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Sample records for african bos indicus

  1. Physiological responses of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle to prolonged, continuous heat and humidity.

    PubMed

    Beatty, D T; Barnes, A; Taylor, E; Pethick, D; McCarthy, M; Maloney, S K

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the physiological responses of Bos taurus (Angus cross, n = 6) and Bos indicus (Brahman, n = 6) cattle to prolonged heat and humidity, as can occur during live export by sea. Each experiment was carried out in climate-controlled rooms, where heifers were exposed to 15 d of sustained heat and humidity. The treatment was designed to be representative of a long-haul, live-export voyage leaving a southern Australian winter and traveling to a Middle Eastern summer. Wet bulb temperature (WBT) was used to give a combined measure of dry bulb temperature and relative humidity and was increased over several days, culminating in 5 d at 32 degrees C WBT between d 7 and 11. By d 11, the respiratory rate and core body temperature increased (P < 0.001) compared with values at lower ambient temperature on d 1 and 2 when climate-controlled rooms were not operating. Feed intake of Bos taurus was reduced (P < 0.001) by d 11, whereas that of Bos indicus did not change (P = 0.14). Despite no diurnal variation in climatic conditions, core body temperature of both Bos taurus and Bos indicus continued to show a circadian amplitude of approximately 1 degrees C throughout the hottest period. This amplitude increased during the recovery period after heat was removed (up to 1.8 degrees C for Bos indicus and 1.6 degrees C for Bos taurus). Water intake for both Bos taurus and Bos indicus increased when WBT increased (P < 0.01 on d 11). Significant acid-base and blood electrolyte imbalances occurred in both Bos taurus and Bos indicus, with changes in Bos taurus being more substantial and prolonged. The increase in respiratory rate coincided with a decrease in the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate in venous blood. However, during the hottest period, average daily venous blood pH remained unchanged. When the heat load was reduced after d 11, the blood pH decreased, indicating metabolic acidosis. Blood pH declined from 7.44 to 7.36 for

  2. Genetic diversity and structure in Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations analyzed by SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bang Zhong; Sasazaki, Shinji; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and population structure among nine Eurasian cattle populations using 58 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The calculated distribution of minor allele frequencies and heterozygosities suggested that the genetic diversity of Bos indicus populations was lower than that of Bos taurus populations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the main divergence between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations, and subsequently between Asian and European populations. By principal components analysis, the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished with PC1 (61.1%); however, six Bos taurus populations clustered loosely and the partial separation between European and Asian groups was observed by PC2 (12.5%). The structure analysis was performed using the STRUCTURE program. Distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus was shown at K = 2, and that between European and Asian populations at K = 3. At K = 4, 5 and 6, Mongolian population showed an admixture pattern with different ancestry of Asian and European cattle. At K = 7, all Bos taurus populations showed each cluster with little proportion of admixture. In conclusion, 58 SNP markers in this study could sufficiently estimate the genetic diversity, relationship and structure for nine Eurasian cattle populations, especially by analyses of principal components and STRUCTURE.

  3. The Bos taurus-Bos indicus balance in fertility and milk related genes.

    PubMed

    Kasarapu, Parthan; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Fortes, Marina R S; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Mudadu, Mauricio A; Coutinho, Luiz; Regitano, Luciana; George, Andrew; Reverter, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Numerical approaches to high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data are often employed independently to address individual questions. We linked independent approaches in a bioinformatics pipeline for further insight. The pipeline driven by heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analyses was applied to characterize Bos taurus and Bos indicus ancestry. We infer a gene co-heterozygosity network that regulates bovine fertility, from data on 18,363 cattle with genotypes for 729,068 SNP. Hierarchical clustering separated populations according to Bos taurus and Bos indicus ancestry. The weights of the first principal component were subjected to Normal mixture modelling allowing the estimation of a gene's contribution to the Bos taurus-Bos indicus axis. We used deviation from HWE, contribution to Bos indicus content and association to fertility traits to select 1,284 genes. With this set, we developed a co-heterozygosity network where the group of genes annotated as fertility-related had significantly higher Bos indicus content compared to other functional classes of genes, while the group of genes associated with milk production had significantly higher Bos taurus content. The network analysis resulted in capturing novel gene associations of relevance to bovine domestication events. We report transcription factors that are likely to regulate genes associated with cattle domestication and tropical adaptation. Our pipeline can be generalized to any scenarios where population structure requires scrutiny at the molecular level, particularly in the presence of a priori set of genes known to impact a phenotype of evolutionary interest such as fertility.

  4. The Bos taurus–Bos indicus balance in fertility and milk related genes

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Mudadu, Mauricio A.; Coutinho, Luiz; Regitano, Luciana; George, Andrew; Reverter, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Numerical approaches to high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data are often employed independently to address individual questions. We linked independent approaches in a bioinformatics pipeline for further insight. The pipeline driven by heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analyses was applied to characterize Bos taurus and Bos indicus ancestry. We infer a gene co-heterozygosity network that regulates bovine fertility, from data on 18,363 cattle with genotypes for 729,068 SNP. Hierarchical clustering separated populations according to Bos taurus and Bos indicus ancestry. The weights of the first principal component were subjected to Normal mixture modelling allowing the estimation of a gene’s contribution to the Bos taurus-Bos indicus axis. We used deviation from HWE, contribution to Bos indicus content and association to fertility traits to select 1,284 genes. With this set, we developed a co-heterozygosity network where the group of genes annotated as fertility-related had significantly higher Bos indicus content compared to other functional classes of genes, while the group of genes associated with milk production had significantly higher Bos taurus content. The network analysis resulted in capturing novel gene associations of relevance to bovine domestication events. We report transcription factors that are likely to regulate genes associated with cattle domestication and tropical adaptation. Our pipeline can be generalized to any scenarios where population structure requires scrutiny at the molecular level, particularly in the presence of a priori set of genes known to impact a phenotype of evolutionary interest such as fertility. PMID:28763475

  5. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems, and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to its improvement. The first results of the application of genomic selection in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population are presented in this paper...

  6. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century.

  7. Comparison of antral and preantral ovarian follicle populations between Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high or low antral follicles counts.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Siloto, L S; Santos, G M G; Morotti, F; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre-antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus-taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77-0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus-taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus-taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus-taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of Bos indicus cows (63 032 ± 58 705 follicles) with high AFC. However, there was no significant correlation between numbers of antral and preantral follicles. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Tenderness enhancement of beef from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle following electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gursansky, B; O'Halloran, J M; Egan, A; Devine, C E

    2010-11-01

    High voltage electrical stimulation (1130 V peak, 14.28 bidirectional half sinusoidal pulses/s) or low voltage stimulation (45 V peak, 36 alternating square wave pulses/s) was used on cattle: (1) low voltage stimulation applied for 10 or 40 s with fast and slow chilling or high voltage stimulation for 60 s with normal chilling, applied to 100% Bos taurus cattle, (2) low voltage stimulation (40 s) and high voltage stimulation (60 s) with normal chilling applied to mixed Bos indicus and B.taurus cattle, (3) high voltage stimulation (54 s) with normal chilling applied to B. taurus and B. indicus cattle of 0-100% B. indicus composition, and (4) high voltage stimulation (60 s) applied to 100% B. taurus and 100% B. indicus cattle. All stimulation parameters enhanced the tenderness of steaks from M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) aged at 1°C up to 28 days compared with non stimulated LTL. Short low voltage stimulation of 10s was marginally more effective than no stimulation and longer durations of 40s were very effective and high voltage stimulation was most effective. The shear force values for non stimulated B. indicus LTL are much greater than for B. taurus, but following high voltage stimulation LTL of B. indicus were similar to B. taurus and all had lower shear force values than from non stimulated carcasses. Thus adequate electrical stimulation removes any toughness of LTL related to B. indicus genetic composition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effect of early luteolysis in progesterone-based timed AI protocols in Bos indicus, Bos indicus x Bos taurus, and Bos taurus heifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J B P; Carvalho, N A T; Reis, E L; Nichi, M; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR) and estradiol benzoate (EB) on follicular dynamics in Bos indicus (n=23), Bos taurus (n=25), and cross-bred (n=23) heifers. To assess the influence of reduced serum progesterone concentrations during 8 days of treatment with a progesterone-releasing device on follicular dynamics, half of the heifers received PGF at CIDR insertion (Day 0; 3 x 2 factorial design). Mean (+/-S.E.M.) serum progesterone concentrations during CIDR treatment varied (P<0.05) among genetic groups: B. indicus (5.4+/-0.1 ng/mL), B. taurus (3.3+/-0.0 ng/mL), and cross-bred (4.3+/-0.1 ng/mL). Maximum diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) was smaller (P<0.01) in B. indicus heifers (9.5+/-0.5 mm) than in cross-bred (12.3+/-0.4 mm) or B. taurus heifers (11.6+/-0.5 mm). B. indicus experienced lower (P<0.01) ovulation rate (39.1%) than did B. taurus (72.7%) and cross-bred (84.0%). Heifers treated with PGF on Day 0 had lower (P<0.05) serum progesterone concentrations during progesterone treatment. The PGF treatment on Day 0 increased (P<0.01) the diameter of the DF (11.9+/-0.4 mm vs. 10.5+/-0.4 mm). Moreover, greater (P=0.02) ovulation rates (78.8 vs. 54.0%) occurred in heifers treated with PGF on Day 0. In summary, B. indicus heifers had greater serum progesterone concentrations, smaller DF diameter, and a lower ovulation rate compared to B. taurus heifers. Prostaglandin treatment on the day of CIDR insertion reduced serum progesterone during treatment, and resulted in increased maximum DF diameter and ovulation rate.

  11. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    PubMed Central

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  12. Acquisition and expression of resistance by Bos indicus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus calves to Amblyomma americanum infestation.

    PubMed

    George, J E; Osburn, R L; Wikel, S K

    1985-04-01

    Purebred and crossbred Bos indicus calves were infested 1, 2, or 3 times with 10 female and 5 male Amblyomma americanum. Resistance was acquired by both the purebred and the crossbred calves after 1 infestation and resulted in statistically significant decreases in the percentages of females that engorged, the mean weights of engorged females, and the mean weights of egg masses. Comparisons between breeds of the percent of female ticks that engorged during the first and second infestations indicate that purebred B. indicus expressed a stronger acquired resistance to A. americanum more readily than did crossbred animals. However, calves of both genetic compositions displayed similar levels of resistance during a third exposure. All tick-exposed and control animals were skin tested with salivary gland extracts of A. americanum, A. cajennense and Dermacentor andersoni. Control, uninfested calves, did not display significant cutaneous reactivity to these extracts. All calves that had been infested had immediate, 30-min, 5-hr and delayed, 24-hr, skin reactions to Amblyomma species antigens. Reactions to D. andersoni salivary antigens in tests of both purebred and crossbred calves with acquired resistance to A. americanum suggest that Amblyomma species salivary gland antigens might have cross reactive moieties with a salivary extract prepared from D. andersoni. Peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro responsiveness to Amblyomma species antigens was detected in purebred calves after a first, second, and third infestation, indicating the presence of cells of the immune system capable of recognizing and undergoing blast transformation in response to tick salivary components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of scrotal insulation on sperm production, semen quality, and testicular echotexture in Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Silva, Antonio E D F; Barbosa, Rogerio T; Unanian, Maria M; Kastelic, John P

    2003-11-20

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of scrotal insulation on sperm production, semen quality, and testicular echotexture in Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred bulls. In one experiment, B. indicus bulls (n=12) were allocated to control and whole-scrotum insulation groups, while in a second experiment, crossbred bulls (n=21) were allocated into control, whole-scrotum, and scrotal-neck insulation groups. Insulation was applied for 4 days (start of insulation = Day 0) and semen collection and testicular ultrasonographic examinations were performed twice weekly until Day 35. Sperm concentration and total sperm output during the post-insulation period were greater in control groups, but significant differences were observed only in B. indicus bulls. Overall, sperm motility in scrotal-insulated B. indicus bulls was lower (P<0.05) than in the control group. After whole-scrotum insulation in crossbred bulls, sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) than pre-insulation levels between Days 21 and 31, and lower than control levels on Day 24. The proportion of normal sperm after whole-scrotum insulation was lower than pre-insulation and control values from Day 11 to the end of the experiment in B. indicus bulls (P<0.05 from Days 14 to 21 and on Day 27), and from Days 14 to 25 in crossbred bulls (P<0.05 on Days 14 and 18). Insulation of the scrotal neck in crossbred bulls did not significantly affect semen quality. Loose sperm heads (Day 11), midpiece defects (Days 11 and 14), and acrosome defects (Days 27 and 31) increased (P<0.05) in insulated B. indicus bulls, while proximal cytoplasmic droplets (Days 14, 18 and 27 in B. indicus; Days 24 and 27 in crossbred bulls) and sperm vacuoles (Days 18 and 21 in B. indicus; Day 18 in crossbred bulls) increased (P<0.05) in whole-scrotum insulation groups in both experiments. There was considerable variation among bulls in the incidence of specific sperm defects. The timing of appearance of sperm

  14. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  15. Estimate of the population of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Santos, G M G; Siloto, L S; Hertel, M F; Andrade, E R; Rubin, M I B; Sturion, L; Melo-Sterza, F A; Seneda, M M

    2011-10-01

    The number of oocytes recovered from Bos taurus indicus females subjected to ovum pick-up averaged two to four times greater compared to Bos taurus taurus females. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this difference in oocyte yield was due to more preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus females. Ovaries (n = 64) from Nelore (Bos indicus) fetuses (n = 10), heifers (n = 12), and cows (n = 10), and Aberdeen Angus (Bos taurus) fetuses (n = 10), heifers (n = 12), and cows (n = 10) were cut longitudinally into halves, fixed, and processed for histological evaluation. The number of preantral follicles was estimated by counting them in each histological section, using the oocyte nucleus as a marker and employing a correction factor. The average number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus vs Bos taurus was (mean ± SD) 143,929 ± 64,028 vs 285,155 ± 325,195 for fetuses, 76,851 ± 78,605 vs 109,673 ± 86,078 for heifers, and 39,438 ± 31,017 vs 89,577 ± 86,315 for cows (P > 0.05). The number of preantral follicles varied greatly among individual animals within the same category, as well as between breeds. In conclusion, we inferred that the higher oocyte yield from Bos indicus females was not due to a greater ovarian reserve of preantral follicles. Therefore, mechanisms controlling follicle development after the preantral stage likely accounted for differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus females in number of oocytes retrieved at ovum pick-up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  17. Comparative analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) sperm proteome identifies sperm proteins potentially responsible for higher fertility in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-07-30

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) Sperm Proteome Identifies Sperm Proteins Potentially Responsible for Higher Fertility in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-01-01

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. PMID:23903046

  19. Tenderness profiles of ten muscles from F1 Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus cattle cooked as steaks and roasts.

    PubMed

    Highfill, C M; Esquivel-Font, O; Dikeman, M E; Kropf, D H

    2012-04-01

    Twenty Bos taurus (Hereford x Angus crosses) and 20 F1 Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers of the same age, management and feeding regimen, were harvested and evaluated at 2 days postmortem for carcass and meat traits. Ten muscles were obtained from the right sides and aged until 10 days postmortem. Bos indicus carcasses were lighter, had less fat cover, smaller ribeyes, and less intramuscular lipid (all p≤0.05). Bos taurus longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius, triceps brachii, and semimembranosus muscles cooked as steaks and roasts had a lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) (p≤0.05) than those from Bos indicus. Bos taurus deep pectoral and semitendinosus muscles cooked as roasts had a lower WBSF (p<0.05) than Bos indicus. Infraspinatus, longissimus lumborum, and semitendinosus muscles were more tender (p<0.05) as roasts than steaks, whereas the opposite was true for the deep pectoral and semimembranosus muscles. Seven of the 10 muscles had lower WBSF (p≤0.05) for Bos taurus when cooked as steaks, roasts or both. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth hormone mRNA expression in the pituitary of Bos indicus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred young bulls treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, S M Z; Furlan, L R; Ferro, M I T; Macari, M; Ferro, J A

    2002-12-31

    The effects of breed and of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment on growth hormone gene expression were studied in young bulls. The experiment was completely randomized in a [2 x 2]-factorial arrangement, using two levels of rbST (0 or 250 mg/animal/14 days), and two breed groups (Nelore and Simmental x Nelore crossbred). A cDNA encoding Bos indicus growth hormone was cloned and sequenced for use as a probe in Northern and dot blot analyses. Compared to the Bos taurus structural gene, the Bos indicus cDNA was found to begin 21 bases downstream from the transcription initiation site and had only two discrepancies (C to T at position 144-His and T to C at position 354-Phe), without changes in the polypeptide sequence. However, two amino acid substitutions were found for Bubalus spp., which belong to the same tribe. The rbST treatment did not change any of the characteristics evaluated (body and pituitary gland weights, growth hormone mRNA expression level). Crossbred animals had significantly higher body weight and heavier pituitaries than Nelore cattle. Pituitary weight was proportional to body weight in both breed groups. Growth hormone mRNA expression in the pituitary was similar (P>0.075) for both breed and hormonal treatment groups, but was 31.9% higher in the pure Nelore group, suggesting that growth hormone gene transcription regulation differs among these breeds.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Bos taurus and Bos indicus provide new insights into intra-species variation, taxonomy and domestication.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, S; Lewalski, H; Janke, A

    2008-01-01

    The taurine and zebuine cattle breeds comprise the majority of the world cattle population but their taxonomic status is still controversial. The two forms of cattle are currently classified as Bos taurus and Bos indicus species and are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump. However, these two species hybridize readily, producing fully fertile offspring. We have determined and analyzed complete B. taurus and B. indicus mitochondrial genome sequences to investigate the extent of sequence divergences and to study their taxonomic status by molecular dating. The sequences encompassed 16,338 and 16,339 nucleotides, respectively, and differed at 237 positions. Estimated divergence times indicated that the two cattle lineages separated 1.7-2.0 million years ago. Combined phylogenetic analyses of 18 new and 130 previously reported extant B. taurus and B. indicus control region sequences with data from 32 archaeological specimens of the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) identified four major maternal lineages. B. primigenius haplotypes were present in all but the B. indicus lineage, and one B. taurus sequence clustered with B. primigenius P haplotypes that were not previously linked with domestic cattle. The B. indicus cluster and a recently reported new B. primigenius haplotype that represents a new lineage were approximately equidistant from the B. taurus cluster. These data suggest domestications from several differentiated populations of B. primigenius and a subspecies status for taurine (B. primigenius taurus) and zebuine (B. primigenius indicus) cattle. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-09-22

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus x B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and associated genotypes prove more

  4. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  5. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    PubMed

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1.

  7. A disparate trace element metabolism in zebu (Bos indicus) and crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cattle in response to a copper-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; De Cuyper, A; Duchateau, L; Waseyehon, A; Dierenfeld, E; Clauss, M; Peters, I R; Du Laing, G; Janssens, G P J

    2014-07-01

    Copper deficiency is a commonly diagnosed problem in cattle around the globe. In Jimma, Ethiopia, 8 zebu (Bos indicus) and 8 zebu ×: Holstein Friesian cross (Bos taurus ×: Bos indicus) heifers were used in an 11-wk study to investigate breed type differences and effects of Cu deficiency on concentrations of trace elements in plasma and edible tissues as well as mRNA expression of Cu-related genes. Heifers were fed a grass diet (6.4 ± 0.2 [SEM] mg Cu/kg DM) supplemented with 1 mg Mo/kg DM in wk 1 to 4 and 2 mg Mo/kg DM in wk 5 to 11, with blood samples collected every 2 wk and tissue collection postmortem. Plasma, liver, kidney, and semitendinosus and cardiac muscle were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mo, Co, and Mn. Expression of mRNA Cu-related genes was measured in aorta (lysyl oxidase [LOX]), liver (Cu transporting β-polypeptide [Atp7b], Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase [CCS], cytochrome c oxidase assembly homolog 17 [Cox17], Cu transporter 1 homolog [Ctr1], and superoxide dismutase 1 [Sod1]), and duodenum (diamine oxidase [DAO] and metallo-thionein-1A [Mt1a]) as well as the Se-related glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Zebu cattle maintained initial plasma Cu concentrations just below the threshold value for deficiency, whereas crossbred cattle gradually became severely Cu deficient over time (P < 0.001). In contrast, plasma Zn and Co were greater in zebu cattle at the onset of the trial but became similar to crossbred cattle towards the end of the trial (P < 0.001). Liver Cu (P = 0.002) and Fe (P ≤ 0.001), kidney Se (P < 0.001), and kidney and cardiac muscle Co (P ≤ 0.001) concentrations were greater in zebu than in crossbred cattle. Increased hepatic mRNA expression of the Cu regulatory genes Atp7b, Ctr1 (P = 0.02), CCS (P = 0.03), and Cox17 (P = 0.009) and Cu-related Sod1 (P = 0.001) as well as the Se-related Gpx1 (P ≤ 0.001) were greater in zebu than in crossbred cattle. However, duodenal mRNA expression of DAO (P = 0.8) and Mt1a (P = 0.2) and

  8. Bos taurus indicus (Nelore) hybrid assembly improvement using PacBio reads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A de novo genome assembly of Bos taurus indicus sub-species, specifically a Nelore bull, has been developed using a multi-platform sequencing strategy. Genome sequence data for assembly (>120 Gb) was produced from Roche FLX454 and Illumina GAIIx platforms using paired-end reads from long (5 and 20 ...

  9. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E; Kemper, Kathryn E; Hayes, Ben J; Zhang, Yuandan; Tier, Bruce; Barendse, William; Reverter, Antonio; Goddard, Mike E

    2013-10-29

    The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in current populations likely resulted from

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  12. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boison, S A; Utsunomiya, A T H; Santos, D J A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Mészáros, G; Utsunomiya, Y T; do Carmo, A S; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A; Panetto, J C C; Garcia, J F; Sölkner, J; da Silva, M V G B

    2017-07-01

    Genomic selection may accelerate genetic progress in breeding programs of indicine breeds when compared with traditional selection methods. We present results of genomic predictions in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle of Brazil for milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), and age at first calving using information from bulls and cows. Four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips were studied. Additionally, the effect of the use of imputed data on genomic prediction accuracy was studied. A total of 474 bulls and 1,688 cows were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD (HD; San Diego, CA) and BovineSNP50 (50K) chip, respectively. Genotypes of cows were imputed to HD using FImpute v2.2. After quality check of data, 496,606 markers remained. The HD markers present on the GeneSeek SGGP-20Ki (15,727; Lincoln, NE), 50K (22,152), and GeneSeek GGP-75Ki (65,018) were subset and used to assess the effect of lower SNP density on accuracy of prediction. Deregressed breeding values were used as pseudophenotypes for model training. Data were split into reference and validation to mimic a forward prediction scheme. The reference population consisted of animals whose birth year was ≤2004 and consisted of either only bulls (TR1) or a combination of bulls and dams (TR2), whereas the validation set consisted of younger bulls (born after 2004). Genomic BLUP was used to estimate genomic breeding values (GEBV) and reliability of GEBV (R(2)PEV) was based on the prediction error variance approach. Reliability of GEBV ranged from ∼0.46 (FY and PY) to 0.56 (MY) with TR1 and from 0.51 (PY) to 0.65 (MY) with TR2. When averaged across all traits, R(2)PEV were substantially higher (R(2)PEV of TR1 = 0.50 and TR2 = 0.57) compared with reliabilities of parent averages (0.35) computed from pedigree data and based on diagonals of the coefficient matrix (prediction error variance approach). Reliability was similar for all the 4 marker panels using either TR1 or TR2, except that

  13. Local immune response against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Constantinoiu, C C; Jackson, L A; Jorgensen, W K; Lew-Tabor, A E; Piper, E K; Mayer, D G; Venus, B; Jonsson, N N

    2010-06-01

    Bos taurus indicus cattle are less susceptible to infestation with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus than Bos taurus taurus cattle but the immunological basis of this difference is not understood. We compared the dynamics of leukocyte infiltrations (T cell subsets, B cells, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-expressing cells, granulocytes) in the skin near the mouthparts of larvae of R. microplus in B. t. indicus and B. t. taurus cattle. Previously naïve cattle were infested with 50,000 larvae (B. t. indicus) or 10,000 larvae (B. t. taurus) weekly for 6 weeks. One week after the last infestation all of the animals were infested with 20,000 larvae of R. microplus. Skin punch biopsies were taken from all animals on the day before the primary infestation and from sites of larval attachment on the day after the first, second, fourth and final infestations. Infiltrations with CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and gammadelta T cells followed the same pattern in both breeds, showing relatively little change during the first four weekly infestations, followed by substantial increases at 7 weeks post-primary infestation. There was a tendency for more of all cell types except granulocytes to be observed in the skin of B. t. indicus cattle but the differences between the two breeds were consistently significant only for gammadelta T cells. Granulocyte infiltrations increased more rapidly from the day after infestation and were higher in B. t. taurus cattle than in B. t. indicus. Granulocytes and MHC class II-expressing cells infiltrated the areas closest to the mouthparts of larvae. A large volume of granulocyte antigens was seen in the gut of attached, feeding larvae. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotype x environment interactions for fatty acid profiles in Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Rossato, L V; Rodrigues, E C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Ramos, E M; Gama, L T

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize lipid profiles in the M. longissimus thoracis of commercial Brazilian beef and to assess how those profiles are influenced by finishing system, genetic group, and their interaction. Intramuscular fat (IMF) and fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in 160 bulls of the Bos taurus (n = 75) and Bos indicus (n = 85) genetic groups, finished on pasture (n = 46) or with grain supplementation (n = 114) and slaughtered in a commercial abattoir. Finishing system had a major impact on the deposition of IMF, as well as on the concentration of SFA, PUFA, and their ratio, but genetic groups showed important differences in the ability to convert SFA into cis-9 MUFA and to convert 16:0 into 18:0. When compared with pasture-finished animals, those finished with grain had greater content of IMF and SFA (P < 0.01), similar amounts of MUFA (P > 0.05), and about one-half the amount of PUFA (P < 0.01). Except for MUFA, differences in FA profiles among finishing systems were mostly mediated through their effect on IMF, even though the relationship of IMF with groups of FA differed among finishing systems. Under grain finishing, B. taurus had less SFA and greater MUFA than B. indicus (P < 0.01), but no differences were observed in PUFA (P > 0.05). With pasture-finishing, no differences were observed among the 2 genetic groups in SFA and MUFA (P > 0.05), but PUFA were decreased in B. taurus (P < 0.01). When genetic groups were compared in grain-finishing, B. taurus had a decreased ability for elongation and B. indicus had a decreased aptitude for desaturation of FA. On the other hand, with pasture-finishing a greater deposition of intermediate FA from ruminal biohydrogenation was observed in B. indicus than in B. taurus. Overall, FA profiles were affected more by finishing system in B. indicus than in B. taurus.

