student learning through creative expression is minimal. This is especially true for African-American elementary students from high-poverty backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to employ a case study design to explore how African-American elementary students in high-poverty schools experience…
McCallum, Carmen Michelle
African Americans have made great advancements in postsecondary education. Over the last thirty years, enrollment and degree attainment has increased over 65% at undergraduate and graduate degree levels (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). Yet despite these gains, African Americans continue to severely trail behind other racial and…
Oliver, Ralphilia C.
Purpose:The purpose of this study was to explore African American and White female faculty members' perceptions about tenure and promotion processes at research universities. As more women enter the ranks of academia, the difficulties encountered toward attainment of tenure continue to prevail, specifically for African American women. It is hoped…
Ford, David Julius, Jr.
Studies have shown that involvement in a student organization can improve the academic and psychosocial outcomes of African American male students (Harper, 2006b; Robertson & Mason, 2008; Williams & Justice, 2010). Further, Harper, Byars, and Jelke (2005) stated that African American fraternities and sororities (i.e., Black Greek-letter…
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Betrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intimate partner victimization experiences, mental health, and substance misuse problems with the risk for lethality among women of African descent. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from a large case-control study examining the relationship between abuse status and health consequences. Women were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the US Virgin Islands. Logistic regression was used to generate the study findings. Among 543 abused women, physical and psychological abuse by intimate partners, comorbid PTSD and depression symptoms, and PTSD-only problems significantly increased the likelihood of lethality risk. However victims’ substance misuse and depression-only problems were not associated with the risk for lethality. Additionally, PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between severe victimization experiences and risk for lethality. Practitioners should pay attention to victimization experiences and mental health issues when developing treatment and safety plans. Policies to fund integrated services for African-American and African-Caribbean women with victimization and related mental health issues, and training of providers to identify at-risk women may help reduce the risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships. PMID:23929602
Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Bogdan-Lovis, Libby; Philpott-Jones, Sean
African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels. Our narrative analysis suggests that HIV-positive African American women living in the South are vulnerable to experiences of multilevel HIV stigma in various settings and contexts across multiple domains of life. Stigma subsequently complicated disclosure decisions and made it difficult for women to feel supported in particular social, professional and medical settings that are generally regarded as safe spaces for noninfected individuals. Findings suggest that the debilitating and compounded effect of multilevel HIV/AIDS stigma on HIV-positive African American women in the South warrants closer examination to tailor approaches that effectively address the unique needs of this population.
Gray, K. L.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate how minority gamers, particularly African-American males, are subject to the label of deviant within the virtual gaming community of Xbox Live. They are labeled deviant based on the stigma of their physical identity - blackness, through a process of linguistic profiling. By employing virtual ethnography, the author identifies a process that leads to racism based on how the black gamer sounds within the space. The act of racism emerges through a process involving questioning, provoking, instigating, and ultimately racism. Many black gamers have normalized these racist experiences and have accepted the label of deviant placed upon their bodies.
Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.
Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721
Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz
The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.
Shujaa, Mwalimu J.
Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric
We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (MdnAge = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics—including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being. PMID:22058659
Winterich, Julie A; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Clark, Peter E; Miller, David P; Acuña, Joshua; Arcury, Thomas A
Past research on prostate and colorectal cancer disparities finds that barriers to screening, such as embarrassment and offensiveness, are often reported. Yet none of this literature investigates why. This study uses masculinity and health theory to examine how men experience two common screenings: digital rectal exams (DREs) and colonoscopies. In-depth interviews were conducted with 64 African American and White men from diverse backgrounds, aged 40 to 64, from North Carolina. Regardless of race or education, men experienced DREs more negatively than colonoscopies because penetration with a finger was associated with a gay sexual act. Some men disliked colonoscopies, however, because they associated any penetration as an affront to their masculinity. Because beliefs did not differ by race, future research should focus on structural issues to examine why disparities persist with prostate and colorectal cancer. Recommendations are provided for educational programs and physicians to improve men's experiences with exams that involve the rectum.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use and/or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants’ experiences with oppression and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities. PMID:23216440
Thompson, V L
The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.
