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  1. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  2. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined. PMID:21052487

  3. Unexpected findings in the exploration of African American underrepresentation in biospecimen collection and biobanks.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Francis, Carie; Ramsey, Lauren; Chapman, Robert A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in current biobanking programs. The current study utilized community-based participatory research to identify motivating factors and barriers that affect older African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens. The standardized phone survey was administered to 78 African Americans who are 55 years old or older and live in the metropolitan Detroit area to assess their overall willingness to donate biospecimens and what factors were associated with it. The majority of the participants were willing to donate biospecimens, along with their personal information, for medical research and indicated that they did donate biospecimens when they were asked. However, African Americans were rarely asked to participate in biobanking programs. Furthermore, African Americans were not as concerned with research exploitation or as mistrusting of medical researchers as previously thought by the medical researchers. Even if African Americans were concerned over potential research exploitation or mistrust of medical researchers, these concerns or mistrust did not translate into an actual unwillingness to participate in biobanking programs. Rather, transparency in medical research and biobanking programs was more important when predicting African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens for medical research. The findings suggest that underrepresentation of African Americans in current biobanking programs may not be due to their willingness/unwillingness to participate in such programs but rather due to a failure of medical researchers to approach them. Additionally, researchers and clinicians should focus on increasing the transparency of medical research and biobanking programs rather than changing African Americans' potential negative attitudes toward them.

  4. Unexpected findings in the exploration of African American underrepresentation in biospecimen collection and biobanks.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Francis, Carie; Ramsey, Lauren; Chapman, Robert A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in current biobanking programs. The current study utilized community-based participatory research to identify motivating factors and barriers that affect older African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens. The standardized phone survey was administered to 78 African Americans who are 55 years old or older and live in the metropolitan Detroit area to assess their overall willingness to donate biospecimens and what factors were associated with it. The majority of the participants were willing to donate biospecimens, along with their personal information, for medical research and indicated that they did donate biospecimens when they were asked. However, African Americans were rarely asked to participate in biobanking programs. Furthermore, African Americans were not as concerned with research exploitation or as mistrusting of medical researchers as previously thought by the medical researchers. Even if African Americans were concerned over potential research exploitation or mistrust of medical researchers, these concerns or mistrust did not translate into an actual unwillingness to participate in biobanking programs. Rather, transparency in medical research and biobanking programs was more important when predicting African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens for medical research. The findings suggest that underrepresentation of African Americans in current biobanking programs may not be due to their willingness/unwillingness to participate in such programs but rather due to a failure of medical researchers to approach them. Additionally, researchers and clinicians should focus on increasing the transparency of medical research and biobanking programs rather than changing African Americans' potential negative attitudes toward them. PMID:24243440

  5. An HIV Testing Intervention in African American Churches: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria

    2016-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712

  6. Urban African-American men speak out on sexual partner concurrency: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael P; Senn, Theresa E; Seward, Derek X; Vanable, Peter A

    2010-02-01

    Sexual partner concurrency, which fuels the spread of HIV, has been hypothesized as a cause of higher rates of HIV among low-income, urban African-Americans. Despite this hypothesis, little is known about the phenomenology of partner concurrency. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 20 urban African-American men from a public STD clinic to elicit their ideas about partner concurrency. Five themes emerged during focus group discussions. First, there was a general consensus that it is normative to have more than one sexual partner. Second, men agreed it is acceptable for men to have concurrent partners, but disagreed about whether it is acceptable for women. Third, although men provided many reasons for concurrent partnerships, the most common reasons were that (a) multiple partners fulfill different needs, and (b) it is in a man's nature to have multiple partners. Fourth, men described some (but not all) of the negative consequences of having concurrent partners. Finally, men articulated spoken and unspoken rules that govern concurrent partnerships. These findings increase knowledge about urban, African-American men's attitudes toward concurrent partnerships, and can help to improve the efficacy of sexual risk-reduction interventions for this group of underserved men and their partners. PMID:18483847

  7. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Genome-wide Scan of 29,141 African Americans Finds No Evidence of Directional Selection since Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study’s conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497

  10. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L

    2014-10-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.

  11. Correlates of Spirituality among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the United States: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined differences in reports of spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans), and non-Hispanic whites using data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Bivariate analyses indicated that African Americans were most likely to endorse statements regarding the importance of spirituality in their lives (“How important is spirituality in your life?”) and self-assessments of spirituality (“How spiritual would you say you are?”), followed by Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic whites. Regression analyses indicated that African Americans and Caribbean Blacks had significantly higher levels of spirituality than did non-Hispanic whites. However, there were no significant differences in spirituality between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Separate regression analyses for African Americans and Caribbean Blacks indicated distinctive patterns of sociodemographic and denominational correlates of spiritual sentiments. Findings are discussed in relation to available survey and ethnographic data on self-assessments of spirituality. PMID:21031157

  12. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  13. African Americans with memory loss: findings from a community clinic in Lexington, Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Danner, Deborah D; Smith, Charles D; Jessa, Peace; Hudson, JoAnna

    2008-09-01

    Kentucky's African-American Dementia Outreach Partnership (AADOP) has shown that African-American patients seek dementia care if a clinic is conveniently located and families are educated about the distinction between normal aging and signs of disease. The early identification of dementia allows African Americans access to pharmaceutic treatments that work best early in the course of the disease and provides the opportunity for the patient to plan future care. In the AADOP model, a conveniently located clinic and access to the patient's home were first steps in achieving equality of care. The trust that was built in the community through collaboration with African-American churches has allowed patients and their families to receive help with memory problems and to feel comfortable in seeking help for other medical problems. Maintaining this involvement and responsiveness to the community over the long term is the next challenge for the program.

  14. Understanding the findings of resilience-related research for fostering the development of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Frederica H; Armstrong, Mary I; Vargo, Amy; Boothroyd, Roger A

    2007-04-01

    African American youth face a number of challenges to prosocial development that the majority of American youth never encounter. Despite this, the research clearly documents that African American youth often are resilient in the face of these challenges. This article explores various factors associated with resilience in African American children and their implications for practitioners. An ecologic framework described by Bronfenbrenner is used as an organizing framework for understanding interventions at the micro-, mezzo-, and exo-system levels. In this article, the importance of identity formation, maintenance of social networks, and exposure to safe and supportive environments is expressed in conjunction with recommendations for practitioners. Practitioners are encouraged to stress the promotion of ethnic and racial identity and self-efficacy with the youth and their family and the involvement of the youth and family in meaningful activities through local community centers, schools, churches, and other organizations serving youth. A case study of an African American girl, from age 16 into adulthood and motherhood, is presented to illustrate the interplay between protective and risk factors.

  15. Use of ministers for a serious personal problem among African Americans: findings from the national survey of American life.

    PubMed

    Chatters, Linda M; Mattis, Jacqueline S; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Neighbors, Harold W; Grayman, Nyasha A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined use of ministers for assistance with a serious personal problem within a nationally representative sample of African Americans (National Survey of American Life-2001-2003). Different perspectives on the use of ministers-social stratification, religious socialization, and problem-oriented approach-were proposed and tested using logistic regression analyses with demographic, religious involvement, and problem type factors as predictors. Study findings supported religious socialization and problem-oriented explanations indicating that persons who are heavily invested in religious pursuits and organizations (i.e., women, frequent attenders) are more likely than their counterparts to use ministerial assistance. Contrary to expectations from the social stratification perspective, positive income and education effects indicated that higher status individuals were more likely to report use of ministers. Finally, problems involving bereavement are especially suited for assistance from ministers owing to their inherent nature (e.g., questions of ultimate meaning) and the extensive array of ministerial support and church resources that are available to address the issue.

  16. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  17. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  18. Factors influencing African-American mothers' concerns about immunization safety: a summary of focus group findings.

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Irene; Kennedy, Allison; Wooten, Karen; Schwartz, Benjamin; Gust, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the vaccine safety concerns of African-American mothers who, despite concerns, have their children immunized. METHODS: Six focus groups of Atlanta-area African-American mothers who were very concerned about vaccine safety but whose children were fully vaccinated were conducted. RESULTS: Major factors influencing participants' concerns about immunizations included: lack of information and mistrust of the medical community and government. Factors that convinced parents to have their child immunized despite their concerns included social norms and/or laws supporting immunization and fear of the consequences of not immunizing. Suggestions given to reduce concerns included improving available information that addressed their concerns and provider-patient communication. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing mothers' concerns about immunization is important both from an ethical perspective, in assuring that they are fully informed of the risks and benefits of immunizations, as well as from a practical one, in reducing the possibility that they will decide not to immunize their child. Changes in the childhood immunization process should be made to reduce parental concern about vaccine safety. Some changes that may be considered include improved provider communication about immunizations and additional tailored information about the necessity and safety of vaccines. PMID:15926642

  19. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  20. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  1. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less vulnerable to experiencing depression as a result of weight concerns. Several scholars have suggested that membership in African American culture provides social resources that protect black females from experiencing high levels of weight-based psychological distress. We examine the relationship between body size and depression and the potentially moderating role of African American cultural experiences using data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Assessing a cohort of 342 African American girls ages 12-14, we found support for a link between weight and depression. There was no evidence, however, that exposure to African American culture moderated this relationship. PMID:19834569

  2. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  3. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  4. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  5. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  6. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  7. Building a gateway to promote cardiovascular health research in African-American communities: lessons and findings from the field.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F

    2001-11-01

    African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11721804

  8. Building a gateway to promote cardiovascular health research in African American communities: lessons and findings from the field.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Tuggle, M B; Prentice, M F

    2001-11-01

    African American communities traditionally mistrust academic research. This forms a significant barrier to understanding cardiovascular risk factors in this population, which bears an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A clergy/academic partnership was established to build a gateway for salient research and for improving resources for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in the community. From this partnership emanated the African American Family Heart Study. People with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk for the disease--as high as 12 times that of the general population, if among siblings. Considerably less is known about the actual remediable risk factors in African American families with premature CHD. We initiated the Family Heart Study with a full characterization of 161 apparently healthy, unaffected 30- to 59-year-old African Americans whose siblings were 85 African American index cases with documented premature CHD prior to 60 years of age. We compared their risk factor values to population reference norms obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for cigarette smoking. Only 13% of African American male siblings and 14% of female siblings from these families were without any major remediable risk factors. The fact that so many siblings were at extremely high risk calls into question the current applications by provider systems of national guidelines in high-risk African American families. This is an easily identifiable population that would be likely to benefit greatly from targeted screening and culturally sensitive and appropriate treatment. PMID:11876188

  9. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  10. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  11. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  14. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  15. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  16. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  17. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  18. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  19. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  20. Social distance and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia: findings in an urban, African-American community sample.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings.

  1. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  2. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. PMID:25542367

  3. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  4. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  5. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  6. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  9. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  10. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  11. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  12. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  13. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  14. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  15. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  16. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  17. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  18. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  19. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

  20. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  1. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  2. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  3. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  4. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  5. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  6. Finding the "community" in community-level HIV/AIDS interventions: formative research with young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kraft, J M; Beeker, C; Stokes, J P; Peterson, J L

    2000-08-01

    Data from 76 qualitative interviews with 18- to 29-year-old African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chicago and Atlanta were examined to identify perceptions of "community" and components of a community-level HIV/AIDS intervention. Many men reported feeling marginal to African American and gay White communities because of perceived homophobia and racism. Those who reported feeling part of gay African American communities characterized communities in terms of settings, social structures, and functions, including social support, socialization, and mobility. Despite these positive functions, divisions among groups of MSM, lack of settings for nonsexual interaction with other MSM, lack of leadership, and negative attitudes toward homosexuality may make it difficult for men to participate in activities to alter community contexts that influence behavior. Rather, changing norms, increasing social support, and community building should be part of initial community-level interventions. Community building might identify leaders, create new settings, and create opportunities for dialogue between MSM and African American community groups to address negative perceptions of homosexuality.