  15. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  16. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-08-10

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653

  18. Large-scale in vitro embryo production and pregnancy rates from Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and indicus-taurus dairy cows using sexed sperm.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Silva, K C F; Basso, A C; Rigo, A G; Ferreira, C R; Santos, G M G; Sanches, B V; Porcionato, J P F; Vieira, P H S; Faifer, F S; Sterza, F A M; Schenk, J L; Seneda, M M

    2010-11-01

    Herein we describe a large-scale commercial program for in vitro production of embryos from dairy Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and indicus-taurus donors, using sexed sperm. From 5,407 OPU, we compared the number of recovered oocytes (n = 90,086), viable oocytes (n = 64,826), and embryos produced in vitro from Gir (Bos indicus, n = 617), Holstein (Bos taurus, n = 180), 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir (n = 44), and 1/2 Holstein-Gir (n = 37) crossbred cows, and the pregnancy rate of recipient cows. Viable oocytes were in vitro matured (24 h at 38.8 °C, 5% CO(2) in air) and fertilized by incubating them for 18 to 20 h with frozen-thawed sexed sperm (X-chromosome bearing) from Gir (n = 8) or Holstein (n = 7) sires (2 × 10(6) sperm/dose). Embryos were cultured in similar conditions of temperature and atmosphere as for IVM, with variable intervals of culture (between Days 2 and 5) completed in a portable incubator. All embryos were transferred fresh, after 24 to 72 h of transportation (up to 2,000 km). On average, 16.7 ± 6.3 oocytes (mean ± SEM) were obtained per OPU procedure and 72.0% were considered viable. Total and viable oocytes per OPU procedure were 17.1 ± 4.5 and 12.1 ± 3.9 for Gir cows, 11.4 ± 3.9 and 8.0 ± 2.7 for Holstein cows, 20.4 ± 5.8 and 16.8 ± 5.0 for 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir, and 31.4 ± 5.6 and 24.3 ± 4.7 for 1/2 Holstein-Gir crossbred females (P < 0.01). The mean number of embryos produced by OPU/IVF and the pregnancy rates were 3.2 (12,243/ 3,778) and 40% for Gir cows, 2.1 (2,426/1,138) and 36% for Holstein cows, 3.9 (1,033/267) and 37% for 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir, and 5.5 (1,222/224), and 37% for 1/2 Holstein-Gir. In conclusion, we compared oocyte yield from two levels of indicus-taurus breeds and demonstrated the efficiency of sexed sperm for in vitro embryo production. Culturing embryos during long distance transportation was successful, with potential for international movement of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis to predict sweating and respiration rates for Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V A; Fadel, J G; Sainz, R D

    2011-12-01

    The overall objective of this work was to develop empirical equations from a meta-analysis study to be used to implement initial values in a mechanistic heat balance model. The meta-analysis was conducted to 1) develop prediction equations for sweating and respiration rate (SR, g·m(-2)·h(-1) and RR, breaths·min(-1), respectively) based on skin and body temperature (T(s) and T(b), °C, respectively) for different breed types: Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds, and 2) evaluate the fit of existing SR equations and the SR and RR equations (from objective 1) against independent data sets. Fourteen studies were collected for the SR analysis, 12 for fitting and 2 for evaluation. The fitted SR equations (Thompson model) for the 3 breeds types were B. indicus, SR = 0.085e(0.22·T(s)); B. taurus, SR = 0.75e(0.15·T(s)); and crossbreds, SR = 0.015e(0.25·T(s)). Twenty-three studies were collected for the RR analysis, 20 for fitting and 3 for evaluation. The fitted RR equations for the 3 breed types were B. indicus, RR = -1,660 + 43.8·T(b); B. taurus, RR = -1,385 + 37·T(b); and crossbreds, RR = -2,226 + 59·T(b). Three SR equations (Maia, McArthur, and Gatenby models) from the literature were evaluated against the Thompson model using the 14 studies. The McArthur model predicted SR within the correct range, but with an increased slope bias because the equation was linear and not the correct shape. The Maia model overpredicted SR for all breed types with the greatest overprediction being for crossbreds. The Gatenby model overpredicted SR for B. taurus (root mean square error of prediction = 506 g·m(-2)·h(-1)), but was the best predictor for B. indicus. The Thompson model overpredicted SR for B. indicus (root mean square error of prediction ranged from 134 to 265 g·m(-2)·h(-1)), but was the best predictor for B. taurus and crossbreds. The Thompson model was a good predictor for RR across all breed types. The meta-analysis showed that the Thompson model

  20. The correlation between the number of antral follicles and ovarian reserves (preantral follicles) in purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, Katia Cristina; Santos, Gustavo Martins Gomes Dos; Siloto, Letícia Schmidt; Santos, Joabel Tonellotto Dos; Oliveira, Eduardo Raele de; Machado, Fernanda Zandonadi; Rosa, Camila Oliveira; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2014-12-30

    The objectives of this study were to compare populations of preantral follicles between purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows with high or low antral follicle counts (AFC) and to correlate the number of preantral follicles with the population of antral follicles. Nelore (Bos indicus, n=100) and Angus (Bos taurus, n=100) cow ovaries were collected at abattoirs and examined using ultrasonography. Antral follicles ≥3mm were counted, and the cows ovaries were assigned to high (G-High) or low (G-Low) AFC groups based on the mean number (±1 SD) of ovarian antral follicles: Bos indicus with high AFC (≥57 follicles, n=8) or low AFC (≤21 follicles, n=8) and Bos taurus with high (≥45 follicles, n=10) or low AFC (≤13 follicles, n=10). The ovaries were processed, and the number of preantral follicles was estimated. Between-groups comparisons were performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test, and the correlation between preantral and antral follicles was evaluated using a Pearson's correlation test (P≤0.05). A large variation in the number of preantral follicles was observed among the animals. Although there was a correlation between the population of preantral follicles and the number of antral follicles, there was no difference between the mean number of preantral follicles in the Bos indicus G-High (48,349±30,149) and G-Low groups (33,037±31,710) or between the Bos taurus G-High (35,050±36,060) and G-Low groups (30,481±43,360). Therefore, the preantral follicle population did not differ between purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle with high or low AFC but was correlated with the number of antral follicles. In addition to the large within-groups variation in the number of preantral follicles, some cows with high AFC had lower populations of preantral follicles compared to the low AFC group, and the highest population of preantral follicles was observed in both Bos indicus and Bos taurus with low AFC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the breed of bull (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus) and the breed of cow (Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus and crossbred) on the resistance of bovine embryos to heat.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Bruno G; Satrapa, Rafael A; Capinzaiki, Cláudia R L; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro M

    2009-08-01

    In vitro studies have shown that Bos taurus indicus (B. t. indicus) embryos submitted to heat shock at early stages of development are better able to survive as compared to Bos taurus taurus embryos. Embryo genotype influences resistance to heat shock thus leading to the question as to whether embryos sired by thermo-tolerant breeds exhibit the same resistance to heat shock. In the present study the influence of both oocyte and semen, on the resistance to heat shock (HS) at early stages of in vitro development, was assessed in B. t. indicus [Nelore (N) breed], B. t. taurus [Holstein (H) and Angus (A) breeds] and crossbreds. In Experiment 1, Nelore and crossbred oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and fertilized with spermatozoa from Nelore and Angus bulls. Presumptive embryos were collected and randomly assigned to control (39 degrees C) or HS at 12, 48 or 96 h post insemination (hpi; 41 degrees C for 12h) treatments. The cleavage rates and proportion of embryos developing to the blastocyst and hatched blastocyst stages were recorded on Days 2, 8 and 10, respectively. Heat shock treatment decreased development of both Nelore and crossbred embryos. There was a significant interaction between time (12, 48 or 96 hpi) and temperature for blastocyst rates, i.e., the embryos became more thermotolerant as development proceeded. In Experiment 2, oocytes from Nelore and Holstein cows were fertilized with semen from bulls of either Nelore or Angus breeds, and subjected to 12 h HS at 96 hpi. Heat shock at 96 hpi, decreased embryo development. Additionally, cowxtreatment and bullxtreatment interactions were significant for blastocyst rates, i.e., both breed of cow and breed of bull affected the decline in blastocyst rate caused by heat shock treatment. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Nelore embryos (indicus) are more resistant to heat shock than Holstein (taurus) at early stages of in vitro development, and that embryos become more thermo

  2. Puberty in South American Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, G P

    2004-07-01

    Puberty in Zebu heifers follows a pattern characterized by a decrease in the steroid feedback mechanism and an increase in LH concentration, which result in the first ovulation followed by a short estrous cycle and the onset of normal cycles thereafter. These events are similar to those observed in Bos taurus cattle but occur at a later age. The late onset of puberty is both genetic and environmental in origin and is reflected by the age at first calving that can be at 40 months of age or older in these animals. Age at puberty in Zebu heifers has been shown to have a high heritability. Consequently, selecting precocious heifers may be an effective means of reducing age at puberty in these animals and this approach is being adopted in commercial practice. Genetic selection is not the sole solution to the problem because environmental improvements are necessary, particularly in terms of improved nutrition. South American Zebu cattle are usually subject to sub-optimum nutritional and management conditions and, hence, exhibit late onset of puberty. Hybrids of Zebu and Bos taurus cattle exhibit heterosis in respect of the age of puberty with earlier onset than expected in crossbred animals. Recently, purebred South American Zebu cattle have been shown to have Bos taurus genes, indicating that there have been previous attempts to improve their productivity using this approach. It was concluded that the age at first calving in South American Zebu cattle can be reduced by exposing well-fed, yearling heifers to bulls and selecting, over several generations, those animals that become pregnant at an early age.

  3. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  4. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative phenotypic profile of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in European (Bos taurus taurus) and Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, A A; Marciano, A P V; Rocha, L M; Alves-Júnior, J R F; Faria, A M C; Bittar, J F F; Araújo, M S S; Santos, R L; Martins-Filho, O A

    2013-12-19

    Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Hereford) and Zebu (including Gir, Nelore, and Guzera) breeds, by assessing their peripheral blood leukocyte profiles (i.e., monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD21(+) B cells). Higher frequencies of cells involved in innate immunity were observed in Zebu breeds, particularly monocytes and non-T and non-B cells (13.37 ± 0.9058 and 37.67 ± 1.55, respectively). This finding may contribute to the increased resistance of B. taurus indicus to certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Considering other leukocyte populations in the peripheral blood, among-breed variation was greater than differences between the two subspecies. This study will serve as a basis for further investigations regarding comparative immunology and resistance to infectious and parasitic diseases of cattle.

  6. Technologies for fixed-time artificial insemination and their influence on reproductive performance of Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Cutaia, L; Peres, L C; Pincinato, D; Maraña, D; Baruselli, P S

    2007-01-01

    The adaptation of Bos indicus cattle to tropical and subtropical environments has led to their widespread distribution around the world. Although artificial insemination (AI) is one of the best alternatives to introduce new genetics into Bos indicus herds, the peculiarity of their temperament and the tendency to show short oestrus (many of them during the night) greatly affects the effectiveness of genetic improvement programs. Therefore, the most useful alternative to increase the number of females that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow for AI without the need for oestrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI). Besides, the development of protocols to advance the resumption of cyclicity during the early postpartum period has a great impact on beef production and will allow for the inclusion of a significantly larger population of animals into genetic improvement programs. Fixed-time AI protocols using progestin devices, oestradiol and eCG have resulted in consistent pregnancy rates in suckled Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus cows. Furthermore, fertility in the successive cycles and the overall pregnancy rates at the end of the breeding season, have been shown to be improved by the use of progestin devices at the beginning of the breeding season. In summary, exogenous control of luteal and follicular development has facilitated the application of assisted reproductive technologies in Bos indicus-influenced cattle, by offering the possibility of planning programs without the necessity of oestrus detection and may provide the opportunity to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.

  7. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates.

  8. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Seabury, Christopher M; Seabury, Paul M; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Womack, James E

    2010-01-05

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics.

  9. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  10. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  11. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  12. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M; Vajrabukka, C; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal (B. indicus) (n=10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) (B. taurus) (n=10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% (n=10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % (n=10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm(2); 1.60 μ(3) × 10(-6)) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm(2); 0.51 μ(3)x10(-6)) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm(2); 0.68 μ(3) × 10(-6)) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm(2); 0.61 μ(3) × 10(-6)) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm(2)) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm(2)); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm(2) for HF75% and HF87.5 %) (P<0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred (P<0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction (P<0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  13. Trace element distribution in selected edible tissues of zebu (Bos indicus) cattle slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated.

  14. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: influence of cattle genotype (Bos indicus vs. Bos taurus) on oocyte and preimplantation embryo resistance to increased temperature.

    PubMed

    Paula-Lopes, F F; Lima, R S; Satrapa, R A; Barros, C M

    2013-03-01

    High environmental temperatures during the hot months of the year reduce reproductive performance in cattle. Summer heat stress depression in fertility is a multifactorial problem; however, there is evidence that the bovine germinal vesicle and maturing oocyte, as well as the early embryo, are major targets of the deleterious effects of heat stress. Such adverse effects are less pronounced in heat-tolerant breeds (Bos indicus) than heat-sensitive breeds (Bos taurus). This genetic variation results from the greater thermoregulatory ability and cellular thermoresistance of heat-tolerant breeds. Heat-induced oocyte cellular damage occurs in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Heat shock has been shown to reduce oocyte nuclear maturation, induce apoptosis, compromise oocyte cytoskeleton, and impair oocyte mitochondrial function and developmental competence. However, the oocyte cytoplasm is more susceptible to heat shock than the nucleus. This effect is greater for Bos taurus than Bos indicus oocytes. The detrimental effects of heat shock are also critical during the first cleavage divisions when most of the embryonic genome is inactive; however, the bovine embryo becomes more resistant to increased temperature as it proceeds through development. Several studies demonstrated that Bos indicus embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus embryos. Adaptive changes involved in acquisition of thermotolerance are likely derived from changes in gene expression and (or) activity of biochemical molecules that control cellular functions against stress. Recently, molecules such as IGF-I and caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk have been shown to exert a thermoprotective role, rescuing heat-induced oocyte and embryo cellular damage and developmental competence. Therefore, cattle genotype and thermoprotective molecules can be considered as an alternative to modulate the effects of increased temperature in reproductive function.

  15. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45

  16. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  17. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  18. Molecular and biochemical evaluation of Indian draft breeds of cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sharma, Suneet; Arora, J S; Sarkhel, B C

    2011-04-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) enzyme detoxifies peroxides by reacting with the GSH (reduced glutathione) responsible for the maintenance of the integrity of essential biomolecules. This study was conducted on 100 animals of two Indian draft breeds of cattle (Bos indicus), Nimari, and Malvi. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples, and four fragments (80, 71, 78, and 442 bp) of the GPX-1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. PCR-SSCP analysis in 12% PAGE with silver staining revealed polymorphism in three of the fragments (80, 71, and 442 bp) in these two cattle breeds. Breed differences for the blood biochemical parameters (serum creatine kinase and lactic acid level) and overall draft ability were studied. The genetic polymorphism identified for the GPX-1 gene in this investigation would help in the identification of alleles related to draft capacity in these animals for future genetic improvement.

  19. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  1. Anti-Neospora caninum antibody detection and vertical transmission rate in pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus): Neospora caninum in pregnant beef cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Eudes Esteves do; Sammi, Ana Sue; Santos, Joeleni Rosa Dos; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus) reared on pasture. The present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). After ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. Blood samples were taken from cows thrice during the first, second, and third trimester of gestation, and a blood sample was collected from 31 calves before colostrum milking. From 76 cows 23 (30.3%) had anti-N. caninum antibodies detected by indirect ELISA (Idexx), and 53 (69.7%) did not. Sixty-four cows that initiated the experiment were negative to N. caninum and 11 became positive either during the second or third trimester of gestation, this mean an infection incidence of 17.2% (11/64). OD for ELISA was higher (OD=2.08) during the second and third (OD=2.10) trimesters of pregnancy when compared with the first (OD=1.81), however, there were no statistical differences (P=0.45). The vertical transmission was calculated to be 29.0% (9/31), and the risk of vertical transmission of N. caninum in seropositive dams was 26.25 times higher than seronegative animals (OR=26.25, 2.38

  2. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds.

    PubMed

    McClure, Matthew C; Sonstegard, Tad S; Wiggans, George R; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Weber, Kristina L; Penedo, Cecilia T; Berry, Donagh P; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F; Carmo, Adriana S; Regitano, Luciana C A; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V G B; Machado, Marco A; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F; Schnabel, Robert D; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L; Kuehn, Larry A; Keele, John W; Piper, Emily K; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.

  3. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  4. Use of a culture medium (McCoy®), as a method for evaluating Bos indicus × Bos taurus embryos.

    PubMed

    Godinez, B; Galina, C S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Alarcon, M; Lammoglia, M A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use culture medium (McCoy®) as a test to evaluate the classification of embryos after a primary grading using stereoscopic microscopy to further confirm whether embryos have been correctly scored by stereoscopic microscopy evaluating the level of apoptosis. Forty-six Bos indicus embryos were collected with a non-surgical method and evaluated with stereoscopic microscopy for scoring in three categories (good, fair and poor). Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed and compared between the control group (n = 14) at the onset of the experiment and in an experimental group (n = 32) after stored for 4 h in a culture medium. Embryos were processed using TUNEL and BrdU markers to determine the apoptosis and cell proliferation. Seventy-four per cent of good quality embryos developed favourably after the 4 h of culture; 60% of fair embryos maintained their evolution, while 100% of poor quality embryos presented degenerative changes from the beginning. No statistical differences were found between the experimental and the control groups in the count of positive BrdU and apoptotic nuclei. In poor quality embryos, a higher number of apoptotic cells were found relative to good and fair embryos, both in the experimental and control groups (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the culture medium may be used for a short time as a fast, practical and non-invasive alternative to further confirm whether embryos have been correctly scored by stereoscopic microscopy. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The effect of circulating progesterone on magnitude of the GnRH-induced LH surge: Are there any differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers?

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Del Valle, T A; Ortolan, M D D V; Rennó, F P; Nogueira, G P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2017-08-05

    This study evaluated the effects of differing circulating progesterone (P4) levels on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge profile following treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in B. indicus (Nelore, n = 13) and B. taurus (Holstein, n = 16) heifers. All heifers were synchronized with a hormonal protocol to induce either a Low or High circulating P4 environment at the time of GnRH treatment. Heifers were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design composed by two genetic groups (B. indicus and B. taurus) and two levels of circulating P4 concentrations (Low or High). Blood samples were collected every 30 min from -30 to 210 min and at 270 min after GnRH treatment. As expected, mean P4 concentration was greater for cows in the High than in the Low P4 group (P = 0.0008) and in Bos indicus than in Bos taurus heifers (P = 0.06). Despite genetic group, the area under the curve of LH release was greater in the Low-P4 than in High-P4 concentration group (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, it appears that High P4 concentrations had a more pronounced effect on LH peak in B. indicus than in B. taurus heifers, as indicated by the interaction (P = 0.01) between genetic group and P4 levels. In conclusion, circulating P4 concentration have a great impact on the GnRH-induced LH surge of both B. indicus and B. taurus heifers, but it does not explain the much lower LH peak in B. indicus with low circulating P4. Thus, more studies are essential to uncover some of the underlying physiological factors other than circulating P4 that are limiting LH release following a GnRH treatment in B. indicus cattle. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Testicular thermoregulation in Bos indicus, crossbred and Bos taurus bulls: relationship with scrotal, testicular vascular cone and testicular morphology, and effects on semen quality and sperm production.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Silva, Antonio E D F; Barbosa, Rogerio T; Kastelic, John P

    2004-01-15

    Mechanisms of testicular thermoregulation, the relationship of scrotal, testicular vascular cone (TVC), and testicular morphology with thermoregulatory capability, and their effects on semen quality and sperm production were studied in 20 Bos indicus, 28 crossbred, and 26 Bos taurus bulls. The ratio of testicular artery length and volume to testicular volume were larger (P<0.05) in B. indicus and crossbred bulls than in B. taurus bulls (1.03 and 0.94 cm/cm3 versus 0.48 cm/cm3; 0.034 and 0.047 ml/cm3 versus 0.017 ml/cm3, respectively). Testicular artery wall thickness (average 192.5, 229.0, and 290.0 microm, respectively) and arterial-venous blood distance in the TVC (average 330.5, 373.7, and 609.4 microm, respectively) were smallest in B. indicus, intermediary in crossbred, and greatest in B. taurus bulls (P<0.05); the proximity between arterial and venous blood was consistent with the estimated decrease in arterial blood temperature after passage through the TVC (5.9, 5.0, and 2.9 degrees C, in B. indicus, crossbred, and B. taurus bulls, respectively). In crossbred and B. taurus bulls, there was a positive top-to-bottom scrotal temperature gradient and a negative testicular subtunic temperature gradient. However, in B. indicus bulls, both scrotal and testicular subtunic temperatures gradients were positive. Differences in the vascular arrangement, characteristics of the artery (e.g. wall thickness) or thickness of the tunica albuginea may have affected the testicular arterial blood and subtunic temperatures in B. indicus bulls. Better testicular thermoregulatory capability was associated with increased scrotal shape (pendulosity), testicular artery length and volume, and top-to-bottom gradient of the distance between the artery wall and the veins in the TVC. Increased semen quality was associated with increased testicular volume and scrotal subcutaneous (SQT) temperature gradient, and with decreased scrotal surface and testicular temperatures. Increased sperm

  7. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  8. Transcriptome analysis and SNP identification in SCC of horn in (Bos indicus) Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Anand B; Dash, Debabrata; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-11-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genome wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of disease, production and performance traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. The main objective of present work was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput sequencing in squamous cell carcinoma of horn. RNA-seq analysis was conducted on 2 tissues viz. Horn Cancer (HC) and Horn Normal (HN) in Kankrej breed of cattle. A total of 909,362 reads with average read length of 405 bp for HC and 583,491 reads with average read length of 411 bp for HN were obtained. We found 9532 and 7065 SNPs as well as 1771 and 1172 Indels in HC and HN, respectively, from which, 7889 SNPs and 1736 Indels were uniquely present in HC, 5886 SNPs and 1146 Indels were uniquely present in HN and reported first time in Bos indicus, whereas the rest are already reported in Bos taurus dbSNP database. The gene-associated SNPs and Indels were high in upregulated genes of HC as compared to HN. Analysis of differentially expressed genes was identified, these genes are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, gene transcription, cell survival and metabolism through various metabolic pathways. The result of transcriptome expression profiling was validated using Real Time quantitative PCR in nine randomly selected genes. We identified numbers aberrant signaling pathways responsible for carcinogenesis in HC which are also commonly altered in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung in human being. We conclude that a large number of altered genes and dysfunction of multiple pathways are involved in the development of Horn Cancer. The present findings contribute to theoretical information for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis of HC as well as SNPs identified in this report provide a much needed resource for genetic

  9. Induction of parturition in Zebu-cross recipients carrying in vitro-produced Bos indicus embryos.

    PubMed

    Nasser, L F; Rezende, L F; Bó, G A; Barth, A

    2008-01-01

    Induction of parturition has been used as a management tool in cattle in several countries, but not commonly in Zebu breeds in tropical production systems. When timed according to the stage of gestation, most induction protocols employing a combination of PGF2alpha and a potent, short-acting corticosteroid, resulted in a predictable interval from induction to calving, with no detrimental effects on calf viability; however, the incidence of placental retention was usually elevated. Pretreatment with a long-acting corticosteroid induced placental maturation and greatly reduced the incidence of placental retention following induction with PGF2alpha and a short-acting corticosteroid. Recently, Brazilian cattle breeders have faced a new challenge with a large number of in vitro-produced embryos. Without a reliable method of cryopreservation, large numbers of embryos have been transferred fresh, creating a new demand for protocols for synchronizing recipients and managing their calving. A parturition-induction protocol, efficacious in Bos taurus cattle, was modified for use in Bos indicus cattle (which generally have a longer gestation than B. taurus cattle). Zebu-cross recipients carrying Nelore in vitro-produced embryos were pretreated with 1 mg/60 kg triamcinolone acetonide on Day 280 of gestation, followed by treatment with 500 microg of cloprostenol and 25 mg of dexamethasone on Day 287. The interval from treatment to calving was predictable and the incidence of retained placenta was low, similar to that described previously for B. taurus cattle, demonstrating that this treatment protocol could be used for induction of parturition in Zebu cattle in Brazil.

  10. Mineral deficiency status of ranging zebu (Bos indicus) cattle around the Gilgel Gibe catchment, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Yisehak, Kechero; Belay, Duguma; Van Hecke, Thomas; Du Laing, Gijs; Duchateau, Luc; Janssens, Geert P J

    2013-06-01

    Mineral deficiencies in cattle, widespread in East Africa, impair optimal health and production and consequently place a great burden on the farmers' income. Therefore, detection of shortages and imbalances of specific minerals is essential. Our objective was to evaluate the mineral status of grazing cattle around the Gilgel Gibe catchment in Ethiopia and associated factors. In study I, individual animal plasma and herd faecal Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, S, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined in adult zebu cattle (Bos indicus; n=90) grazing at three altitudes around the catchment, whilst recording body condition score and sex. In study II, liver samples of adult male zebu cattle (n=53) were analysed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mo concentrations and inspected for parasitic infections. Plasma and liver analyses revealed a Cu deficiency problem in the area, since 68 and 47 % of cattle, respectively, were Cu deprived according to diagnostic criteria for Bos taurus cattle. High hepatic Mo concentrations in 17 % of cases might reflect excessive dietary Mo intake. Liver Se and plasma Na concentrations were too low in 92 and 80 % of cattle. Plasma Mn concentrations were largely below the detection limit. Plasma Cu as well as Ca concentrations were lower in the lowest altitude compared to the highest altitude group (P<0.05), whereas lean to medium cattle had lower plasma Cu concentrations (P<0.05). No differences in hepatic mineral concentrations were detected between cattle with different types of parasitic infection. In conclusion, bovine mineral deficiencies were present in the Gilgel Gibe area and were associated with grazing altitude and body condition score.

  11. The effect of season on semen characteristics and freezability in Bos indicus and Bos taurus bulls in the southeastern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, M B; Costa, M T A; Perri, S H V; Vicente, W R R

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of season in southeast of Brazil comparing genotypes on semen characteristics, freezability and peripheral plasma concentrations of testosterone. Ejaculates of five Bos indicus bulls and six Bos taurus bulls were evaluated over a period of 27 months, which was divided into winter (July, August, September), spring (October, November, December), summer (January, February, March) and autumn (April, May, June). Semen was evaluated according to standard procedures for ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, gross-motility, progressive motility and sperm morphology. After preparing and freezing the ejaculates according to commercial procedures, the straws were stored in liquid N(2) until post-thaw evaluation. Ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, gross-motility, progressive sperm motility, vigor and morphological sperm defects were significantly influenced by season and genotype (p < 0.05). Heat tolerance was better in B. indicus bulls than in B. taurus bulls characterized by lower values of sperm abnormalities throughout the observation period. The highest values were recorded for abnormal heads followed by cytoplasmatic droplets in B. taurus bulls. The proportion of ejaculates which were eliminated before freezing for reasons of bad quality was lower in the B. indicus bulls. Temporal changes in peripheral plasma testosterone concentrations were higher in B. indicus bulls than in B. taurus bulls not revealing seasonal influences. The results of this study show clear genotype differences regarding semen quality. Freezability of B. taurus semen varies considerably throughout the year, leading to a high proportion of eliminated ejaculates. Collecting semen from B. taurus bulls during the summer in an artificial insemination centre may not be profitable.

  12. Fetal calf serum enhances in vitro production of Bos taurus indicus embryos.

    PubMed

    Leivas, F G; Brum, D S; Fialho, S S; Saliba, W P; Alvim, M T T; Bernardi, M L; Rubin, M I B; Silva, C A M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs, n = 2 449) recovered by ovum pick-up from Bos taurus indicus donors were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Sperm selected by Percoll gradient was used for in vitro fertilization (insemination = Day 0). In Experiment 1 (n = 1 745 COCs), zygotes were cultured in vitro in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid + 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), or BSA + 2% FCS (BSA+FCS). In Experiment 2 (n = 704 COCs), the COCs were cultured in SOF + BSA, BSA + 2% FCS, or BSA + 2% FCS on D4 (BSA + FCSD4). In Experiment 1, blastocyst yield (51%) and Quality I blastocysts (41%) at Day 7 were higher (P < 0.05) in the BSA + FCS treatment than in BSA (42 and 30%, respectively). In Experiment 2, blastocyst yield was higher (P < 0.05) in the BSA+FCS (47%) treatment. Quality I blastocyst yield was higher (P < 0.05) for BSA + FCS (34%) and BSA+FCSD4 (32%) compared to the BSA treatment (20%). A total of 820 embryos were transferred, with no significant differences among groups in pregnancy rates. In conclusion, in vitro culture in SOFaaci + BSA + FCS enhanced blastocyst yield and Quality I blastocysts; adding FCS to the culture medium increased the efficiency of IVP of bovine embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-animal interaction, stress, and embryo production in Bos indicus embryo donors under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Gustavo Guerino; Zúccari, Carmem Estefânia Serra Neto; de Abreu, Urbano Gomes Pinto; Negrão, João Alberto; da Costa e Silva, Eliane Vianna

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of human-animal interaction (HAI) and the stress response on the quality of embryo production in superovulated Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle, under tropical conditions. Thirty-two females underwent a superovulation protocol for 5 days. Cortisol concentrations were determined in blood plasma collected on days 0, 4, and 5. Artificial insemination was performed on days 4 and 5, and nonsurgical embryo flushing on day 11. Embryo production and viability were determined. Human stimulation, animal behaviors, accidents, and handling time were recorded to assess HAI. Cattle age was negatively correlated with accidents, frequency of aversive behaviors, and negative stimuli by stockperson during transit through corral compartments to receive superovulation treatments. The factor analysis revealed two distinct groups. The first group was called stressed and had higher cortisol concentration than the nonstressed group, 16.0 ± 2.1 and 12.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Comparisons between these groups showed that the frequency of voice emissions by the stockperson and the number of accidents were higher in the stressed group, and also, the mean handling time was longer in the stressed group than for the nonstressed. As a result, viability rate of the embryos was 19% lower in the stressed group (P < 0.05). This indicates that intensive negative HAI is likely related to stress, which affects embryo production in a superovulation program.

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of Indian Sahiwal cattle (Bos indicus) alpha inhibin.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anuradha; Nayan, Varij; Yadav, Paras; De, Sachinandan; Datta, Tirtha K; Goswami, Surender Lal

    2012-04-01

    Inhibin is a non-steroidal glycoprotein hormone of gonadal origin with major action as negative feedback control of the production of FSH by the anterior pituitary gland. The physiological role of inhibin has led to the development of inhibin immunogens for fertility enhancement in farm animals. It is envisaged that a reduction of endogenous inhibin secretion would increase FSH concentrations and thus offers a potential for increasing the number of ovulatory follicles in the ovary. The present work was carried out to produce recombinant bovine (Indian Sahiwal Cattle; Bos indicus) alpha inhibin (bINH-α) in E. coli by optimizing its expression and purification in biologically active form and to study its immunological characterization. A bacterial protein expression vector system based on the phage T(5) promoter was used. The bINH-α encoding gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli and the purified recombinant bINH-α was characterized. Recombinant bINH-α (25 µg mL(-1)) immunized guinea pigs had a significant increase in litter size compared to the control group. These results indicate a role for recombinant bINH-α as a fecundity vaccine to enhance the ovulation rate and litter size in animals.

  15. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) breeds.

    PubMed

    Tantia, Madhu S; Vijh, Ramesh K; Mishra, Bishnu P; Mishra, Bina; Kumar, S T Bharani; Sodhi, Monika

    2006-11-07

    Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1--diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1) and Y581S (ABCG2--ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2) polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  16. Novel identification of Factor XI deficiency in Indian Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Chakravarti, S; Ghosh, A K; Kumar, S; Nayak, B; Nandi, S; Sarkar, U; Deb, Rajib; De, A; Biswas, J

    2016-04-01

    Factor-XI deficiency (FXID) is inherited as autosomal lethal recessive disorder of carrier Holstein-Friesian bulls. A 76 base pair segment insertion into exon 12 in Factor-XI gene causes FXID in cattle. Keeping this in view the present study was conducted to screen breeding bulls of both indigenous and exotic breeds for mutation in Factor-XI gene and to find out the frequency of FXID carrier animals in breeding bulls. A total of 120 bulls of different age group maintained at Frozen Semen Bull Station, India were randomly selected from different cattle breeds to screen presence of FXID syndrome in breeding sires. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the selected bulls. PCR parameters were standardized to obtain 244 and 320 bp amplicons. The results showed that 2 Sahiwal bulls out of 120 animals were carrier for FXID. Amplicons of the carrier animals were sequenced and annoted, which confirms a 76 bp insertion in the exon 12. Bleeding and clotting time showed considerable discrepancy in the carrier animals as compared to the normal animals. The findings of relative mRNA expression of Factor XI transcript revealed identical tendency in the carrier. The frequency of carrier animals and mutant allele was 2.5 % and 0.025 respectively. This study recommends for screening of breeding at AI bull centers in the country for FXID. The study also stands a merit for identification of FXID carrier in Bos indicus for the first time.