Love, Keisha McGhee
African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…
Gorelick, P. B.; Richardson, D.; Hudson, E.; Perry, C.; Robinson, D.; Brown, N.; Harris, Y.
A major aspect of a clinical trial is the ability to successfully recruit patients. There is a paucity of information concerning the nuances of recruiting study patients, especially those from minority communities. As minorities generally have been underrepresented in the health-care system, they may be less likely to participate in clinical trials or other studies. Thus, a strategy is needed to overcome this potential shortfall. One of our solutions has been the development of a community network to help disseminate information about our program. We believe that a key aspect has been the involvement of community members during pre-trial planning, community awareness programs, and our Community Advisory Panel. We also believe that it may be a major error to bring a health-care initiative unannounced into a targeted community without extensive pre-program planning in cooperation with that community. As our community awareness scheme suggests (Figure), there are many possible avenues to heighten awareness about a health-care program. While the church remains an important institution for religious and cultural activities in the African-American community, we have found that the news, television, and radio media also can be a powerful source for spreading awareness. Thus, we recommend creating awareness about an initiative through a "grassroots" approach of church and community organizations, along with a global approach through news, television, and radio media. As part of the awareness promotion campaign, it must be emphasized that the study is safe and provides benefits to enrollees. The success of health programs is largely dependent on community acceptance, which must be established in the pre-program planning stages of the initiative. This concept of obtaining community approval and acceptance prior to program initiation is not a new one, nor does it exclusively apply to the African-American community. Community leaders and members need to have a vested interest
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.
Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.
Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this. PMID:25903057
Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.
Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…
... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...
Yancy, Clyde W
The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.
Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Kaplan, Charles; Valdez, Avelardo
This article provides a detailed examination of the relationship between disaster-related experiences and mental health outcomes among a sample of drug using African American Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Face-to-face structured interviews were administered to Hurricane Katrina evacuees (n = 350) residing in voucher assisted apartment complexes in Houston, Texas (2006-2007). We use Ordinary Least Squares and logistic regression models to examine both the relevance of disaster-related experiences and the interactive relationships between disaster-related experiences and post-disaster mental health outcomes including psychological distress, severe depression, somatic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicate that disaster-related experiences including negative life changes, disaster exposure, post-disaster stressors, and resource loss, have unique, inverse relationships with mental health. While resource loss has the strongest inverse relationship with mental health, disaster exposure has a negative interactive effect on psychological distress and anxiety. Although highly vulnerable populations report low levels of mental health nearly 2 years following a disaster experience, there is a convergence in mental health outcomes with high levels of disaster experiences and disaster exposure that suggests mental resiliency.
Benigno, Grace Marie R.
This qualitative study examined the everyday mathematical experiences and understandings of three, 4-year-old, African-American children from working-class backgrounds. The study drew on Street, Baker, and Tomlin's (2005) broad, ideological model of mathematics as "social" and their analytic concepts of mathematical events (units of…
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…
Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…
Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.
This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…
Gordon, Beverly M.
Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott
Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…
Scott, Kimberly Ann
For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…
Goodman, Diane J.
Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)
Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Stevenson, Howard C.; Reed, Jocelyn; Bodison, Preston; Bishop, Angela
Studied the relationship between racial socialization and racial identity attitudes in 287 low-income inner-city African American adolescents. Results suggest that beliefs in various types of racial socialization differentially contribute to positive psychological outcomes for adolescents. Gender differences are discussed, and a cultural…
Swaidan, Christina Michelle
Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…
Smith, Dimitra Jackson
Increasing the representation of African American females is essential to ensure the United States (U.S.) remains a viable competitor in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce. With minorities anticipated to represent half of the resident U.S population by 2050, fostering STEM talent among this population is vital.…
Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…
Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.
This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media,…
Packer-Williams, Catherine L.; Evans, Kathy M.