  7. Differences among African Americans and Euro-Americans in reasons for sports participation.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Steven F; Brezina, Sherie

    2002-08-01

    Findings from 829 respondents from the southern United States (323 African American, 506 Euro-American adults) in 64 nonschool leisure locations participating in 19 different sports showed that the African American and Euro-American groups differed significantly on the importance given to 2 of 6 reasons offered for their sports participation, "socializing with others" and "improving skills." Both reasons were rated as of greater importance by African-American respondents. These findings have implications for designing, marketing, and evaluating adult sports opportunities.

  8. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Free Booklet You can also find the information in ... are not reflected on our website. Get Our Free Newsletter Subscribe Doctors Order booklets about glaucoma for ...

  9. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  10. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  11. Relationships among obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in African Americans and West Africans.

    PubMed

    Doumatey, Ayo P; Lashley, Kerrie S; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2010-03-01

    Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-alpha level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMA(IR), and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity.

  12. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  13. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  14. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  15. African American and Latino Men's Recommendations for an Improved Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…

  16. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  17. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American community, and provides boundaries for culturally acceptable behaviors. Three sub-themes were identified: one describes how health behaviors are “passed from generation to generation,” another reflects a sense of being “accountable” to others within the culture; and the third reflects negative views taken toward people who are “acting different,” moving outside the circle of culture. Findings provide an expanded perspective of the TPB by demonstrating the influence of culture and collective identify on attitude formation and health-related behaviors among African Americans. PMID:17056776

  18. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  19. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  20. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  1. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  2. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  3. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  4. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  5. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  6. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  7. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  8. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  9. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  10. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  11. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  12. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  13. Cultural Variations in Parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Teresa W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…

  14. Risk of injury in African American hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C L; Severson, R K

    2000-10-01

    Very few data exist that describe the risk of injury in African American health care workers, who are highly represented in health care occupations. The present study examined the risk for work-related injury in African American hospital workers. Hospital Occupational Health Service medical records and a hospital human resource database were used to compare risk of injury between African American and white workers after adjusting for gender, age, physical demand of the job, and total hours worked. Risk of work-related injury was 2.3 times higher in African Americans. This difference was not explained by the other independent variables. Differences in injury reporting, intra-job workload, psychosocial factors, and organizational factors are all potential explanations for racial disparity in occupational injury. More research is needed to clarify these findings. PMID:11039167

  15. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  16. Factors influencing medical information seeking among African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Sellergren, Sarah A; Manfredi, Clara; Williams, Maryann

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to explore factors that may affect medical information seeking, treatment engagement, and emotional adjustment among African American cancer patients. Focus group findings suggest that an array of cultural and socioeconomic factors plays important roles in the behavior of African American cancer patients. Participants described a number of important barriers and facilitators of medical information seeking and treatment participation. Factors linked to the health care-related behaviors and adjustment of African American cancer patients included limited knowledge and misinformation about cancer, mistrust of the medical community, concerns about privacy, lack of insurance, religious beliefs, and emotional issues such as fear and stigma associated with seeking emotional support. Recommendations are made that may assist mental and physical health providers in improving patient information and mental and physical health outcomes of African American cancer patients.

  17. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  18. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  19. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  20. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  1. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  2. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  3. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  4. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p < 0.001] and diastolic BP [83. 2 (SD = 12.3) to 80.2 (SD = 11.6) mmHg; p < 0.001] were significantly reduced. Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies

  5. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  6. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  7. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  8. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  9. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  10. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  11. Prevalence and Severity of Symptoms in a Sample of African Americans and White Participants.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that may also be more prevalent in African Americans as a result of these disparities. Potential differences in symptomology have not been thoroughly examined between African Americans and White populations. The current study compares the prevalence and pain severity of symptoms among a sample of African Americans and White participants. Significant differences in symptom prevalence were found in disturbed sleep and reproductive areas. African Americans also experience more pain due to symptoms related to orthostatic intolerance. Implications of this finding are discussed.

  12. Prevalence and Severity of Symptoms in a Sample of African Americans and White Participants

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M.; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that may also be more prevalent in African Americans as a result of these disparities. Potential differences in symptomology have not been thoroughly examined between African Americans and White populations. The current study compares the prevalence and pain severity of symptoms among a sample of African Americans and White participants. Significant differences in symptom prevalence were found in disturbed sleep and reproductive areas. African Americans also experience more pain due to symptoms related to orthostatic intolerance. Implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:26245010

  13. Genetic bottlenecks, perceived racism, and hypertension risk among African Americans and first-generation African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Poston, W S; Pavlik, V N; Hyman, D J; Ogbonnaya, K; Hanis, C L; Haddock, C K; Hyder, M L; Foreyt, J P

    2001-05-01

    The complexity of factors influencing the development of hypertension (HTN) in African Americans has given rise to theories suggesting that genetic changes occurred due to selection pressures/genetic bottleneck effects (ie, constriction of existing genetic variability) over the course of the slave trade. Ninety-nine US-born and 86 African-born health professionals were compared in a cross-sectional survey examining genetic and psychosocial predictors of HTN. We examined the distributions of three genetic loci (G-protein, AGT-235, and ACE I/D) that have been associated with increased HTN risk. There were no significant differences between US-born African Americans and African-born immigrants in the studied genetic loci or biological variables (eg, plasma renin and angiotensin converting enzyme activity), except that the AGT-235 homozygous T genotype was somewhat more frequent among African-born participants than US-born African Americans. Only age, body mass index, and birthplace consistently demonstrated associations with HTN status. Thus, there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the loci studied, ie, that US-born African Americans have different genotype distributions that increase their risk for HTN. In fact, some of the genotypic distributions evidenced lower frequencies of HTN-related alleles among US-born African Americans, providing evidence of European admixture. The consistent finding that birthplace (ie, US vs Africa) was associated with HTN, even though it was not always significant, suggests potential and unmeasured cultural, lifestyle, and environmental differences between African immigrants and US-born African Americans that are protective against HTN.

  14. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a home-based, individually-tailored physical activity print intervention for African American women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD=4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m(2) (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 min/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health.

  15. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  16. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  17. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  18. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126

  19. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  20. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  1. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  2. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  3. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  5. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496

  6. School and peer influences on the academic outcomes of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D

    2015-10-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents.

  7. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  8. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  9. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  10. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

    2013-01-15

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.

  11. Perceptions of Support Among Older African American Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Moore, Charles E.; Powe, Barbara D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Martin, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the perceived social support needs among older adult African American cancer survivors. Research Approach Qualitative design using grounded theory techniques. Setting Outpatient oncology clinics in the southeastern United States. Participants Focus groups with 22 older adult African American cancer survivors. Methodologic Approach Purposeful sampling technique was used to identify focus group participants. In-depth interviews were conducted and participants were interviewed until informational redundancy was achieved. Main Research Variables Social support needs of older adult African American patients with cancer. Findings Social support was influenced by (a) symptoms and treatment side effects, (b) perceptions of stigma and fears expressed by family and friends, (c) cultural beliefs about cancer, and (d) desires to lessen any burden or disruption to the lives of family and friends. Survivors navigated within and outside of their networks to get their social support needs met. In some instances, survivors socially withdrew from traditional sources of support for fear of being ostracized. Survivors also described feeling hurt, alone, and socially isolated when completely abandoned by friends. Conclusions The support from family, friends, and fellow church members is important to positive outcomes among older African American cancer survivors. However, misconceptions, fears, and negative cultural beliefs persist within the African American community and negatively influence the social support available to this population. Interpretations Early identification of the factors that influence social support can facilitate strategies to improve outcomes and decrease health disparities among this population. PMID:20591808

  12. Understanding African American's religious beliefs and organ donation intentions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dana H Z; Klammer, Susan M Gerbensky; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2014-12-01

    African Americans are overrepresented on the organ transplant waiting list and underrepresented among organ and tissue donors. One of the most highly noted reasons for lack of donation is the perception that donation is contrary to religious beliefs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to explore the complexities of religion (beliefs, religiosity, and religious involvement) and its association with willingness to donate and the written expression of donation intentions. Findings from a sample of 505 African American participants suggest that religion is a multidimensional construct and results differ depending on how the construct is measured and operationalized.

  13. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  14. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk.

  15. African Trypanosomes Find a Fat Haven

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The African trypanosome was thought to primarily develop in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of its mammalian host. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Trindade et al. (2016) report the surprising finding that during ongoing persistent infections in mice, a major fraction of the parasites reside within fatty tissues. PMID:27281564

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  18. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  19. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  20. Gender Differences in African American Students' Satisfaction with College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamara L.

    2000-01-01

    Two hundred sixty-nine African American college students completed a modified version of Astin's Overall Satisfaction with College scale and Brown Scale of College Social Support, which was developed for this study. Findings indicate that the correlates and predictors of satisfaction with college vary as a function of both gender and dimension of…

  1. Social Support, Traumatic Events, and Depressive Symptoms among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…

  2. Mate Selection Preferences among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Louie E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the attitudes and preferences of African American college students toward physical characteristics, social status, and related variables regarding dating and future mate selection. Findings mostly confirmed that females would differ from males on social status variables (willing to date persons from lower social status), and males would…

  3. Gastrointestinal Symptoms among African Americans Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Glenda; Robinson, Janie R; Walker, Charles; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Anderson, Staci T

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end stage renal disease is more than three times higher in African Americans. Treatment regimens contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. This study's purpose was to examine the incidence of GI symptoms in African-American patients undergoing hemodialysis. Younger participants were more likely to report mild indigestion, while older participants reported severe indigestion or none at all. Females were more likely to report gastrointestinal symptoms. Commonly reported co-morbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. Time on hemodialysis ranged from 1 to 279 months. Those who had been on hemodialysis the longest were more likely to report acid reflux, stomach rumbling and mild diarrhea. This study provides a foundation for early identification of GI symptoms in African-Americans patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  4. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  5. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  6. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  7. Heart failure in African Americans: disparities can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Yancy, Clyde W

    2014-05-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans.