  17. Neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered beef cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Marques, F A C; Headley, A S; Figueredo-Pereira, V; Taroda, A; Barros, L D; Cunha, I A L; Munhoz, K; Bugni, F M; Zulpo, D L; Igarashi, M; Vidotto, O; Guimarães, J S; Garcia, João Luis

    2011-04-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes the most important reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of vertical transmission of N. caninum in zebus breed beef cows (Bos indicus) submitted for slaughter at an abattoir in the northern region of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. One hundred and fifty-nine cows were evaluated: 83 pregnant (in different stages of gestation) and 76 non-pregnant. Serum determination of N. caninum was evaluated by indirect ELISA (Idexx). Blood (with EDTA) from pregnant cows and tissue samples (brain and heart) from their fetuses were collected and used for PCR analyses. Antibodies against N. caninum were observed in 14.6% (12/83) of pregnant and in 15.8% (12/76) of non-pregnant cows. Antibodies against the parasites were detected in one fetus (1.4%). The PCR analyses revealed that 6.0% (5/83) of cows and 4.8% (4/83) of fetuses evaluated were positive to specific N. caninum primers. These positive fetuses were between 4 and 6 months of age. Thus, considering PCR and serology as an indicative of vertical transmission in fetuses, 4.8% of fetuses were infected by N. caninum during gestation.

  18. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  19. Observation of fresh Bos indicus embryos comparing stereoscopic and phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M E; Galina, C S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Alarcón, M A; Godínez, B; Lammoglia, M A

    2014-05-01

    Summary The precision of embryo evaluation using stereoscopic microscopy (SM) and inverted phase contrast microscopy (PCM) was compared in 20 Bos indicus cows superovulated at two different times of the year. In total, 118 embryos were collected and classified according to their developmental stage and quality by two independent evaluators using SM and inverted PCM. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to determine concordance between SM and PCM observations. A good level of agreement (k = 0.616) was found for quality level, and a moderate one (k = 0.464) for developmental stage, particularly at the morula stage. Using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling) technique, concordance level was deemed to be low with the SM (k = 0.169), and poor with the PCM (k = 0.217). Differences in concordance levels were also found between observations made at the two times of year, 78 embryos were evaluated in the rainy season when concordance level was good (k = 0.68), in contrast to the 40 embryos evaluated in the dry season when agreement was found to be poor (k = 0.24). In conclusion, inverted PCM was somewhat more effective for evaluating embryos, particularly at the morula stage. However, considering the high cost of an inverted PCM, the differences observed do not justify its purchase for routine embryo evaluation.

  20. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  1. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  2. Bos indicus type of growth hormone receptor gene is retained in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, T; Yano, H; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, K; Kimura, N; Tanaka, M

    2006-12-01

    The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene is responsible for growth and carcass traits, and polymorphisms associated with the variation of meat production are thought to occur in the liver-specific promoter of the GHR gene in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the liver-specific promoter of GHR in Japanese Black cattle, as the relationship between GHR polymorphism and meat production is poorly understood in this breed. Typically in European cattle, the LINE-1 element, a family of retrotransposons, is inserted in the liver-specific promoter. However, a short GHR promoter without the LINE-1 sequence was found in the Japanese Black breed as in Bos indicus cattle. The frequency of the short allele was approximately 60%. In addition, 24 of 29 Holstein/Japanese Black crosses carried the short allele from their sire. The present result suggests that the short allele for GHR may be a candidate marker for improving meat production of Japanese Black cattle.

  3. Genome-wide CNV analysis reveals variants associated with growth traits in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Xu, Lingyang; Hay, El Hamidi Abdel; Bickhart, Derek M; Alexandre, Pamela Almeida; Rosen, Benjamin D; Schroeder, Steven G; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Rezende Neves, Haroldo Henrique; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman; Fukumasu, Heidge; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Liu, George E

    2016-06-01

    Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in beef cattle has been reported, so the present study aimed to investigate this type of association in one of the most important cattle subspecies: Bos indicus (Nellore breed). We have used intensity data from over 700,000 SNP probes across the bovine genome to detect common CNVs in a sample of 2230 Nellore cattle, and performed GWAS between the detected CNVs and nine growth traits. After filtering for frequency and length, a total of 231 CNVs ranging from 894 bp to 4,855,088 bp were kept and tested as predictors for each growth trait using linear regression analysis with principal components correction. There were 49 significant associations identified among 17 CNVs and seven body traits after false discovery rate correction (P < 0.05). Among the 17 CNVs, three were significant or marginally significant for all the traits. We have compared the locations of associated CNVs with quantitative trait locus and the RefGene database, and found two sets of 9 CNVs overlapping with either known QTLs or genes, respectively. The gene overlapping with CNV100, KCNJ12, is a functional candidate for muscle development and plays critical roles in muscling traits. This study presents the first CNV-based GWAS of growth traits using high density SNP microarray data in cattle. We detected 17 CNVs significantly associated with seven growth traits and one of them (CNV100) may be involved in growth traits through KCNJ12.

  4. Maternal protective behavior of zebu type cattle (Bos indicus) and its association with temperament.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, L; Orihuela, A; Corro, M; Rubio, I; Cohen, A; Galina, C S

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the maternal protective behavior of zebu-type cattle (Bos indicus) and its association with temperament. A total of 40 cow-calf pairs raised under extensive conditions were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 10), which were evaluated at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d postpartum (dpp), respectively. Measures obtained were defense responses of cows protecting their calves assessed by categorizing the behavioral response of the dams during handling of their calves and chute exit score and facial hair whorl (HW) position as indirect measures associated with temperament. No association was found between protective behavior and exit score or HW measures (rs < 0.22 and 0.13, respectively; P > 0.05). At 30 dpp, 90% of the cows responded to the stimulus of calves being handled, 40% reacted exclusively to alien calves, and 50% responded to their own or alien calves. Sixty days later, the proportion of cows responding to alien calves decreased (P < 0.05) to 10%, and at 120 dpp, cows responding to any calf decreased (P < 0.05) to 20%, while the nonresponding cows increased (P < 0.05) to 60%. Similarly, as dpp increased, the intensity of the reaction of the cows to the manipulation of their calves declined. The intensity of the response was exacerbated (P < 0.05) when a human being was less than 1 m distance from the calf, also when the calf was its own or when the calf vocalized. Furthermore, independent of the sex of their own calf, cows reacted more to male than female calves (P < 0.05). It was concluded that zebu cows may display maternal protective behavior to their own or alien calves, which weakens about 120 dpp and is not influenced by individual temperament.

  5. Effect of the g.98535683A>G SNP in the CAST gene on meat traits of Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Valencia, Cruz Elena; Pereira, Guilherme Luis; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto I I; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Curi, Rogério Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate allele frequencies of the g.98535683A>G:BTAU7 SNP in the CAST gene in different genetic groups of beef cattle produced in Brazil (Nellore and their crosses with Bos taurus), and to evaluate associations between this polymorphism and meat traits. Five hundred animals from six different genetic groups were genotyped and phenotyped for shear force (SF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), rib eye area, backfat thickness, and total lipids. Alleles A and G of the SNP were detected in all genetic groups and the frequency of A was higher than G. Significant association (P<0.05) was observed between the polymorphism and meat tenderness (SF and MFI), in which genotype AA exhibited the best values. These results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of the studied SNP in a Zebu breed and its potential application to the genetic improvement of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) and its crosses with Bos taurus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies to improve fertility in post partum Bos indicus cows submitted to a fixed-time insemination protocol with GnRH and PGF2a

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...

  8. Reproductive characteristics of grass-fed, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-immunocastrated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J A; Zanella, E L; Bogden, R; de Avila, D M; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-12-01

    Two field trials were conducted in Brazil to evaluate LHRH immunocastration of Bos indicus bulls (d 0 = 2 yr of age). In Study I, 72 bulls were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: LHRH0-immunized, castrated, and intact. Immunized animals (n = 25) received a primary and two booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7 fusion proteins on d 0, 141, and 287. Twenty-three bulls were surgically castrated on d 141, and 24 served as intact controls. All animals were slaughtered on d 385, at approximately 3 yr of age. In Study II, 216 bulls were assigned randomly to the same three treatments as in Study I; however, because of a drought in the area, bulls were kept on pasture an additional year, and a fourth treatment was added, in which one-half the LHRH-immunized bulls received an additional booster on d 639 (fourth immunization). All animals in Study II were slaughtered on d 741 (4 yr of age). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies increased following each immunization for immunized bulls, but they were not detectable in castrate or intact animals in either study. Consequently, scrotal circumference was suppressed in immunized bulls compared with intact controls in both studies. By d 287, serum concentrations of testosterone in LHRH-immunized bulls were decreased compared with intact controls (P < 0.01). In both studies, testes and epididymal weights at slaughter were greater (P < 0.01) for intact (500 +/- 17 and 60 +/- 2 g, respectively) than for immunized bulls (173 +/- 22 and 26 +/- 2 g, respectively) and fourth immunization bulls (78 +/- 23 and 20 +/- 2 g, respectively; Study II). At the end of each study, BW was greater (P < 0.01) for intact bulls than for castrated and LHRH-immunized animals. In these two studies, the efficacy of the LHRH fusion proteins to induce an effect similar to that of surgical castration was considered 92 and 93%, respectively. These data support the concept that immunocastration of bulls at 2 yr of

  9. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin profiles vary in Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Santos, Vanessa G; Tata, Alessandra; Ferreira, Christina R; Paschoal, Daniela M; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2012-06-01

    Lipid droplets, subspecies (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus), and in vitro culture are known to influence cryopreservation of bovine embryos. Limited information is available regarding differences in membrane lipids in embryo, such as phosphatidylcholines (PC) and sphingomyelins (SM). The objective of the present study was to compare the profiles of several PC and SM species and relate this information to cytoplasmic lipid levels present in Nellore (B. taurus indicus) and Simmental (B. taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) or in vivo (ET). Simmental and IVP embryos had more cytoplasmic lipid content than Nellore and ET embryos (n = 30). Blastocysts were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Differences in the PC profile were addressed by principal component analysis. The lipid species with PC (32:1) and PC (34:1) had higher ion abundances in Nellore embryos, whereas PC (34:2) was higher in Simmental embryos. IVP embryos had less abundant ions of PC (32:1), PC (34:2), and PC (36:5) compared to ET embryos. Moreover, ion abundance of PC (32:0) was higher in both Nellore and Simmental IVP embryos compared to ET embryos. Therefore, mass spectrometry profiles of PC and SM species significantly differ with regard to unsaturation level and carbon chain composition in bovine blastocysts due to subspecies and in vitro culture conditions. Because PC abundances of Nellore and Simmental embryos were distinct (34:1 vs. 34:2), as were those of IVP and ET embryos (32:0 vs. 36:5), they are potential markers of postcryopreservation embryonic survival.

  10. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05).

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of Taurine, Indicine, and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bull spermatozoa for identification of proteins related to sperm malfunctions and subfertility in crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aslam, Munchakkal Kather; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Tajmul, Md; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2015-09-01

    Subfertility is one of the most common problems observed among Taurine × Indicine crossbred bulls in tropical countries; however, the etiology remain unknown in most of the cases. In present study, we compared the proteomic profile of spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) against their purebred parent lines (Holstein Friesian [Taurine] and Tharparkar [Indicine]) to find out alteration in expressions of proteins, if any. The proteomic profiles of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from these breeds were compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. It was observed that compared to Holstein Friesian, nine proteins were underexpressed and eight proteins were overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls. Similarly, four proteins were overexpressed and four proteins were underexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. In concurrent three breed comparison, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between these breeds. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the expression levels of several functionally significant proteins are either upregulated or downregulated in spermatozoa of crossbred bulls, which might be related to high incidence of subfertility in these bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Monocyte-derived macrophages from Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) are more efficient to control Brucella abortus intracellular survival than macrophages from European cattle (Bos taurus taurus).

    PubMed

    Macedo, A A; Costa, E A; Silva, A P C; Paixão, T A; Santos, R L

    2013-02-15

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Considering its strict zoonotic nature, understanding of the pathogenesis and immunity of Brucella spp. in natural animal hosts is essential to prevent human infections. Natural resistance against brucellosis has been demonstrated in cattle, and it is associated with the ability of macrophages to prevent intracellular replication of Brucella abortus. Identification of breeds that are resistant to B. abortus may contribute for controlling and eradicating brucellosis in cattle. This study aimed to compare macrophages from Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) or Holstein (Bos taurus taurus) regarding their resistance to B. abortus infection. Macrophages from Nelore were significantly more efficient in controlling intracellular growth of B. abortus when compared to Holstein macrophages even under intralysosomal iron restricting conditions. Furthermore, Nelore macrophages had higher transcription levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α at 12h post-infection (hpi) and higher levels of IL-12 at 24 hpi when compared to Holstein macrophages. Conversely, Holstein macrophages had higher levels of IL-10 transcripts at 24 hpi. Macrohages from Nelore also generated more nitric oxide (NO) in response to B. abortus infection when compared to Holstein macrophages. In conclusion, cultured Nelore macrophages are more effective in controlling intracellular replication of B. abortus, suggesting that Nelore cattle is likely to have a higher degree of natural resistance to brucellosis than Holstein.

  13. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  14. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  15. Evaluation of the 14-d CIDR-PG and 9-d CIDR-PG protocols for synchronization of estrus in Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M; Locke, J W C; Bishop, B E; Abel, J M; Ellersieck, M R; Yelich, J V; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-04-01

    Two long-term, CIDR-based estrus synchronization protocols were evaluated among Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers. Treatments were evaluated on the basis of estrous response and pregnancy rate resulting from fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and these outcomes were analyzed retrospectively relative to reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5) at treatment initiation. Estrus was synchronized for 1139 heifers in three locations, and heifers were assigned to one of two treatments within each location based on RTS. Heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0, CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of prostaglandin F2α (PG; 25 mg im) on Day 30, and administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 μg im) concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Heifers assigned to the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol received administration of PG concurrent with CIDR insertion on Day 5, administration of PG concurrent with CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of PG on Day 30, and administration of GnRH concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Estrus detection aids were applied at CIDR removal on Day 14 and at PG on Day 30 to evaluate estrous response rate. Mean RTS differed (P < 0.0001) based on biological type due to higher rates of estrous cyclicity (RTS 4 and 5) among Bos taurus heifers (72%; 416/574) than among Bos indicus-influenced heifers (27%; 150/565). The proportion of heifers expressing estrus following CIDR removal was greater (P = 0.01) among heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG treatment (88%; 492/559) compared to the 9-d CIDR-PG treatment (83%; 480/580). Estrous response following CIDR removal was also higher (P < 0.0001) among Bos taurus (95%; 547/574) compared to Bos indicus-influenced (75%; 425/565) heifers. Rate of estrous response prior to FTAI did not differ significantly based on treatment but was higher (P < 0.0001) among

  16. Gestation length, birth weight and offspring gender ratio of in vitro-produced Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle embryos.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Freitas, Celio; de Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; de Moraes Ferreira, Ademir; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Viana, João Henrique Moreira

    2010-07-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO(2) at 38.5 degrees C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight.

  17. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2017-01-31

    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.

  19. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18–24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25–36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37–48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters. PMID:27351012

  20. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P < 0.05) existed for synchronized AI pregnancy rates, there were no significant interactions of group with any variable analyzed; hence, groups were pooled for further evaluation. Within the SSC treatment, the 72-hour estrous response was 50.6% (168 of 332). Conception rate of cows in estrus was 66.1% (111 of 168), and timed-AI pregnancy rate for nonresponders was 32.3% (53 of 164). Overall synchronized AI pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P

  1. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    PubMed

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  2. Seasonal variation of ticks (Ixodidae) in Bos taurus x Bos indicus cattle under rotational grazing in forested and deforested habitats in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mangold, A J; Aguirre, D H; Gaido, A B; Guglielmone, A A

    1994-09-01

    The seasonal occurrence of ticks infesting cattle was monitored in a Bos taurus x Bos indicus commercial herd fed on a combination of native grasses and annual pastures in northwestern Argentina. The number of female ticks (Boophilus and Amblyomma) and the proportion of cattle infested with larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma ticks were recorded from a sample of 15 cows in 24 visits at intervals of 21-50 days from 5 December 1986 to 24 November 1988. The cattle were maintained on native grasses in forested habitats for 341 days, on native grasses in deforested habitats for 116 days and finally for 264 days on annual pastures. On 15 visits Boophilus microplus females were found, Amblyomma cajennense were detected on 11 counts, seven counts were positive for Amblyomma neumanni and two counts for Amblyomma parvum females. The peak of abundance of Boophilus microplus was found to be at the end of March 1987 with a mean of 36 females per side of cow. The peak numbers of A. cajennense (20 ticks), A. neumanni (12 ticks) and A. parvum (nine ticks) were found in December 1987, July 1987 and November 1988, respectively. The peak of Boophilus microplus was detected while cattle were on natural grasses in deforested habitats, peaks of other tick species were found when cattle were on natural grasses in forested habitats. The maximum cattle infestations with Amblyomma larvae (34% of cattle, May 1987) and nymphs (100%, August 1987) were detected while cattle were on natural grasses in forested habitats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  4. Cryotolerance and global gene-expression patterns of Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Caixeta, Ester S; Paschoal, Daniela M; Martins, Alicio; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2014-10-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experimental design, embryo development, cryotolerance and global gene expression of Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) and Simmental (Bos taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) and in vivo (multiple ovulation derived embryo, MODE) were assessed. Blastocyst production was higher in Nellore than in Simmental (47.7±2.0% vs 27.0±2.0%) cows. The total numbers of ova or embryos recovered (5.5±0.9 vs 3.7±0.8) and transferable embryos (3.8±1.0 vs 2.3±0.8) per cow were not different between breeds. Simmental and MODE (34.6% and 38.5%, n=75 and 70) blastocysts had higher survival rates after cryopreservation compared with Nellore and IVP (20.2% and 18.1%, n=89 and 94) embryos, respectively. Differences between transcriptomes were addressed by principal-component analysis, which indicated that gene expression was affected by subspecies (158 genes), origin (532 genes) and interaction between both subspecies and origin (53 genes). Several functional processes and pathways relevant to lipid metabolism and embryo viability involving differentially expressed genes were identified. The lipid metabolism-related genes were upregulated in Simmental (AUH and ELOVL6) and IVP (ACSL3 and ACSL6) blastocysts. The expression profiles of genes related to mitochondrial metabolism (ATP5B), oxidative stress (GPX4), apoptosis (DAD1, DAP, PRDX2), heat shock (HSPA5), pregnancy (IFNT2, PAG2) and cell differentiation (KRT18) varied between experimental groups.

  5. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  6. Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Baldrighi, J M; Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Carvalho, J B P; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n

  7. MALDI-MS lipid profiles of oocytes recovered by ovum pickup from Bos indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus with high vs low oocyte yields.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Santos, G M G; Eberlin, M N; Siloto, L S; Rosa, C O; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI-MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P-38:5) + H](+) and/or [PC (P-36:2) + Na](+) , [PC (38:2) + H](+) , [PC (38:5) + Na](+) and [TAG (60:8) + NH(4) ](+) were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Molecular characterization and SNP identification in HSPB6 gene in Karan Fries (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, I D; Verma, Archana; Kumari, Ragini; Verma, Nishant

    2017-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones which are preferentially transcribed in response to severe perturbations of the cellular homeostasis such as heat stress. The present study was undertaken for molecular characterization and detection of genetic polymorphisms of HSPB6 gene in 100 Karan Fries Cattle. HSPB6 gene was mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA 18), comprising three exons and two introns. Four sets of primers for HSPB6 gene were designed using Primer3 software (version 0.4.0). For detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), sequence data was analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSPB6 gene showed five nucleotide polymorphisms, which included three transitions viz. g.161A > G, g.436G > A and g.2152A > G and two transversions viz. g.1743C > G and g.2417A > T compared to B. taurus (NCBI GenBank: AC_000175.1). HSPB6 gene of Karan Fries cattle exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (47.0-100.0%) with the corresponding mammalian homologue. The present study indicated a high degree of genetic variability in the HSPB6 gene in the Karan Fries cattle populations.

  9. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  11. Comparative nutrient utilization, growth, and rumen enzyme profile of mithun (Bos frontalis) and Tho-tho cattle (Bos indicus) fed on tree-leaves-based ration.

    PubMed

    Das, Krushna Chandra; Haque, Nazrul; Baruah, K K; Rajkhowa, C; Mondal, M

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the nutrient utilization, growth, and rumen enzyme profile of mithun (Bos frontalis) and Tho-tho cattle (Bos indicus) reared in the same feeding and managemental conditions. For the purpose, male mithun (n = 8) and male Tho-tho cattle (n = 8) of 1.5 years age, selected from the farm of National Research Centre on Mithun, Nagaland, India, were fed on mixed-tree-leaves-based ration as per the requirement of NRC (2001) for cattle for 12 months. Average daily gain (ADG), average dry matter intake (DMI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for all animals were recorded. A metabolic trial was conducted at 6 months of the experiment to assess the digestibility coefficient of different nutrients and nutritive value of ration. At 12 months of the experiment, rumen liquor was collected from all animals and analyzed for rumen enzyme profiles, viz., carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucosidase, α-glucosidase, urease, and protease. It was found that ADG (507.8 g vs 392.8 g), DM intake (6.59 vs 5.85 kg/day) and DMI/W(0.75) (98.75 g vs 91.00 g/day), crude protein intake (780 vs 700 g/day), and total digestible nutrient intake (3.65 vs 3.32 kg/day) were higher (p < 0.05) in mithun than cattle. The nitrogen balance was higher and FCR was better (p < 0.05) in mithun compared with cattle. The digestibility coefficient of different nutrients was similar (p > 0.05) between the species. The microbial enzyme profiles of mithun and cattle were not different (p > 0.05). The better growth performance of mithun than cattle as found in the present study clearly indicates that the mithun has higher genetic potential for growth than Tho-tho cattle of north-eastern hilly region of India.

  12. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), COCs cultured (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), and blastocysts produced (r = 0.62, P = 0.0003 in Nelore; r = 0.58, P = 0.009 in Holstein), and these results were independent of pFSH treatment. In conclusion, calves had greater plasma AMH concentrations than cycling heifers. In addition

  13. The effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Mata-Mendez, Y; Pérez-Gutierrez, E; Wagner, G

    2004-02-01

    A cross-sectional study with a two-stage design and proportional distribution was carried out to determine the effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics. Serum was obtained from 384 cattle aged 1-2 years on 92 farms. The number of samples was proportionally distributed according to the number of farms in eastern Yucatan. Antibody activity against A. marginale was assessed using the card agglutination test. A primary screening using a 2 x K contingency table of the exposed variables with the outcomes was performed. All variables for which p < 0.20 were included in a fixed-effects log regression. The seroprevalence in the cattle was 69.75% (SE +/- 0.02). Sixty-four per cent of the farms had a seroprevalence > or = 75%. The risks related to managemental factors were stocking density ( > or = 1 animal/ha, OR = 10.94), type of acaricide (pyrethroids, OR = 3.8), dipping interval ( > 60 days, OR = 0.13) and type of veterinary instruments used (needles, scalpels, ear tattoos, and dehorners, OR = 0.17).

  14. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows I: basis for development of protocols.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, M; Sá Filho, O G; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    Five experiments were conducted on commercial farms in Brazil aiming to develop a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol that achieved pregnancy rates between 40% and 55% in Bos indicus cows. These studies resulted in the development of the following protocol: insertion of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) plus 2.0mg im estradiol benzoate on Day 0; 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine on Day 7 in cycling cows or on Day 9 in anestrous cows; CIDR withdrawal plus 0.5mg im estradiol cypionate plus temporary calf removal on Day 9; TAI (48h after CIDR withdrawal) plus reuniting of calves with their dams on Day 11. Reduced dose of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine) effectively caused luteolysis. In cycling cows, fertility was greater when the treatment with PGF(2alpha) was administered on Day 7 than on Day 9, but in anestrous cows, no effects of time of the PGF(2alpha) treatment were found. Estradiol cypionate effectively replaced estradiol benzoate or gonadotropin-releasing hormone as the ovulatory stimulus, reducing labor and cost. In this protocol, CIDR inserts were successfully used four times (9 d each use) with no detrimental effects on fertility.

  15. Recombinant mid gut antigen (Bm95) as a vaccine against Indian Rhiphicephalus haemaphysaloides in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Chandran, Dev; Sudha Rani, Gudavalli; Shahana, Pallichera Vijayan; Maske, Dasarath Keshavrao; Rangarajan, Pundi Narasimhan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we report for the first time the efficacy of recombinant Bm95 mid gut antigen isolated from an Argentinean strain of Rhipicephalus microplus strain A in controlling the tick infestations in India. The synthetic gene for Bm95 optimized for expression in yeast was obtained and used to generate yeast transformants expressing Bm95 which was purified to apparent homogeneity. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protein confirmed its identity as Bm95. Vaccine was prepared by blending various concentrations of purified Bm95 with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant. Immunogenicity studies of the vaccine in rabbits and cattle indicated that the vaccine was highly immunogenic. The efficacy studies of the vaccine was done in cattle. Naïve Bos indicus cattle were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine and were challenged with the larval, nymphal and adult forms of Rhiphicephalus haemaphysaloides. The vaccine protected the animals from larval, nymph and adult tick challenges with an efficacy of 98.7%, 84.6% and 78.9% respectively. The results obtained from the above studies clearly demonstrated the advantage and possibilities of the use of Bm95 in controlling R. haemaphysaloides infestations in the field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Candidate Genes for Reactivity in Guzerat (Bos indicus) Cattle: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Pablo Augusto de Souza; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Rosse, Izinara da Cruz.; Bruneli, Frank Angelo Tomita; Machado, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos

    2017-01-01

    Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed. Herein, we describe the results of a Genome-wide association study for reactivity, assessed using REATEST® with a sample of 754 females from five dual-purpose (milk and meat production) Guzerat (Bos indicus) herds. Genotyping was performed using a 50k SNP chip and a two-step mixed model approach (Grammar-Gamma) with a one-by-one marker regression was used to identify QTLs. QTLs for reactivity were identified on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA14, and BTA25. Five intronic and two intergenic markers were significantly associated with reactivity. POU1F1, DRD3, VWA3A, ZBTB20, EPHA6, SNRPF and NTN4 were identified as candidate genes. Previous QTL reports for temperament traits, covering areas surrounding the SNPs/genes identified here, further corroborate these associations. The seven genes identified in the present study explain 20.5% of reactivity variance and give a better understanding of temperament biology. PMID:28125592

  17. MspI allelic pattern of bovine growth hormone gene in Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Mishra, B P; Sobti, R C; Singh, Karn P; Singh, Satbir; Ahlawat, S P S

    2007-02-01

    The MspI allelic variation in intron III of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene was explored using PCR-RFLP in 750 animals belonging to 17 well-recognized breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) reared in different geographic locations of the country. Restriction digestion analysis of a 329-bp PCR fragment of the bGH intron III region with MspI restriction enzyme revealed two alleles (MspI- and MspI+) and two genotypes (-/- and +/-) across the 17 cattle breeds studied. The allelic frequency varied from 0.67 to 0.94 for MspI (-) and from 0.06 to 0.33 for MspI (+) across the 17 breeds, with a combined average frequency of 0.87 and 0.13, respectively. No animal with +/+ genotype was detected across the samples analyzed. The chi-square test showed that the difference in MspI allelic frequency was not significant (p > 0.05), regardless of the geographic origin, coat color, or utility of the cattle breed. The high MspI (-) allele frequencies obtained for Indian zebu cattle in this study are in sharp contrast to those reported for taurine breeds from northern Europe, Mediterranean countries, and America. Findings of this study further substantiate the hypothesis that the MspI (-) allele has an Indian origin.

  18. Distribution of BoLA-DRB3 allelic frequencies and identification of a new allele in the iranian cattle breed sistani (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nassiry, M R; Mosafer, J; Mohammadabadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution of the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles in the Iranian cattle breed Sistani was studied by the PCR-RFLP ("hemi-nested") assay using restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI. In the examined cattle breed (65 animals) 32 alleles have been identified one of which being described for the first time (6.15% frequency). The nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic region of exon 2 of this allele has been determined and submitted in the GeneBank database under accession number DQ486519. The submitted sequence has maximum homology (92%) with the previously described sequence DRB3-mRNA from Bos indicus (AccN X79346) and differs from it by 24 nucleotide substitutions which result in 16 amino acid substitutions. The peptide (on the basis of the reconstructed amino acid sequence) has 89% identity to the sequence encoded by the BIDRBF 188 locus (Bos indicus). The results obtained permit the sequence described by us to be considered as a new allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (DRB3.2**X). The total frequency of the main six alleles (DRB3.2*X, *10, *11, *20, *34 and *X) occurring with a frequency of over 5% is about 60% in Iranian Sistani cattle. Fifteen alleles have <1% frequency. The highest frequency was observed for DRB3.2*8 allele (21.54%) like in other previously described breeds of Bos indicus (up to 23.07%). The Iranian breed Sistani has a high level of similarity by the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and their frequencies to other Bos indicus breeds and significantly differs by these criteria from the Bos taurus breeds. The Iranian Sistani herd under study includes alleles associated with to resistance to leukemia (DRB3.2*ll and *23) and to different forms of mastitis (DRB3.2*2, *7, *11, *23 and *24) although their frequencies are low (from 0.77 to 5.37%). On the whole, a high level of diversity of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles and the availability of alleles associated with resistance to different diseases makes this breed of interest for breeding practice.

  19. The productivity effects of cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestation on cattle, with particular reference to Bos indicus cattle and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N

    2006-04-15

    In response to uncertainty among cattle producers in Australia regarding the need to treat Bos indicus and B. indicus crossbreeds, the scientific literature relating to the productivity effects of Boophilus microplus on cattle of all breeds was reviewed. Estimates of the mean effect of each engorging tick (damage coefficient, d) were made from a simple analysis of the reported data. On average, each engorging female tick is responsible for the loss of 1.37 +/- 0.25 g bodyweight in B. taurus cattle. The comparable value for B. taurusxB. indicus cattle is 1.18 +/- 0.21 g/engorging tick. These values were not statistically significantly different, indicating that if a threshold approach to tick control were taken, then the threshold number of standard ticks would be the same regardless of cattle genotype. No studies provided useable estimates of the effect of tick infestation on pure B. indicus cattle. An economic threshold for treatment, below which acaricide application is not beneficial, can be predicted, using known values for the cost of acaricide application and the price of beef. However, the application of a threshold approach to control has not been embraced by government advisers and runs contrary to the accepted principals of strategic control programs.