This article reports on the results of a qualitative study of new African American female professors' participation in a peer mentoring group. Three key themes that emerged from the data included peer mentoring as a vehicle to process and cope effectively with microaggressions, increase positive self-identity and self-efficacy as a scholar, and…
Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius
Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…
Ibraheem, Abiodun I.; Devine, Christopher
A national research study was undertaken to identify and clarify issues related to the employment in academic settings of African librarians who have relocated to the United States. It examined, by means of a survey, employment issues concerned with education, credentialing, language skills and cultural bias from the perspective of those…
Wimbush, Jason D.
This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
Snowden, Lonnie R
African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.
Corneille, Maya A; Belgrave, Faye Z
This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as part of a larger drug education program and analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression. The analyses controlled for household structure and menarche. Results indicated a direct relationship of higher ethnic identity and higher sexual refusal efficacy, higher disapproval of drug use, and lowered intentions to use drugs. Neighborhood risk was directly related to lower disapproval of drug use. There was a small moderating effect of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for intention to use drugs. Findings provide support for prevention programs for African American youth that seek to reduce risk behaviors by increasing ethnic identity, particularly in low resource communities.
Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…
Burrow, Rufus, Jr.
Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)
Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R
Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.
Simon, Cassandra E.; Perry, Armon R.; Roff, Lucinda L.
There is a scarcity of knowledge on the mentoring experiences of Black women in social work academia. Using a survey methodology, this pilot study examines the mentoring experiences of 10 Black, female leaders in social work education as protegees. It also examines how they describe their current mentoring behavior toward recent proteges. The…
Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A
Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.
Romney, Paulette B.
High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…
Tatum, Alfred W.
Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…
Jenkins-Williams, Mary E.
Within a local school district, the dropout rate among African American males is among the highest in the United States. There is ample research on these dropout rates among African American males; however, what remains understudied are the experiences of young African American males who have successfully negotiated 4 years of high school to…
This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…
Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton
This essay addresses a call for research involving African Americans to interpret data from the historical, contemporary, and cultural experiences of African Americans. The essay argues for a science education research approach that explicitly considers the positionality of African Americans in the United States. This positionality involves the…
Giscombe, Claudette Leanora
This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.
Wayland, J; Rawlins, R
The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.
Coleman, Ben C.
This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…
Harris, Violet J.
Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…
Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…
Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…
Nash, Gary B.
Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)
Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David
The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36
Mims, Adrian B.
This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.
Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336
Ferguson, Dionne J.
While African American women have been participating in higher education for more than a century, they remain significantly underrepresented among college and university professors in America. This study was pursued in an attempt to address the underrepresentation of African American women faculty at public and private universities within the…
African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…
Clayton, Taffye Benson
From 1995 to 2005 education doctoral degrees conferred to African American females increased by 92%, however the increase in availability among this population for higher education administrator positions has not kept pace with the growth of African American female higher education doctoral graduates (Ryu, 2008). Such data have spurred inquiry…
Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID
Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A
Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.
Pinderhughes, Elaine B
It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.
Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence
Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…
Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric
Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.
Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia
African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797
Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A
A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of African American male students in community college and to explore their decision-making process to persist. The study sought to describe these experiences and to discover any impact these experiences might have on decisions regarding completing a degree. The research…
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder.
Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…
Haines, Michael R; Craig, Lee A; Weiss, Thomas
The "Antebellum Puzzle" has been the subject of comment since the 1980s. It involves the paradox that, although the American economy was experiencing rapid economic growth in the several decades prior to the Civil War (1861-1865), the stature of native-born white males had been declining for the birth cohorts from the late 1820s. This was also true for free blacks (Komlos, 1992), but was apparently not true for slaves. This paper uses a sample of 8592 adult back males who were recruits to the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War. They were recruited significantly among ex-slaves. Recruits from the birth cohorts of 1838-1842 were then linked to characteristics of their counties of birth from the 1840 and 1850 U.S. Censuses. Unlike slaves in the coastal manifests, these African American recruits showed evidence of a decline in heights from the birth cohorts of the 1820s onwards. Unlike the native-white recruits, however, the characteristics of their counties of birth had relatively less power in explaining differences in heights. There was some support for the mortality hypothesis, but the nutrition hypothesis needs to be interpreted in light of the fact that slave owners has a strong interest in monitoring and controlling the diet of their slaves.
Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.
... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)
Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Richter, Donna L; Sowell, Richard
HIV disproportionately impacts African American women of childbearing age residing in the southern United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV and produced viable and safe reproduction possibilities for women living with HIV. However, little is known about reproductive decision-making processes for African American women living with HIV. The overall goal of our study was to qualitatively explore perspectives related to reproduction and motherhood in HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity. HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity in South Carolina (N = 42) participated in in-depth interviews. Our respondents held positive views about pregnancy and motherhood, despite nonsupportive pregnancy messages from interpersonal influences, including health care providers. Study findings uncovered the need for programs and interventions to support women's reproductive autonomy and focus on reducing conception- and pregnancy-related transmission risks to infants and uninfected sexual partners.
Campbell, Santiba D.
Research by the American Council on Education (Wilds, 2000) has shown that while graduation rates for African Americans have increased, they are still below that of Whites. This difference may be explained by race. It is probable that African American students are facing more experiences with racial discrimination or other factors that make their…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…
Watkins, Audrey P.
This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…
Bikmen, Nida; Durkin, Kristine
White Americans' willingness to engage in dialogues about intergroup commonalities and power inequalities with Asian and African Americans were examined in two experiments. Because Whites perceive that African Americans experience greater discrimination than do Asian Americans, we predicted that they would be more willing to engage in dialogues that would interrogate injustice and inequality with them. We also explored the role of common in-group identity (as Americans) on willingness for dialogue about inequality. In both studies, Whites were less interested in engaging in power talk with Asian Americans than with African Americans, but the difference in willingness for commonality talk was smaller. Asian Americans were perceived as experiencing lower levels of discrimination (Studies 1 and 2) and identify less with America (Study 2) both of which predicted lower willingness for power talk with them. Common in-group identity manipulations had marginal effects on willingness for power talk with African Americans and no effect on power talk with Asian Americans. Implications for improving social disparities between various groups were discussed.
Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie
Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…
Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A
This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann
Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…
Bland, Anthony D.
African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…
Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L.; Wiley, Tisha R.A.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen
A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans’ engagement in mental health services. PMID:22791083
Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta
This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…
Edwards, Janice Berry; Clark, Trenette T.; Bryant, Shirley
This study of African American female faculty in predominantly White schools of social work was designed to examine the unique experience of these faculties. The examination also aimed to develop a better understanding of the challenges and the experiences of these faculty members. This exploratory study sampled African American female social work…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Martin, Pamela P.; Cooper, Shauna M.
Although much research has focused on the public school experiences of African American students, few studies exist that explore their race-related experiences within an independent, private school context. Studies have suggested that, while private, independent schools may elevate the quality of African American students' education, many of these…
Dossman, Craig Arthur, Sr.
The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological research study was to describe and explain the experiences of African Americans who terminated mental health treatment services after their initial sessions. The goal of the study was to expand the available knowledge by scientifically illuminating the lived experiences of African Americans who used…
This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…
The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…
Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph
African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families.
Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.
African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067
Harris, Y; Gorelick, P B; Samuels, P; Bempong, I
African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies.
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718
Kane, Justine M.
The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…
Washington, Dorothy Ann
Standards of bibliographic organization often are inadequate for those libraries with extensive African American studies collections or those with active user groups. This essay identifies areas where the standards are least effective. The experiences of the staff at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library,…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…
Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K
We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Cook, D L; Barber, K R
Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima
African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan
Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia
Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...
... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...
Bates, Marcie Ann
Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…
Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan
The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…
African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole
This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.
Chang, Edward Taehan
Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others
Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.
Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
Johnson, Bernadeia H.
Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
Green, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.
Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)
Green, Lisa J.
How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Beale, Tyson J.
This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris, Mateba K.; Offor, MaxMary T.; Beachum, Floyd D.