  8. Race, Culture, and the Education of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Marvin Lynn explores a range of perspectives on African American education, with particular focus on three works: "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement," by social anthropologist John Ogbu; "African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing Schools of Achievement for African American Children," by…

  9. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  10. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  11. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  12. African-American Artists in Context: The Philadelphia Art Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdino-Sullivan, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    Reviews two exhibits of visual art at the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Art Museum, "Works by African-Americans," which showcases the contributions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American artists; and "Pertaining to Philadelphia," acquisitions from the collection of Julius Bloch, an artist and mentor to many African American artists in…

  13. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  14. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  15. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  16. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  17. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  18. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  19. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  20. Going to School: The African-American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

  1. Parent Support and African American Adolescents' Career Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a…

  2. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  3. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  4. Evaluating the generalizability of a fear deficit in psychopathic African American offenders

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Newman, Joseph P.; Sathasivam, Nina; Curtin, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory studies of psychopathy have yielded an impressive array of etiologically relevant findings. To date, however, attempts to demonstrate the generalizability of these findings to African American psychopathic offenders have been largely unsuccessful. The fear deficit has long been regarded as the hallmark of psychopathy, yet the generalizability of this association to African American offenders has not been systematically evaluated. This study used an instructed fear paradigm and fear-potentiated startle to assess this deficit and the factors that moderate its expression in African American offenders. Furthermore, we conceptualized psychopathy using both a unitary and two-factor model and we assessed the constructs using both interview-based and self-report measures. Regardless of assessment strategy, results provided no evidence that psychopathy relates to fear deficits in African American offenders. Further research is needed to clarify whether the emotion deficits associated with psychopathy in European American offenders are applicable to African American offenders. PMID:21038928

  5. African American and European American Veterans’ Perspectives on Receiving Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Frank; AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Lester-Williams, Kristin; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Dick, Alexandra M.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about client attitudes, especially Veterans’, toward the types of structured interventions that are increasingly being offered in public sector and VA mental health clinics, nor is the possible impact these attitudes may have on treatment engagement well understood. Previous work indicates that attitudes of African Americans and European Americans toward treatment may differ in important ways. Attitudes toward treatment have been a proposed explanation for lower treatment engagement and higher dropout rates among African Americans compared to European Americans. Yet to date, the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment and treatment outcomes has been understudied, and findings inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore African American and European American Veteran attitudes toward mental health care, especially as they relate to structured treatments. Separate focus groups were conducted with 24 African American and 37 European American military Veterans. In general, both groups reported similar reasons to seek treatment and similar thoughts regarding the purpose of therapy. Differences emerged primarily regarding therapist preferences. In both groups, some participants expressed favorable opinions of structured treatments and others expressed negative views; treatment preferences did not appear to be influenced by race. PMID:25822316

  6. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  7. Paranoid Ideation among Elderly African American Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan, Shahrzad; King, Lewis

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional study involving 998 independently living elderly African Americans used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure paranoid ideation and 14 independent variables including demographic characteristics, cognitive deficit, and depression. Paranoid ideation was found in 10% of the sample. Regression analysis revealed 6 of 14 independent…

  8. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  9. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  10. Sun protection behaviors among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall, H I; Rogers, J D

    1999-01-01

    The anatomic distribution of some skin cancers suggests that sun exposure may be an etiologic factor for skin cancer among African Americans. Yet little is known about sun protection behaviors among African Americans. We analyzed data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (N = 1,583) to determine the prevalence of sun protection behaviors and sun sensitivity. About 6% of African Americans reported being extremely sensitive to the sun and severe sunburning, and 9% reported mild burns. Overall, 53% of respondents (47% of men and 57% of women) reported that they were very likely to wear protective clothing, seek shade, or use sunscreen lotion. Women were more likely than men to report seeking shade and using sunscreen. Sun protection behaviors were more frequently reported by those who sunburn more easily and were positively associated with age. Use of sunscreen was positively associated with income and education. Education about sun protection and early detection may help reduce the morbidity and mortality of skin cancer among African Americans.

  11. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  12. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  13. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  14. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  15. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  16. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  17. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  18. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  1. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  2. Marginality Theory and the African American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, G. Kathleen; Breese, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of African-American college students at a state university in the Midwest. The study examined the effects of marginality on their college experience and performance. Identifies six reactions to marginality and provides case study examples of each. Includes extensive references and verbatim comments from the students. (MJP)

  3. Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

  4. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  5. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  6. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  7. Gout and African Americans: Reducing disparities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharat; Lenert, Petar

    2016-09-01

    African Americans are more likely to suffer from gout and are less likely to receive optimal treatment for it. Physicians should be aware of risk factors for gout and professional guidelines for treating acute attacks and high uric acid levels, and should help develop strategies to reduce disparities in healthcare delivery. PMID:27618355

  8. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  9. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  10. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  11. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  12. The Influence of the Extended Family on the Involvement of Nonresident African American Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Armon R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the extended family provides support to African American nonresident fathers and its influence on their involvement with their children. The data for this study were collected from 278 African American nonresident fathers as a part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The findings revealed…

  13. In Their Own Words: Perceived Barriers to Achievement by African American and Latino High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…

  14. Black College Dollars: Scholarships for African-American Students. 2007-2008 Directory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Adrienne; O'Brien, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    This scholarship guide was created for African-American students as one way to make their scholarship search a little easier. Inside this guide, readers will find information about scholarships that are designed to reduce the cost of college for African-American students, and for all students of color. Along with the who's, what's, and how's for…

  15. African American Males and Literacy Development in Contexts That Are Characteristically Urban

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…

  16. Debunking Anti-Intellectualism: An Examination of African American College Students' Intellectual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the debate on African American "anti-intellectualism," this study examined a longitudinal sample of 460 African American students' intellectual self-concept and college grades (GPA) through regression analyses resulting from their college experiences. The findings showed that the college environment had a modest influence on African…

  17. Examining Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Differentiation in African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…

  18. Closing the Achievement Gap through the Retention of African American Students in Gifted Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Muriel B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors that impact African American students' participation in honors level courses and gifted programs. It also explored common trends that exist with students in honors level courses. From the findings, it is hoped that this study can contribute to an increase in the representation of African American students in gifted…

  19. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  20. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  1. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  2. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  3. The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  4. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  5. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  6. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  7. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  8. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  9. Sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Cheryl M; Friedman, Steven

    2005-03-01

    Studies have reported a wide range in lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis (SP). This variation may stem from cultural factors, stressful life events and genetic differences in studied populations. We found that recurrent SP was more common among African-American participants, especially those with panic disorder. Recurrent SP was reported by 59% of African Americans with panic disorder, 7% of whites with panic disorder, 23% of African-American community volunteers and 6% of white community volunteers. Significantly more early life stressors were reported by African Americans than whites. Higher levels of psychosocial stressors, including poverty, racism and acculturation, may contribute to the higher rates of SP experienced by African Americans.

  10. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p < 0.001), whereas controls had a higher daily mean intake of dietary fiber (p < 0.001) and fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p < 0.02) and more fiber (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.08) than African Americans. Additionally, men consumed more total fat (p = 0.08) and less fiber (p = 0.001), fruits (p < 0.001), and vegetables (p = 0.002) than women. Multivariable analysis, after adjustment for the effects of pack-years of smoking, age, total energy intake, sex, and ethnicity, demonstrated a positive association between high total fat consumption and lung cancer risk (p < 0.01) and an inverse association between high fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  11. African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)

  12. The African-American Legacy in American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarry, Abu

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of African-American poetry to the development of English literature from the earliest Black orator through the works of Langston Hughes. Emphasizes the work of Phillis Wheatley, Paul Lawrence Dunbar,"The New Negro" writers, and Hughes. (FMW)

  13. Spirituality and Academic Performance among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Katrina L.; Dixon, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Investigated spirituality and religious participation among African American and European American college students. Student surveys indicated that African Americans had higher levels of spiritual beliefs and religious participation than did European Americans. Correlation analysis indicated that spiritual beliefs and religious participation were…

  14. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  15. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  16. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  17. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  18. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  19. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  20. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  1. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  2. A Student's Guide to African American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anne E.; Cooper, Adam Merton

    This book provides a guide to the study of genealogy, or family history, through the use of historical documents, artifacts, and private records. Intended mainly for students who wish to trace their family roots, it also can be used by anyone interested in the lives of African Americans throughout the years. Suggestions on how to find records that…

  3. Racism and cardiovascular disease in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Sharon B; Williams, David R; Calvin, Rosie; Henderson, Frances C; Walker, Evelyn R; Winters, Karen

    2003-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the evidence on the ways racism can affect the disproportionate rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans. It describes the significant health disparities in CVD for blacks and whites and suggests that racial disparities should be understood within the context of persistent inequities in societal institutions and relations. Evidence and potential pathways for exploring effects of 3 levels of racism on cardiovascular health risk factors and outcomes are reviewed. First, institutional racism can lead to limited opportunities for socioeconomic mobility, differential access to goods and resources, and poor living conditions that can adversely affect cardiovascular health. Second, perceived/personally mediated racism acts as a stressor and can induce psychophysiological reactions that negatively affect cardiovascular health. Third, in race-conscious societies, such as the United States, the negative self-evaluations of accepting negative cultural stereotypes as true (internalized racism) can have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health. Few population-based studies have examined the relationship between racism and CVD. The findings, though suggestive of a positive association, are neither consistent nor clear. The research agenda of the Jackson Heart Study in addressing the role of racism in CVD is presented.

  4. Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jacqueline

    In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American…

  5. African American Studies in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)

  6. Charting the Ancestry of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

  7. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health.

  8. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787

  9. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  10. Take up the caregiver's burden: stories of care for urban African American elders with dementia.

    PubMed

    Fox, K; Hinton, W L; Levkoff, S

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study uses an anthropological gaze to analyze transcripts of extended in-home interviews among a set of ten caregivers of African-American elders with dementia. How are race and ethnicity made to matter in the recognition of, the meaning-making around and the responses to dementing illness among a sample of African-American caregivers? The essay contrasts prevailing cultural representations of African-American caregiver burden with caregiver interview data. What we find is that current constructs which consistently demonstrate "lesser burden" among African-American caregivers compared with Whites may not adequately capture these caregivers' experiences. Interpretations of experiences, meanings of "burden" and the logic of symptoms in the illness narratives generated by these African-American caregivers of elders with dementia require attention to the embodiment of large scale sociopolitical and historical forces like residential, educational and occupational segregation, institutional racism, and economic exploitation over the life course.

  11. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  12. Take up the caregiver's burden: stories of care for urban African American elders with dementia.

    PubMed

    Fox, K; Hinton, W L; Levkoff, S

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study uses an anthropological gaze to analyze transcripts of extended in-home interviews among a set of ten caregivers of African-American elders with dementia. How are race and ethnicity made to matter in the recognition of, the meaning-making around and the responses to dementing illness among a sample of African-American caregivers? The essay contrasts prevailing cultural representations of African-American caregiver burden with caregiver interview data. What we find is that current constructs which consistently demonstrate "lesser burden" among African-American caregivers compared with Whites may not adequately capture these caregivers' experiences. Interpretations of experiences, meanings of "burden" and the logic of symptoms in the illness narratives generated by these African-American caregivers of elders with dementia require attention to the embodiment of large scale sociopolitical and historical forces like residential, educational and occupational segregation, institutional racism, and economic exploitation over the life course. PMID:10647946

  13. A review of genetics, arterial stiffness, and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jennifer L; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the USA is among the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20 % of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying genes and biological pathways regulating arterial stiffness may provide insight into the genetics underlying the increased risk of hypertension in African Americans. This paper reviews the genetic findings to date in the area of arterial stiffness and blood pressure in African Americans with an emphasis on the current limitations and new efforts to move the field forward.