  20. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  2. The effect of sperm preparation and co-incubation time on in vitro fertilization of Bos indicus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dode, M A N; Rodovalho, N C; Ueno, V G; Fernandes, C E

    2002-01-23

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various methods of sperm selection and various sperm-oocyte co-incubation times on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of zebu (Bos indicus) oocytes. Frozen semen from one ejaculate of a single bull was used for all treatments and replicates. After thawed, sperm was subjected to one of the three treatments: 45 and 90% discontinuous Percoll gradient, swim-up and washing by centrifugation. In all treatments, the spermatozoa were incubated with in vitro matured oocytes for 3, 6, 12 and 18h. After co-incubation oocytes were transferred to the culture medium and culture for 44h, when the cleavage was evaluated. The uncleavaged oocytes were fixed and stained to determine penetration, pronucleus formation and polyspermy. The sperm selection method did not influence (P<0.05) polyspermy, pronucleus formation, penetration and cleavage rates. No interaction between method of selection and sperm-oocyte co-incubation time was observed (P>0.05). However, sperm-oocyte co-incubation time affected fertilization. The lower penetration (26.5%) and cleavage rates (13.1%) were obtained at 3-h period. The penetration and cleavage percentages increased (P<0.05) progressively at 6h (63.3 and 54.4%) and 12h (77.6 and 67.6%). No differences (P>0.05) were observed between 12 and 18h of incubation for penetration and cleavage rates. The incidence of polyspermy and pronucleus formation was similar (P>0.05) for all time points. It is concluded that the methods used in this study for sperm selection do not affect fertilization; therefore, they all can be used for bovine IVF. In addition, regardless the method used better fertilization results were obtained when sperm and oocytes were co-incubated for 12h, and the prolongation of that time for up to 18h had no detrimental effect on fertilization.

  3. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions.

  4. Effects of sexed semen and interactive effects on commercial in vitro embryo production when oocytes are collected from cows of Bos indicus, and Bos taurus breeding and crossbred cows of these subspecies.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Gamarra, Andres Felipe; Rendon, Bibiana; Borda, Diego Armando Vega; Albicker, Ulrich; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Martinez-Diaz, Mario

    2015-05-01

    A large scale commercial in vitro embryo production and in vitro fertilization record is reported when there was use of oocytes from Bos taurus (BT), Bos indicus (BI), and Bos Taurus/indicus (BT/BI) crossbred subspecies fertilized with sexed (SS) and conventional (CS) semen. The aim of the study was to analyze the impacts of use SS in a commercial embryo production center in Colombia. Non-pregnant (n=800), healthy, and estrous cycling BT, BI, and BI/BT crossbred cows were selected to be used as oocyte donors. Viable oocytes from 733 ovum pick up sessions in cows of the BT (4663) and BI (7305), BT/BI (3605) groups were matured and fertilized with frozen thawed semen from commercial sires. Of all cultured oocytes (n=15,573), 52.3% of the embryos (n=8607) underwent cleavage while 3062 (19.7%) developed to the blastocyst stage. For cows of the BT, SS and CS groups, there were similar cleavage rates; however, use of SS decreased blastocyst formation (15.6% versus 18.9%). In the BI group, use of SS increased cleavage rates (59.1% versus 53%, respectively) although there was no effect on blastocyst rate development (22.9% versus 21.9). In the BI/BT groups, use of SS decreased cleavage (44.4% versus 57.1%, respectively) and blastocyst rate development compared with the CS group (15.3% versus 20.1%, respectively). Data from this study indicate embryos from cows of the BT purebred or BI/BT crossbred had less in vitro developmental capacity compared to embryos derived from oocytes of cows that were purebred BI in tropical-subtropical regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  6. Nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine lymphotoxin A gene and their distribution among Bos indicus zebu cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Mishra, Priyanka; Verma, N K; Niranjan, S K; Dangi, P S; Sharma, Rekha; Behl, Rahul

    2016-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the genetic variation present in lymphoxin A gene (LTA gene) encoding for the lymphotoxin A protein also known as tumor necrosis factor beta, a cytokine produced by lymphocytes, known to be cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and, which is essential for normal immunological development; in 40 animals of 5 diverse Bos indicus Indian zebu cattle breeds. These breeds survive under the harsh and tough tropical climatic conditions of various parts of the Indian subcontinent. The LTA gene in the present study was observed to contain 33 SNPs and 3 small insertion/deletion polymorphisms. Four SNPs occurred in the coding regions of the gene viz. g.1327A>G and g.1400C>T in exon 2 and g.1840C>T and g.1942C>T in exon 3, of which the SNP g.1327A>G in exon 2 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change G38D. This amino acid change was however predicted not be affecting the protein function in any manner. The gene contained putative transcription factor binding sites for the c-Re1 and for Pax-4 transcription factors. A putative promoter region was also predicted on the reverse DNA strand from position 894 to 644. Several repeat elements and microsatellite repeats were detected to be occurring across the 3.2kb LTA gene sequence. The study showed the occurrence of 40 genotypes and 48 most probable haplotypes. The genotypes at the observed SNP positions in the LTA gene were in near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A negative Tajima's D value that was not significant statistically at P>0.10 indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could not be excluded. The genetic variations observed in the LTA gene in the present study have not been reported earlier and these could possibly be used as molecular markers for further studies involving association of the gene variability with disease resistance/tolerance traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a topical formulation of eprinomectin against Anopheles arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Kading, Rebekah C; Hartman, Daniel A; Okoth, Edward; Githaka, Naftaly; Nene, Vishvanath; Poché, Richard M

    2016-06-17

    Although vector control strategies, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have been effective in Kenya the transmission of malaria continues to afflict western Kenya. This residual transmission is driven in part by Anopheles arabiensis, known for its opportunistic blood feeding behaviour and propensity to feed outdoors. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of the drug eprinomectin at reducing malaria vector density when applied to cattle (Bos indicus), the primary source of blood for An. arabiensis, under field conditions. A pilot study was carried out in the Samia District of western Kenya from September to October of 2014. Treatment and control areas were randomly designated and comprised of 50 homes per study area. Before cattle treatments, baseline mosquito counts were performed after pyrethrum spray. Cows in the treatment area were administered topical applications of eprinomectin at 0.5 mg/kg once a week for two consecutive weeks. Mosquito collections were performed once each week for two weeks following the eprinomectin treatments. Mosquitoes were first identified morphologically and with molecular confirmation, then screened for sporozoite presence and host blood using PCR-based methods. The indoor resting density of An. arabiensis was significantly reduced by 38 % in the treatment area compared to the control area at one-week post-treatment (Control mean females per hut = 1.33 95 % CI [1.08, 1.64]; Treatment = 0.79 [0.56, 1.07]). An increase in the indoor resting density of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s. was observed in the treatment area in the absence of An. arabiensis. At two weeks post-treatment, the total number of mosquitoes for any species per hut was not significantly different between the treatment and control areas. No change was observed in An. arabiensis host preference as a result of treatment. Systemic drugs may be an important tool by which to

  8. Comparative analysis of Y chromosome structure in Bos taurus and B. indicus by FISH using region-specific, microdissected, and locus-specific DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Goldammer, T; Brunner, R M; Schwerin, M

    1997-01-01

    Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Bos taurus and B. indicus Y chromosomes using the bovine locus-specific Y probes BC1.2 and lambda ES6.0 and region-specific probes of B. indicus and B. taurus Y chromosomes, which were generated by microdissection and DOP-PCR, indicate that the Y chromosomes of B. indicus (BIN Y) and B. taurus (BTA Y) differ by a pericentric inversion. Parts of the short and long arms of the Y chromosome in B. taurus and the distal half of the Y chromosome in B. indicus were microdissected, amplified by DOP-PCR, biotinylated, and rehybridized in situ to the corresponding metaphase chromosomes to test the chromosome fragment specificity of the DNA probes. The region-specific painting probes were used for hybridization to metaphase chromosomes of the other species. The DNA painting probes BTA Yp12 and BTA Yq12.1-ter derived from BTA Y hybridized to the distal and proximal halves of BIN Y, respectively. Complex hybridization signals on BTA Yq12.1-->qter were generated with the DNA probe BIN Yqcen-centr (centromere-central) after FISH. The results demonstrate that BTA Yp is homologous to the distal half of BIN Y and that BTA Yq corresponds to the proximal part of BIN Yq. Hybridization of the Y chromosome-specific DNA probes lambda ES6.0 to BTA Yp12-->p11 and near to the telomere of BIN Y and BC1.2 to BTA Yq12-->q13 and to the telomere of BIN Y indicate an opposite orientation of the homologous chromosome fragments BTA Yp and of the distal half of BIN Yq.

  9. Genetic diversity and population genetic analysis of bovine MHC class II DRB3.2 locus in three Bos indicus cattle breeds of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Das, D N; Sri Hari, V G; Hatkar, D N; Rengarajan, K; Saravanan, R; Suryanarayana, V V S; Murthy, L K

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Malnad Gidda, Hallikar and Ongole South Indian Bos indicus cattle breeds, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. In Malnad Gidda population, 37 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were detected, including one novel allele DRB3*2503 (GenBank: HM031389) that was observed in the frequency of 1.87%. In Hallikar and Ongole populations, 29 and 21 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were identified, respectively. The frequencies of the most common BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles (with allele frequency > 5%), in Malnad Gidda population, were DRB3.2*15 (10.30%), DRB3*5702 (9.35%), DRB3.2*16 (8.41%), DRB3.2*23 (7.01%) and DRB3.2*09 (5.61%). In Hallikar population, the most common alleles were DRB3.2*11 (13.00%), DRB3.2*44 (11.60%), DRB3.2*31 (10.30%), DRB3.2*28 (5.48%) and DRB3.2*51 (5.48%). The most common alleles in Ongole population were DRB3.2*15 (22.50%), DRB3.2*06 (20.00%), DRB3.2*13 (13.30%), DRB3.2*12 (9.17%) and DRB3.2*23 (7.50%). A high degree of heterozygosity observed in Malnad Gidda (H(O) = 0.934, H(E) = 0.955), Hallikar (H(O) = 0.931, H(E) = 0.943) and Ongole (H(O) = 0.800, H(E) = 0.878) populations, along with F(IS) values close to F(IS) zero (Malnad Gidda: F(IS) = 0.0221, Hallikar: F(IS) = 0.0127 and Ongole: F(IS) = 0.0903), yielded nonsignificant P-values with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium probabilities revealing, no perceptible inbreeding, greater genetic diversity and characteristic population structure being preserved in the three studied cattle populations. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles observed in 10 Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle breeds revealed distinct clustering of specific Bos indicus cattle breeds, along with unique genetic differentiation observed among them. The results of this study demonstrated that the BoLA-DRB3.2 is a highly polymorphic locus, with significant breed-specific genetic diversities being present amongst the three studied

  10. Effects of two estradiol esters (benzoate and cypionate) on the induction of synchronized ovulations in Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Cipriano, R S; Jacomini, J O; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Nogueira, G P; Baruselli, P S

    2012-08-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pregnancy rate following GnRH + PGF 2alpha treatment of low body condition, anestrous Bos taurus by Bos indicus crossbred cows during the summer months in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, C; Montiel, F; Canseco, R; Silva, E; Mapes, G

    2005-07-01

    Anestrous and lactating Bos taurus by Bos indicus crossbred cows with minimum body condition were studied to determine the efficacy of GnRH+PGF 2alpha combinations for induction of estrus and/or ovulation on pregnancy rate during the months of the year when temperatures are greater. On day 0 (start of treatment), cows were assigned randomly to either treatment or control groups. Treated cows (n = 74) received i.m. 200 microg of GnRH on day 0 and 150 microg of PGF 2alpha 7 days later (day 7). On day 7, treated cows were equally distributed to each of three protocols: (1) Select Synch (n = 25), artificial insemination (AI) 12 h after exhibiting estrus from day 7 (PGF 2alpha injection) until day 12; (2) Ovsynch (n = 24), 200 microg of GnRH at 48 h after PGF 2alpha (day 9) + timed-AI (TAI) 16-20 h later; (3) CO-Synch (n = 25), 200 microg of GnRH + TAI at 48 h after PGF 2alpha (day 9). Control cows (n = 25) received no treatment + AI 12 h after exhibiting estrus from days 0 to 12. Detection of estrus was performed daily during the early morning and evening hours from days 0 to 7 in all the cows, and from days 7 to 12 in the cows treated with Select Synch and in the control group, with the aid of a sterilized bull. Palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography were used on days -30, -20, -10 and 0 to confirm anestrus (absence of CL and no signs of estrus at each evaluation) but with ovarian follicles > or = 10 mm on day 0. Pregnancy rate was 0% for Select Synch, 21% for Ovsynch and 28% for CO-Synch (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Ovsynch and CO-Synch protocols resulted in greater pregnancy rates compared with the Select Synch protocol in Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows with minimum body condition that were anestrous and lactating during the summer months in a tropical environment.

  12. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of putative reference genes for gene expression studies in heat stressed and α-MSH treated melanocyte cells of Bos indicus using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Renuka; Kumar, Sudarshan; Singh, Sohan V; Sharma, Anil K; Goud, Talla Sridhar; Srivastava, Amrendra K; Kumar, Anil; Mohanty, Ashok K; Upadhyay, Ramesh C

    2016-06-01

    Normalization of cellular mRNA data using internal reference gene (IRG) is an essential step in expression analysis studies. MIQE guidelines ensure that the choice and appropriateness of IRG should be validated for particular tissues or cell types and specific experimental designs. The objective of the present study was to assess 15 IRGs from different functional classes that could serve as best IRGs for Bos indicus (Tharparkar cattle) melanocyte cells under heat stress and hormonal treatment. We implemented the use of geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithm to measure the stability of the gene transcript. A total of 15 IRGs (ACTB, BZM, EEF1, GAPDH, GTP, HMBS, HPRT, RPL22, RPL4, RPS15, RPS18, RPS23, RPS9, UBC and UXT) from different functional classes were evaluated. Pair wise comparisons using geNorm revealed that HPRT and RPS23 were the most stable combination of IRGs with M-value of 0.29 followed by UXT (0.30) and RPL4 (0.31). The NormFinder analysis also identified the same set of stably expressed genes (UXT, RPL4, RPS23 and HPRT); however, the rank order was little different. The UXT gene showed lowest crossing point SD and CV values of 0.30 and 1.17, respectively indicating its maximum expression stability through BestKeeper analysis. The present study indicated that, ACTB and HMB were not reliable IRGs for melanocytes cells on account of their lower expression stability. Current study further revealed that UXT, HPRT and RPS23 are the best IRGs for normalization of qPCR data in Bos indicus melanocyte cells under heat stress and hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of supplementation with corn oil on postpartum ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, and serum concentration of progesterone and lipid metabolites in F1 (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cows.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Avila, I; Herrera-Camacho, J; Aké-López, J R; Delgado-León, R A; Ku-Vera, J C

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of corn oil supplementation during postpartum anoestrus on ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, progesterone (P(4)), and lipid metabolites (cholesterol, CHO; low and high density lipoproteins; LDL and HDL, respectively) concentrations in blood of F(1) (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) grazing cows. Cows were randomly assigned to an experimental group, fed with a supplement containing 4% corn oil on dry matter basis (OG, n = 11), and a control group with the same supplement without corn oil (CG, n = 12). Both supplements contained equivalent amounts of crude protein and metabolizable energy and were fed for 34 days continuously. All cows were induced to estrous 12 days after beginning of supplementation by using a synthetic progestagen and artificially inseminated 56 h after retiring the implants. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal palpation 45 days after insemination, evaluating simultaneously ovarian activity. P(4) and lipid metabolites (CHO, HDL, LDL) concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 3-day intervals, from the beginning of corn oil supplementation and up to 10 days after artificial insemination. Ovarian activity was affected by treatment (p < 0.05), finding ovarian structures in 72.7% of OG cows and in 50% of CG cows. Concentration of P(4) and CHO was higher for OG with respect to CG (2.52 +/- 0.65 vs 1.88 +/- 0.62 ng/ml and 117.79 +/- 11.57 vs 85.71 +/- 12.11 mg/dl, respectively), whereas pregnancy rate and blood concentrations of HDL and LDL were not affected by treatment (p > 0.05). Addition of corn oil to the supplement stimulated ovarian activity and increased serum concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol in grazing B. taurus x B. indicus cows with low body condition score showing postpartum anoestrus.

  15. Strategies to improve fertility in Bos indicus postpubertal heifers and nonlactating cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Peres, R F G; Claro, I; Sá Filho, O G; Nogueira, G P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-09-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate strategies to increase fertility of Bos indicus postpubertal heifers and nonlactating cows submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol consisting of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) insertion+estradiol benzoate on Day 0, CIDR withdrawal+estradiol cypionate on Day 9, and TAI on Day 11. In Experiment 1, heifers (n=1153) received a new or an 18-d previously used CIDR and, on Day 9, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha))+0, 200, or 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Heifers treated with a new CIDR had greater (least squares means+/-SEM) serum concentration of progesterone on Day 9 (3.06+/-0.09 ng/mL vs. 2.53+/-0.09 ng/mL; P<0.05) and a smaller follicle at TAI (11.61+/-0.11 mm vs. 12.05+/-0.12 mm; P<0.05). Heifers with smaller follicles at TAI had lesser serum progesterone concentrations on Day 18 and reduced rates of ovulation, conception, and pregnancy (P<0.05). Treatment with eCG improved (P<0.05) follicle diameter at TAI (11.50+/-0.10mm, 11.90+/-0.11 mm, and 12.00+/-0.10mm for 0, 100, and 200 IU, respectively), serum progesterone concentration on Day 18 (2.77+/-0.11 ng/mL, 3.81+/-0.11 ng/mL, and 4.87+/-0.11 ng/mL), and rates of ovulation (83.8%, 88.5%, and 94.3%) and pregnancy (41.3%, 47.0%, and 46.7%). In Experiment 2, nonlactating Nelore cows (n=702) received PGF(2 alpha) treatment on Days 7 or 9 and, on Day 9, 0 or 300 IU eCG. Cows receiving PGF(2 alpha) on Day 7 had lesser serum progesterone concentrations on Day 9 (3.05+/-0.21 ng/mL vs. 4.58+/-0.21 ng/mL; P<0.05), a larger follicle at TAI (11.54+/-0.21 mm vs. 10.84+/-0.21 mm; P<0.05), and improved (P<0.05) rates of ovulation (85.4% vs. 77.0%), conception (60.9% vs. 47.2%), and pregnancy (52.0% vs. 36.4%). Treatment with eCG improved (P<0.05) serum progesterone concentration on Day 18 (3.24+/-0.14 ng/mL vs. 4.55+/-0.14 ng/mL) and the rates of ovulation (72.4% vs. 90.0%) and pregnancy (37.5% vs. 50.8%). In

  16. Ovarian responses in Bos indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices, oestradiol benzoate, prostaglandin F(2α) and equine chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Butler, S A A; Phillips, N J; Boe-Hansen, G B; Bo, G A; Burns, B M; Dawson, K; McGowan, M R

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were: (i) improve understanding of the ovarian responses of Bos indicus heifers treated with different ovulation synchronisation protocols, (ii) compare ovarian responses of B. indicus heifers treated with intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD)+oestradiol benzoate (ODB) versus a conventional prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) protocol and (iii) investigate whether reducing the amount of progesterone (P(4)) in the IPRD, and treatment with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) would increase the proportion of heifers with normal ovarian function during the synchronised and return cycles. Two-year-old Brahman (n=30) and Brahman-cross (n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatment groups: (i) standard-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 1.56g P(4); n=17); (ii) half-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 0.78g P(4); n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (n=14), and a non-IPRD control group (iv) 2×PGF(2α) (500μg cloprostenol) on Days -16 and -2 (n=18). IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg cloprostenol at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Days -10 and -1. Ovarian function was evaluated by ultrasonography and plasma P(4) throughout the synchronised and return cycles. The mean diameter of the dominant follicle observed at 54-56h after IPRD removal, was greater for heifers which ovulated than heifers which did not ovulate (P<0.001; 14.5±1.1 vs. 9.3±0.6mm, respectively). The prevalence of IPRD-treated heifers with ovarian dysfunction (persistent CL, failure to re-ovulate, shortened luteal phase) was 39%. This relatively high prevalence of ovarian dysfunction may explain the commonly reported, lower than expected pregnancy rates to FTAI in B. indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation.

  17. Analysis of genetic variation at the prolactin-RsaI (PRL-RsaI) locus in Indian native cattle breeds (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Parvesh, K; Joshi, B K

    2011-02-01

    This study assessed the distribution pattern of allelic variants at the prolactin-RsaI locus in 23 Indian native cattle breeds (Bos indicus). PCR-RFLP genotyping of a 156 bp fragment of prolactin (PRL) in exon 3 revealed the predominance of the heterozygous AB genotype (mean frequency 0.58) irrespective of utility type (dairy, dual, draft), geographic region (northern, central, southern), and coat color (red, gray) of the breeds analyzed. The overall frequencies of homozygous AA (0.22) and BB (0.20) genotypes were in a similar range. The PRL (A) and PRL (B) alleles exhibited similar gene frequencies (means 0.52 and 0.48, respectively). The existing profile of the PRL-RsaI gene locus in a large set of Indian native cattle breeds was different from that of Bos taurus and cattle breeds of other countries, where either the BB genotype and PRL (B) allele or the AA genotype and PRL (A) allele have been reported to be more prevalent.

  18. High nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities in tumour necrosis factor-alpha amongst Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and other ruminants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Bind, R B; Walunj, S S; Saini, M

    2004-08-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA from Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Indian cattle (Bos indicus) was reverse transcribed and amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs were determined after cloning into pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison, WI) and compared with reported nucleotide sequences of TNF-alpha cDNA from other species. The nucleotide sequences of TNF-alpha from Indian cattle revealed significantly high similarities at nucleotide (99.2%) and amino acid (100%) levels with those of cattle (Bos taurus; Zebu). The sequences from buffalo had 98.4% nucleotide and 99.1% amino acid similarities with Indian cattle, indicating functional cross-reactivity. One amino acid deletion at position 63 and one substitution (A-->P) at position 64 were observed in buffalo compared with Indian cattle. The amino acid deletion at position 63 was predicted due to differences in pre-mRNA splicing.

  19. Effects on performance and carcass and meat quality attributes following immunocastration with the gonadotropin releasing factor vaccine Bopriva or surgical castration of Bos indicus bulls raised on pasture in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Hoe, F; Jackson, J A; Roca, R O; Stegner, J E; King, V; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2013-09-01

    Bos indicus bulls 20 months of age grazed on pasture in Minas Gerais, Brazil either received 2 doses of the GnRF vaccine Bopriva at d0 and d91 (group IC, n=144) or were surgically castrated on d91 (group SC, n=144). Slaughter on d280, was 27 weeks after castration. Adverse safety issues in 8% of group SC bulls following surgery contrasted with 0% in group IC bulls. At d105 testosterone levels were suppressed to similar levels in both groups. Importantly, group IC bulls had higher live weight, hot carcass weight, ADG (P<0.005) and dressing percentage (P<0.0001) compared to group SC animals. There were no negative effects on carcass or meat quality traits, thus immunocastration was concluded to offer a safe and effective method that provides production gains, and improves animal welfare in Bos indicus beef bulls without impacting meat and carcass quality.

  20. Effects of eCG are more pronounced in primiparous than multiparous Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Bottino, M P; Silva, L A C L; Girotto, R W; Massoneto, J P M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2016-12-01

    The effects of eCG on follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in multiparous and primiparous Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) were evaluated in three experiments. In experiments 1 (follicular responses; n = 64), 2 (follicular growth and ovulation rate; n = 662), and 3 (P/AI; n = 2092), cows submitted to TAI were assigned to receive one of two treatments on Day 8 of the synchronization protocol: control (no additional treatment) or eCG (300-IU of eCG intramuscularly). In experiment 1, largest follicle (LF) diameter on Day 8 (P = 0.56) and the interval from progesterone (P4)-device removal to ovulation (P = 0.79) did not differ between treatments. However, the maximum diameter of the LF (P = 0.05) and ovulation rate (P = 0.03) were greater in cows that received eCG. In experiment 2, the diameter of the LF on Day 10, follicular growth, and ovulation rate were greater in eCG-treated cows (P < 0.01). However, CL diameter was similar between treatments (P = 0.11). In experiment 3, there was a treatment-by-parity interaction (P = 0.003) on P/AI, such that treatment with eCG was more effective in primiparous cows. In conclusion, eCG treatment resulted in increased final follicular growth, ovulation rate, and fertility in B indicus cows submitted to TAI protocols, especially in primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunocastration of Bos indicus x Brown Swiss bulls in feedlot with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Stegner, J; King, V; Rubio, L M S; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a GnRH vaccine on feedlot performance and meat quality in Bos indicus Zebu × Brown Swiss bulls. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 1,600 bulls allocated by BW into 4 groups of ≈ 400 animals. The GnRH vaccine (Bopriva) was injected on d 0 and 42, and anabolic implants given on d 0 (Component E-S) and d 84 (Synovex Choice). Group designations were: Con = placebo control; Imp = implants alone; Vac = GnRH vaccine alone; and Vac+Imp = GnRH vaccine together with implants. The second GnRH vaccination at d 42 resulted in elevated titers of IgG antibody and suppressed concentrations of testosterone in vaccinated groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) at d 56 (P < 0.001), with titers and suppressed testosterone persisting to d 147 (P < 0.001). Groups Vac and Vac+Imp had reduced testes weights at slaughter on d 147 (P < 0.001). Bulls in group Vac were not different in final BW, HCW, or ADG (d 42 to 147) relative to bulls in group Con. Bulls in group Vac+Imp had greater final BW than bulls in group Imp (P = 0.008) and greater BW than bulls in group Vac and group Con (P < 0.001). The HCW of Vac+Imp bulls was greater than the Vac or Con bulls (P < 0.001) but was not different to the Imp bulls (P = 0.294). Improved ADG was obtained by vaccination with the GnRH vaccine, in the presence of implants (group Vac+Imp compared with group Imp, P < 0.001) or absence of implants (group Vac compared with group Con, P = 0.028). Meat quality of bulls receiving the GnRH vaccine was improved irrespective of implant status, with a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of bulls in groups Vac and Vac+Imp, respectively, grading as USDA Choice (P < 0.002) and with greater fat depth at the 12th rib (P < 0.001). Meat tenderness was improved in the vaccine groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) compared with groups Con and Imp (P < 0.004). Use of the GnRH vaccine Bopriva in Bos indicus × Brown Swiss bulls finishing in a feedlot

  2. Effect of ruminally protected Methionine on the productive and reproductive performance of grazing Bos indicus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Maquivar, M; Galina, C S; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A; Estrada, S; Villareal, M; Molina, R

    2008-12-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of methionine supplementation prior to a breeding program, thirty one heifers (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) were used averaging 386 +/- 29 days of age and a mean body weight of 402.6 +/- 28 kg. Fifteen of the animals received a supplement (SG) during 45 days with molasses-urea mixture (2 kg molasses + 407 g urea/head/day), plus 10 g of ruminally protected methionine. The other sixteen heifers did not receive supplement (CG). Fecal and pastures samples were collected to assess dry herbage intake and digestibility. Serial ultrasound measurements from the ovary were performed in both groups to evaluate follicular dynamics. The heifers were categorized according to their follicular size and presence of a CL. Forage intake and dry matter digestibility were reduced (P < 0.05) and body condition tended to improve (P = 0.07) in the supplemented heifers, however, total intake, final weight, daily gain and dorsal back fat were not affected. After the supplementation period, the percentage of females in the categories < 3 mm and 3 to < 6 mm, was greater (P < 0.05) in CG (25% and 43.7%) that in SG (0% and 26.6%) but in the follicle category of > or = 9 mm, the percentage of animals was 60% in SG and 18.8% in CG (P < 0.05). The percentage of ovulation for the SG and CG was 86.7% and 62.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). The combination of supplementation with methionine-urea and molasses at the end of the dry season and the anticipated onset of the rainy season favored the establishment of ovarian activity and follicular dynamics.

  3. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  4. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  5. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Fagundes, Gisele Maria; Dos Anjos Bomjardim, Henrique; Dos Santos Belo Reis, Alessandra; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii among 500 cattle (Bos indicus) and 500 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) technique. Blood samples from were collected from water buffalo and cattle in 10 municipalities in the northern region of Brazil. The frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Neospora caninum in Pará state, Brazil, was 55% and 44%, respectively, and the frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii was 52% and 39%, respectively. Seropositivity for both N. caninum and T. gondii was detected in 10.6% of the cattle samples and 14.8% of the buffalo samples. The frequency of cattle positive for N. caninum and T. gondii was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of buffalo in two and three provinces, respectively. Buffaloes had a lower seroprevalence for N. caninum or T. gondii in all of the provinces studied. These results suggest that both species, when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii infection, have a high serological prevalence. Cattle showed a higher probability of being seropositive when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii. Our study, which included an extensive number of blood samples, provides important epidemiological information pertinent to buffalo production in tropical countries that can be used as a basis for disease-management practices in Latin America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of 48-hour calf withdrawal on conception rates of Bos indicus cows and calf weaning weights in extensive production systems.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, Rafael José Airone; Webb, Edward Cottington; Garcês, Alice Pereira de Jesus Teresa; Grimbeek, Richard Jackie

    2012-10-01

    Sixty multiparous Brahman-type cows were randomly selected in the early postpartum period and equally allocated into a calf removal group (RG) and a non-removal group (NRG). Calves from cows in the RG were removed for 48 h prior to the breeding season and returned afterwards, whereas in the NRG, calves remained with their dams until weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. Conception rates (CRs) were 76 % for RG and 55 % for NRG but did not differ (p > 0.05). CR was correlated with calving to breeding interval and body condition score at the onset of the breeding season. Product-limit survival curves vs breeding to conception interval differed significantly (p < 0.05) between treatment groups. It was estimated with 95 % certainty that 50 % of the cows in the RG will conceive within the first 12 days of the breeding season, while 39 days were required for cows in the NRG. Weaning weights were 135.2 ± 22 kg for RG and 135.5 ± 19 kg for NRG. It was concluded that 48-hour calf removal prior to breeding season increased the number of cows that conceive early in the breeding season and enhanced conception rates but did not affect calf weaning weights of Bos indicus cattle in extensive production systems.