Problems facing African American students with special needs are numerous and complex. Although processes and procedures are in place to properly serve these students, far too many become ensnared in webs of bureaucracy and benign neglect. This article examines African American students? experiences with special education in Milwaukee Public…
Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy
Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…
Senegal, Pamela Gibson
This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…
Critically examines the factors continuing to impede the integral presence of African American women in pivotal decision-making positions in colleges and universities. Interviews with three African American women who were among the first deans or associate deans of education at leading schools are presented, detailing their experiences and views…
Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…
Secundy, Marian Gray, Ed.; Nixon, Lois LaCivita, Ed.
This book is an anthology of short stories, narratives, and poems exploring aspects of the life cycle (birth, illness, aging, loss and grief) from an African-American perspective. The book is intended to give health care providers and interested others insights into the African-American experience, and to encourage readers to explore the…
This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…
Brown, David Byron
In an era of accountability and high standards for public schools, some African American principals decided to work in predominantly white schools. Their experiences were challenging because they were racial newcomers in schools with students different from their own race. In this case study, 12 African-American principals and assistant principals…
Gardner, Levester, Jr.; Barrett, T. Gregory; Pearson, L. Carolyn
Despite literature emphasizing the importance of their presence on college campuses to minority student success, African American administrators are severely underrepresented in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of successful African American student affairs administrators at predominantly…
West, Dorthery Barron
The achievement gap between African American and White students continues to be an issue of great concern for educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher characteristics on African American student math achievement: More specifically, the study examined years of teaching experience, campus teacher turnover, and the…
Framed within the debate on African American "anti-intellectualism," this study examined a longitudinal sample of 460 African American students' intellectual self-concept and college grades (GPA) through regression analyses resulting from their college experiences. The findings showed that the college environment had a modest influence on African…
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V
The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that African American males perceived as influencing their retention in higher education. The purpose was also to discover African American males' perceptions of their freshman year experiences and how the university's initiatives influenced their decision to return their sophomore year.…
Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.
Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…
Dandridge, Janae' K.
This study examines the perspective of public secondary education through the lived experiences and voices of 10 African American male students. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized an action research case study design. The researcher conducted semi structured interviews with a randomly selected group of African American male students…
Wallace, Jerry L.
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the lived experiences of African American male community college instructors using interviews, classroom observations, and personal testimonies conducted at a Southeast Texas community college. Brown (2009) previously conducted a study on African American male…
Dorsey, David F., Jr.
Within the Afro-American studies program, the study of African literature is invaluable in demonstrating the relationship between black Americans and Africa; it contributes to the sketchy glimpse of what black culture is and reflects the affective experience of colonialism and neocolonialism. This paper explores the values of an African-literature…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
This dissertation explored how institutional factors impact the mathematical achievement of African American middle school females. The purpose of the research was to provide insight into African American females' perception of their mathematics experiences and demonstrate how both internal and external factors contribute to their achievement.…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Lyles, Lolita Laree
A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Petty, Cailisha L.
This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.
Ross, L J
The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.
Krusemark, Stephanie L.
"Space, like language, is socially constructed; and like the syntax of language, the spatial arrangements of our buildings and communities reflect and reinforce the nature of gender, race, and class relations in society" (Weisman, 1992, p. 2). While institutions of higher education have granted physical access to African-American women over the…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
This booklet has been prepared as a resource guide for professionals in the news business. The tools in this booklet offer new ideas for news stories about African American youth and substance abuse. The facts section offers background on the research that shapes current thinking about alcohol and other drug use. The media strategies section…
Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita
The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.
Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.
The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…
Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.
White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.
Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Watts, Rosalyn J
The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.
Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P
Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.
Smith, W; Burns, C
In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.
Zanskas, Stephen A.; Lustig, Daniel C.; Ishitani, Terry T.
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were differences between European and African American vocational rehabilitation consumers' perceptions of the barriers they experience towards obtaining employment. A secondary purpose was to determine whether there were differences in these perceptions based upon gender…
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney
In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.
Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S
African American women continue to experience disparities in health status when compared to their European American counterparts, yet, often their unique perspectives are not presented in the nursing literature. This article will discuss various theoretical frameworks arising from Black women's thought and reality that can be used to enhance and expand transcultural nursing knowledge. Historical, sociocultural, and literary perspectives will be used to illuminate the realities of African American women's lives. Selected frameworks arising from these realities will be discussed that recognize the impact of race, class, and gender on the lives of African American women and have the potential to guide nursing research and practice.
grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday
Lampley-Dallas, V. T.
Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287
Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele
The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...
...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians...
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
Smalls, Ruth R.
An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…
Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.
This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…
Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.
This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…
Sharpe, Tanya L; Joe, Sean; Taylor, Katie C
Suicide and homicide are among the leading causes of death for young African-American men; however, little is known about how family members cope with these types of deaths. This exploratory phenomenological study examines the traumatic loss and coping experiences of a purposive convenience sample of 12 immediate African-American surviving family members with a combined experience of 13 deaths, 8 suicides and 5 homicides. Novel aspects of suicide and homicide survivor phenomenon were identified, including Survivor Responses and Reactions, Coping Strategies, and Survivor Service Needs. The implications for research and for those providing services to surviving African-American families are discussed.
Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui
Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890
Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.
This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955
Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather
Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.
Bean, Frank D.; Feliciano, Cynthia; Lee, Jennifer; Van Hook, Jennifer
The implications of recent immigration for race relations in the United States depend importantly on family cultural orientations among Mexican Americans and how this group is culturally perceived by Anglos. Because Moynihan's 1965 work (in)famously emphasized the need to change black family culture in order to ameliorate black poverty, his work still holds implications for understanding how cultural orientations affect changing color lines. Unfortunately, his partially insightful analyses inadequately foresaw that policies designed to alleviate poverty through the modification of family cultural patterns are likely to fail without parallel changes in structural opportunities. Similar limitations also often emerge from mis-characterizations of Mexican origin family cultural situations, which all too often are incongruously reified as either being unduly familistic (thus falsely implying Mexican origin families foster self-sufficiency) or largely governed by culture of poverty tendencies (thus inaccurately suggesting Mexican origin families depend on welfare). Here we review research suggesting that Mexican origin families are neither substantially familistic nor disproportionately susceptible to moral hazard, thus indicating that future Mexican origin economic advancement is likely to turn on the availability of structural opportunities. In-depth interviews with Anglos further suggest that Mexicans are not culturally viewed with the same degree of prejudice and discrimination as blacks, implying that the integration of Mexicans into American society, contingent on adequate economic opportunity, will probably progress more steadily than often feared, while that of blacks may proceed more slowly than often expected. PMID:22199397
Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
cancer syndromes that are prevalent among African Americans? Little information exists about other familial cancer syndromes unique to African...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...familial syndromes based on pedigree analysis, calculation of risk estimates, and effective communication of risk status at a level that the patient can
Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex
Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.
McMath, Cynthia Stewart
This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.
Racist incidents that graduate students in psychology may experience can be reflective of Eurocentric values and forces which permeate present institutions. To better understand these forces, the experiences and perceptions of racism as experienced by minority graduate students are explored. Seventeen doctoral students in psychology, who…
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk.
Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok
Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.
Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.
We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493
Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.
Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986
Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R
Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S
Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise
The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…
Frank, Anna Marie
The recruitment and retention of minority students in teacher education programs has received the attention of schools of education. For those minority students who choose to pursue a career in teaching and decide to attend a predominantly white university, their experience must be appreciated for the challenges it presents. This study was…
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907
Thomas, Shirley A; González-Prendes, A Antonio
African American women find themselves at a high risk of experiencing feelings of powerlessness associated with socioeconomic disparities rooted in a history of racism and sexism. The authors present a conceptual model that discusses powerlessness as a significant variable that contributes to the experience of anger and stress in African American women, and consequently to the adverse health consequences of such anger and stress. The authors review the current literature as well as census and health statistics to discern critical historical, social, and cognitive aspects of powerlessness and anger in African American women. Implications for practitioners are addressed.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G
Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.
Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L
Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.
Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan
Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be responsible for this disparity. We here report genome-wide copy number variations, single nucleotide mutations and DNA methylation findings that might be specific to this population. PMID:27917406
Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon
We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon
We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753
Henderson, Davetta A.
Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…
Boon, Ebru Tuncer
The purpose of this study was to explore the violin experiences of African American students at an Elementary School in northern Florida to consider the potential for culturally-responsive string education. The hermeneutical approach was used to answer the research questions: (1) What are the personal musical worlds of these African American…
Williams, Ellen P; Wyatt, Sharon B; Winters, Karen
Obesity continues to affect African Americans in epidemic proportions, particularly among women and adolescent females. Perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and body sizes of adolescents are associated with those of their mothers, yet little is known about the transgenerational meanings and experiences of obese African American adolescent girls and their mothers. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted with seven African American adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17, and their adult female caregivers. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multicultural interpretive team. Two constitutive patterns and associated themes were identified. One pattern, 'Framing: sizing it up; sizing it down', with its three associated themes is presented. Mothers and daughters are engaged in multiple common practices in which they self-define body size, while protecting their self-esteem and self-image. This pattern illustrates how the women and girls created an image of their bodies as they confronted and acknowledged their self-perceptions, compared themselves to others in their environment, and evaluated themselves against specific parameters of acceptable size.
Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia
African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.
Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent
Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.
Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Gary, Tiffany L; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Karanja, Njeri; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Prewitt, T Elaine; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C
The longstanding high burden of obesity in African-American women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity research agenda by investigators who have both social and cultural grounding in African-American life experiences and obesity-related scientific expertise. AACORN's examination of obesity research agenda issues began in 2003 in conjunction with the Think Tank on Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The assessment was subsequently expanded to take into account the overall NIH strategic plan for obesity research, literature reviews, and descriptions of ongoing studies. In identifying priorities, AACORN members considered the quality, quantity, focus, and contextual relevance of published research relevant to obesity prevention and treatment in African-American adults or children. Fifteen recommended research priorities are presented in five categories adapted from the NHLBI Think Tank proceedings: health effects, social and environmental context, prevention and treatment, research methods, and research training and funding. These recommendations from an African-American perspective build on and reinforce certain aspects of the NHLBI and overall NIH research agendas by providing more specific rationale and directions on areas for enhancement in the type of research being done or in the conceptualization and implementation of that research.
Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage.
Murry, V M
There has been national concern since the early 1980s over the need to prevent teen pregnancy. Much of that concern has stemmed from concerns over the notion that families formed as a result of adolescent parenthood are often poor and welfare dependent. Much of the research on adolescent childbearing implies that having a child disadvantages adolescents in terms of future life options. The author examined the life experiences of 1666 Black female high school graduates of average age 25.4 years 5 years out of high school using data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle IV. 474 virgins, 570 never-pregnant women, 65 ever-pregnant women, and 557 adolescent mothers were examined. Most of the women had never married, with virgins and adolescent mothers the least likely to be in marital relationships. Relative to the other subgroups, virgins reported higher educational, financial, and occupational achievement. However, a significant proportion of adolescent mothers were more successful than conventional stereotypes suggest. Several had secured professional jobs, had middle-income status, and were pursuing additional educational training. The implications for future research, education, and policy are discussed.
Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.
This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…
Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…
Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.
Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…
Rivers, Celeste A.
For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…
Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean
Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…
Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.
This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…
McGee, Zina T.
Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…
Mwachofi, Ari K.
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…
Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie
Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…
Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.
Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…
Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.
African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…
Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.
Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Hunter, Herbert M.
Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…
Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert
Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…
Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.
More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…
President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…
Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M
This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.
Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…
Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.
Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for much of our Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...
Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.
This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004
African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…
Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory
In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…
Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…
Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…
Dickens, Manuel Dewayne
The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…
... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national...
...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story..., music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month,...
Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…
Johnson, James H., Jr.
Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…
Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.
In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…
relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms  has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students ; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant
Schiele, Jerome H.
Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.
Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D
Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Bell, N H
Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.
Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet
Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118
Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.
This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Model, S; Fisher, G
In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.
Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia
African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.
Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.
Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Mount, David L; Davis, Cralen; Kennedy, Betty; Raatz, Susan; Dotson, Kathy; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Thomas, Sheikilya; Johnson, Karen C; Espeland, Mark A
Background Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the differential impact eligibility criteria had on the enrollment of African Americans compared to other volunteers. Methods Look AHEAD is a large randomized clinical trial to examine whether assignment to an intensive lifestyle intervention designed to produce and maintain weight loss reduces the long-term risk of major cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes. Differences in the screening, eligibility, and enrollment rates between African Americans and members of other racial/ethnic groups were examined to identify possible reasons. Results Look AHEAD screened 28,735 individuals for enrollment, including 6226 (21.7%) who were self-identified African Americans. Of these volunteers, 12.9% of the African Americans compared to 19.3% of all other screenees ultimately enrolled (p < 0.001). African Americans no more often than others were lost to follow-up or refused to attend clinic visits to establish eligibility. Furthermore, the enrollment rates of individuals with histories of cardiovascular disease and diabetes therapy did not markedly differ between the ethnic groups. Higher prevalence of adverse levels of blood pressure, heart rate, HbA1c, and serum creatinine among African American screenees accounted for the greater proportions excluded (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to non-African Americans, African American were more often ineligible for the Look AHEAD trial due to comorbid conditions. Monitoring trial eligibility criteria for differential impact, and modifying them when appropriate, may ensure greater enrollment yields. PMID:22064686
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Rosenblatt, Paul C; Wallace, Beverly R
As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by the deceased, the authors expected narratives about a deceased African-American to deal with the person's encounters with racism. In fact, most of the 26 African-Americans who were interviewed spoke about racism in the life of the deceased. Many talked about racism blocking the deceased from getting ahead occupationally and in other ways and about how the deceased resisted or stood up to racism. Some people spoke about the ways the deceased taught them to deal with racism. The narratives that indicated that the deceased had rarely or ever talked about racism still made clear that the deceased lived in a racist world but chose not to bring racism into family conversation. The findings suggest that a view of African-American grieving that is insensitive to racism in African-American experience may lead to unhelpful grief support or counseling.
Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.
This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…
Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh
Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.
Researchers have suggested that health disparities in African American women, including adverse birth outcomes, lupus, obesity, and untreated depression, can be explained by stress and coping. The Strong Black Woman/Superwoman role has been highlighted as a phenomenon influencing African American women’s experiences and reports of stress. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for Superwoman Schema (SWS) by exploring women’s descriptions of the Superwoman role; perceptions of contextual factors, benefits, and liabilities; and beliefs in how it influences health. Analysis of eight focus group discussions with demographically diverse African American women yielded themes characterizing the Superwoman role and personal or sociohistorical contextual factors. Participants reported that the Superwoman role had benefits (preservation of self and family or community) and liabilities (relationship strain, stress-related health behaviors, and stress embodiment). The SWS framework might be used to enhance future research on stress and African American women’s health. PMID:20154298
Anderson, Page L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Price, Ann Webb; Bender, Marnette A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Examines the association between the experience of multiple forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women. Women who reported abuse did not complete high school, or who were unemployed were more likely to attempt suicide. Suggests clinicians working with African American women who are victims of abuse need…
Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.
Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…
Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre
An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…
Thomas, Tonya Chavis
The purpose of this study was to examine the different perceptions that shape African American male high school students' understanding of their academic experiences that lead to their success or lack of success in school. In addition, the study identified factors that explain the underachievement of African American male students who are…
Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius
Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…
Jones, Brandolyn; Hwang, Eunjin; Bustamante, Rebecca M.
In their pursuit of tenure and promotion, African American female faculty members continue to prevail over workplace adversities such as ridicule, marginalization, alienation, isolation, and lack of information. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the lived experiences of five African American female professors who successfully navigated…
While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…
Winbush, Raymond A.
Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too "radical" by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in…
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Holloway, Yolanda Boyd
Racial integration and its outcomes have been critiqued for nearly 60 years. While the impact on teachers was vast, data on the impact on teachers outside of the American South is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of 6 African American teachers who described experiences of racial integration and its progress in a…
Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.
Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell
Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.
QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez
Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531
Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.
Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036