  14. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  15. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  16. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  17. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  18. Obesity, body fat distribution, and blood pressure in Nigerian and African-American men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Campbell, L. L.; Wing, R.; Ukoli, F. A.; Janney, C. A.; Nwankwo, M. U.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a study that assesses body fat distribution patterns in Nigerian and African-American males and females and determines the association between body fat distribution patterns and blood pressure in young adults of differing geographical and ethnic backgrounds. The study population was comprised of 275 African Americans (92 males and 183 females) and 282 Nigerians (219 males and 63 females). The mean ages for the African-American males and females were 18.7 and 18.9 years, respectively, compared with 21 and 19.2 years for the Nigerian males and females. African Americans were more likely to be obese and overweight compared with their Nigerian counterparts. However, there were no significant differences between the two ethnic groups within gender for body fat distribution patterns based on waist-to-hip ratio. Despite being leaner, the Nigerians had higher diastolic blood pressures than the African Americans. There were no significant associations observed between blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio for either the Nigerian or the African-American males or females, and body mass index was associated consistently with blood pressure only among the African Americans. These findings suggest that body mass index, a general indicator of obesity, is a better correlate of blood pressure than the waist-to-hip ratio among African Americans. PMID:8151724

  19. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  20. Assessing measurement invariance of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II among Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yuki; Thoen, Megan A; Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the cross-cultural validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) with Hispanic, African American, and European American community samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 218 Hispanics, 129 African Americans, and 552 European Americans to examine measurement equivalence among these groups. Measurement invariance of the PGIS-II was established with the original 4 factors of readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behavior. These findings suggest the PGIS-II can be administered across these groups and provide meaningful comparisons and interpretations. All samples yielded good internal consistency estimates. The African American sample reported higher means than Hispanic and European American samples for all subscale and total mean scores, and Hispanics scored higher in planfulness, readiness for change, and total score than European Americans, indicating potential cultural factors influencing the scores. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  1. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... history, a neurological examination, and various tests including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EP), and spinal fluid analysis. Physicians must find evidence of damage that ...

  2. Internalized racism's association with African American male youth's propensity for violence.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Wesley W

    2011-01-01

    Youth violence in African American communities is still considered to be at epidemic proportions. The traditional risk factors for youth violence (i.e. delinquent friends, poverty, drug use, carrying a weapon etc.) do not account for the disproportionate overrepresentation of African American males. This study sought to better understand the propensity for violence among African American males ages 14-19 years (N=224) from four different programmatic sites: a Philadelphia high school, an African-centered charter high school, a youth detention facility, and a program that serves youth who are on probation or parole. The findings indicate that internalized racism enhances the variance explained above the variables typically explored in the delinquency and criminology literature. If further research can replicate these findings, this has implications for the content and direction of prevention approaches with African American male youth.

  3. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  4. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  5. Retention of African American Faculty in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awe, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Most literature on the American professorate provides a culture of evidence that suggests that the above account represents the typical experience endured by many African American faculty members and other faculty of color. African American faculty remain under-represented in predominantly White research universities. The number of African…

  6. 75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... African American History Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... slavery and oppression, the hope of progress, and the triumph of the American Dream. African American..., I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in...

  7. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  8. The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.

    This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…

  9. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  10. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  11. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  12. Defining and overcoming barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article describes various communication barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families which prevent effective spiritual care. These barriers include covert and deeply internalized racism, belief in false ideologies, persistent stereotyping, and being unaware of white privilege. Proposes potential solutions of acknowledging ones own race; becoming sensitive to the history and continuing oppression of Euro-Americans toward African Americans; building multicultural competence through education; and building equal-status relationships with African American individuals.

  13. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live. PMID:21666885

  14. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.

  15. Perspectives from the historic African American medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Epps, C H

    1999-05-01

    The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States

  16. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  17. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  18. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  19. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:16643100

  20. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  1. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918

  2. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk.

  3. Attitudes toward cancer and implications for mental health outcome in African-American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amy Y; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2015-03-01

    This study examined African-American cancer patients’ attitudes toward cancer and their relationship with long-term mental health outcomes. Using mixed methods, 74 breast and prostate cancer patients including 34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African-Americans and 17 depressed Whites were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis identified themes that were coded. The codes were entered into SPSS software. Fisher’s exact test was performed to examine group differences in the identified themes. Nondepressed African-Americans more frequently reported cancer as an adaptive experience (p = 0.047) and less frequently as a struggle (p = 0.012) than the depressed African-Americans and Whites. Groups did not significantly differ in the belief that cancer has no cure (p = 0.763), but depressed African-Americans more frequently reported unwillingness to share a cancer diagnosis with family or friends than depressed Whites (p = 0.50). African-Americans’ adaptive attitudes to cancer exhibit a pragmatist approach and a worldview shaped by their lived experience. Participants’ narratives were examined to illuminate the meanings of these findings. Adaptive attitudes to cancer are associated with better long-term mental health outcomes, and conversely, unpreparedness and inability to cope are associated with a higher risk of depression among African-American cancer patients. Education about cancer and supports for treatment navigation are important measures for improving the long-term mental health of African-Americans living with cancer.

  4. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918

  5. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  6. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  7. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  8. Perspectives of African-American women on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Glenna L

    2008-01-01

    Twice as many African-American infants die each year when compared to White infants. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors related to this racial gap in infant mortality. Thirteen African-American women from two Virginia towns participated in either a focus group or in-depth interviews. Content and interpretive analysis revealed several themes. Participants indicated that the experiences of stress and racism are constant factors in African-American women's lives and are inseparable from their pregnancy experiences. Participants noted the importance of social support and the health care provider-client relationship for positive pregnancy outcomes.

  9. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  10. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  11. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  12. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K V; Sedwick, W David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D; Elston, Robert C; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph E

    2015-01-27

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  13. Ending the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Adimora, Adaora A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Floris-Moore, Michelle A

    2009-11-01

    This article examines factors responsible for the stark racial disparities in HIV infection in the U.S. and the now concentrated epidemic among African Americans. Sexual network patterns characterized by concurrency and mixing among different subpopulations, together with high rates of other sexually transmitted infections, facilitate dissemination of HIV among African Americans. The social and economic environment in which many African Americans live shapes sexual network patterns and increases personal infection risk almost independently of personal behavior. The African-American HIV epidemic constitutes a national crisis whose successful resolution will require modifying the social and economic systems, structures, and processes that facilitate HIV transmission in this population.

  14. Ending the Epidemic of Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Floris-Moore, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines factors responsible for the stark racial disparities in HIV infection in the U.S. and the now concentrated epidemic among African Americans. Sexual network patterns characterized by concurrency and mixing among different subpopulations, together with high rates of other sexually transmitted infections, facilitate dissemination of HIV among African Americans. The social and economic environment in which many African Americans live shapes sexual network patterns and increases personal infection risk almost independently of personal behavior. The African American HIV epidemic constitutes a national crisis whose successful resolution will require modifying the social and economic systems, structures, and processes that facilitate HIV transmission in this population. PMID:19840704

  15. HIV health crisis and African Americans: a cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Plowden, K; Miller, J L; James, T

    2000-01-01

    While incidence of new HIV infections have decreased in the overall population, the numbers continue to rise in African-Americans creating a serious health emergency. Studies seem to imply that part of the rise is due to HIV beliefs and high risk behaviors among African Americans. Due to certain societal factors, African Americans appear to be at greater risk for contracting the virus. This article will examine these critical social factors and their impact on this current state of emergency in the African American community using Leininger's theory of Culture Care and Universality. Implications for health providers are also addressed. PMID:11760310

  16. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  17. Microevolution of African American dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2007-04-01

    The African American (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North.

  18. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  19. An Examination of Factors Associated with the Retention and Recruitment of African American Male Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of escalating enrollments of African American students on college campuses and continuing calls to increase the numbers of African American male faculty, a considerable amount of research has been conducted over the years to explore the relative status of African American male faculty (Bennett, 2001). It was difficult to find a college or…

  20. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  1. Fine-mapping IGF1 and prostate cancer risk in African Americans: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Elena E; Stram, Daniel O; Taverna, Darin; Turner, Stephen D; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A; Lum-Jones, Annette; Tirikainen, Maarit; Caberto, Christian; Duggan, David; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Cheng, Iona

    2014-09-01

    Genetic variation at insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been linked to prostate cancer risk. However, the specific predisposing variants have not been identified. In this study, we fine-mapped the IGF1 locus for prostate cancer risk in African Americans. We conducted targeted Roche GS-Junior 454 resequencing of a 156-kb region of IGF1 in 80 African American aggressive prostate cancer cases. Three hundred and thirty-four IGF1 SNPs were examined for their association with prostate cancer risk in 1,000 African American prostate cancer cases and 991 controls. The top associated SNP in African Americans, rs148371593, was examined in an additional 3,465 prostate cancer cases and 3,425 controls of non-African American ancestry-European Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. The overall association of 334 IGF1 SNPs and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic kernel-machine methods. The association between each SNP and prostate cancer risk was evaluated through unconditional logistic regression. A false discovery rate threshold of q < 0.1 was used to determine statistical significance of associations. We identified 8 novel IGF1 SNPs. The cumulative effect of the 334 IGF1 SNPs was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.13) in African Americans. Twenty SNPs were nominally associated with prostate cancer at P < 0.05. The top associated SNP among African Americans, rs148371593 [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03; P = 0.0014; q > 0.1], did not reach our criterion of statistical significance. This polymorphism was rare in non-African Americans (MAF < 0.003) and was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.98). Our findings do not support the role of IGF1 variants and prostate cancer risk among African Americans.

  2. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  3. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  4. Racial/ethnic socialization mediates perceived racism and the racial identity of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Howard C; Arrington, Edith G

    2009-04-01

    Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among African American youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight African American students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of African American youth.

  5. Needs and preferences for receiving mental health information in an African American focus group sample.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Lucksted, Alicia; Gioia, Deborah; Barnet, Beth; Baquet, Claudia R

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. We conducted four focus groups (n = 42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system. Participants expressed fear of stigma and perceptions of racism as major barriers to seeking information and/or services and discussed some normalizing strategies to address these barriers. African Americans harbor cultural and traditional beliefs regarding mental illness which could also act as barriers. Findings have implications for imparting acceptable and culturally sensitive mental health education and service delivery programs in community settings.

  6. Powerlessness, anger, and stress in African American women: implications for physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shirley A; González-Prendes, A Antonio

    2009-01-01

    African American women find themselves at a high risk of experiencing feelings of powerlessness associated with socioeconomic disparities rooted in a history of racism and sexism. The authors present a conceptual model that discusses powerlessness as a significant variable that contributes to the experience of anger and stress in African American women, and consequently to the adverse health consequences of such anger and stress. The authors review the current literature as well as census and health statistics to discern critical historical, social, and cognitive aspects of powerlessness and anger in African American women. Implications for practitioners are addressed.

  7. Needs and Preferences for Receiving Mental Health Information in an African American Focus Group Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Lucksted, Alicia; Gioia, Deborah; Barnet, Beth; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. We conducted four focus groups (n=42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system. Participants expressed fear of stigma and perceptions of racism as major barriers to seeking information and/or services and discussed some normalizing strategies to address these barriers. African Americans harbor cultural and traditional beliefs regarding mental illness which could also act as barriers. Findings have implications for imparting acceptable and culturally-sensitive mental health education and service delivery programs in community settings. PMID:18633704

  8. Beliefs and perceived norms concerning body image among African-American and Latino teenagers.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy

    2010-09-01

    Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents.

  9. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  10. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook. PMID:22536626

  11. Differentiating Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia and Androgenetic Alopecia in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Sperling, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss accompanied by scalp symptoms. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in African American men with the appropriate clinical picture and confirm the diagnosis by scalp biopsy. Prompt and appropriate treatment can help halt or slow disease progression. PMID:22768355

  12. Beliefs and perceived norms concerning body image among African-American and Latino teenagers.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy

    2010-09-01

    Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents. PMID:20453045

  13. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  14. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  15. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  16. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  17. The prevention of psychopathology in African Americans: an epidemiologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, H W

    1990-04-01

    Although improving the mental health status of African Americans is an important goal, it is not clear that this can be accomplished by increasing access to professional services. Many have argued that stressful social conditions are the major cause of mental disorder in blacks and thus, psychopathology can be prevented by eliminating racism, oppression and poor economic conditions. This review argues that while the notion of primary prevention with African Americans should be taken seriously, there is still a need for more and better epidemiologic research. Three bodies of knowledge relevant to black mental health are addressed: 1) the need for an epidemiologic knowledge base for prevention; 2) coping capacity and vulnerability to stress; 3) risk factor identification. Findings from a national survey of adult African Americans are presented as an example of risk factor identification for the purpose of specifying targets for preventive interventions. The paper concludes that before the prevention of psychopathology in black populations can be achieved, a number of measurement, theoretical and policy issues must be addressed. Specific directions for future research are outlined.