  7. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  8. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Ahlawat, S P S; Sobti, R C

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50 degrees C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient (F(IS) = 0.39). The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  9. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Yisehak, K; De Boever, J L; Janssens, G P J

    2014-06-01

    The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients.

  10. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  11. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  12. Relationship among follicular growth, oestrus, time of ovulation, endogenous estradiol 17beta and luteinizing hormone in Bos indicus cows after a synchronization program.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M; Verduzco, A; Galina, C S; Pulido, A; Rojas, S; Forster, K; Van der Laan, G; Arnoni, R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the pattern of follicular growth during oestrus and the relationship with estradiol and luteinizing hormone in ovulating and non-ovulating cows, three groups of (n = 10), thirty cyclic, Bos indicus cows were synchronized with CIDR, consecutively at 9-day intervals. Twenty-four hours after implant withdrawal, all cows synchronized in the same group with other cows displaying estrous behaviour after implant withdrawal were subjected to an intensive period of ultrasonographic observations (every 6 h for 120 h). Blood samples were taken to evaluate LH surge and 17-beta estradiol. No differences were observed in follicular growth, ovulatory diameter and growth average in the three groups of synchronized cows. Cows ovulating (CO) had a better growth average in comparison with the group of cows not ovulating (CNO) (1.4 +/- 0.7 mm vs 0.7 +/- 0.5 mm, p < 0.06). The average time from estradiol release to LH surge was 39.3 +/- 24.6 h. Differences were also observed between CO and CNO with respect to both the first concentration (27.7 +/- 5.2 vs 58.6 +/- 31.9, p < 0.004) and last concentration (79.3 +/- 23.3 vs 99.2 +/- 27.3, p < 0.05) of estradiol above 5 pg/ml. The average time from overt signs of oestrus to LH release was 8.4 +/- 7.7 h. In the CNO, the increase in LH concentration was never above two SD from the basal average. In conclusion, there is a wide variability in follicular growth and ovulatory diameter between CO and CNO, which can affect the intervals of LH release, estradiol peak and ovulation. Yet, LH surge might be a good marker for timing ovulation in Zebu cows.

  13. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  14. Effects of dominant follicle aspiration and treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) on ovarian follicular development in nelore (Bos indicus) heifers.

    PubMed

    Buratini, J; Price, C A; Visintin, J A; Bó, G A

    2000-08-01

    Follicle ablation has been recognized as an efficient method of follicular wave synchronization. Treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) has been shown to enhance follicular development in Bos taurus. This experiment assessed the effects of these treatments in Nelore (B. indicus) heifers. Eight cycling Nelore heifers were randomly assigned to 3 different treatments. On Day 2 of a synchronized cycle (Day 0 = day of ovulation), heifers assigned to Treatments 1 and 2 received 2 mL of saline, whereas heifers assigned to Treatment 3 received 320 mg of BST. On Day 5, the first-wave dominant follicle was ablated by ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration in heifers in Treatments 2 and 3, and all heifers received an injection of prostaglandin on Day 11. Aspiration of the dominant follicle advanced and synchronized (P < 0.05) the day of second-wave emergence (6.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 8.4 +/- 0.4) and the day of the pre-wave FSH peak (6.0 +/- 0.0 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.4), and increased FSH peak concentrations (381 +/- 21 vs. 292 +/- 30; pg/mL; P < 0.01). Recombinant bovine somatotropin treatment caused a two-fold increase in plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations (P < 0.001) and resulted in a 36% increase in the number of small follicles (<5 mm; P < 0.001) compared with saline-treated heifers. In summary, in agreement with previous reports on B. taurus, dominant follicle aspiration synchronized ovarian follicular development, and BST treatment increased peripheral concentrations of IGF-I in Nelore heifers. Recombinant bovine somatotropin also increased the number of small follicles, but this response appeared to be inferior to that reported for B. taurus.

  15. Genotyping BoLA-DRB3 alleles in Brazilian Dairy Gir cattle (Bos indicus) by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and direct sequencing.

    PubMed

    Da Mota, A F; Martinez, M L; Coutinho, L L

    2004-02-01

    BoLA-DRB3 is a gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in cattle. The product of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is a beta chain of an MHC class II molecule, a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes to peptides are dependent on the presentation of peptide ligands bound to class II molecules on APCs. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is relatively complex due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. Current techniques for assignment of genotypes are polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), direct sequencing of PCR products, cloning-sequencing, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP), and denaturant-gradient gel electrophoresis. These techniques are time-consuming, do not discriminate all possible alleles, or are not readily reproducible. The objective of this study was to genotype BoLA-DRB3 using temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to separate alleles before sequencing. PCRs using 28 DNA samples from Gir Dairy cattle (a Brazilian breed of Bos indicus) were submitted to TGGE. New PCR products were generated from separated alleles, purified, and sequenced. Allele separation was possible in 21 out of 26 heterozygote samples (81%). Results indicate that two sequence reads (forward and reverse) were sufficient for accurate genotyping of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Separation of alleles by TGGE provides high-throughput, reliable typing of BoLA-DRB3, which is critical in disease association studies in cattle.

  16. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  17. Variations in the Regulatory Region of Alpha S1-Casein Milk Protein Gene among Tropically Adapted Indian Native (Bos Indicus) Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S1-casein (αS1-CN) gene was sequenced, characterized, and analyzed to detect variations among 13 Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. Comparative analysis of 1,587 bp region comprising promoter (1,418 bp), exon-I (53 bp), and partial intron-I (116 bp) revealed 35 nucleotide substitutions (32 within promoter region, 1 in exon-I, and 2 in partial intron-I region) and 4 Indels. Within promoter, 15 variations at positions −1399 (A > G), −1288 (G > A), −1259 (T > C), −1158 (T > C), −1016 (A > T), −941 (T > G), −778 (C > T), −610 (G > A), −536 (A > G), −521 (A > G), −330 (A > C), −214 (A > G), −205 (A > T), −206 (C > A), and −175 (A > G) were located within the potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), namely, NF-κE1/c-Myc, GATA-1, GATA-1/NF-E, Oct-1/POU3F2, MEF-2/YY1, GATA-1, AP-1, POU1F1a/GR, TMF, GAL4, YY1/Oct-1, HNF-1, GRalpha/AR, GRalpha/AR, and AP-1, respectively. Seventy-four percent (26/35) of the observed SNPs were novel to Indian cattle and 11 of these novel SNPs were located within one or more TFBSs. Collectively, these might influence the binding affinity towards their respective nuclear TFs thus modulating the level of transcripts in milk and affecting overall protein composition. The study provides information on several distinct variations across indicine and taurine αS1-CN regulatory domains. PMID:25937984

  18. Variations in the Regulatory Region of Alpha S1-Casein Milk Protein Gene among Tropically Adapted Indian Native (Bos Indicus) Cattle.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Sobti, Ranbir C; Mishra, Bishnu P; Sodhi, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S1-casein (αS1-CN) gene was sequenced, characterized, and analyzed to detect variations among 13 Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. Comparative analysis of 1,587 bp region comprising promoter (1,418 bp), exon-I (53 bp), and partial intron-I (116 bp) revealed 35 nucleotide substitutions (32 within promoter region, 1 in exon-I, and 2 in partial intron-I region) and 4 Indels. Within promoter, 15 variations at positions -1399 (A > G), -1288 (G > A), -1259 (T > C), -1158 (T > C), -1016 (A > T), -941 (T > G), -778 (C > T), -610 (G > A), -536 (A > G), -521 (A > G), -330 (A > C), -214 (A > G), -205 (A > T), -206 (C > A), and -175 (A > G) were located within the potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), namely, NF-κE1/c-Myc, GATA-1, GATA-1/NF-E, Oct-1/POU3F2, MEF-2/YY1, GATA-1, AP-1, POU1F1a/GR, TMF, GAL4, YY1/Oct-1, HNF-1, GRalpha/AR, GRalpha/AR, and AP-1, respectively. Seventy-four percent (26/35) of the observed SNPs were novel to Indian cattle and 11 of these novel SNPs were located within one or more TFBSs. Collectively, these might influence the binding affinity towards their respective nuclear TFs thus modulating the level of transcripts in milk and affecting overall protein composition. The study provides information on several distinct variations across indicine and taurine αS1-CN regulatory domains.

  19. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.

  20. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological and metabolic effects of prophylactic treatment with the osmolytes glycerol and betaine on Bos indicus steers during long duration transportation.

    PubMed

    Parker, A J; Dobson, G P; Fitzpatrick, L A

    2007-11-01

    The physiological and metabolic effects of prophylactic treatment with osmolytes were investigated using twenty-four 2.5-yr-old Bos indicus steers. Animals were allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1) control, feed and water deprived for 48 h (n = 6); 2) transported, transported for 48 h (n = 6); 3) glycerol, dosed with glycerol (2 g/kg of BW) and then transported for 48 h (n = 6); and 4) betaine, dosed with betaine (0.25 g/kg of BW) then transported for 48 h (n = 6). Body water, electrolytes, blood pH and gases, plasma lactate, glucose, albumin, total protein, anion gap, strong ion difference, total weak acids, and BW were determined at the conclusion of 24 and 48 h of transportation. The glycerol group had greater body water volumes than the control (P = 0.05) and transported (P = 0.02) groups. The glycerol, transported, and betaine groups had lower (P = 0.02) plasma Mg concentrations than the control group at 24 h, whereas the glycerol group maintained lower (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations of Ca than the control group. The betaine group had lower (P = 0.04) hematocrit than the control group at 24 and 48 h. Plasma bicarbonate and pCO2 were 13 and 17% greater (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) in the glycerol group at 24 h compared with control and transported groups. However, the ratio of [HCO3]/[CO2] in the glycerol group did not differ from the other groups and thereby maintained pH. The glycerol group maintained a 30% greater (P < 0.001) plasma concentration of glucose than the control group, and 14% greater (P = 0.05) than the transported and betaine groups. In contrast, betaine had little effect on increasing blood glucose compared with glycerol. Glycerol-linked hyperhydration at 24 h may not only help to conserve water loss during long distance transportation, but the increased blood glucose may have an important protein-sparing effect due, in part, to greater insulin concentrations inhibiting the breakdown of muscle proteins, thus, countering the amino

  4. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes: SNPs distribution analysis in Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Sharma, Anurodh; Kataria, R S; Verma, N K; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Bhatia, Avnish Kumar; Sodhi, Monika; Behl, Rahul; Joshi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region. Seventeen of the SNPs were in the coding regions and the one at position 9589(A > G) in exon3 resulted in an amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine. These SNPs led to generation of 27 TLR4 gene haplotypes. All the Sahiwal animals studied presently showed the occurrence of the genotype CC at gene position 9662, which codes for the amino acid threonine at position 674 of the TLR4 protein, and which had been reported to be associated with lower somatic cell score and, therefore, a lower susceptibility to mastitis, in Taurus cattle. This nucleotide configuration of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed could possibly indicate toward a lower susceptibility to mastitis in the Sahiwal animals. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (CCL2) gene encoding for small inducible cytokine A2 that belongs to the CC chemokine family was also sequence characterized in these Sahiwal animals. The CCL2 gene was observed to have 12 polymorphic sites in 3.3 kb region of which one SNP at position 2500 (A > G) in exon 3 resulted in amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine at position 46 of the mature CCL2 peptide. Seventeen haplotypes of the CCL2 gene were predicted corresponding to 12 genotypes detected.

  6. Effect of timing of estradiol benzoate administration upon synchronization of ovulation in suckling Nelore cows (Bos indicus) treated with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device.

    PubMed

    Ayres, H; Martins, C M; Ferreira, R M; Mello, J E; Dominguez, J H; Souza, A H; Valentin, R; Santos, I C C; Baruselli, P S

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated how the timing of the administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) impacted the synchronization of ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination protocols of cattle. To accomplish this, two experiments were conducted, with EB injection occurring at different times: at withdrawal of the progesterone-releasing (P4) intravaginal device or 24h later. The effectiveness of these times was compared by examining ovarian follicular dynamics (Experiment 1, n=30) and conception rates (Experiment 2, n=504). In Experiment 1, follicular dynamics was performed in 30 Nelore cows (Bos indicus) allocated into two groups. On a random day of the estrous cycle (Day 0), both groups received 2mg of EB i.m. and a P4-releasing intravaginal device, which was removed on Day 8, when 400 IU of eCG and 150 microg of PGF were administered. The control group (G-EB9; n=15) received 1mg of EB on Day 9, while Group EB8 (G-EB8; n=15) received the same dose a day earlier. Ovarian ultrasonographic evaluations were performed every 8h after device removal until ovulation. The timing of EB administration (Day 8 compared with Day 9) did affect the interval between P4 device removal to ovulation (59.4+/-2.0 h compared with 69.3+/-1.7h) and maximum diameter of dominant (1.54+/-0.06 acm compared with 1.71+/-0.05 bcm, P=0.03) and ovulatory (1.46+/-0.05 acm compared with 1.58+/-0.04 bcm, P<0.01) follicles. In Experiment 2, 504 suckling cows received the same treatment described in Experiment 1, but insemination was performed as follows: Group EB8-AI48 h (G-EB8-AI48 h; n=119) and Group EB8-AI54 h (G-EB8-AI54 h; n=134) received 1mg of EB on Day 8 and FTAI was performed, respectively, 48 or 54 h after P4 device removal. Group EB9-AI48h (G-EB9-AI48 h; n=126) and Group EB9-AI54 h (G-EB9-AI54 h; n=125) received the same treatments and underwent the same FTAI protocols as G-EB8-AI48 h and G-EB8-AI54 h, respectively; however, EB was administered on Day 9. Conception rates were greater (P<0

  7. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased.

  8. Antral follicle populations and embryo production--in vitro and in vivo--of Bos indicus-taurus donors from weaning to yearling ages.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Santos, G M G; Koetz Júnior, C; Morotti, F; Siloto, L S; Marcantonio, T N; Urbano, M R; Oliveira, R L; Lima, D C M; Seneda, M M

    2014-04-01

    Interest in indicus-taurus cattle has been increasing, as these animals are likely to present the best characteristics of Zebu and European bovine breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production of indicus-taurus donors with high vs low antral follicle counts obtained by ovum pickup/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) and superovulation (SOV)/embryo collection. Braford females at weaning age (3/8 Nelore × 5/8 Hereford, n = 137, 9 ± 1 month old) were subjected to six serial ovarian ultrasonographs and were assigned to two groups according to the number of antral follicles ≥ 3 mm as follows: G-High antral follicular count (AFC, n = 20, mean ≥ 40 follicles) and G-Low AFC (n = 20, mean ≤ 10 follicles). When the females (n = 40) reached 24 months of age, they were subjected to both OPU/IVP and SOV/embryo collection. The average number of follicles remained highly stable throughout all of the ultrasound evaluations (range 0.90-0.92). The mean number of COCs recovered (36.90 ± 13.68 vs 5.80 ± 3.40) was higher (p < 0.05) for females with high AFC, resulting in higher (p < 0.05) numbers of total embryos among females with high vs low AFC (6.10 ± 4.51 vs 0.55 ± 0.83). The mean number of embryos per collection was also higher (p < 0.05) for G-High vs G-Low (6.95 ± 5.34 vs 1.9 ± 2.13). We conclude that a single ultrasound performed at pre-pubertal ages to count antral follicles can be used as a predictor of embryo production following IVP and SOV/embryo collection in indicus-taurus females. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Immune Response of Bos indicus Cattle against the Anti-Tick Antigen Bm91 Derived from Local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks and Its Effect on Tick Reproduction under Natural Infestation.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, Christian; Chongkasikit, Natthaphon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Gauly, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Antigens of anti-tick vaccines are more efficacious for homologous challenge with local tick strains. cDNA clones encoding for Bm91 from local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains were developed to immunize Bos indicus cattle under field conditions. Three groups of six animals each were injected with the antigen Bm91, saline, and adjuvant, respectively. Animals were immunized three times at 3-week intervals and a fourth time after six months. The anti-Bm91 antibody level, measured by ELISA, was monitored for 7 months and the reproductive performance of naturally infested R. (B.) microplus was determined. Bm91-immunized animals developed a strong immune response expressed by high anti-Bm91 levels remaining on high levels until the end of the study. Western blot analysis confirmed that Bm91 is immunogenic. Compared to control animals, the reproductive efficiency index and the egg viability were 6% and 8%, respectively, lower in the Bm91 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Bm91 induced a long-lasting immune response. However, the effect on the tick reproduction was not sufficient for an efficient tick control. Further studies under field conditions are warranted to enhance the effect on the tick reproduction by optimizing the immunization regimen, alone or in combination with other vaccine candidate antigens.

  10. Novel SNP identification in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cows under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Singh, Sohan Vir; Verma, Nishant; Vineeth, M R; Magotra, Ankit; Das, Ramendra

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones those are preferentially transcribed in respose to heat stress and the polymorphism in HSP genes associated with heat tolerance traits in cows. HSP90AA1 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 21 (BTA-21) and spans nearly 5368 bp comprising of 11 exons out of which the first exon does not translate. The present study was done on Karan Fries (5/8 HF × 3/8 Tharparkar) cows reared in tropical climate with the objectives of identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in targeted regions (exon 3) of HSP90AA1 gene and analyzing their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once daily for four consecutive days during probable extreme hours in different seasons or temperature humidity index (THI), viz., winter, spring, and summer. For detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms, sequence data were analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSP90AA1 gene showed point mutation, viz., g.1209A>G (exon 3) as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI Ref Seq: AC_000178.1). Association analysis indicated that THI was influenced (P < 0.01) by RR, RT, and HTC. Similarly, SNPs at locus g.1209A>G were categorized into three genotypes, i.e., AA, AG, and GG, and the least squares means (LSMEANS) of RR, RT, and HTC for GG (homozygous) genotype were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than AA (homozygous) and AG (heterozygous) genotypes. These findings may partly suggest that cows with GG genotypes were favored for heat tolerance trait, which can be used as an aid to selection for thermo-tolerance Karan Fries cows for better adaptation in subtropical and tropical hot climate.

  11. Ovarian follicle diameter at timed insemination and estrous response influence likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy after estrous synchronization with progesterone or progestin-based protocols in suckled Bos indicus cows.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Crespilho, A M; Santos, J E P; Perry, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate factors associated with estrous synchronization responses and pregnancy per insemination (P/AI) in Bos indicus beef cows submitted to progesterone-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. A total of 2388 cows (1869 Nellore and 519 crossbred NellorexAngus) from 10 commercial farms were evaluated to determine the relationships among breed, body condition score (BCS) on the first day of the FTAI protocol, the occurrence of estrus between progesterone device removal and FTAI, and diameter of largest ovarian follicle (LF) at FTAI on estrous synchronization responses and P/AI. Cows (n=412 primiparous; 1976 multiparous) received an intravaginal device containing progesterone or an ear implant containing norgestomet (a progestin), and an injection of estradiol at the beginning of the estrous synchronization protocol. Body condition was scored using a 1-5 scale on the first day of the FTAI protocol and at 30-60 days postpartum. Females received 300IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and PGF(2alpha) on the day the progesterone device/implant was removed and were inseminated 48-60h later. At insemination, cows (n=2388) were submitted to an ultrasonographic exam to determine the diameter of the LF. Follicles were classified into four categories based on mean and standard deviation (SD) of the LF (LF1=two SD below the mean; LF2=mean minus one SD; LF3=mean plus one SD; LF4=two SD above the mean). Ovulation rate was determined in a subset of cows (n=813) by three consecutive ultrasonographic exams: (1) at time of progesterone device/implant removal, (2) at time of FTAI and (3) 48h after FTAI. Ovulation was defined as the disappearance of a large follicle (>or=8.0mm) that was previously recorded. Estrus was determined in a subset of the cows (n=445) by the activation of a detection of estrous patch placed on the tail head on the day of progesterone device/implant removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed 30 days

  12. Relationship between growth of the preovulatory follicle and its steroidogenic activity on the onset and expression of estrus behavior in CIDR-treated Bos indicus cows: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Daniel; Galina, Carlos S; Fiordelisio, Tatiana; Rubio, Ivette; Alarcon, Marco A; Rodriguez, Ana D; Orihuela, Agustin

    2012-09-10

    Estrus synchronization induces cows to gather in sexually active groups (SAGs) composed of females displaying mounting activity. Although this technique promotes the enhancement of sexual behavior, there are cows in estrus (CE) that delay estrus expression and also cows not displaying estrus (CNDE) even in the presence of a preovulatory follicle (PF). To elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the delay in the onset of estrus or absence of estrus behavior, an observational study was undertaken in 17 Bos indicus cows treated with exogenous progesterone (CIDR) to synchronize estrus and to monitor follicular growth and its steroidogenic activity. After SAGs formation, cows were ovariectomized at 24, 48, and 72 h post-CIDR. Among ovariectomized groups there were only 9 CE which: 1) showed differences in the onset of estrus; 2) displayed distinctive follicular growth patterns; and 3) at 72 h produced the highest intrafollicular estradiol concentration, and showed a linear trend to increase expression of P450scc and P450arom. Comparison of CE vs. CNDE showed that: 1) both groups had progesterone levels indicative of cyclic activity, and a PF which grew at a similar rate and size; 2) CE showed a stronger association between time and growth; and 3) CE produced more intrafollicular estradiol and progesterone, together with the expression of higher levels of P450arom. Results suggest that pending on the pattern of growth of the PF and its steroidogenic potential to produce estradiol, the onset and expression of estrus behavior may be delayed probably until the establishment of the appropriate conditions to ensure ovulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for different nutrient partitioning in Boran (Bos indicus) and Boran x Holstein cows when re-allocated from low to high or from high to low feeding level.

    PubMed

    Jenet, A; Fernandez-Rivera, S; Tegegne, A; Wettstein, H-R; Senn, M; Saurer, M; Langhans, W; Kreuzer, M

    2006-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that purebred Boran (Bos indicus) cows and crossbreds of Boran and Holstein respond differently to long-term changes of feeding level in nutrient partitioning to milk and body fat stores. A total of 27 cows of these two genotypes were subjected either to a low or a high feeding level from their first oestrus as heifers until birth of their third calf. Half of the cows of each genotype were then switched to the other feeding level during the third reproduction cycle. If at all, Boran cows responded to a change in the feeding level almost exclusively by a corresponding change in body weight but not milk yield. Crossbred cows kept continuously on the low feeding level had a lower milk yield than those continuously fed the high level, but lost similar amounts of body weight. In crossbred cows, changing the feeding level from high to low was accompanied by a mobilization of body reserves, whereas a change from low to high level resulted mostly in an increase in milk yield. Certain other genotype differences in metabolic response were obvious from differences in body composition and from the metabolic profile either reflected in blood (particularly insulin-like growth factor I) or in adipose tissue (lipoprotein lipase). Reproductive performance differed between genotypes, with shorter lactations associated with earlier occurrences of the first oestrus in the Boran cows. Generally, feeding history appeared to have at least as much influence on energy partitioning as the actual feeding level. In conclusion, purebred Boran cows seem to react to long-term food fluctuations mainly by mobilizing and restoring body fat reserves, whereas cows crossbred with Holstein tend to spend extra energy preferentially for milk production.

  14. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation.

  15. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  16. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M.; Sobti, R.C.; Kataria, R.S.; Mishra, B.P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (κ-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which − 515 G/T, − 427 C/T, − 385 C/T, − 283 A/G and − 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the − 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; − 305 (A/C), − 160 (T/C) and − 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine κ-CN. For κ-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, − 427 C/T and − 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation − 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of κ-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  17. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M; Sobti, R C; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (κ-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which - 515 G/T, - 427 C/T, - 385 C/T, - 283 A/G and - 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the - 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; - 305 (A/C), - 160 (T/C) and - 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine κ-CN. For κ-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, - 427 C/T and - 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation - 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of κ-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits.

  18. Follicle stimulating hormone secretion and dominant follicle growth during treatment of Bos indicus heifers with intra-vaginal progesterone releasing devices, oestradiol benzoate, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and prostaglandin F(2α).

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Phillips, N J; Boe-Hansen, G B; Bo, G A; Burns, B M; Dawson, K; McGowan, M R

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion and dominant follicle (DF) growth, of treatment of Bos indicus heifers with different combinations of intra-vaginal progesterone releasing devices (IPRD), oestradiol benzoate (ODB), PGF2α and eCG. Two-year-old Brahman (BN; n=30) and Brahman-cross (BNX; n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatments: (i) standard-dose IPRD [CM 1.56g; 1.56g progesterone (P4); n=17]; (ii) half-dose IPRD (CM 0.78g; 0.78g P4; n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (CM 0.78g+G; n=14); and, (iv) non-IPRD control (2×PGF2α; n=18) 500μg cloprostenol on Days -16 and -2. IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg PGF2α at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Day -10 and Day -1. Follicular dynamics were monitored daily by trans-rectal ultrasonography from Day -10 to Day 1. Blood samples for determination of P4 were collected daily and samples for FSH determination were collected at 12h intervals from Day -9 to Day -2. A significant surge in concentrations of FSH was observed in the 2×PGF2α treatment 12h prior and 48h after follicular wave emergence, but not in the IPRD-treated heifers. Estimated mean concentrations of total plasma P4 during the 8 days of IPRD insertion was greater (P<0.001) in the CM 1.56g P4 treated heifers compared to the CM 0.78g P4 treated heifers (18.38ng/ml compared with 11.09ng/ml, respectively). A treatment by genotype interaction (P=0.036) was observed in the mean plasma P4 concentration in heifers with no CL during IPRD insertion, whereby BN heifers in the CM 1.56g treatment had greater plasma P4 than the BNX heifers on Days-9, -7, -6, -5, and -4. However, there was no genotype effect in the CM 0.78g±G or the 2×PGF2α treatment. Treatment had no effect on the DF growth from either day of wave emergence (P=0.378) or day of IPRD removal (P=0.780) to ovulation. This study demonstrates that FSH secretion in B

  19. A comparison of two different esters of estradiol for the induction of ovulation in an estradiol plus progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol for suckled Bos indicus beef cows.

    PubMed

    Torres, J R S; Penteado, L; Sales, J N S; Sá Filho, M F; Ayres, H; Baruselli, P S

    2014-12-10

    The abilities of two different estradiol esters to induce ovulation in a timed AI (TAI) synchronization protocol in suckled Bos indicus cows were evaluated. In Experiment 1 (synchrony of ovulation), 31 cows were submitted to an estradiol/progestin-based synchronization protocol (Day 0) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments at the time of progestin removal on Day 8: 0.5 or 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate (EC) at that time or 1.0mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) 24h later (Day 9). To determine the timing of ovulation, ultrasound examinations were performed every 12h from ear implant removal to 96 h after the removal. Orthogonal comparisons were performed to determine the effects of estradiol ester and the effects of the dose of EC on reproductive parameters. Although neither the E2 ester (P = 0.83) nor the dose of EC (P = 0.55) affected the ovulation rate, the interval from progestin removal to ovulation was longer (P=0.04) in EC-treated cows (1.0mg EC = 71.1 ± 3.6 and 0.5mg EC = 78.0 ± 3.5) than EB-treated cows (EB = 66.0 ± 2.3) was detected. Ovulation in 0.5-mg-EC-treated cows was less synchronous than that in 1.0-mg-EC-treated cows (distribution curves compared using kurtosis). In Experiment 2 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI), 660 cows at two different locations received the same synchronization protocol (n = 361 at Farm A and n = 299 at Farm B) and were treated with estradiol esters as in Experiment 1 [0.5mg EC (n = 220) or 1.0mg EC (n = 219) at the time of progestin removal or 1.0mg EB (n = 221) 24h later]. The cows were inseminated 54 to 56 h after progestin removal. As applied in the Experiment 1, orthogonal comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of estradiol ester and the dose of EC on P/AI. Although the type of estradiol ester used did not affect the P/AI (P = 0.57; EB - 43.0% vs. EC - 44.6%), the P/AI was higher (P=0.03) in cows treated with 1.0mg EC (55.7%) than in those treated with 0.5mg EC (38.6%). In summary, the administration of 0.5mg EC at

  20. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites

  1. Composite Selection Signals for Complex Traits Exemplified Through Bovine Stature Using Multibreed Cohorts of European and African Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and molecular architecture of complex traits is important in domestic animals. Due to phenotypic selection, genomic regions develop unique patterns of genetic diversity called signatures of selection, which are challenging to detect, especially for complex polygenic traits. In this study, we applied the composite selection signals (CSS) method to investigate evidence of positive selection in a complex polygenic trait by examining stature in phenotypically diverse cattle comprising 47 European and 8 African Bos taurus breeds, utilizing a panel of 38,033 SNPs genotyped on 1106 animals. CSS were computed for phenotypic contrasts between multibreed cohorts of cattle by classifying the breeds according to their documented wither height to detect the candidate regions under selection. Using the CSS method, clusters of signatures of selection were detected at 26 regions (9 in European and 17 in African cohorts) on 13 bovine autosomes. Using comparative mapping information on human height, 30 candidate genes mapped at 12 selection regions (on 8 autosomes) could be linked to bovine stature diversity. Of these 12 candidate gene regions, three contained known genes (i.e., NCAPG-LCORL, FBP2-PTCH1, and PLAG1-CHCHD7) related to bovine stature, and nine were not previously described in cattle (five in European and four in African cohorts). Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of CSS coupled with strategies of combining multibreed datasets in the identification and discovery of genomic regions underlying complex traits. Characterization of multiple signatures of selection and their underlying candidate genes will elucidate the polygenic nature of stature across cattle breeds. PMID:25931611

  2. Histo-morphology of the uterus and early placenta of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and comparative placentome morphology of the African buffalo and cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Gerber, D; Soley, J T; Aire, T A; Boos, A

    2006-08-01

    Differences exist in reproductive physiology between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The aim of this study was to histo-morphologically compare the anatomy of non-pregnant and pregnant uteri of buffalo and cattle. Two non-pregnant uteri and placentae of six pregnant African buffalo were used. Early placentome formation (fetal crown rump length (CRL): 2-17.5 cm) in S. caffer and B. taurus was compared. The endometrium of buffalo uteri comprises round to ovoid, dome-shaped and gland-free caruncles. A predominantly simple columnar epithelium of non-ciliated cells covers caruncular tissue, while, additionally, ciliated cells occur in the epithelium of the intercaruncular areas and within the simple columnar or pseudostratified epithelium of the endometrial glands. During early gestation, multiple placentomes develop. Unlike the placentomes in cattle at similar CRL, buffalo placentomes do not develop a caruncular stalk. The sessile, dome-shaped buffalo placentome has simple, slightly conical villi branching less than in cattle, thus indicating different and less complex feto-maternal interdigitation than seen in the latter. A synepitheliochorial interhaemal barrier can be expected in the buffalo placenta, as the occurrence and ultrastructure of trophoblast giant cells resemble those described in cattle.

  3. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  4. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  5. Logistic regression analysis of pregnancy rate following transfer of Bos indicus embryos into Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, M G C D; Bergmann, J A G; Suyama, E; Carvalho, M R S; Penna, V M

    2007-01-15

    Factors affecting pregnancy rate of 5627 Zebu embryos in crossbred females with unknown proportions of Holstein and Zebu breeding were examined. After evaluation for developmental stage, quality, and viability, embryos were immediately transferred to recipients. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted approximately 53 d after transfer; pregnancy rate was coded as a binomial event and analyzed using logistic regression models. Maximum likelihood methodology and the likelihood ratio statistic were used to estimate regression coefficients and test hypotheses. Explanatory variables were year of transfer (1992-1999), season of transfer (summer, autumn, winter and spring), breed of the embryo (Guzerat, Gyr or Nellore), stage of the embryo (morula, early blastocyst, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, and hatching blastocyst), quality of the embryo (excellent, good or regular), and donor-recipient synchrony (estrus in the recipient occurred 2-3 d before, 1 d before, the day of, 1 d after, or 2-3 d after estrus in the donor). Average pregnancy rate was 63.7%. Pregnancy rates were not significantly affected by breed of embryo. The best multiple-logistic model to explain the pregnancy result included the effects of year and season of transfer, embryo stage and quality, and estrous synchrony between donor and recipient (P

  6. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  7. The Genetic Diversity of the Nguni Breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Horsburgh, K. Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds. PMID:23977187

  8. The genetic diversity of the Nguni breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): complete mitochondrial genomes of haplogroup T1.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, K Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds.

  9. Investigation of ovarian reserve parameters in Bos indicus cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef heifers that give birth within the first 21 d of their first calving season have greater lifetime productivity and longevity. A favorable relationship exists between number of antral follicles detectable by ultrasonography and calving date in beef heifers, indicating greater lifetime fertility ...

  10. Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups – African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided. PMID:15496287

  11. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed.

  12. Profiling of sperm gene transcripts in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani

    2017-02-01

    Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (P<0.01) expressed with 160 genes upregulated and 145 genes down regulated. Some of the upregulated candidate genes were further validated by RT-qPCR. These genes had a four to 16 fold upregulation in sperm with inferior motility as compared to sperm of crossbred bulls with superior motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David M.; Schaller, George B.

    2009-01-01

    Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766, and Bos mutus (Przewalski, 1883) are the domestic and wild forms, respectively, of the bovid commonly called the yak. B. mutus inhabits remote high-elevation alpine meadows and alpine steppe in rolling to mountainous terrain in the Tibetan Plateau, and B. grunniens is maintained widely in China and other parts of Central Asia, and uncommonly elsewhere in the world. Populations of B. mutus are substantially reduced and fragmented throughout its remaining range; the largest numbers occur in northern Tibet and western Qinghai. B. mutus is vulnerable because of poaching and competition with domestic livestock. Although no complete survey of B. mutus has been conducted, there are probably no more than 15,000 remaining in remote areas of the Tibetan Plateau; B. grunniens numbers about 14 million.

  14. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus indicus.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D

    2003-09-01

    The leaves, root and stem barks of Pterocarpus indicus were successively partitioned with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol. All the fractions exhibited a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity was more pronounced in the butanol and methanol fractions. None were active against the moulds.

  16. Whole genome scan reveals the genetic signature of African Ankole cattle breed and potential for higher quality beef.

    PubMed

    Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Jaemin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Lee, Wonseok; Hanotte, Olivier; Dessie, Tadelle; Kemp, Stephen; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-02-09

    Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods. We identified 238 (XP-EHH) and 213 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes, of which 97 were detected from both statistics. Among the genes obtained, we primarily reported those involved in different biological process and pathways associated with meat quality traits. Genes (CAPZB, COL9A2, PDGFRA, MAP3K5, ZNF410, and PKM2) involved in muscle structure and metabolism affect meat tenderness. Genes (PLA2G2A, PARK2, ZNF410, MAP2K3, PLCD3, PLCD1, and ROCK1) related to intramuscular fat (IMF) are involved in adipose metabolism and adipogenesis. MB and SLC48A1 affect meat color. In addition, we identified genes (TIMP2, PKM2, PRKG1, MAP3K5, and ATP8A1) related to feeding efficiency. Among the enriched Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO BP) terms, actin cytoskeleton organization, actin filament-based process, and protein ubiquitination are associated with meat tenderness whereas cellular component organization, negative regulation of actin filament depolymerization and negative regulation of protein complex disassembly are involved in adipocyte regulation. The MAPK pathway is responsible for cell proliferation and plays an important role in hyperplastic growth, which has a positive effect on meat tenderness. Results revealed several candidate genes positively selected in Ankole cattle in relation to meat quality characteristics. The genes

  17. Karyotype analysis of mithun (Bos frontalis) and mithun bull x Brahman cow hybrids.

    PubMed

    Qu, K-X; He, Z-X; Nie, W-H; Zhang, J-C; Jin, X-D; Yang, G-R; Yuan, X-P; Huang, B-Z; Zhang, Y-P; Zan, L-S

    2012-01-19

    We examined the cytogenetics of mithun (Bos frontalis), a domesticated version of the Asian gaur, and hybrids (F(1) generation) produced by artificial insemination of Brahman cows (Bos indicus) with mithun semen. Reproductive potential was also examined in the F(1) generation and a backcrossed heifer for utilization of heterosis. Metaphase chromosome spreads were examined by conventional staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization hybridized with the entire chromosome 1 of mithun as a specific probe. Chromosome 1 of mithun was found to be equivalent to Bos taurus chromosomes 2 and 28. The karyotype of the female mithun (N = 4) comprised 58 chromosomes, including 54 acrocentric and four large submetacentric chromosomes, without the four acrocentric chromosomes found in the domesticated species B. indicus. However, one of the four female mithuns with a normal mithun phenotype had an abnormal karyotype (2n = 59), indicating introgression from B. taurus or B. indicus. The F(1) karyotypes (N = 6, 3♂3♀) of the mithun bull × Brahman cow cross had 2n = 59, intermediate between their parents; they were consistent heterozygous carriers with a centric fusion involving rob(2;28), as expected. Two pronounced red signals were seen in the mithun karyotypes, three red signals in the mithun × Brahman hybrids, and four red signals in the Brahman cattle, in good agreement with centric fusion of bovine rob(2;28). The female backcross hybrid (N = 1) with 2n = 59 had a similar chromosome configuration to the F(1) karyotypes and had rob(2;28). Such female backcross hybrids normally reproduce; however, the F(1) bulls (N = 3) had not yet generated normal sperm at 24 months.

  18. Indopithecus giganteus distinct from Sivapithecus indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.

  19. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies.

  20. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (< 15%) was obtained from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  1. Differential expression of microRNAs associated with thermal stress in Frieswal (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Raja, T V; Kant, Rajiv; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Alyethodi, R R; Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Joshi, C G

    2017-08-03

    Environmental temperature is one of the important abiotic factors that influence the normal physiological function and productive performance of dairy cattle. Temperature stress evokes complex responses that are essential for safeguarding of cellular integrity and animal health. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNA plays a key role cellular stress responses. The present study investigated the differential expression of miRNA in Frieswal (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) crossbred dairy cattle that are distinctly adapted to environmental temperature stress as they were evolved by using the temperate dairy breed Holstein Friesian. The results indicated that there was a significant variation in the physiological and biochemical indicators estimated under summer stress. The differential expression of miRNA was observed under heat stress when compared to the normal winter season. Out of the total 420 miRNAs, 65 were differentially expressed during peak summer temperatures. Most of these miRNAs were found to target heat shock responsive genes especially members of heat shock protein (HSP) family, and network analysis revealed most of them having stress-mediated effects on signaling mechanisms. Being greater in their expression profile during peak summer, bta-miR-2898 was chosen for reporter assay to identify its effect on the target HSPB8 (heat shock protein 22) gene in stressed bovine PBMC cell cultured model. Comprehensive understanding of the biological regulation of stress responsive mechanism is critical for developing approaches to reduce the production losses due to environmental heat stress in dairy cattle.

  2. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, a...

  4. Four new Sesquiterpenoids from Sphaeranthus indicus.

    PubMed

    Emani, Lakshma Reddy; Ravada, Suryachandra Rao; Garaga, Machi Raju; Meka, Bharani; Golakoti, Trimurtulu

    2017-11-01

    Isolation and characterisation of two new eudesmanolides, 5α-hydroperoxy-7α-hydroxy-isosphaerantholide (1) and (11α,13-dihydro-7α-hydroxyfrullanolide-13-yl)-adenine (2) from the flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus are described. In addition, 5α-hydroxy-isosphaerantholide (3) and 11α,13-dihydro-eudesman-3,5,7-triene-6α-12-olide (4) are reported first time as a metabolite of S. indicus and as a natural product, respectively. The structures of these compounds were established from rigorous analysis of their high-resolution mass, IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR spectral data.

  5. Serological Patterns of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Q Fever in Bos indicus Cattle in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670

  6. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (P<0.01) BW and greater (P<0.01) BCS than heifers on MN. Heifers on IN also had a generally improved metabolic homeostasis than heifers on MN which was reflected in greater circulating concentrations of insulin, leptin, IGF-1 and glucose in the former heifers. Heifers on IN attained puberty between 21 and 23 months of age and only one heifer on MN had reached puberty by 23 months. This study has shown that Brahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Population genetic analysis of the Brahman cattle (Bos indicus) in Colombia with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Novoa, M A; Usaquén, W

    2010-04-01

    The Brahman is one of the most popular breeds for meat production in the Neotropics. However, genetic studies of the breed in Latin American countries have only recently begun. In total, 178 animals of the Brahman breed from 20 Colombian provinces were genotyped at 11 microsatellite markers with the aim of studying the genetic diversity of this population and its genetic relationships with zebuine and taurine breeds. The outcomes of multivariate analyses, Bayesian inferences and inter-individual genetic distances suggested that there is no genetic sub-structure in the population, because of the high rate of animal migration among provinces. The population shows a high degree of heterozygosity and allelic diversity compared with other breeds, reflecting its multibreed origin. The study of the genetic relationships among the breeds reveals that the Brahman breed belongs to the zebuine group. However, it is the population nearest to taurine breeds with high frequencies of taurine alleles. Intensive artificial selection may have favoured the taurine alleles after the breed was formed. There has also been some degree of mixture with local taurine breeds while the Brahman breed has evolved in Colombia.

  8. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Jamwal, Manu; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Saravanan; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Jena, Manoj K; Anand, Vijay; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Reddy, Vanga S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation.

  9. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  10. Microsatellite Imputation for parental verification from SNP across multiple Bos taurus and indicus breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)-based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fro...

  11. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  12. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r = 0.84). The role of these co-expressed genes in puberty and heifers luteal phase merits further research. PMID:27803898

  13. Characterization of the rumen microbiome of Indian Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus) adapted to different forage diet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Patel, Anand B; Reddy, Bhaskar; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-12-01

    Present study described rumen microbiome of Indian cattle (Kankrej breed) to better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the rumen microbiome under different dietary treatments. Kankrej cattle were gradually adapted to a high-forage diet (four animals with dry forage and four with green forage) containing 50 % (K1), 75 % (K2) to 100 % (K3) forage, and remaining concentrate diet, each for 6 weeks followed by analysis of rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free metagenomic community by shotgun sequencing using ion torrent PGM platform and EBI-metagenomics annotation pipeline. Taxonomic analysis indicated that rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. Functional analysis based on gene ontology classified all reads in total 157 categories based on their functional role in biological, molecular, and cellular component with abundance of genes associated with hydrolase activity, membrane, transport, transferase, and different metabolism (such as carbohydrate and protein). Statistical analysis using STAMP revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between solid and liquid fraction of rumen (in 65 categories), between all three treatments (in 56 categories), and between green and dry roughage (17 categories). Diet treatment also exerted significant difference in environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in metabolic pathways for production of volatile fatty acids. EGTs for butyrate production were abundant in K2, whereas EGTs for propionate production was abundant during K1. Principal component analysis also demonstrated that diet proportion, fraction of rumen, and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level.

  14. Eprinomectin in dairy zebu Gobra cattle (Bos indicus): plasma kinetics and excretion in milk.

    PubMed

    Bengone-Ndong, T; Ba, M A; Kane, Y; Sané, I; Sutra, J F; Alvinerie, M

    2006-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of eprinomectin were determined in zebu Gobra following topical administration of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The kinetics of plasma and milk was analysed using a one-compartment model. The maximum plasma concentration of 8.83+/-2.15 ng ml(-1) occurred 1.30 days post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 30.63+/-5.56 ng day(-1) ml(-1) and the mean residence time was 3.38+/-0.60 days. Eprinomectin was detected in milk at the first sampling time and thereafter for at least 8 days. The systemic availability of eprinomectin was significantly lower than that for other breeds of cattle. Comparison of the milk and plasma data demonstrated the parallel disposition of the drug in the milk and plasma with a milk/plasma ratio of 0.094. The very low extent of mammary excretion supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating zebu Gobra.

  15. Transuterine embryo migration, distribution of sexes within uterine horns, and fetometry in Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriel B O; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Pivato, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    There is no consensus about the occurrence of transuterine embryo migration under natural breeding circumstances, neither data related to this phenomenon for zebu cattle. In this study, 5431 reproductive tracts of Nellore cows and heifers were evaluated in an abattoir in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 1030 animals (19.0%) were pregnant at the time of slaughter (including 2 twin pregnancies). Regarding singleton pregnancies (n = 1028), 39.5% of them, the fetus was located in the left uterine horn and the remaining 60.5% in the right. These frequencies differed statistically from parity. In all 1028 (100.0%) cases, the presence of a single CL was perceived in the ovary ipsilateral (whether right or left) to the pregnant uterine horn, indicating the absence of transuterine embryo migration of the conceptus. The overall sex ratio found was 51.5%, considering only pregnancies with sex identified, not differing significantly between the number of males and the number of females. The sex frequencies obtained from the total number of singleton pregnancies were 46.5% males, 43.9% females, and the remaining 9.6% corresponding to unknown sex fetuses. The supposed sex predilection for uterine horns was not observed because the difference between the numbers of males and females for the same uterine horn was not statistically significant. The crown-rump (CR) and crown-nose (CN) measures, for the conceptus with CR length 2.00 cm to 15.00 cm, showed a high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.990865), being CN = (0.3027 × CR) + 0.4491, r(2) = 0.9818, the equation that describes the behavior between the variables for this length interval. In conclusion, in Nellore cattle, the transuterine migration of conceptus may not exist, or consists of a rare event. In addition, the sex ratio and predilection are not distinguished from the symmetrical distribution, and regarding fetometry, an equation that involves CR and CN, could be useful for the veterinary field routine, especially in reproductive evaluation.

  16. Ovariectomy by left flank approach in prepubertal Nelore (Bos indicus) heifers

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Juliana R.; Nogueira, Geison M.; Nogueira, Guilherme P.; Perri, Silvia H.V.; Cardoso, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate a recumbent left flank approach to bilateral ovariectomy in prepubertal heifers and to develop an optimal surgical technique for this procedure. Both ovaries were removed from 6 Nelore heifers by left flank approach without any complications, except in 1 heifer, which was believed to have had only 1 ovary based on ultrasound and exploration during surgery, but was later found to have a remaining functional ovary. Ovariectomy via left flank approach in recumbent prepubertal heifers is feasible and technically easy. This procedure does not involve special instrumentation and, despite the invasive approach, it allows optimal visualization of the ovaries and uterus. PMID:19794897

  17. Effect of season on the oestrous cycle of cows (Bos indicus) indigenous to northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Zakari, A Y; Molokwu, E C; Osori, D I

    1981-09-12

    A seasonal effect was demonstrated on the occurrence of oestrus and on the length of oestrous cycles in Bunaji and Bokoloji cows. There was a gradual lengthening of oestrous cycle which resulted in fewer cycles occurring in the dry and pre-rainy seasons. Oestrous cycle length was the same for Bunaji (22.89 +/-0.70 days) and Bokoloji (23.76 +/- 0.65 days) cows (P less than 0.05). Season had an equally depressing effect on the duration and intensity of oestrus in both breeds of cows. During the dry and pre-rainy seasons the behavioural signs of oestrus were poorly manifested and lasted for only a short period. During the rainy and pre-dry seasons, the duration of oestrus and behavioural signs were much more pronounced.

  18. Serological patterns of brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever in Bos indicus cattle in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G; Fèvre, Eric M; Morgan, Kenton L; Tanya, Vincent N; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2010-01-21

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region.

  19. Genome-wide CNV analysis reveals variants associated with growth traits in Bos indicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in be...

  20. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  1. Lack of specific alleles for the bovine chemokine (C-X-C) receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene in West African cattle questions its role as a candidate for trypanotolerance.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2.

  2. Whole-genome sequencing of the endangered bovine species Gayal (Bos frontalis) provides new insights into its genetic features

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Chugang; Wang, Hongcheng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Gong; Qu, Kaixing; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Anning; Zhao, Chunping; Yang, Wucai; Wang, Chongzhi; Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8 Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal. PMID:26806430

  3. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  4. Physiological ecology of the mangrove-dwelling varanid Varanus indicus.

    PubMed

    Smith, James G; Christian, Keith; Green, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Some species of terrestrial lizards in wet-dry tropical climates reduce their body temperatures (T(b)'s) and activity and lower their metabolic rates during the dry season when food and water resources are scarce. However, semiaquatic lizards have access to water and presumably food throughout the year, so it is possible that they will not have the seasonal response seen in terrestrial species. We studied the thermal biology, energetics, and water flux of Varanus indicus, a semiaquatic, mangrove-dwelling varanid in tropical northern Australia. Although V. indicus remained active all year, they reduced their activity in the dry season, but not to the extent of terrestrial varanids. Varanus indicus field metabolic rates decreased by 38% in the dry season mostly as a result of the reduction in activity. Although food and water depletion are the driving forces behind decreases in dry season T(b) selection and energetics for many varanids, V. indicus appears not to be subject to these pressures to the same extent. Thermoregulatory indices indicate that V. indicus actively thermoregulate in the wet and dry seasons, but they do not fully exploit the available thermal resources. These lizards are unusual among varanid lizards in that their midday T(b)'s are relatively low (about 31 degrees C) despite the availability of thermal resources that would allow them to attain substantially higher T(b)'s.

  5. Evaluation of genetic and non-genetic factors on foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Manjeet; Pander, B L; Sharma, R; Dhaka, S S; Magotra, Ankit; Dev, Kapil

    2017-08-16

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most contagious disease of mammals and a major threat to animal husbandry sector. In India, vaccination with the inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) vaccine is one proven way for protecting the livestock from FMD. However, many outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the country. Therefore, present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on FMD viral vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu cattle. The effect of season of vaccination was not consistent. The effect of status of animal was significant for all the pre and post AB titres except for pre AB titre of serotype O and post AB titre of Asia1.The estimates of heritability for response to vaccination were low to high ranging from 0.11 to 0.45. The highest heritability estimate was obtained for serotype O and the lowest for Asia1. The heritability estimates for pre and post AB titres ranged from 0.15 to 0.33. All the pre and post AB titres and responses to vaccination had genetic correlations ranged from high negative to high positive among them. Results of this study highlight the variation in vaccine response which needs to be further exploited on large-scale animal data for better immunization and protection against highly contagious viral vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals.

  6. Effect of different levels and sources of zinc supplementation on quantitative and qualitative semen attributes and serum testosterone level in crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Ramesh Prashad; Singh, Lallan Prasad; Varshney, Vijay Prakash; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on 16 crossbred bulls (about 2 years of age, 316.2+/-0.77 kg average body weight), divided into groups I, II, III and IV to study the effect of different levels of Zn supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on semen quality. The animals in the first 3 groups were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm Zn from Zn sulfate, respectively and the animals in-group IV were supplemented with 35 ppm Zn as Zn propionate. Semen collection and evaluation was done in the first month (to assess semen quality at the start of the experiment) and 7th, 8th and 9th month of experimental feeding to evaluate the effect of supplemental Zn on semen attributes. We gave 6 months for Zn feeding, so that 3 sperm cycles of spermatogenesis had passed and the collected semen reflected the complete effect of Zn supplementation. Six ejaculates from each bull were collected and evaluated for semen quantitative (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm number per ejaculate) and qualitative characteristics (semen pH, mass motility, individual motility, sperm livability percent and abnormal sperm percent, percent intact acrosome, bovine cervical mucus penetration test, hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test) and activity of seminal plasma enzymes i.e., alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GOT and GPT. Testosterone level in the blood serum of crossbred bulls was also estimated. Mean values of semen quantitative and qualitative characteristics at the start of the experiment were statistically non significant (P > 0.05) in all the crossbred cattle bulls, however, there were statistically significant differences among the bulls of different groups after 6 months of zinc supplementation. Mean ejaculate volume (mL) was 2.37, 4.70, 5.86 and 6.38, respectively in groups I to IV, indicating a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher semen volume in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group of bulls. Similarly, sperm concentration (million.mL(-1)), live sperm (%) and motility (%) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The results of BCMPT and HOSST revealed a significant improvement in sperm functional ability in all the groups supplemented with Zn as compared to the control group. The activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in seminal plasma was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Zn-supplemented groups, whereas GOT and GPT activities in seminal plasma were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Zn propionate supplemented group as compared to the control group. Testosterone concentration (ng.mL(-1)) in blood serum was significantly higher in animals of groups III and IV, as compared to control group. It may be concluded that Zn supplementation either in the inorganic or organic form in the diet of crossbred bulls improved the qualitative and quantitative attributes of semen; however, the number of sperm per ejaculate, mass motility and semen fertility test like bovine cervical mucus penetration was significantly higher in bulls given Zn in an organic form (Zn propionate) as compared to an inorganic form (Zn sulfate).

  7. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay.

    PubMed

    Bell, N L; Anderson, R C; Callaway, T R; Franco, M O; Sawyer, J E; Wickersham, T A

    2017-06-01

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 [BI] and 5 [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments were 0 (CON) or 200 mg·steer·d monensin (MON) in 0.91 kg dried distillers' grains with solubles. Periods were 70 d in length: 20 d of adaptation, 22 d of sample collection, and 28 d for withdrawal of treatment. Steers were group housed during adaptation and moved to individual covered pens for sampling. Hay, ort, and fecal grab samples were collected d 21 through 25 for determination of intake and digestion. Ruminal fluid was collected with a suction strainer 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after feeding on d 42 for pH, VFA, and ruminal NH-N (RAN) analysis. Additionally, at h 2, ruminal fluid and contents were collected for determination of rate of NH production and CH production rate. No subspecies × monensin interactions were observed ( ≥ 0.12). Monensin had no effect ( ≥ 0.16) on intake or digestibility parameters. No subspecies effect ( ≥ 0.11) was observed for forage OM intake, total OM intake, or OM digestion. Total digestible OM intake tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for BT steers than for BI steers (14.0 vs. 12.2 g/kg BW). There was an effect of hour after feeding ( ≤ 0.01) on pH, total VFA, acetate:propionate ratio, and molar percent acetate and propionate. Total VFA concentration was greater ( = 0.01) in CON steers than in MON steers (66.5 vs. 62.0 m). Monensin decreased molar percent acetate ( = 0.02) from 72.5 to 71.2% and increased molar percent propionate ( < 0.01) from 16.9 to 18.7%, resulting in a reduced ( < 0.01) acetate:propionate ratio (from 4.34 to 3.85). Although not significantly ( = 0.19), monensin numerically reduced the CH production rate by 15.8%. Greater ( = 0.07) CH production rate tended to be observed in BI steers than in BT steers (21.4 vs. 16.6 μmol CH·mL·h, respectively). Monensin had no effect ( ≥ 0.32) on pH, RAN, or rate of NH production. A subspecies × hour after feeding interaction was observed for RAN, with BT having greater RAN at h 0 and 4, whereas BI had greater RAN at h 2, 8, and 12. Overall, monensin decreased the acetate:propionate ratio and total VFA concentration but had no effect on forage utilization. steers consumed less digestible OM and had a greater CH production rate compared with BT steers, suggesting BT were better able to utilize the available forage resource than BI.

  8. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay.

    PubMed

    Bell, N L; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Franco, M O; Sawyer, J E; Wickersham, T A

    2017-06-01

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 [BI] and 5 [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments consisted of either 0 mg·steer·d-1 monensin with no previous monensin feeding (CON) or withdrawal from 200 mg·steer·d-1 monensin (MON) fed individually in 0.91 kg dried distillers' grains with solubles for 42 d. Withdrawal was evaluated for a 28-d period. Ruminal fluid was collected 2 h after feeding on d 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after withdrawal for determination of pH, VFA, ruminal NH-N (RAN), rate of NH production, and CH production rate. Hay, ort, and fecal grab samples were collected d 23 through 28 after withdrawal for determination of intake and digestion. No subspecies × monensin, subspecies × day, or subspecies × monensin × day interactions were observed ( ≥ 0.11). An effect of day after monensin withdrawal was observed ( < 0.01) for total VFA concentration, with an increase following withdrawal followed by a decrease and then stabilization. Monensin × day after monensin withdrawal interactions ( ≤ 0.01) were observed for the acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio and molar percent of acetate and propionate. There was a decrease in molar percent of propionate between d 1 and 4 from 19.1 to 18.0; however, it remained greater ( ≤ 0.10) for MON than CON through d 7. Withdrawal increased molar percent of acetate from 68.3 to 69.8 between d 0 and 4 for MON steers. The A:P ratio was less ( ≤ 0.01) on d 0 for MON than for CON (3.4 vs. 4.0), but by d 4, it increased to 3.8 and was not different ( = 0.14) from CON. By d 14, no differences ( ≥ 0.88) remained for acetate, propionate, or the A:P ratio. After monensin withdrawal, monensin reduced ( < 0.01) RAN by 12.3% (2.09 vs. 1.83 m for CON and MON, respectively). Monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies had no effect ( ≥ 0.23) on rate of NH production or CH production rate. Monensin withdrawal had no effect ( ≥ 0.45) on intake or digestibility parameters. Greater forage OM intake ( = 0.09; 21.2 vs. 19.2 g/kg BW) and OM digestibility ( < 0.01; 72.4 vs. 63.0%) resulted in greater ( < 0.01) total digestible OM intake (16.8 vs. 13.2 g/kg BW) in BT steers than in BI steers. These results suggest that BT steers are better able to utilize bermudagrass hay than BI steers. Upon monensin withdrawal, steers previously fed monensin continue to have a reduced A:P ratio for at least 7 d.

  9. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein-Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran.

    PubMed

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2016-12-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein-Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattle, from the two major breeds in Sistan, with the mean age of more than one year and without typical clinical symptoms of theileriosis were selected. At first, a thin layer smear was held from their ear sublime vein blood for Giemsa staining method. In order to do PCR assay, jugular vein blood sample of each cow was taken. The PCR employs primers specific for the 721-bp gene fragment encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. By PCR method, 38 (47.5 %) Holstein blood samples and 22 (27.5 %) Sistani blood samples had DNA of T. annulata and considered positive (The correlation was significant at values of P < 0.05). By checking 160 blood smears with light microscope and lens × 100, only 10 samples (6.25 %) were positive for T. annulata. Statistical comparison between PCR and smear method showed that the PCR method is more sensitive and accurate in comparison to Giemsa staining method to diagnose the asymptomatic carriers of T. annulata.

  10. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Facciotti, Patricia R; Rici, Rose EG; Maria, Durvanei A; Bertolini, Marcelo; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Miglino, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions), from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy), were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations. PMID:19331666

  11. Genetic variants in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) gene are associated with resistance against ticks in Bos taurus and Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Maryam, J; Babar, M E; Nadeem, A; Hussain, T

    2012-04-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are major obstacle in the health and ultimately overall performance of animals. Cattle express heritable, contrasting phenotypes when exposed to ticks depicting genetic nature of trait. IFN-γ is one of the most reported genes critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular infections. To identify its role in resistance for ectoparasite especially tick, genetic characterization of this gene was done in resistant and susceptible animals of Sahiwal cattle (n = 95) and Friesian (n = 92). Nine Polymorphisms were identified, three of them were found in exonic region. One out of nine variants was being reported previously (ss82716193) and was confirmed in Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population as well. Single site analysis of each variant depicted their significance in tick resistant and tick susceptible groups (P < 0.05). The associations using haplotypes were more informative than for single markers. Eighteen different haplotypes resulting from nine polymorphic sites were used in construction of maximum parsimony tree which categorized resistant and susceptible animals in two clades. Genetic markers identified in this study can be useful in future breeding selection programs against tick resistance.

  12. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers.

    PubMed

    Downey-Slinker, E D; Ridpath, J F; Sawyer, J E; Skow, L C; Herring, A D

    2016-09-30

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs. The goal of this study was to determine if levels of serum neutralizing antibody titers were predictive of levels of vaccine protection in a commercial setting. During this four-year study, Angus-Nellore steers housed in a production feedlot setting were assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine treatments: killed vaccine (kV), modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, or no vaccine (control), and were challenged with a noncytopathic 1b field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Rectal temperature and levels of circulating lymphocytes and platelets were monitored following challenge. While no animals were diagnosed as clinically ill with respiratory disease, indicators of disease (pyrexia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia) were observed. The MLV treatment elicited higher antibody titers to the vaccination than the kV, and calves in the MLV treatment had higher mean titers at challenge. The year that elicited the highest antibody response to the vaccination and the year with the lowest frequency of phenotypic responses to the challenge were not concurrent. The MLV treatment had the highest proportion, 34.68%, of animals that were protected against the challenge regardless of the pre-challenge antibody titer and had the fewest number of lymphopenia cases in response to the challenge. Both vaccine treatments mitigated thrombocytopenia when compared to the control treatment, and the MLV treatment reduced lymphopenia; however, these symptoms were not completely eliminated in vaccinated animals. Pyrexia was present in 40.11% of the animals, but no difference in the frequency of cases between treatments was observed. Pre-challenge vaccination response was not indicative of the level of protection nor was anamnestic antibody response correlated with health status.