  18. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities. PMID:20574877

  19. Primary care for young African American men.

    PubMed

    Rich, J A

    2001-01-01

    Young African American men in the inner city have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from potentially preventable causes than other American men of the same age. They suffer disproportionately high rates of preventable illness from violence, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV infection. These young men present with problems related to sexual concerns, mental health issues, substance abuse, and violence. They also report substantial risk-taking behaviors, including unprotected sex, substance use, and weapon carrying, as well as exposure to violence. Access to and use of preventive primary care services has been limited for these patients in the past because of financial barriers and competing social issues. Racism and historical oppression have created barriers of mistrust for young men of color. Factors that contribute to their adverse health status, as well as ways to address these problems, are discussed.

  20. Exploring resiliency factors of older African American Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cecilia L

    2012-01-01

    Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults.

  1. Exploring resiliency factors of older African American Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cecilia L

    2012-01-01

    Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults. PMID:22830937

  2. Problems of Transition for African Students in an American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelegan, Francis O.; Parks, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed Black East African, Black West African and Arabic North African students (N=33) enrolled in an American university to identify their problems and personal attributes and environmental conditions influencing their experience. Discusses social, transportation, food, loneliness, and other problems. (MCF)

  3. Designing social marketing strategies to increase African Americans' access to health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Icard, Larry D; Bourjolly, Joretha N; Siddiqui, Nushina

    2003-08-01

    This qualitative study explored four key factors--source, message, channel, and target--for linking at-risk African Americans with health promotion programs. Among the findings from focus group discussions was that the use of the African American church to involve at-risk African Americans in health promotion programs may actually function as a barrier for some individuals. The study also suggests that use of a high profile person to deliver a message may be counterproductive to efforts to motivate people to use health promotion programs. The significance of these and other findings for designing more effective social marketing strategies to increase at-risk African Americans' access to health promotion programs are discussed.

  4. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  5. Social Support Structures and African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry-El, Judith A.; And Others

    An issue currently facing the African-American community is the incidence of divorce, which is presently at a higher rate than that of other groups. This study focused on the supportive networks of African-American couples utilizing a network analysis approach to examine the relationship between the networks, and marital satisfaction among the…

  6. "Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

  7. Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

    2010-01-01

    African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

  8. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  9. Resiliency Instructional Tactics: African American Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…

  10. The African American Family and AIDS: Counseling Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patrick; Beamish, Patricia M.

    This document discusses the application of a systems approach for family counseling for African American families with a family member infected with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It begins by citing statistics that illustrate that there exists a disproportionate representation of cases of AIDS among African Americans. A discussion on…

  11. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  12. The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

    In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

  13. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  14. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  15. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  16. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  17. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  18. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

  19. African-American Students' Expectations about Counseling: A Comparative Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Arthur D.

    1994-01-01

    Compared African American college students' counseling expectations at two universities with different racial majorities. The type of university attended exerted the most powerful effect on counseling expectations of subjects. Counseling professionals must help African American students fully understand issues such as confidentiality, privacy, and…

  20. A Rationale for Creating African-American Immersion Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Kenneth C.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional U.S. classroom's milieu has distorted and refused to recognize the language and cultural richness of African-American students. Milwaukee's two immersion schools, Victor Berger Elementary School and Parkman Middle School, place the African-American students and their culture at the center of the educational process. Results have…

  1. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

    2002-01-01

    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  2. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  3. The Guide for Choosing African American Parenting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingo, Robin R.; Mertensmeyer, Carol

    This guide is designed to help professionals working with African American parents to be better prepared to select culturally sensitive materials, to program more effectively, and to draw from the richness within the African American culture. The guide is one in a series of culturally specific guides produced as part of ParentLink's Review of…

  4. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  5. African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

  6. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  7. Effective Education of African American Exceptional Learners: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 11 author-contributed papers covering the theory and practice of effective assessment and instruction of African American students with exceptionalities, including both disabilities and giftedness. Emphasis is on effective delivery of empowering services to African American youth and their families. The first seven papers have…

  8. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  9. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  10. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  11. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  12. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  13. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  14. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  15. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  17. Judgement Accuracy in Body Preferences among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal A.; Gray, James J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether African Americans accurately estimated levels of thinness preferred by the opposite gender. College students rated pictures of figures approximating their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure most likely to attract the opposite gender, and the opposite gender figure they found most attractive. African American women…

  18. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  19. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  20. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  1. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  2. Brother to Brother: Success for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…

  3. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  4. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  5. A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Mini Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of national African-American History Month, the Institute for Higher Education Policy wishes to highlight the trends and present-day experiences of African-American college students. Recognizing that the society benefits tremendously from an educated citizenry, there must be a renewed commitment to ensuring educational opportunity,…

  6. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  7. African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

    2005-01-01

    More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

  8. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  9. African American College Students: Establishing HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cecil

    African American college students are among the age group of African Americans who are at significantly higher risk for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Much of the research in this area suggests that for the majority of these students, there is little or no relationship between the knowledge of HIV transmission and…

  10. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  11. Experiences of African American Empowerment: A Jamesian Perspective on Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Tweed, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    This essay draws from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth. The focus is on Jamesian agency as a function of the individual's awareness of options in context, the self-empowerment…

  12. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  13. Counseling African American Clients: Professional Counselors and Religious Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…

  14. African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    2005-01-01

    While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

  15. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  16. "Teaching while Black": Narratives of African American Student Affairs Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.; Catching, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    African American faculty have historically been underrepresented within predominantly white institutions (PWIs) and deal with academic isolation, marginalization of their scholarship, and racial hostility. Little is known about the experiences of African American faculty who teach in student affairs graduate programs. The purpose of this study was…

  17. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  18. Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

  19. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  20. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  1. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  2. African-American caregivers' breast health behavior.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-10-01

    This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers' breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a regular doctor checkup (coping), care recipients having a cancer diagnosis (cognitive appraisal, and living in urban areas (environment resources) are associated with receiving a mammogram. Having greater income, having at least a high school degree (both personal resources) and having a regular doctor checkup (coping) are associated with receiving a clinical examination. Increased caregiver strain (stress), being 40 years old or older, social support (coping) and living in rural areas are associated with performing a self-examination. Targeting African-American caregivers, particularly in rural areas, for increased education on the importance of receiving breast cancer screenings is crucial to addressing health disparities. Making resources available, encouraging caregivers to get a clinical examination and a mammogram and directing public education toward caregivers are important points of intervention.

  3. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  4. Physical activity participation in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; McClorin, Lottie

    2009-01-01

    The potential benefit of physical activity (PA) programs delivered through churches is largely unexamined. This study examined availability of PA programs, interpersonal support for PA, and PA participation in African-American churches. Individuals from a random sample of 20 churches in South Carolina participated in a telephone survey (N = 571). Forty two percent of respondents reported PA programs at their churches. Walking programs (20%), aerobics (22%) or a combination of both (20%) were most common. Respondents who reported having these programs were more likely to meet PA recommendations than those who did not (p = 0.05). Larger churches were more likely to offer PA programs (p = 0.02) than small or medium sized churches. Only 24% of respondents had spoken with the health director at their church about participating in a PA program, and only 25% and 33% had ever spoken with another church member about a PA program or were encouraged to join a PA program, respectively. Individuals with more interpersonal support from other church members for PA were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (p = 0.01). This study indicates that program and interpersonal supports within African American churches may offer a venue for increasing PA among members.

  5. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  6. Surviving the Storm: The Role of Social Support and Religious Coping in Sexual Assault Recovery of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773

  7. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  8. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  9. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  10. Hypertension in African Americans and its related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Sandra A

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is prevalent in African Americans and it is associated with three chronic diseases namely; stroke, kidney disease, and heart disease. The literature examines the prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in relation to other groups. Not only do African Americans have higher rates of organ damage, but also stroke and heart disease mortality caused, at least in part, by hypertension. Health professionals, especially nurses, should be proactive in detecting hypertension in African Americans and be more aggressive in controlling and treating this high-risk group. Health education regarding the dangers of hypertension should be the primary focus of healthcare professionals to decrease and prevent mortality and morbidity in the African Americans with hypertension.

  11. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  12. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

  13. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  14. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  15. The Role of African American-Owned Radio in Health Promotion: Community Service Projects Targeting Young African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)

  16. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  17. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  18. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  19. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  20. African-American physicians' views on health reform: results of a survey.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W. M.; Clayton, L. A.; Kinchen, K.; Richardson, D.; Lawrence, L.; Butcher, R.; Davidson, E.

    1994-01-01

    Little is known about African-American physicians' health system experience or their opinions on health reform. In an attempt to obtain socioculturally relevant data quantifying these experiences and opinions, the National Medical Association administered a 38-question, 80-item survey instrument in August 1993. The questionnaire was completed by 236 physicians. The results indicate that African-American physicians feel health care is a right and that the health system needs fundamental change. Although there was no consensus on the type of health reform needed, approximately 35% cited availability and access to care to be the greatest problem facing the system with high costs of care (18.2%) ranking second. Unique findings in the survey indicated respondents felt that the needs and concerns of most African Americans will not be fairly addressed in the reform of the health-care system, that African-African physicians are not included in the formation of health-care policies, and that African-American physicians are facing high levels of professional and healthcare system racial discrimination. More than 99% of African-American physicians reported some degree of racial discrimination in the practice of medicine including peer review, obtaining practice privileges at hospitals, hospital staff promotions, Medicaid and Medicare reimbursements, malpractice suits, private insurance oversight and reimbursements, and referral practices of white colleagues. These findings have profound health policy, health financing, and health service delivery implications and should be included in debates and deliberations on health reform. PMID:8189452

  1. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  2. Predictors of African American and European American adolescents' endorsement of race-conscious social policies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b) knowledge about historical racism, and (c) perceptions of and attributions for racial disparities. The following day, adolescents learned about either a proposed affirmative action policy (n = 101) or a school desegregation policy (n = 109) and completed measures of their attitudes toward the policy. Results indicated racial differences in policy support and in the factors predicting policy support. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Experiences of Reentry and Nontraditional African American Women and Their Support Networks: A Journey in Pursuit of a College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of how support networks impact the success of African American women in completing their college degree. A phenomenological research methodology of 10 African American women participants of in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to collect the data. Fifty percent of the women completed their degree and…

  4. Serving LGBT Students: Examining the Spiritual, Religious, and Social Justice Implications for an African American School Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Latish; Johnson, Les T.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study probes one African American school leader with a conservative religious upbringing as she works in a high school with a self-identified population of African American lesbian, guy, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. The findings demonstrate that the participant's leadership practices were guided by her spiritual…

  5. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  6. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  7. Impaired fertility in African-American women: an investigation of behavioral risks.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2010-12-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by impaired fertility. The literature reflects a number of potential behavioral risks associated with fertility impairment. However, few researchers have investigated these risks in African-American women. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between behavioral factors and impaired fertility in African-American women. A secondary analysis of data was employed from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to develop an explanatory model of impaired fertility in a sample of 364 African-American women of childbearing age. Findings from this current study suggested that factors directly related to impaired fertility included increasing age, current smoking, self-reported health status, and a history of gynecologic problems. Protective effects were associated with previous condom use. Using the knowledge of behavioral threats to fertility, women's health-care providers can screen and assist women in modifying their fertility risks.