  13. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  14. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  15. BosFinder: a novel pre-microRNA gene prediction algorithm in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, B; Ahmadi, H; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, S; Nassiri, M R; Masoudi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression transcriptionally (transcriptional activation or inactivation) and/or post-transcriptionally (translation inhibition or degradation of their target mRNAs). This phenomenon has significant roles in growth and developmental processes in plants and animals. Bos taurus is one of the most important livestock animals, having great importance in food and economical sciences and industries. However, limited information is available on Bos taurus constituent miRNAs because its whole genome assembly has been only recently published. Therefore, computational methods have been essential tools in miRNA gene prediction and discovery. Among these, machine-learning-based approaches are used to characterize genome scale pre-miRNAs from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In this study, a support vector machine model was used to classify 33 structural and thermodynamic features of pre-miRNA genes. Public bovine EST data were obtained from different tissues in various developmental stages. A new algorithm, called BosFinder, was developed to identify and annotate the whole genome's derived pre-miRNAs. We found 18 776 highly potential pre-miRNA sequences. This is the first genome survey report of Bos taurus based on a machine-learning method for pre-miRNA gene finding. The bosfinder program is freely available at http://lbb.ut.ac.ir/Download/LBBsoft/BosFinder/. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. A new way to measure milk yield persistency: a genetic point of view with application to Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; El Faro, Lenira; Vercesi Filho, Aníbal Eugênio; Verneque, Rui da Silva; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters for a measure of persistency of milk yield and to evaluate its association with 305-d cumulative milk yield and lactation length. 12 346 records from 8202 dairy Gyr cows including lactations up to fifth calving were used. The measure of persistency was obtained from one of the parameters of a quadratic model that describes the cumulative yield across lactation as a function of days in milk. A three-trait multivariate analysis was done. Heritability and repeatability for persistency were 0.08 and 0.21, respectively. Deviance Information Criterion provided evidence that the additive genetic covariance between the measure of persistency studied and 305-d cumulative yield is zero. Genetic correlations between persistency and lactation length were 0.50 and 0.27 for first or all lactations, respectively. Milk yield persistency as measured in this study has low heritability. Selection for persistency can increase lactation length. The measure of milk yield persistency studied here is genetically independent of total milk yield and can be included in routine genetic evaluations of dairy cattle.

  17. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in milk somatic cells of lactating cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Varshney, N; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Kaushik, J K; Dang, A K; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R; Kimothi, S P; Mukhopadhyay, T K; Malakar, D; Prakash, B S; Grover, S; Batish, V K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the suitability of 9 internal control genes (ICG) in milk somatic cells of lactating cows to find suitable reference genes for use in quantitative PCR (qPCR). Eighteen multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows were used, 6 in each of 3 lactation stages: early (25 ± 5 d in milk), mid (160 ± 15 d in milk), and late (275 ± 25 d in milk) lactation. Nine candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11), β-actin (ACTB), β-2 microglobulin (B2M), 40S ribosomal protein S15a (RPS15A), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), mitochondrial GTPase 1 (MTG1), 18S rRNA (RN18S1), and ubiquitin (UBC)] were evaluated. Three genes, β-casein (CSN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and cathelicidin (CAMP) were chosen as target genes. Very high amplification was observed in 7 ICG and very low level amplification was observed in 2 ICG (UXT and MTG1). Thus, UXT and MTG1 were excluded from further analysis. The qPCR data were analyzed by 2 software packages, geNorm and NormFinder, to determine suitable reference genes, based on their stability and expression. Overall, PPP1R11, ACTB, UBC, and GAPDH were stably expressed among all candidate reference genes. Therefore, these genes could be used as ICG for normalization of qPCR data in milk somatic cells through lactation.

  18. Effects of chilling methods and hot-boning on quality parameters of M. longissimus lumborum from Bos indicus Nelore steer.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Manuel; Beraquet, Nelson J; Cardoso, Susana

    2013-02-01

    To study the effects of chilling methods and hot-boning on quality parameters of M. longissimus lumborum (LL) of Nelore steers, sixteen left-carcass sides were electrically stimulated and the LL muscles were hot-boned and chilled at -20°C (HBVFC) or 0°C (HBO). Eight control left-carcass sides were cold-boned (AT). All muscles were vacuum-packaged and aged at 0°C for 14 d. Shear force and tenderness of the AT-treated muscles were not different from HBO-treated muscles. The shear force values of the HBVFC muscles were higher after 7 and 14 d post-mortem (pm) compared to those of the AT muscles, but there was no difference from the HBO muscles. Aging did not reduce the shear force values of the HBVFC muscles. The purge losses of the HBVFC muscles were higher than those of the HBO and AT muscles. The HBVFC muscles were less tender than the HBO and AT muscles at 14 d pm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary efficacy investigations of oral fipronil against Anopheles arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Poché, Richard M; Githaka, Naftaly; van Gool, Frans; Kading, Rebekah C; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Abworo, Edward Okoth; Nene, Vishvanath; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2017-12-01

    Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study. A pilot field study was carried out in the Samia District, Western Kenya, from May to July 2015. Four plots, each comprised of 50 huts used for sleeping, were randomly designated to serve as control or treatment. A week before cattle treatment, baseline mosquito collections were performed inside the houses using mechanical aspirators. Animals in the treatment (and buffer) were administered a single oral application of fipronil at ∼0.5mg/kg of body weight. Indoor mosquito collections were performed once a week for four weeks following treatment. Female mosquitoes were first identified morphologically to species complex, followed by PCR-based methods to obtain species identity, sporozoite presence, and the host source of the blood meal. All three species of anophelines found in the study area (An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, An. funestus s.s.) were actively transmitting Plasmodium falciparum during the study period. The indoor resting density of An. arabiensis was significantly reduced in treatment plot one at three weeks post-treatment (T1) (efficacy=89%; T1 density=0.08, 95% credibility intervals [0.05, 0.10]; control plot density=0.78 [0.22, 0.29]) and at four weeks post-treatment (efficacy=64%; T1 density=0.16 [0.08, 0.14]; control plot density=0.48 [0.17, 0.22]). The reduction of An. arabiensis mosquitoes captured in the treatment plot two was higher: zero females were collected after treatment. The indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.s. was not significantly different between the treatment (T1, T2) and their corresponding control plots (C1, C2). An. funestus s.s. showed an increase in density over time. The results of this preliminary study suggest that treating cattle orally with fipronil, to target exophagic and zoophagic malaria vectors, could be a valuable control strategy to supplement existing vector control interventions which target endophilic anthropophilic species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P < 0.01); however, heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P < 0.01), although the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate was similar (P = 0.29) at the end of the breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  1. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences ( P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  2. Supplementation with sunflower seed increases circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts on the pregnancy rates in Bos indicus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mariângela B; Peres, Mariana S; de Souza, Johnny M; Gaspar, Pércio; Barbiere, Fausto; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Filho, Milton Maturana; Dinardi, Robson N; Nogueira, Guilherme P; Mesquita, Fernando S; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Martins, Thiago; Binelli, Mario; Membrive, Claudia M B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with sunflower seed on blood concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol and on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) and timed embryo transfer (TET). In experiment 1, cows were received 22-day supplements containing (sunflower, n = 66) sunflower seed or not (control, n = 67) immediately after a progesterone/estradiol-based TAI protocol (Day 0). The cholesterol concentration on Day 21 and the pregnancy rate were greater (P < 0.03) in the sunflower group (148.2 ± 6.1 mg/dL and 66.7%) than those in the control group (116.0 ± 6.4 mg/dL and 47.8%). In experiment 2, heifers received an in vitro-produced embryo 7 days after the expected time of the synchronized ovulation. Heifers were separated into two supplementation groups (sunflower, n = 106 and control, n = 111) for 22 days. The plasma progesterone concentration on Day 7 was not different between the groups. However, on Day 19, the plasma progesterone concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in the sunflower group (5.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) than that in the control group (3.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL). A greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentration was observed in the sunflower group than that in the control group on Days 7 (306.0 ± 11.6 vs. 277.1 ± 11.9 mg/dL, respectively) and 19 (260.5 ± 8.0 vs. 232.0 ± 8.0 mg/dL, respectively). The pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the sunflower-treated heifers (55.7%) than that in control-treated heifers (36.9%). Results indicate that sunflower seed supplementation increases the circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts the pregnancy rate in suckled beef cattle subjected to TAI or TET. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P < 0.05) between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  4. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  5. Effects of lowered temperatures and media on short-term preservation of zebu (Bos indicus) preantral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Carolina M; Kacinskis, Mirella A; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Báo, Sônia N

    2004-01-15

    The maintenance of follicle quality during the transportation of ovaries is essential for the successful cryopreservation and in vitro development of preantral follicles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling ovarian tissue on the conservation of zebu cow preantral follicles. Ovarian pieces were immersed in saline or coconut water (CW) solutions and maintained at 4 or 20 degrees C for 6, 12, or 18 h. Preantral follicles were evaluated by histology and transmission electron microscopy. Storage of ovarian pieces at 20 degrees C for 12 or 18 h significantly reduced the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared to controls. In contrast, conservation at 4 degrees C for up to 18 h and at 20 degrees C for up to 6 h kept the percentage of normal follicles similar to controls. However, the type of solution that the ovaries were immersed in had little effect on the results. Decreased cellular metabolism probably accounted for better preservation of preantral follicles at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, zebu cow ovaries were successfully stored at 4 degrees C for up to 18 h with no morphological damage to preantral follicles. However, at 20 degrees C, ovaries could only be stored for 6 h.

  6. Genetic characterization of the Indian cattle breeds, Ongole and Deoni (Bos indicus), using microsatellite markers - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Metta, Muralidhar; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Gudiseva, Narasimharao; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2004-06-18

    Molecular characterization of cattle breeds is important for the prevention of germplasm erosion by cross breeding. The Indian zebu cattle have their significant role in evolution of present day cattle breeds and development of some of the exotic breeds. Microsatellites are the best available molecular tools for characterization of cattle breeds. The present study was carried out to characterize two Indian cattle breeds, Ongole and Deoni, using microsatellite markers. Using 5 di- and 5 tri-nucleotide repeat loci, 17 Ongole and 13 Deoni unrelated individuals were studied. Of the ten loci, eight revealed polymorphism in both the breeds. The di-nucleotide repeat loci were found to be more polymorphic (100%) than tri-nucleotide repeat loci (60%). A total of 39 polymorphic alleles were obtained at 4.5 alleles per locus in Ongole and 4.1 in Deoni. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.46 (+/-0.1) and 0.50 (+/-0.1) in Ongole and Deoni breeds, respectively. The PIC values of the polymorphic loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.79 in Ongole and 0.13 to 0.80 in Deoni breeds. Six Ongole specific and three Deoni specific alleles were identified. The two breeds showed a moderate genetic relationship between themselves with a FST value of 0.117 (P = 0.01). This preliminary study shows that microsatellite markers are useful in distinguishing the two zebu breeds namely, Ongole and Deoni. Further studies of other zebu breeds using many microsatellite loci with larger sample sizes can reveal the genetic relationships of Indian breeds.

  7. Microsatellite analysis of genetic population structure of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds from north-western region of India.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Ahlawat, S P S; Prakash, B; Sobti, R C

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the existing genetic diversity and structure of six native cattle breeds (Rathi, Tharparkar, Nagori, Mewati, Gir, and Kankrej) adapted to the north-western arid and semi-arid region of India based on microsatellite loci. Various diversity estimates, mean number of alleles (12.84); effective number of alleles (5.02); gene diversity (0.769), and observed heterozygosity (0.667) reflected the existence of substantial within-breed diversity in all the investigated cattle breeds. Mean estimates of F-statistics: F(IT) = 0.144 ± 0.023, F(IS) = 0.071 ± 0.021, and F(ST) = 0.078 ± 0.014 were significantly different from zero (P < 0.05). The interbreed relationships indicated moderate level of breed differentiation between the six cattle breeds with least differentiation between Kankrej-Mewati pair. The phylogeny structuring further supported close grouping of Kankrej and Mewati breeds. Correspondence analysis plotted Rathi, Tharparkar, and Gir individuals into three separate areas of multivariate space; whereas, Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori cattle showed low breed specific clustering. This reflected the existence of discrete genetic structure for Tharparkar, Rathi, and Gir, the prominent dairy breeds of the region; whereas, admixture was observed for Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori individuals.

  8. Developmental Block and Programmed Cell Death in Bos indicus Embryos: Effects of Protein Supplementation Source and Developmental Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sheila Merlo; Marinho, Luciana Simões Rafagnin; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235) or Slow (n = 485) based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively). The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells) and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow). Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos. PMID:25760989

  9. Characterization of genetic polymorphism of the bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 locus in Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Behl, J D; Verma, N K; Behl, R; Mukesh, M; Ahlawat, S P S

    2007-06-01

    Bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB 3.2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) gene encodes for the beta chain of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in cattle, which is a glycoprotein present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. This locus shows extensive polymorphism in it. The objective of the present study was to genotype the BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Kankrej cattle (n = 50) by PCR-RFLP. Bovine DNA was isolated from aliquots of whole blood. Primers specific for exon 2 of the bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 gene were used to amplify the region. The 304-bp amplified product of the DRB3 gene was separately digested with restriction endonucleases RsaI, BstYI, and Hae III. Twenty-four BoLA-DRB 3.2 alleles were identified with frequencies ranging from 1 to 22.0%. Twenty-one alleles of the total 24 alleles were similar to those reported earlier; 3 alleles were new and had not been reported previously. The allele BoLA-DRB3.2*34 occurred at the highest frequency of 22% (approx.) in the Kankrej animals studied. Six alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2 *34, *15, *06, *20, *37, and *20) accounted for almost 71% of the total alleles observed to be present in the Kankrej animals. All the new alleles observed were present at frequencies of 1%. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that the BoLA DRB3.2 locus is highly polymorphic in the Kankrej cattle.

  10. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A.P.; Bah, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ < 3 mm), medium (3 ≥ Φ ≤ 8 mm) and large (Φ > 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05) compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  11. 3D Imaging of Density Gradients Using Plenoptic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna; Clifford, Chris; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The combination of background oriented schlieren (BOS) and a plenoptic camera, termed Plenoptic BOS, is explored through two proof-of-concept experiments. The motivation of this work is to provide a 3D technique capable of observing density disturbances. BOS uses the relationship between density and refractive index gradients to observe an apparent shift in a patterned background through image comparison. Conventional BOS systems acquire a single line-of-sight measurement, and require complex configurations to obtain 3D measurements, which are not always conducive to experimental facilities. Plenoptic BOS exploits the plenoptic camera's ability to generate multiple perspective views and refocused images from a single raw plenoptic image during post processing. Using such capabilities, with regards to BOS, provides multiple line-of-sight measurements of density disturbances, which can be collectively used to generate refocused BOS images. Such refocused images allow the position of density disturbances to be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The image that provides the sharpest density gradient signature corresponds to a specific depth. These results offer motivation to advance Plenoptic BOS with an ultimate goal of reconstructing a 3D density field.

  12. Benzofuran glycosides and coumarins from the bark of Streblus indicus (Bur.) Corner.

    PubMed

    He, Ruijie; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Liangdeng; Nie, Hui; Huang, Yan; Liu, Buming; Deng, Shengping; Yang, Ruiyun; Huang, Shuai; Nong, Zhijie; Li, Jun; Chen, Haiyan

    2017-03-08

    Two pairs of rare benzofuran glucoside epimers, indicuses A and B and indicuses C and D, three biogenetically related compounds indicuses E-G, and one coumarin indicus H, as well as 11 known compounds, were isolated from the bark of Streblus indicus (Bur.) Corner. The structures of indicuses A-H were elucidated by NMR and MS data, as well as by CD. (S)-Marmesinin exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 7,8-Dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) coumarin, umbelliferone, and scopoletin displayed strong cytotoxic activity in vitro against human bladder carcinoma cell line EJ. The structure-activity relationships indicate that hydroxylation at C-7 in the cytotoxic compounds is crucial to their activities.

  13. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  14. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir. PMID:28616390

  15. Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented.

  16. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  17. Prednisolone and Mycobacterium indicus pranii in Tuberculous Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Bosch, Jackie; Pandie, Shaheen; Jung, Hyejung; Gumedze, Freedom; Pogue, Janice; Thabane, Lehana; Smieja, Marek; Francis, Veronica; Joldersma, Laura; Thomas, Kandithalal M.; Thomas, Baby; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Naidoo, Datshana P.; Damasceno, Albertino; Banda, Alfred Chitsa; Brown, Basil; Manga, Pravin; Kirenga, Bruce; Mondo, Charles; Mntla, Phindile; Tsitsi, Jacob M.; Peters, Ferande; Essop, Mohammed R.; Russell, James B.W.; Hakim, James; Matenga, Jonathan; Barasa, Ayub F.; Sani, Mahmoud U.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Ogah, Okechukwu; Ansa, Victor; Aje, Akinyemi; Danbauchi, Solomon; Ojji, Dike; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. METHODS Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P = 0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P = 0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P = 0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P = 0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P = 0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P = 0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer. CONCLUSIONS In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the

  18. Radiation protection of DNA and membrane in vitro by extract of Hemidesmus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shetty, T K; Satav, J G; Nair, C K K

    2005-05-01

    Radioprotective effect of H. indicus root extract on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and plasmid DNA was examined. Hemidesmus indicus (HI) root extract was found to protect microsomal membranes as evident from reduction in lipid peroxidation values. The extract could also protect DNA from radiation induced strand breaks. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Yakow (Bos primigenius taurus × Bos grunniens) in China.

    PubMed

    Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; An, Tian-Wu; Huang, Yong-Fu; E, Guang-Xin

    2016-11-01

    The Chinese Yakow, Bos primigenius taurus × Bos grunniens, is a large and commercially important hybrid in family Bovidae. We first determined and annotated its complete mitochondrial genome. The mitogenome is 16,322 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.7%, T: 27.3%, C: 25.8% and G: 13.2%. The complete mitogenome of Yakow (B. p. taurus × B. grunniens) could provide an important data to further explore the taxonomic status of Yakow (B. p. taurus × B. grunniens) in B. grunniens and enrich the genetic information or evolutionary history of the Bovidae.

  20. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  1. Fungal arthritis of the knee caused by Mycoleptodiscus indicus.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Catharine L; Sigler, Lynne

    2010-09-01

    Mycoleptodiscus indicus is a recognized plant pathogen which has very rarely been reported as a cause of human infection. It is a tropical or subtropical fungus which is difficult to culture and identify from clinical specimens. This is the first report of septic arthritis with this fungus in a healthy Canadian male. The fungal infection was contracted on a vacation in Costa Rica, probably through direct inoculation through injured skin. The fungus was isolated from synovial fluid and identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. There has only been one previous case of septic arthritis of the knee and one skin infection reported with this fungus; both cases involved immunocompromised hosts. Both septic arthritis patients required joint surgery and lavage to eradicate the fungus, however, only the immunocompromised patient required antifungal medications. In the future, it is very likely that the number of patients identified with M. indicus infection will rise due to increasing awareness of this pathogen as well as increasing exposure. Many immunocompromised patients on anti-retroviral or biologic therapy are healthy enough to travel, thereby exposing themselves to exotic and infected plants which increase the risk of unusual fungal infections.

  2. Pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseoli on Jute in the Presence of Meloidogyne incognita and Hoplolaimus indicus.

    PubMed

    Haque, M D; Mukhopadhyaya, M C

    1979-10-01

    Seedlings of Corchorus capsularis (cv. C4444) were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita, Hoplolaimus indicus, and a fungus pathogen of jute, Macrophomina phaseoli, separately and in all possible combinations. The significant damage of jute plants caused individually by the pathogens was aggravated when the fungus was associated with either of the nematode species. M. incognita alone caused greater damage than either H. indicus or Macrophomina phaseoli alone. Plants inoculated with M. incognita and Macrophomina phaseoli were more severely damaged than plants inoculated with H. indicus and the fungus. Plant growth was minimum and disease symptoms were maximum when all pathogens acted together. In the presence of the fungus, M. incognita produced fewer galls. The reproduction of H. indicus was not influenced by the other organisms.

  3. Pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseoli on Jute in the Presence of Meloidogyne incognita and Hoplolaimus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Haque, M. D. Samsul; Mukhopadhyaya, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Seedlings of Corchorus capsularis (cv. C4444) were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita, Hoplolaimus indicus, and a fungus pathogen of jute, Macrophomina phaseoli, separately and in all possible combinations. The significant damage of jute plants caused individually by the pathogens was aggravated when the fungus was associated with either of the nematode species. M. incognita alone caused greater damage than either H. indicus or Macrophomina phaseoli alone. Plants inoculated with M. incognita and Macrophomina phaseoli were more severely damaged than plants inoculated with H. indicus and the fungus. Plant growth was minimum and disease symptoms were maximum when all pathogens acted together. In the presence of the fungus, M. incognita produced fewer galls. The reproduction of H. indicus was not influenced by the other organisms. PMID:19300650

  4. Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Kirti S; Lobo, Richard; Shirwaikar, Annie

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mgkg(-1) i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mgkg(-1) i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  5. Redescription and new records of Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Ren, Guodong; Merkl, Ottó

    2013-01-01

    Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 of the tribe Ulomini is recorded for the first time from China (Guangxi and Hainan), Indonesia (Sumatra) and Thailand (Chiang Dao). A redescription of the male and the first description of the female are also provided.

  6. Antimicrobial activities of Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R.Br. and Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. Roots

    PubMed Central

    Malathy, N S; Sini, S

    2009-01-01

    Hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts from Hemidesmus indicus and Ichnocarpus frutescens roots were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. The chloroform extract of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested organisms. Both the plants showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activity against Eschericia coli and Aspergillus flavus respectively. With increase in concentration of the extract a corresponding increase in diameter of inhibition vgme was observed. The roots of the common substitute of H.Indicus namely Ifrutescenspossess similar antimicrobial properties. PMID:22557326

  7. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  8. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  9. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  10. Pathogenesis and pathology of African trypanosomosis in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé cross bred and Zebu cattle in Burkina Faso. 1. Clinical performance under high natural tsetse challenge.

    PubMed

    Clausen, P H; Sidibé, I; Bassinga, A; Richard, X; Bauer, B; Pohlit, H

    1993-06-01

    The pathogenesis and pathology of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and Zebu cattle was studied from 1987 to 1991 in a series of experiments conducted under natural and artificial conditions of challenge at the Centre de Recherches sur les Trypanosomoses Animales (CRTA) in Burkina Faso. This first paper reports on the clinical performance of 64 Baoulé, 10 N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and 20 Zebu cattle, which were transferred to the pastoral zone of Satiri, 50 km northeast of Bobo-Dioulasso, a zone infested with Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. morsitans submorsitans and G. tachinoides. Prior to the experiment, the cattle had been raised in a fly proof stable and at the CRTA breeding station, an area of extremely low incidence of trypanosomosis or had been exposed at least once to natural trypanosome challenge in an area of high Glossina density. The cattle were monitored daily for clinical performance. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and examined on the spot for packed red cell volume (PCV) and parasitaemia. In the blood of 98% of the cattle trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense) were detected. Significant inter- and intrabreed differences with respect to the clinical performance were recorded. Regarding general health, the humpless Baoulé and N'Dama/Baoulé cross-bred cattle (Bos taurus) proved to be superior to the humped Zebu cattle (B. indicus) under this high challenge. Previous exposure to natural challenge had a positive effect on survival for both Baoulé and Zebu cattle. The phenotypic variation in response to trypanosomosis was small in Baoulé previously exposed and large in Baoulé previously not exposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Neospora caninum abortion in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Peters, M; Osmann, C; Wohlsein, P; Schares, G

    2017-05-30

    A captive 17-year old female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. The fetus showed an early state of mummification. Histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. Although immunohistologically, Neospora (N.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, N. caninum DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in brain, heart, liver and lung of the fetus. N. caninum DNA was extracted from the aborted fetus and the microsatellite marker MS10 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The obtained MS10 microsatellite pattern has not been described in Germany yet. Nevertheless, the MS10 pattern was very similar to those reported for N. caninum isolated from dogs and cattle in Germany. Because of the histological pattern and extent of the lesions, neosporosis was suspected as the cause of fetal death and abortion. This case report describes for the first time transplacental transmission of N. caninum and abortion due to neosporosis in a tapir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns.

  13. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  14. Photonastic Control of Leaflet Orientation in Melilotus indicus (Fabaceae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Amnon; Gilboa, Sarah; Koller, Dov

    1987-01-01

    Leaflet orientation in Melilotus indicus (L.) All. Is under photonastic control during the day and nyctinastic control during the night, but also exhibits a diaphototropic (solar-tracking) response. Detached leaves with the two lateral leaflets excised were used to study the solar-tracking capability of the terminal leaflet. Perception of the photonastic excitation is located in the pulvinule. The lower (abaxial) and upper (adaxial) surfaces perceive photonastic excitation, which results in concomitant contraction of the side exposed to light and/or expansion of the opposite side. Steady state laminar elevation is determined by the fluence rates of the light incident simultaneously on the opposite sides. Light sensitivity of the lower side exceeds that of the upper. Response to photonastic excitation of either side is affected by angle of incidence of the light, but angular dependence is restricted to a limited range of angle of incidence, which differs for the two sides. This may be accounted for by the different topography of the two pulvinar surfaces and the localization in them of the light-sensitive tissues. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665437

  15. Hemidesmus indicus induces apoptosis as well as differentiation in a human promyelocytic leukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, L; Turrini, E; Burattini, S; Falcieri, E; Poli, F; Mandrone, M; Sacchetti, G; Tacchini, M; Guerrini, A; Gotti, R; Hrelia, P; Cantelli-Forti, G; Fimognari, C

    2013-05-02

    The decoction of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus is widely used in the Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of blood diseases, dyspepsia, loss of taste, dyspnea, cough, poison, menorrhagia, fever, and diarrhea. Poly-herbal preparations containing Hemidesmus are often used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytodifferentiative, cytostatic and cytotoxic potential of a decoction of Hemidesmus indicus's roots (0.31-3 mg/mL) on a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60). The decoction of Hemidesmus indicus was characterized by HPLC to quantify its main phytomarkers. Induction of apoptosis, cell-cycle analysis, levels of specific membrane differentiation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry. The analysis of cell differentiation by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing activity, adherence to the plastic substrate, α-napthyl acetate esterase activity and morphological analysis was performed through light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting from the concentration of 0.31 mg/ml, Hemidesmus indicus induced cytotoxicity and altered cell-cycle progression, through a block in the G0/G1 phase. The decoction caused differentiation of HL-60 cells as shown by NBT reducing activity, adherence to the plastic substrate, α-naphtyl acetate esterase activity, and increasing expression of CD14 and CD15. The morphological analysis by LM and TEM clearly showed the presence of granulocytes and macrophages after Hemidesmus indicus treatment. The cytodifferentiating, cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of Hemidesmus indicus offers a scientific basis for its use in traditional medicine. Its potent antileukemic activity provides a pre-clinical evidence for its traditional use in anticancer pharmacology. Further experiments are worthwhile to determine the in vivo anticancer potential of this plant decoction and its components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  16. Hypoglycemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Mahalingam; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of an aqueous extract of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus on blood glucose, serum electrolytes, serum marker enzymes, liver microsomal P-450 enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of H. indicus extract on blood glucose was studied with fed, fasted and glucose-loaded diabetic and nondiabetic rat models. The effect of the extract on serum electrolytes, serum levels of key glucose metabolizing enzymes, hepatic microsomal protein and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent mono-oxygenase enzyme systems and lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. One way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Oral administration of H. indicus aqueous extract to fed, fasted and glucose-loaded diabetic rats decreased blood glucose level significantly at 5 h and restored serum electrolytes, glycolytic enzymes and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme systems by preventing the formation of liver and kidney lipid peroxides at the end of 12 weeks of the study period. CONCLUSION: From the studies, it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of the roots of H. indicus at a dosage of 500 mg/kg/day exhibits significant antidiabetic activity. It restores the concentrations of electrolytes, glucose metabolizing enzymes, hepatic microsomal protein and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent mono-oxygenase enzyme systems to near normal level and also corrects the related metabolic alterations in experimentally induced diabetic rats. H. indicus administration also decreased liver and kidney lipid peroxidation products. On the basis of our findings, H. indicus could be used as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:19902032

  17. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic

  18. Carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate identified to be closely related to Acinetobacter indicus.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Rémy A; Poirel, Laurent; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lescat, Mathilde; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Here we report a case of carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate that was found to be closely related to the newly described environmental species Acinetobacter indicus. This strain harboured the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene located on a conjugative plasmid. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, showed that this strain was distantly related to the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and was closely related to A. indicus.