  8. Social environment and sexual risk-taking among gay and transgender African American youth.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.

  9. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  10. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  11. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  12. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor. PMID:17573655

  13. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  14. Assessing quality of care for African Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Dinardo, Ellen; Templin, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate burden of hypertension. A causal-modeling design, using Donabedian's Quality Framework, tested hypothesized relationships among structure, process, and outcome variables to assess quality of care provided to this population. Structural assessment revealed that administrative and staff organization affected patients' trust in their provider and satisfaction with their care. Interpersonal process factors of racism, cultural mistrust, and trust in providers had a significant effect on satisfaction, and perceived racism had a negative effect on blood pressure (BP). Poorer quality in technical processes of care was associated with higher BP. Findings support the utility of Donabedian's framework for assessing quality of care in a disease-specific population.

  15. Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations. PMID:12126285

  16. Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White…

  17. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  18. Unraveling the Source of African American Children's Positively Biased Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Stephanie B.; Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated possible ethnic contributions to overly positive self-perceptions in middle childhood. The goals of this study were threefold. First, the present study sought to replicate the intriguing findings reported by Zakriski and Coie that African American children overestimate their acceptance, and European American children…

  19. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  20. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.

  1. Racism and hypertension among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rosalind M

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of racism and blood pressure (BP). Participants were 162 urban African American adults. Measurements included the Racism and Life Experiences Scale, Krieger Racial Discrimination Questionnaire, State-Trait Personality Inventory (anxiety and depression), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and automated measures of BP. Correlational and multiple regression analyses were done to examine relationships among key variables, t tests and ANOVA tested group differences by age, gender, and racism category. There was a high prevalence of perceived racism, which was not associated with higher BP. The racism/BP relationship was moderated by age with significant age related differences noted. Older participants (40 years or older) experienced more distress from racism, more anger suppression, and higher BP but lower levels of stress emotions. The highest levels of BP were noted in older adults reporting the lowest level of perceived racism, raising the issue of "internalized oppression."

  2. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  3. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  4. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  5. An African ancestry-specific allele of CTLA4 confers protection against rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kelley, James M; Hughes, Laura B; Faggard, Jeffrey D; Danila, Maria I; Crawford, Monica H; Edberg, Yuanqing; Padilla, Miguel A; Tiwari, Hemant K; Westfall, Andrew O; Alarcón, Graciela S; Conn, Doyt L; Jonas, Beth L; Callahan, Leigh F; Smith, Edwin A; Brasington, Richard D; Allison, David B; Kimberly, Robert P; Moreland, Larry W; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Bridges, S Louis

    2009-03-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4) is a negative regulator of T-cell proliferation. Polymorphisms in CTLA4 have been inconsistently associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in populations of European ancestry but have not been examined in African Americans. The prevalence of RA in most populations of European and Asian ancestry is approximately 1.0%; RA is purportedly less common in black Africans, with little known about its prevalence in African Americans. We sought to determine if CTLA4 polymorphisms are associated with RA in African Americans. We performed a 2-stage analysis of 12 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across CTLA4 in a total of 505 African American RA patients and 712 African American controls using Illumina and TaqMan platforms. The minor allele (G) of the rs231778 SNP was 0.054 in RA patients, compared to 0.209 in controls (4.462 x 10(-26), Fisher's exact). The presence of the G allele was associated with a substantially reduced odds ratio (OR) of having RA (AG+GG genotypes vs. AA genotype, OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.13-0.26, p = 2.4 x 10(-28), Fisher's exact), suggesting a protective effect. This SNP is polymorphic in the African population (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.09 in the Yoruba population), but is very rare in other groups (MAF = 0.002 in 530 Caucasians genotyped for this study). Markers associated with RA in populations of European ancestry (rs3087243 [+60C/T] and rs231775 [+49A/G]) were not replicated in African Americans. We found no confounding of association for rs231778 after stratifying for the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, or degree of admixture from the European population. An African ancestry-specific genetic variant of CTLA4 appears to be associated with protection from RA in African Americans. This finding may explain, in part, the relatively low prevalence of RA in black African populations.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

  7. The Relationship between Pain, Disability, and Sex in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janiece L; Thorpe, Roland J; Harrison, Tracie C; Baker, Tamara A; Cary, Michael; Szanton, Sarah L; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    Older African Americans consistently report diminished capacities to perform activities of daily living (ADL) compared with other racial groups. The extent to which bodily pain is related to declining abilities to perform ADL/ADL disability in African Americans remains unclear, as does whether this relationship exists to the same degree in African American men and women. For nurses to provide optimal care for older African Americans, a better understanding of the relationship between bodily pain and ADL disability and how it may differ by sex is needed. The aim of this study was to examine whether pain, age, education, income, marital status and/or comorbid conditions were associated with ADL disabilities in older African American women and men. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included 598 participants (446 women, 152 men) from the first wave of the Baltimore Study on Black Aging. African American women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-6.26) and African American men (OR = 6.44; 95% CI = 2.84-14.57) who reported bodily pain had greater ADL disability than those who did not report bodily pain. Having two or more comorbid conditions also was significantly associated with ADL disability in African American women (OR = 3.95; 95% CI: 2.09-7.47). Further work is needed to understand pain differences between older African American women and men to develop interventions that can be tailored to meet the individual pain needs of both groups.

  8. Recognition accuracy and reaction time of vocal expressions of emotion by African-American and Euro-American college women.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Monica D; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Lever, Teresa; O'Brien, Patrick; Campbell, Stacy; Rastatter, Michael

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial group membership and vocal expressions of emotion. Recognition accuracy and reaction time were examined using the Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 Receptive Paralanguage subtests with 18 young Euro-American and African-American women. Participants listened to Euro-American children and adults speaking a neutral sentence, and identified the emotion as happy, sad, angry, or fearful. Analysis identified a significant effect for race on reaction time. Euro-American participants had faster mean RT than the African-American women for the recognition of vocal expression of emotion portrayed by Euro-Americans. However, no significant differences were found in mean accurate identification between the two groups. The finding of a significant difference in recognition RT but not in accuracy between the stimuli spoken by an adult and a child was unexpected. Both racial groups had faster mean RT in response to vocal expression of emotion by children. PMID:15560358

  9. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  10. Mental health and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American and European American female dementia family caregivers.

    PubMed

    McCallum, T J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Fritsch, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Using a sociocultural stress and coping model, this pilot study examines the influence of depressive symptoms and stress on diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American (N=30) and European American (N=24) female dementia caregivers and noncaregivers (African American, N=48; European American, N=15). Caregiving participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS) as respective measures of depressive symptoms, stress, and stress resilience. Participants also collected five saliva samples daily for two consecutive days. African American caregivers scored significantly higher than European American caregivers on the SRGS, but they did not differ on the PSS and CES-D scales. Regression analyses with age, ethnicity, caregiving status, and depressive symptoms as predictors, and cortisol slope as criterion, showed that only age and ethnicity predicted cortisol slope. African Americans had flatter slopes than the European Americans sampled, regardless of caregiving status. Findings highlight the role of cultural beliefs and of ethnicity in explaining cortisol function. PMID:16861373

  11. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

  12. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine social support needs of obese and over-weight African American women for weight loss. Methods Focus groups were conducted with over-weight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD=12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in receiving support from others focused on the health benefits of weight loss. Behaviors perceived as supportive include co-participating in exercise, providing nutrition education, using positive reinforcements, and avoiding criticism. Conclusions: African American women are interested in a program designed to increase social support for their weight loss. PMID:19182980

  13. Addressing health disparities: the role of an African American health ministry committee.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sandra; Harris, Gertrude

    2011-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 identified the need to address health disparities among African Americans, Asians, American Indians, Hispanics, Alaskan American, and Pacific Islanders. These are groups disproportionately affected by cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV infection, and AIDSs. Despite the growing body of research on health disparities and effective interventions, there is a great need to learn more about culturally appropriate interventions. Social work professional values and ethics require that service delivery be culturally competent and effective. Social workers can collaborate with community based health promotion services, exploring new ways to ensure that health disparities can be addressed in institutions to which African Americans belong. This article presents findings of an African American health ministry committee's health promotion initiatives and probed the viability of a health ministry committee' role in addressing health disparities through education. The promising role of the Black church in addressing health disparities is explored.

  14. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  15. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  16. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English Plural Marking: A…

  17. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824

  18. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001

  19. A Comprehensive Genetic Association Study of Alzheimer Disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Mark W.; Schu, Matthew; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Buros, Jacki; Green, Robert C.; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Shatz, Rhonna; Borenstein, Amy; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association of genetic variation with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans, including genes implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of whites. Design We analyzed a genome-wide set of 2.5 million imputed markers to evaluate the genetic basis of AD in an African American population. Subjects Five hundred thirteen well-characterized African American AD cases and 496 cognitively normal African American control subjects. Setting Data were collected from multiple sites as part of the Multi-Institutional Research on Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study and the Henry Ford Health System as part of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Among African Americans (GenerAAtions) Study. Results Several significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). After adjusting for the confounding effects of APOE genotype, one of these SNPs, rs6859 in PVRL2, remained significantly associated with AD (P=.0087). Association was also observed with SNPs in CLU, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A, ABCA7, and CD33, although the effect direction for some SNPs and the most significant SNPs differed from findings in data sets consisting of whites. Finally, using the African American genome-wide association study data set as a discovery sample, we obtained suggestive evidence of association with SNPs for several novel candidate genes. Conclusions Some genes contribute to AD pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific. PMID:22159054

  20. Narratives of grieving African-Americans about racism in the lives of deceased family members.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Paul C; Wallace, Beverly R

    2005-04-01

    As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by the deceased, the authors expected narratives about a deceased African-American to deal with the person's encounters with racism. In fact, most of the 26 African-Americans who were interviewed spoke about racism in the life of the deceased. Many talked about racism blocking the deceased from getting ahead occupationally and in other ways and about how the deceased resisted or stood up to racism. Some people spoke about the ways the deceased taught them to deal with racism. The narratives that indicated that the deceased had rarely or ever talked about racism still made clear that the deceased lived in a racist world but chose not to bring racism into family conversation. The findings suggest that a view of African-American grieving that is insensitive to racism in African-American experience may lead to unhelpful grief support or counseling.

  1. Unemployment, depression, and health: a look at the African-American community

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, E.; Allen, J. A.; Frongillo, E. A.; Chandra, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While the unemployment rate of African-American people is more than twice that of the white population, the research on the impact of unemployment on the health of this population is scarce. This study analysed the impact of unemployment on depression and well being among African-American people, and the factors associated with well being. METHODS: Logistic and multiple regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households 1987-1992. African-American (1369) and white (6660) respondents were analysed separately. Outcome variables included an index of depression and self reported health status. MAIN FINDINGS: Differences between employment and unemployment groups were less significant for African-Americans than for the white population in predicting depression and well being. Health enhancing factors such as education and wealth were significantly associated with better health and lower depression indices among the white population but not consistently so among African-Americans. Satisfaction with personal relationships was the strongest predictor of well being for both groups. CONCLUSION: Research should focus on the special needs and circumstances of African-Americans, because protective factors may not have the same impact in different groups of the population.   PMID:10396479

  2. Mental health screening of African American adolescents and facilitated access to care.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Kanter, Deborah A; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark

    2012-02-01

    This study retrospectively reviews de-identified records from school-based mental health screening in a predominantly African American community. We compare participation rates, screening results, referrals to services and access to care of white and African American adolescents. Among those offered screening, 20.1% of white students (n = 297), and 28.8% of African American students (n = 499) were screened (χ(2) = 32.47, df = 1, P < .001). African American students (45.1%) were significantly more likely than white students (33.0%), (AOR = 1.59; P = .003) to be identified as being at risk. In both racial groups, most youth accessed the school-based services (89.02%, 95% CI 82.25-95.79) and community services (86.57%, 95% CI 78.41-94.73) to which they were referred. The groups did not differ in the odds of accessing community-based services (AOR = .58; P = .49). African American students were, however, more likely than white students to access school-based services (AOR = 10.08; P = .022). The findings support the effectiveness of screening in school settings in predominantly African American communities.

  3. The Peoples Multicultural Almanac: America from the 1400s to Present. 365 Days of Contributions by African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, European Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Earl J., Jr.; And Others

    The Peoples Multicultural Almanac provides five entries for each day in the school year, September through May, organized for the following ethnic groups: (1) African Americans; (2) Asian Americans; (3) European Americans; (4) Hispanic Americans; and (5) Native Americans. The entries highlight significant social, political, historical, cultural,…

  4. Psychosocial correlates of medical mistrust among African American men.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell

    2010-03-01

    The current study proposed and tested a conceptual model of medical mistrust in a sample of African American men (N = 216) recruited primarily from barbershops in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States. Potential psychosocial correlates were grouped into background factors, masculine role identity/socialization factors, recent healthcare experiences, recent socioenvironmental experiences (e.g., discrimination), and healthcare system outcome expectations (e.g., perceived racism in healthcare). Direct and mediated relationships were assessed. Results from the hierarchical regression analyses suggest that perceived racism in healthcare was the most powerful correlate of medical mistrust even after controlling for other factors. Direct effects were found for age, masculine role identity, recent patient-physician interaction quality, and discrimination experiences. Also, perceived racism in healthcare mediated the relationship between discrimination experiences and medical mistrust. These findings suggest that African American men's mistrust of healthcare organizations is related to personal characteristics, previous negative social/healthcare experiences, and expectations of disparate treatment on the basis of race. These findings also imply that aspects of masculine role identity shape the tone of patient-physician interactions in ways that impede trust building processes.

  5. Exploring the relationship between purpose in life and African American adolescents' use of prenatal care services.

    PubMed

    Spence, S A; Holliman, D

    1995-01-01

    This article presents findings of a study that explored the relationship between purpose in life and African American adolescents' use of prenatal care services. The findings revealed no statistically significant relationship, thus suggesting that purpose in life may not be a crucial factor in determining whether African American adolescents use prenatal care services. The need to explore the influence of other variables on service use and the importance of considering such findings for appropriate health care and social work intervention are discussed. PMID:8658318

  6. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  7. Preparing African American Counselor Education Students for the Professorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phillip D.; Bradley, Carla R.; Knight, Donald E.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the underrepresentation of African American faculty in CACREP-Accredited counseling programs and to discuss ways of creating and sustaining a pipeline of potential counselor educators for the academy. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. African Americans and HIV/AIDS: cultural concerns.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Wilbert C; Vaughn, Anita C; Hood, Rodney G

    2004-10-01

    AIDS is a disease that has had a disproportionate effect on African Americans. While there has been significant progress in the treatment of people with HIV infection, there are obstacles to the optimal treatment of African Americans, such as distrust of the medical system, cultural differences between patients and providers, and institutional racism. To optimize treatment of African Americans with HIV/AIDS, health care providers must learn more about cultural issues that impact treatment. The goals of treatment for African Americans with HIV infection are the same as those for all patients: maintain durable suppression of HIV replication, prevent resistance, support optimal immune system function, extend AIDS-free survival time, maximize adherence to antiretroviral regimens, and improve quality of life.

  9. Increasing the adjustment success of the disabled African American.

    PubMed

    Miller, S D

    1993-01-01

    Adjustment to a physically disabling condition is a challenge for any patient who confronts a future of severe impairment and limited mobility. The emotional trauma is usually devastating at least until the initial shock of the disability dissipates. For the disabled African-American patient, the physical and psychic pain are compounded by personal and social factors not experienced in similar intensity by other disabled patients. A conceptual framework for better understanding the nature of the forces that impinge on the ability of the disabled African-American patient to adjust and an understanding of the impact of multi-level systems on the life of the disabled African-American is provided. The influence of racism, be it intentional or unintentional, is explained as it relates to the services and the attitudes of health care systems. The family as a significant and vital system is discussed as the major contributor to the successful adjustment of African-American disabled persons.

  10. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  11. Directory of Scholarships for African-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)

  12. Reaching rural African American women difficult. Researcher discusses chief issues.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Poverty and inequality are among the major challenges faced by the rural African American women at risk for HIV infection, and they increase this population's potential for becoming infected, an expert says.

  13. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture.

    PubMed

    Drisdom, Sheronda

    2013-08-01

    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:23899976

  14. Telephone Surveys Underestimate Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma; Simms, Denise Adams; Roesch, Scott C.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Ake, Diane; Villodas, Feion

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method: A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N = 2118 California (CA) African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315), a statewide, random digit-dial telephone survey conducted simultaneously. Results: Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33%) than among telephone survey (19%) Blacks, even after controlling for sample differences in demographics. Conclusion: Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them. PMID:24350205

  15. Mandombian Perspective: Constitutive Matrix For African-American Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lancey, Frenzella Elaine

    1995-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of a Nigerian chieftain can offer crucial understanding of contemporary African-American scientists. Uses theoretical frame, methodology, and interpretive strategies of Afrocentric theory. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

  16. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  17. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health.

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-08-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring.

  18. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  19. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110

  20. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  1. Smoking abstinence-related expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and women: potential mechanisms of tobacco-related disparities.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Westmaas, J Lee; Ta Park, Van M; Thorne, Christopher B; Wood, Sabrina B; Baker, Majel R; Lawler, R Marsh; Webb Hooper, Monica; Delucchi, Kevin L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-03-01

    Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared with men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain. These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192

  2. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  3. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  4. In Our Own Image: An African American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    This textbook for elementary school children is a history of African Americans from 800 A.D. to 1992 in 24 chapters. Each chapter closes with a review that lists vocabulary words to learn, and offers thinking and writing questions. Some chapters also contain activity sheets. Chapter topics include African origins, black explorers and settlers in…

  5. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  6. Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B

    2006-05-01

    Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05), and higher serum creatinine (1.66 +/- 1.3, 1.25 +/- 1.0, and 1.31 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.025). African Americans had lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P < 0.05), and lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P < 0.05). Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P < 0.05), as was the development of renal events or death (34, 20, and 10%; P < 0.025). Our results suggest that both biological factors indicating an aggressive disease and low household income are common in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.

  7. A Comparison of Depressive Symptoms in African Americans and Caucasian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Young, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined group differences in depressive symptomatology among African Americans and whites seeking psychotherapy. African Americans reported less pessimism, dissatisfaction, self-blame, and suicidal ideation and more sense of punishment and weight change, but for reasons unrelated to depression. Self-dislike was a stronger manifestation of…

  8. Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

  9. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  10. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  11. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  12. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

  13. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  14. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  15. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  16. Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Background African American youth are more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to be obese. African American youth are also more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods which increase their victimization, observation, and fear of violence. Objectives This study tested if victimization, observation, and fear of violence in the neighborhood during adolescence predict trajectory of body mass index (BMI) in the 3rd decade of life in African Americans. Patients and Methods Data came from an 18-year community-based cohort. We used multi-group latent growth curve modeling for data analysis, considering neighborhood violence at age 15 (i.e. victimization, observation, and fear) as predictors, and the linear slope for the average change in BMI from age 21 to 32 as the outcome, with age and socioeconomic status (i.e. intact family and parental employment) as covariates. Results Fear of neighborhood violence at age 15 was predictive of an increase in BMI from age 21 to 32 among female but not male African Americans. Victimization and observation of violence at age 15 did not predict BMI change from age 21 to 32 among female or male African Americans. Conclusions Fear of neighborhood violence is a contributing factor to increased risk of obesity for female African American youth who live in disadvantaged areas. This finding has implications for prevention of obesity among African American women who are at highest risk for obesity in the United States. Initiatives that enhance neighborhood safety are critical strategies for obesity prevention among African American women.

  17. Major depressive disorder in the African American population: meeting the challenges of stigma, misdiagnosis, and treatment disparities.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Blackmon, Holly L; Stevens, Francis L

    2009-11-01

    This article examines major depressive disorder (MDD) in the African American population. As prevalence rates and severity of depression in African Americans are investigated, the findings indicate many blacks are underdiagnosed. Further, African Americans seem to have more severe episodes of depression compared to Caucasians. Explanations for this difference are that African Americans with MDD often present with somatic symptoms, leading physicians to miss a MDD diagnosis. Depression is often stigmatized in the African American population, seen as a "personal weakness." Educating the community about depression and educating physicians to make cultural competent diagnoses are necessary. Treatment disparities emerge as African Americans are more likely uninsured, and many are nonresponsive to traditional pharmacological interventions for depression. African American and other ethnic groups differ in the way they metabolize selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, leading physicians to have less of an understanding of how to treat the African American patients. The lack of minorities in research trials limits the number of effective medication to treat this population of patients.

  18. Evaluating brief cognitive impairment screening instruments among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kiddoe, Jared M; Whitfield, Keith E; Andel, Ross; Edwards, Christopher L

    2008-07-01

    This article compared and contrasted the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) to the racially-sensitive Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). The empirical questions addressed was whether the TICS over-represented African American (AA) cognitive impairment (CI) relative to the SPMSQ, if there were age differences in CI prevalence between younger subjects (ages 50-64) and older ones (>64 years) and on accuracy to detect CI in individuals with higher levels of educations (> or =13 years) versus those with lower education levels (<13 years). A secondary data analysis was performed on 396 AA participants from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The SPMSQ measured CI prevalence at 10.3% and the TICS at 45.0%. Within the younger group, TICS and CI prevalence was 49.3 and 80% among the older group. Within the younger group SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 14.5 and 53.8% among the older group. Within the higher educated group, TICS and CI prevalence was 36.7 and 51.4% among the lower educated. Within the higher educated group, SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 7.7 and 14.5% among the lower educated. Findings are consistent with our hypotheses that the TICS would be a less accurate assessor of CI among AAs.

  19. Spiritual Expressions of African Americans and Whites in Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Harleah G.; Meghani, Salimah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiritual practices are one way that individuals cope with cancer pain. Purpose Describe and contrast expressions and values about the use of spirituality for pain in African American (AA) and White (WH) oncology patients. Methods Six groups (3 AA; 3 WH; n=42; mean age 58) were conducted. Focus group and qualitative methodology with a cultural interpretive lens was utilized. The Model of Integrated Spirituality provided the conceptual framework for understanding the narratives. Findings AAs and WHs did not differ on demographics, pain status, or integrative therapies. Three spirituality themes emerged: 1) pain and distress as antecedents to the use of spirituality; 2) active and existential attributes of the use of spirituality; and 3) mobilization of internal and external resources as outcomes. There were commonalities between AAs and WHs but greater frequency of certain subthemes and keywords in AAs. Conclusions Future studies should examine whether differences in overt expressions translate into different types and levels of spiritual usage. Implications for Practice Clinicians should recognizing similar as well as different uses and descriptions of spirituality between African Americans and Whites. PMID:22024953

  20. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Trevon D.

    2009-01-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status—former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants. PMID:20161107

  1. African American Male Student-Athletes: Career Maturity Differences at High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Investigates career maturity differences among 133 African American male high school student-athletes. Findings revealed no significant differences between student-athletes and their nonathlete peers on the career maturity attitude and competence variables. Findings further indicated that 94% of student-athletes as compared to 72% of nonathletes…

  2. Vascular Risk Factors, Depression, and Cognitive Change among African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carmasin, Jeremy S.; Mast, Benjamin T.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vascular burden has been linked to future depression and cognitive change in predominately European American samples. This study investigated these relationships in older African Americans. Methods To examine the connection between vascular risk factors, depression, and cognitive change, this study utilized data from 435 African American elders. Specifically, the study examined the link between vascular risk at baseline with depression and cognitive functioning at a 2.5 year follow-up visit. Results High baseline vascular risk was associated with increased odds of future depression while controlling for age and current depression. A series of path analyses demonstrated links between baseline vascular risk, increases in depression, and decreases in processing speed. Conclusions These findings suggest that African Americans with greater vascular burden are at greater risk for depression and cognitive change. PMID:23877973

  3. Religious Media Use Among African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of watching religious television programs and listening to religious radio programs. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites. Several significant findings were noted. Both African Americans and Black Caribbeans watched religious television programs and listened to religious radio programs significantly more frequently than non-Hispanic whites. These differences in electronic religious media consumption were particularly large, especially listening to religious radio programming. Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans, several significant demographic differences in frequency of consuming religious programming (e.g., age, gender, region, marital status, immigration status) emerged. Lastly, our analysis found that consuming electronic religious programming did not substitute for attending church service but, instead, complemented weekly service attendance. PMID:26045698

  4. An Investigation of African American Parents' Perception of School Leaders as It Relates to Parent Engagement and the African American Male Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Delvon Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…

  5. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  6. Consequences of learning about historical racism among European American and African American children.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie M; Bigler, Rebecca S; Levy, Sheri R

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about racism is a critical component of educational curricula and contemporary race relations. To examine children's responses to learning about racism, European American (Study 1; N= 48) and African American (Study 2; N= 69) elementary-aged children (ages 6-11) received history lessons that included information about racism experienced by African Americans (racism condition), or otherwise identical lessons that omitted this information (control condition). Children's racial attitudes and cognitive and affective responses to the lessons were assessed. Among European American children, racism condition participants showed less biased attitudes toward African Americans than control condition participants. Among African American children, attitudes did not vary by condition. Children in the two conditions showed several different cognitive and affective responses to the lessons.

  7. Providing Culturally Relevant Mental Health Services: Collaboration between Psychology and the African American Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queener, John E.; Martin, Juanita K.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, discussing the connection between African psychology and religion, examining barriers to and strategies for collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, and describing the collaborative model called the African American Counseling Team.…

  8. Religious Coping Among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S; Lincoln, Karen D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African American, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White differences in attitudes regarding religious coping with higher endorsements of religious coping among African Americans and Black Caribbeans (Caribbean Blacks). Comparisons of African Americans and Black Caribbeans revealed both similar and divergent patterns of demographic effects. For both African Americans and Black Caribbeans, women were more likely to utilize religious coping than men and married respondents were more likely than never married respondents to report utilizing prayer when dealing with a stressful situation. Further, for both groups, higher levels of education were associated with lower endorsements of the importance of prayer in dealing with stressful situations. Among African Americans only, Southerners were more likely than respondents who resided in other regions to endorse religious coping. Among Black Caribbeans, those who emigrated from Haiti were more likely than Jamaicans to utilize religious coping when dealing with a stressful episode. PMID:21048887

  9. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  10. The role of close friends in African American adolescents' dating and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Gannon, Christine; Watson, Susan G; Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the role of close friends in the sexual lives of African American adolescents. Fifteen African American adolescents residing in an urban neighborhood participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The findings suggest that close friends play a critical role in the dating and sexual behaviors of inner-city African American adolescents, as they appear to serve as socializing agents that impact how adolescents conceptualize and socially construct dating and sexual roles and behaviors. Close friends also play a significant role in acquiring new dating and sexual partners and in determining the course of dating and sexual relationships. Although females and males expressed similar expectations regarding sexual fidelity and condom use, they differed with regard to their method and process of talking with friends about dating and sex, their shared social constructions about dating and sexual roles and expectations, and their perceptions of the meaning of dating. We discuss the implications of the findings in terms of involving close friends in interventions focused on improving the sexual health of African American adolescents. Future directions for research with African American adolescents and sexuality are also discussed.

  11. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612

  12. Diagnosis of fragile X syndrome: a qualitative study of African American families.

    PubMed

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Charen, Krista; Rohr, Julia; Allen, Emily; Sherman, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences to the proband and family members at all levels in the generations. Although evidence demonstrates that the rates of diagnosis for FXS are the same in all racial groups, age of diagnosis in African American children has been reported to occur later than in Caucasian children. Additionally, African American families are seriously under-represented in existing FXS research studies. As such, it is important to understand the possible disparities in the underlying factors to receiving a diagnosis in African American families with FXS. Herein, a qualitative approach was adopted to describe the overall FXS diagnosis experiences (pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, and post-diagnosis stages) of a convenience sample of 10 African American mothers. We identified three major findings among our participants: (1) FXS testing is not ordered immediately once a parent expresses concerns of developmental delays to the pediatricians, (2) the diagnosis is sometimes delivered in an insensitive manner with information often being outdated and unbalanced towards negative aspects, (3) communication issues among family members exists once the diagnosis is discovered. Although these qualitative data may not be representative of the whole group, these findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and our understanding in providing support and advocacy for African American families with FXS.

  13. Raising African American boys: an exploration of gender and racial socialization practices.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A

    2013-01-01

    Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities.

  14. Choice and social exchange theory and the rewards of African American caregivers.

    PubMed

    Picot, S J

    1994-01-01

    Exploration of the perceived rewards of African American caregivers has received little attention, but is of acute importance because of their potential effects on symptoms of depression. In this non-experimental, cross-sectional study, the investigator used choice and social exchange theory as a framework for identifying potential rewards of African American caregivers of demented elders. Study findings indicated that African Americans perceived rewards which were internal or external in source and short-term or long-term in timing. With the exception of caregivers age and education, these rewards were little affected by sociodemographic characteristics of the caregiver or care recipient. Young, more educated caregivers tended to perceive fewer rewards than old, less educated caregivers. The implications of the findings for nursing practice care are discussed.

  15. Raising African American boys: an exploration of gender and racial socialization practices.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A

    2013-01-01

    Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities. PMID:23889014

  16. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  17. Key Competencies: African and Afro-American Studies, Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This booklet identifies major competencies for African and Afro-American studies courses in grades seven through 12 in the Philadelphia school system. Afro-American studies are viewed as (1) developing students' ability to gain insights and destroy stereotypes and (2) providing a frame of reference for understanding the forces which have shaped…

  18. Factors Affecting African American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cravor; Hohensil, Thomas H.; Burge, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many job satisfaction studies, research related to the job satisfaction of African American counselors (AACs) is negligible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the job satisfaction of AACs. A total of 182 employed AACs who were members of the American Counseling Association (ACA) completed a modified Minnesota…

  19. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  20. Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rosetta

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

  1. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  2. The Secrets of My Success: An African American Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Roberta

    1994-01-01

    Relates the experiences of an African-American woman who won an ALA (American Library Association) scholarship to attend library school. Topics discussed include leadership programs; changing careers; finances; ALA conference experiences; ALA's Black Caucus; and working part-time while attending school part-time. (LRW)

  3. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  4. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  5. The Amistad Research Center: Documenting the African American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)

  6. Domestic Transracial Adoption: In the Words of African American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic transracial adoption has sparked more controversy than any other type of adoption. For the purposes of this study domestic transracial adoption is defined as European American parents adopting African American children. Many of the studies completed are contradictory and fail to control for variables that affect the outcome such as age of…

  7. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  8. Exercise economy in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Bamman, Marcas M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2011-08-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using (31) phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO(2), AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in (31)P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study's suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women.

  9. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  10. HIV/AIDS in African Americans. National Minority AIDS Council.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    The National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC) answered the call of the Congressional Black Caucus by asking President Clinton to declare a state of emergency on HIV and AIDS among African-Americans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that of the seven Americans infected with HIV every hour, three are African-Americans. NMAC is calling on Federal, State, and local government leaders to implement widespread public information and education campaigns that target African-Americans, and that address voluntary HIV testing, dispel the shame and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, discuss the needs of gay African-American men, address the accessibility of appropriate resources for HIV treatment, coordinate the expansion of drug prevention and treatment programs, implement a national needle exchange policy, and allocate funds for researching HIV treatment in minority populations. Dr. Beny Primm, vice-chair of NMAC, states that efforts to fight HIV/AIDS must be integrated with other obstacles affecting the African-American community.

  11. Nursing's role in racism and African American women's health.

    PubMed

    Eliason, M J

    1999-01-01

    African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.

  12. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  13. Filaggrin gene mutations in African Americans with both ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Polcari, Ingrid; Becker, Lauren; Stein, Sarah L; Smith, Marilyn S; Paller, Amy S

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) are two common disorders of epidermal homeostasis resulting in dry skin. The profilaggrin gene, located on chromosome 1q22, encodes a keratin filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) that is essential to forming the epidermal barrier and maintaining hydration. Null mutations in filaggrin have been found to underlie IV and are common in patients with AD, but the minority of African Americans with AD or IV show these mutations in filaggrin. We have selectively studied African Americans with both AD and IV to maximize the possibility of finding filaggrin null mutations in this population. DNA was collected using buccal swabs from 18 African American children with both AD and IV and 17 African American controls without either of these diseases. Purified genomic DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction from three regions of the filaggrin gene, exon 3, including R501X, 2282del4, E2554X, R2447X, 1249insG, R826X, 2767insT, and E2422X. Of the African American children with both AD and IV, 22.2% were heterozygous for filaggrin null mutations. Out of the control group, one carried a null mutation and was later discovered to have a history of asthma. Null mutations found in this population included R501X (n = 1), 2282del4 (n = 2), and R826X (n = 2, including the control patient). Our data demonstrate a prevalence of filaggrin mutations in the African American population that exceeds previously published data, although the overall prevalence is still lower than in other populations. It is likely that factors other than known FLG mutations are involved in African American patients.

  14. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  15. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  16. Culturally sensitive oral health educational materials for older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Ann; Evans, Lois K

    2007-11-01

    Oral diseases disproportionately affect older Americans from minority populations. Approaches to reducing such disparities include increasing community-based interventions that target vulnerable older adults. To help in developing and implementing such programs, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services suggests using the MAP-IT technique, from a strategic planning guide to address public health issues in the community. This approach served as the method of investigation for the Take Charge of Your Oral Health educational program, a health promotion initiative targeting older African Americans. This paper describes the development and evaluation of the program. A total of 111 African American elders from 7 senior sites in Philadelphia participated in the program. A 6-item pre-test and post-test indicated a significant improvement in mean test scores from baseline (p,.001). The program demonstrated merit in improving oral health knowledge among community-residing, inner city, older African Americans.

  17. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  18. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  19. The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…

  20. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…