  19. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Peter; Göttig, Stephan; Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic

  20. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( < 0.05) basal concentrations of HSP27, Cryab, and HSP70 in the LT than cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  1. Resumption of ovarian function, the metabolic profile and body condition in Brahman cows (Bos indicus) is not affected by the combination of calf separation and progestogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Ramiro; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Pablos, José Luis; Rodríguez, Ana; Orihuela, Agustín

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of different calf separation procedures after a progestogen treatment on the resumption of ovarian function, body condition and metabolic profile, 59 multiparous Brahman cows grazing on a mixed grass pasture were studied. No supplementation was given at any time. Body condition score (BCS), fat thickness (FAT) and blood metabolites were measured fortnightly from the beginning of the last trimester of gestation until 96days postpartum. At 30days postpartum all animals received a progesterone (P4)-releasing device (CIDR) which was withdrawn 9days later when prostaglandin F2α was applied. At this time, treatments TW (n=28), where calves were separated from their dams for 48h; RS (n=21), calves were allowed to suckle once a day for 1h; and continuous suckling (CS; n=10). Ovarian function was assessed by blood concentrations of progesterone on days -14, -9, 10, 13, 30 and 33 after CIDR removal. At the end of the experimental period, an average of 20% of the cows had not initiated estrous cycles. There were no changes of FAT or BCS during the last trimester of pregnancy in all cows (P>0.05). During the postpartum period cows of all groups lost (P<0.05) BCS and FAT with a nadir at 60-80days postpartum, regardless of treatment. At 10days after CIDR withdrawal the percentage of cows having ovulations was 75, 61 and 80 (P>0.05) for TW, RS and CS groups. Blood metabolites follow a similar pattern in the three groups. With the conditions of the present study, the method of calf separation after a progestogen treatment, does not affect the resumption of ovarian function or metabolic profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resumption of ovarian function, the metabolic profile and body condition in Brahman cows (Bos indicus) is not affected by the combination of calf separation and progestogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Ramiro; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Pablos, José Luis; Rodríguez, Ana; Orihuela, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of different calf separation procedures after a progestogen treatment on the resumption of ovarian function, body condition and metabolic profile, 59 multiparous Brahman cows grazing on a mixed grass pasture were studied. No supplementation was given at any time. Body condition score (BCS), fat thickness (FAT) and blood metabolites were measured fortnightly from the beginning of the last trimester of gestation until 96days postpartum. At 30days postpartum all animals received a progesterone (P4)-releasing device (CIDR) which was withdrawn 9days later when prostaglandin F2α was applied. At this time, treatments TW (n=28), where calves were separated from their dams for 48h; RS (n=21), calves were allowed to suckle once a day for 1h; and continuous suckling (CS; n=10). Ovarian function was assessed by blood concentrations of progesterone on days -14, -9, 10, 13, 30 and 33 after CIDR removal. At the end of the experimental period, an average of 20% of the cows had not initiated estrous cycles. There were no changes of FAT or BCS during the last trimester of pregnancy in all cows (P>0.05). During the postpartum period cows of all groups lost (P<0.05) BCS and FAT with a nadir at 60-80days postpartum, regardless of treatment. At 10days after CIDR withdrawal the percentage of cows having ovulations was 75, 61 and 80 (P>0.05) for TW, RS and CS groups. Blood metabolites follow a similar pattern in the three groups. With the conditions of the present study, the method of calf separation after a progestogen treatment, does not affect the resumption of ovarian function or metabolic profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment.

  4. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  5. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  6. Effect of nutritional status on the ovarian follicular population, yield and quality of oocytes in the Ngaoundere Gudali zebu (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Kouamo, Justin; Tidjou, Sorelle Gwladys Djatche; Zoli, Andre Pagnah; Mfopit, Youssouf Mouliom

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional status of the Gudali cows slaughtered at the Ngaoundere abattoir on follicular population, quality, and oocytes yield. Blood and ovaries were collected from 81 cows aged 6.35±0.24 years (3-12 years old), with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.93±0.09 (1-5). In each ovary, the follicle were counted and classified as small (<3 mm), medium (3-8 mm) and large (>8 mm) using an electronic caliper. Oocytes were collected by slicing technique and classified according to the homogeneity of the cytoplasm and layers of granulosa into four groups: I, II, III, and IV. The nutritional status of the animals was determined by quantification of serum glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, and phosphorus level. Of the total 162 ovaries harvested, 2916 follicles were counted on the ovarian surface with an average population of 36.00±2.17 follicles/cow. According to a size distribution, 16.67±1.54 (46.3%), 18.83±1.27 (52.3%), and 0.51±0.07 (1.4%), respectively for small (<3 mm), medium (3-8 mm), and large (>8 mm) were recorded. About 1,929 oocytes were obtained, with an average recovered of 23.81±1.53 oocytes/cow. Depending on the quality, 7.79±0.55 (32.7%), 6.04±0.41 (25.3%), 4.89±0.44 (20.6%), and 5.10±0.54 (21.4%) oocytes qualities I, II, III, and IV were obtained respectively; with an average cultivable oocyte recovered of 13.83±0.89 (58%). Cows with BCS > 3 and a high albumin and phosphorus level showed a highest number of follicles and oocytes able for in vitro maturation. These results indicated that nutrition remains an important factor for the in vitro production of the good embryo and the BCS is a useful tool for the selection of females' oocytes donors.

  7. Analysis of ethnoveterinary treatments for cattle (Bos indicus) diseases referred in Sanrimgyeongje including twelve volumes of literature from the 7th to the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-01-27

    This study aims at a comprehensive analysis of ethnoveterinary treatment in the cattle-raising section of Sanrimgyeongje which covers 12 different volumes of literature including 4 Korean and 8 Chinese literatures from the 7th to the 18th century, with a special attention to the treatments for cattle diseases. The above mentioned literature was analyzed through several steps: translation of the Chinese text into Korean, identification of diseases, verification of medicinal materials and confirmation of scientific names. As recorded in the thirteen references, this study shows that there are 143 medicinal materials which have been used as therapies for cattle diseases. Of these, 55 plant species belonging to 52 genera in 29 families had 100 modes of usages, while one species of fungus was used in one way. Likewise, 11 species of animals belonging to 11 genera in 10 families were utilized in 18 different methods. Lastly, 9 kinds of inorganic matters were used in 11 ways with another 4 kinds being useful in 14 different ways. Consequently, each of rinderpests, murrains, and hooves has been treated, respectively with 14, 10 and 3 types of medicinal decoctions made from 35, 18 and 15 kinds of medicinal materials. This diversified usage of various medicinal materials is incomparable to the modern ethnoveterinary investigation which tends to focus strictly in plants. If additional studies were to be conducted on these treatments and all the medicinal materials used within them, various new treatments and medicines can be developed to supplement the pharmacopoeia of contemporary veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of mRNA Encoding the LH Receptor (LHR) and LHR Binding Protein in Granulosa Cells from Nelore (Bos indicus) Heifers Around Follicle Deviation.

    PubMed

    Ereno, R L; Loureiro, B; Castilho, A C S; Machado, M F; Pegorer, M F; Satrapa, R A; Nogueira, M F G; Buratini, J; Barros, C M

    2015-12-01

    The time at which follicles acquire LHR in bovine granulosa cells is the subject of some controversy among researchers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of LHR and LRBP (mRNA protein binding), a post-transcriptional suppressor of LHR mRNA expression, in granulosa cells from the two largest follicles around the expected time of follicle deviation in Nelore heifers. First, the interval between ovulation and follicle deviation in 20 Nelore heifers was determined (2.3 ± 0.2 days after ovulation). Ovulation was hormonally synchronized, and then, heifers were slaughtered on days 2, 2.5 and 3 after ovulation (before, during and after, respectively, the expected time of follicle deviation), and granulosa cells from the two largest follicles were collected. The mRNA abundance of an LHR fragment common to all isoforms (total LHR) and LRBP was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, and LHR alternative transcripts were assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR followed by electrophoresis. LHR mRNA expression was not detected before the expected time of deviation. Total LHR mRNA abundance was greater in the largest follicle and increased from day 2.5 to 3. In contrast, LRBP mRNA was detected starting on day 2 and was more expressed in the second largest follicle on days 2.5 and 3. The present data suggest that the expression of LHR mRNA in bovine granulosa cells is established after follicle deviation and that the lower abundance of LRBP mRNA after the expected time of deviation may contribute to greater expression of LHR in the bovine dominant follicle. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Evaluation of early embrionic development after natural mating using ultrasonography in bos indicus cows in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Maquivar, M; Galina, C S; Galindo, J; Molina, R; Molina-Montero, R; Estrada, S

    2008-06-01

    Fifty-eight nursing Zebu cows averaging 5922 days postpartum were used to evaluate the early embryonic development by ultrasound under a natural mating system (bulls A to F). Three consecutive mating periods of 21 days were established. Sixty two percent of the animals were diagnosed as pregnant (36/58). During the first period (AB) 76% (27/36) of the animals become pregnant, 17% (6/36) during the second (CD) and 9% (3/36) in the last mating period (EF). Sixty two percent of the animals were true positives (animals found pregnant diagnosed by ultrasound (US), and conforming with the embryonic scale proposed by Rosiles et al. (2006); 12% (n = 7) of false negatives (pregnant cows by US but not conforming with the scale); 2% (n = 1) of false positives (pregnant cows, evaluated with US and conforming with the embryonic scale but not pregnant at the end of the study); and a 26% (n = 15) of true negatives (not pregnancy evaluated with US). The sensitivity of the test was 97%, with a specificity of 68% with a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 6%. Relation between the measuring scale of embryo development and the results obtained by ultrasonography was k = 0.69. No significant correlation were observed between body condition score (BCS) evaluation and body fat (BF) measurement at any of the three evaluations performed after mating, however, measurements of BCS and BF among time showed a positive correlation (0.48 P < 0.05, 0.29, P < 0.07, respectively) from the beginning of the evaluation period to the end of the trial. Ultrasonography to monitor embryonic development to determine the early establishment of pregnancy in natural mating reproductive programs can be a valuable technique to monitor reproductive efficiency.

  10. Assessment of DGAT1 and LEP gene polymorphisms in three Nelore (Bos indicus) lines selected for growth and their relationship with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Ferreira, L M S; Regatieri, I C; Ayres, D R; Tonhati, H; Silva, S L; Razook, A G; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (Sertãozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  11. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

    2014-09-01

    Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research.

  12. Nitratireductor indicus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea water.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Zhiwei; Yuan, Jun; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2011-02-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated C115(T), isolated from a crude-oil-degrading consortium, enriched from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. Cells were Gram-negative short rods, mobile by means of a monopolar flagellum. Growth was observed at salinities of 0-7 % and at 10-43 °C. It was unable to degrade Tween 80 or gelatin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain C115(T) was related most closely to Nitratireductor aquibiodomus NL21(T) (96.5 % similarity), Nitratireductor kimnyeongensis KY 101(T) (96.4 %) and Nitratireductor basaltis J3(T) (96.2 %). The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω7c and/or C(18 : 1)ω6c, 81.8 %) and C(18 : 0) (7.0 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA of strain C115(T) was 59 mol%. Based on its morphology, physiology and fatty acid composition together with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Nitratireductor, but can be distinguished readily from recognized species of the genus. Strain C115(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nitratireductor, for which the name Nitratireductor indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C115(T) (=RC92-7(T) =CCTCC AB 209298(T) =LMG 25540(T) =MCCC 1A01260(T)).

  13. Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Jaya; Anand, Shailly; Jindal, Swati; Rajagopal, Raman; Lal, Rup

    2012-12-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-negative, non-motile, oxidase negative and catalase positive strain, A648(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site located in Lucknow, India, was ascertained by using a polyphasic approach. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence of the rpoB gene and the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain A648(T) belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A648(T) and other closely related members (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity greater than 97%), namely Acinetobacter radioresistens DSM 6976(T), A. venetianus ATCC 31012(T), A. baumannii LMG 1041(T), A. parvus LMG 21765(T) A. junii LMG 998(T) and A. soli JCM 15062(T), were found to be less than 8%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain A648(T) were 18:1ω9c (19.6%), summed feature 3 (15.9%), 16:0 (10.6%) and 12:0 (6.4%). The DNA G+C content was 40.4 mol%. The polar lipid profile of strain A648(T) indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The predominant polyamine of strain A648(T) was 1,3-diaminopropane and moderate amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also detected. The respiratory quinone consisted of ubiquinone with nine isoprene units (Q-9). On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other members of the genus Acinetobacter, strain A648(T) is found to be a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A648(T) ( = DSM 25388(T) = CCM 7832(T)).

  14. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1, Isolated in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Regnard, Guy L; Matiso, Asanda; Mounir, Latif; Embarki, Tarik; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2017-09-21

    Bos taurus papillomaviruses infect cattle, which has both animal health and economic consequences. This is the first report and sequence of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 isolated from warts in cattle in Morocco. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome was 7,945 bp in size, and eight open reading frames were identified. Copyright © 2017 Regnard et al.

  16. Genome-based reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and emended description of Bacillus indicus.

    PubMed

    Stropko, Samantha J; Pipes, Shannon E; Newman, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-01

    While characterizing a related strain, it was noted that there was little difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacillus indicus LMG 22858(T) and Bacillus cibi DSM 16189(T). Phenotypic characterization revealed differences only in the utilization of mannose and galactose and slight variation in pigmentation. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative genomics were used to calculate established phylogenomic metrics and explain phenotypic differences. The full, genome-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.74% similar. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the two strains was 98.0%, the average amino acid identity (AAI) was 98.3%, and the estimated DNA-DNA hybridization determined by the genome-genome distance calculator was 80.3%. These values are higher than the species thresholds for these metrics, which are 95%, 95% and 70%, respectively, suggesting that these two strains should be classified as members of the same species. We propose reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and an emended description of Bacillus indicus.

  17. Successful treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with intralesional fluorouracil in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Miller, C L; Templeton, R S; Karpinski, L

    2000-06-01

    An oral mass was observed in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. A series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.

  18. Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T

    PubMed Central

    Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio indicus J2T, a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223

  19. The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus, a new Indo-Pacific species in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dalyan, C; Eryilmaz, L

    2009-05-01

    The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay, Turkey). The presence of this Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea is probably because of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.

  20. A new antifungal eudesmanolide glycoside isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Family Compositae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bhuwan B; Kishore, Navneet; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2016-03-08

    A new antifungal eudesmanolide glycoside 11,13-dihydro-3-O-(β-digitoxopyranose)-7α-hydroxy eudasman-6,12-olide (2) in addition to known compounds 1 and 3, has been isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Its structure was determined by spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrum).

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, M.; Kannabiran, K.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:20502584

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, M; Kannabiran, K

    2009-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  4. Biocatalytic and antibacterial visualization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Hemidesmus indicus.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Sumathi, M; Manikandan, R; Arumugam, A; Prabhu, N M

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  6. Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-03-01

    Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers.

  7. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  8. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839

  9. Low Levels of Exhaled Surfactant Protein A Associated With BOS After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Petrea A.; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Hammar, Oscar S.; Viklund, Emilia A.; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte R.; Larsson, Per J-W.; Riise, Gerdt C.; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no clinically available marker for early detection or monitoring of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main long-term complication after lung transplantation. Sampling and analysis of particles in exhaled air is a valid, noninvasive method for monitoring surfactant protein A (SP-A) and albumin in the distal airways. Methods We asked whether differences in composition of exhaled particles can be detected when comparing stable lung transplant recipients (LTRs) (n = 26) with LTRs who develop BOS (n = 7). A comparison between LTRs and a matching group of healthy controls (n = 33) was also conducted. Using a system developed in-house, particles were collected from exhaled air by the principal of inertial impaction before chemical analysis by immunoassays. Results Surfactant protein A in exhaled particles and the SP-A/albumin ratio were lower (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0001 respectively) in the BOS group compared to the BOS-free group. LTRs exhaled higher amount of particles (P < 0.0001) and had lower albumin content (P < 0.0001) than healthy controls. Conclusions We conclude that low levels of SP-A in exhaled particles are associated with increased risk of BOS in LTRs. The possibility that this noninvasive method can be used to predict BOS onset deserves further study with prospective and longitudinal approaches. PMID:27795995

  10. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  11. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  12. Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M

    2008-10-01

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. Oocysts of C. ryanae, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ871345), are similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis but smaller. This genotype has been reported to be prevalent in cattle worldwide. Oocysts obtained from a calf for the present study are the smallest Cryptosporidium oocysts reported in mammals, measuring 2.94-4.41micromx2.94-3.68microm (mean=3.16micromx3.73microm) with a length/width shape index of 1.18 (n=40). The pre-patent period for two Cryptosporidium-naïve calves fed C. ryanae oocysts was 11 days and the patent period was 15-17 days. Oocysts were not infectious for BALB/c mice or lambs. Fragments of the SSU-rDNA, HSP-70, and actin genes amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. Multi-locus analysis of the three unlinked loci demonstrated the new species to be distinct from all other species and also demonstrated a lack of recombination, providing further evidence of species status. Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found only in Bos taurus calves is recognized as a new species and is named C. ryanae.

  13. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, K; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. Larvicidal efficacy of Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Arivoli, Subramaniam; Maheshwaran, Rajan; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Vincent, Savariar

    2012-09-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts were tested against the third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From each plant, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of the S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii crude extracts by hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate was 9.16, 11.71 and 10.83 g for S. indicus; 8.17, 10.69 and 9.85 g for C. collinus; and 10.11, 11.92 and 9.87 g for M. koenigii, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts at 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm caused a significant mortality of C. quinquefasciatus. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) were the following: S. indicus LC(50) values were 544.93, 377.86 and 274.79 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,325.32, 1,572.55 and 1,081.29 ppm at 24 h; C. collinus LC(50) values were 375.34, 318.29 and 226.10 ppm and LC(90) values were 699.65, 1,577.62 and 1,024.92 ppm at 24 h; and M. koenigii LC(50) values were 963.53, 924.85 and 857.62 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,665.12, 1,624.68 and 1,564.37 ppm at 24 h, respectively. However, the highest larval mortality was observed in C. collinus followed by S. indicus and M. koenigii of various concentrations at 24, 48 and 72 h. The study proved that S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts had larvicidal property against species of C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of vector control programmes.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Chang, Yun-juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22768359

  16. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2014-12-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  17. A high dynamic radiation measurement instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2015-05-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of the BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short-term variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time suggests that the BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor for monitoring electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  18. Preservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, M; Dhali, A; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Mishra, D P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of preserving mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature using tris-egg yolk diluent. Semen samples were collected from four adult mithun bulls through rectal massage method. Good quality semen samples (n=30) were preserved at 4 degrees C using tris-egg yolk diluent for 72 h. Progressive motility, live spermatozoa count and morphological abnormalities were evaluated every 12 h until 72 h of preservation. The colour, consistency and mass activity of fresh semen samples were found to be creamy white, medium and 3+ to 4+ (5+ scale), respectively. The average (mean+/-S.E.) volume (ml), pH and spermatozoa concentration (10(6) ml(-1)) of fresh semen samples were found to be 0.6+/-0.01, 6.8+/-0.03 and 425+/-48, respectively. Progressive motility and live spermatozoa count were found to be less than 30% (P<0.01) after 48 h of storage. Head (P<0.05), midpiece (P<0.05), tail (P<0.01) and total (P<0.01) abnormalities were found to be increased significantly over the time of storage. It was observed that progressive motility and live spermatozoa count remained above 30% and 40%, respectively, until 36 h of storage. Simultaneously the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found to be significantly low until 36 h of storage. The results indicate that it is possible to preserve mithun spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature in tris-egg yolk diluent, which can be further used for artificial insemination within 36 h of storage.

  19. A global survey of banteng (Bos javanicus) housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Lewis J; Rose, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management. Completed surveys from 16 zoos enabled analysis of contemporary practice between institutions. Results indicate differences in enclosure size between zoos, and that herd size is unlikely to predict enclosure size. Herd sizes are smaller than wild examples, and enclosure space (per animal) is significantly smaller than a potential wild range. Banteng are frequently maintained successfully in mixed species exhibits alongside a wide range of other taxa. Nutrient analysis focused on fiber and protein, and although provision of these nutrients appears comparable between zoos, more work is needed on browse and forage intake to determine overall diet suitability. Behavior management shows variation between zoos, with numerous collections providing browse but only a minority undertaking training, and not all providing enrichment. The overall diversity in findings between zoos suggest future research areas that should focus on key aspects of behavioral ecology, such as wild foraging behavior, food plant selection and day/night activity patterns, which may help underpin husbandry guidelines and excellent animal welfare. Zoo Biol. 35:546-555, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhanced expression of MYF5 and MYOD1 in fibroblast cells via the forced expression of bos taurus MYF5.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yong Wei; Ding, Xiang Bin; Ge, Xiu Guo; Fan, Han Lu; Liu, Zhong Wei; Guo, Hong

    2013-09-01

    The formation of vertebrate skeletal muscles widely thought to be under the control of hierarchy of regulatory genes. MYF5 is one of the myogenic determination gene expressed in the developing mouse dermomyotome which control skeletal muscle differentiation. In the current work, we had obtained the cDNA sequence including the full coding region of the bos taurus myogenic factor MYF5 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we examined whether fibroblast cell derived from mouse and bos taurus can be transduced using plasmid vectors carrying bos taurus MYF5. Bos taurus MYF5 activates MYF5 and MYOD1 expression after 1 day culture. The concerted upregulation of the myogenic regulatory factors enhanced myosin (skeletal fast) expression. These observation show that MYF5 is essential for myogenic differentiation and provides candidates for regulation bos taurus skeletal muscle development. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  2. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  3. Successful treatment of a necrotizing fasciitis patient caused by Mucor indicus with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yijin; Zeng, Fanqin; Huang, Xiaowen; Li, Qun; Tan, Guozhen; Xi, Liyan; Lu, Changming; Guo, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis, an uncommon disease caused by Mucorales, predominantly occurs in immunocompromised host. The present case is a primary cutaneous mucormycosis due to Mucor indicus in an immunocompetent individual. It is with the features of necrotizing fasciitis over the right pretibial area. We are presenting this case owing to its rarity and the successful treatment with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

  4. Effect of salt stress on the expression of NHX-type ion transporters in Medicago intertexta and Melilotus indicus plants.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Hamdi H; Marín-Manzano, M Carmen; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Venema, Kees; Rodríguez-Rosales, M Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Medicago intertexta and Melilotus indicus, two wild leguminous herbs with different tolerance to salinity were investigated for NaCl-induced changes in the expression level of some Na(+) transporters. M. indicus plants grew well at NaCl concentration from 0 to 400 mM, whereas growth of M. intertexta plants was severely inhibited at NaCl concentrations higher than 100 mM. In M. intertexta, increasing NaCl in the growth media caused a strong increase in Na(+) content concomitant with a decrease in K(+) content in leaves and, above all, roots. In comparison, M. indicus plants cultivated in the presence of NaCl accumulated much less Na(+) in leaves and roots and no differences in K(+) content among plants grown in nutrient solution containing 100-400 mM NaCl were detected. The expression levels of four genes coding for NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the above two wild legumes were studied in plants cultivated under the different NaCl concentrations. Expression levels of the genes were higher in M. intertexta as compared with M. indicus plants. In M. intertexta, salt treatments increased MtNHX1, MtNHX3 and MtNHX4 transcript levels in leaves and roots. However, in M. indicus NaCl treatments only induced the expression of MtNHX1 in roots. Our data suggest that two different mechanisms, Na(+) avoidance or accumulation into cellular compartments, are developed by the two wild legumes to cope with salt stress, and that expression of NHX antiporters is linked to the accumulator phenotype.

  5. Assessment of antioxidant potentials of free and bound phenolics of Hemidesmus indicus (L) R.Br against oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Smitha; Dharmesh, Shylaja M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a twining shrub commonly found in India, which was known to have wide pharmacological actions. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid (HMBA) and a number of pregnane glycosides were believed to be responsible for its various bioactivities. Until now, there are no reports regarding the antioxidant properties of phenolics from H. indicus Objective: To establish the role of phenolics in the properties of H.indicus. Materials and Methods: Hemidesmus free phenolic fraction (HDFP) and Hemidesmus bound phenolic fraction (HDBP) have been isolated from H. indicus, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated for inhibition of lipid peroxidation, DNA protection, free radical scavenging (FRS), reducing power and cytoprotective activities. Results: HDFP and HDBP exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 - 19.5 ±0.5 and 21.7 ±0.5 μg gallic acid equivalent - GAE/mL), FRS (IC50 - 7 ± 0.2 and 8.6 ± 0.2 μgGAE/mL), reducing power (110.3 ± 2 and 33.5 ± 1 U/g) and red blood cell protection (14.8 ± 0.4 and 14.5 ± 0.5 mg GAE/mL). HDFP is constituted by gallic (18%), caffeic (17%), ferulic acids (16%) and HDBP by syringic acid (35%) as major phenolic acids. Besides, both HDFP and HDBP contained significant levels of HMBA; in HDFP (10%) and HDBP (57%), respectively. Results indicated a 34-and 27-folds better contribution to the antioxidant activity by HDFP and HDBP, respectively, than that of HMBA. Conclusion: Potent antioxidant activities of phenolics may be one of the mechanisms by which H.indicus is effective against several health disorders as encountered in traditional medicines. PMID:22224044

  6. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  7. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  8. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  9. 3D reconstruction of a compressible flow by synchronized multi-camera BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Donjat, D.; Léon, O.; Le Besnerais, G.; Champagnat, F.; Micheli, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the application of a 3D density reconstruction from a limited number of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) images as recently proposed in Nicolas et al. (Exp Fluids 57(1):1-21, 2016), to the case of compressible flows, such as underexpanded jets. First, an optimization of a 2D BOS setup is conducted to mitigate the intense local blurs observed in raw BOS images and caused by strong density gradients present in the jets. It is demonstrated that a careful choice of experimental conditions enables one to obtain sharp deviation fields from 2D BOS images. Second, a 3DBOS experimental bench involving 12 synchronized cameras is specifically designed for the present study. It is shown that the 3DBOS method can provide physically consistent 3D reconstructions of instantaneous and mean density fields for various underexpanded jet flows issued into quiescent air. Finally, an analysis of the density structure of a moderately underexpanded jet is conducted through phase-averaging, highlighting the development of a large-scale coherent structure associated with a jet shear layer instability.

  10. Massive screening of copy number population-scale variation in Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant source of genomic structural variation. Their length ranges from approximately one hundred to millions of base pair. Genome-wide screenings have clarified that CNVs are a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting essentially the whole genome. Although Bos taurus is one of the most important domestic animal species worldwide and one of the most studied ruminant models for metabolism, reproduction, and disease, relatively few studies have investigated CNVs in cattle and little is known about how CNVs contribute to normal phenotypic variation and to disease susceptibility in this species, compared to humans and other model organisms. Results Here we characterize and compare CNV profiles in 2654 animals from five dairy and beef Bos taurus breeds, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 genotyping array (54001 SNP probes). In this study we applied the two most commonly used algorithms for CNV discovery (QuantiSNP and PennCNV) and identified 4830 unique candidate CNVs belonging to 326 regions. These regions overlap with 5789 known genes, 76.7% of which are significantly co-localized with segmental duplications (SD). Conclusions This large scale screening significantly contributes to the enrichment of the Bos taurus CNV map, demonstrates the ubiquity, great diversity and complexity of this type of genomic variation and sets the basis for testing the influence of CNVs on Bos taurus complex functional and production traits. PMID:23442185

  11. Massive screening of copy number population-scale variation in Bos taurus genome.

    PubMed

    Cicconardi, Francesco; Chillemi, Giovanni; Tramontano, Anna; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Valentini, Alessio; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Nardone, Alessandro

    2013-02-26

    Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant source of genomic structural variation. Their length ranges from approximately one hundred to millions of base pair. Genome-wide screenings have clarified that CNVs are a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting essentially the whole genome. Although Bos taurus is one of the most important domestic animal species worldwide and one of the most studied ruminant models for metabolism, reproduction, and disease, relatively few studies have investigated CNVs in cattle and little is known about how CNVs contribute to normal phenotypic variation and to disease susceptibility in this species, compared to humans and other model organisms. Here we characterize and compare CNV profiles in 2654 animals from five dairy and beef Bos taurus breeds, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 genotyping array (54001 SNP probes). In this study we applied the two most commonly used algorithms for CNV discovery (QuantiSNP and PennCNV) and identified 4830 unique candidate CNVs belonging to 326 regions. These regions overlap with 5789 known genes, 76.7% of which are significantly co-localized with segmental duplications (SD). This large scale screening significantly contributes to the enrichment of the Bos taurus CNV map, demonstrates the ubiquity, great diversity and complexity of this type of genomic variation and sets the basis for testing the influence of CNVs on Bos taurus complex functional and production traits.

  12. Assessment of sources of error in Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Lalit; Singh, Bhavini; Giarra, Matthew; Bane, Sally; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-11-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is used to measure density gradients in a flow by tracking the apparent distortion of a target dot pattern. The quality of a BOS measurement depends on several factors such as the dot pattern, illumination, density gradients, optical system, cross-correlation algorithms and density reconstruction. To understand their contributions to the final error in the measurement and to develop an optimal set of design rules, we generate high fidelity synthetic images using ray tracing simulations. Past studies use ad-hoc models (or none) for simulating these effects and do not represent the issues introduced in a typical BOS setup, thereby limiting their utility. We have developed and implemented an image generation methodology based on ray tracing, where light rays emitted from a dot pattern are traced through the experimental setup including the density gradients, to generate high fidelity images representative of a real experiment. We apply this methodology to perform a comprehensive analysis of the various sources of error in the BOS technique and to better understand the issues involved in designing a successful experiment. The results of this study can guide future experiments and provide directions to improve the image analysis tools.

  13. Measurement of the fluctuating temperature field in a heated swirling jet with BOS tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Henning M.; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Sieber, Moritz

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the potential of background-oriented schlieren tomography (3D-BOS) for the temperature field reconstruction in a non-isothermal swirling jet undergoing vortex breakdown. The evaluation includes a quantitative comparison of the mean and phase-averaged temperature field with thermocouple and fast-response resistance thermometer as well as a qualitative comparison between the temperature field and the flow field obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV). Compared to other temperature-measuring techniques, 3D-BOS enables non-invasive capturing of the entire three-dimensional temperature field. In contrast to previous 3D-BOS applications, the present investigation makes use of the special character of the flow, which provides a global instability that leads to a rotational symmetry of the jet. Additionally, the rotational motion of the jet is used to obtain a tomographic reconstruction from a single camera. The quality of 3D-BOS results with respect to the physical setup as well as the numerical procedure is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, a new approach for the treatment of thin occluding objects in the field of view is presented.

  14. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": What Should Education Research Do, and How Should It Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, three theoretical perspectives are used to extend Bulterman-Bos's (2008) argument regarding a clinical approach to education research. First, three intellectual virtues identified by Aristotle--"episteme," "techne," and "phronesis"--are related to the requirements of the "pure" education researcher, the skilled practitioner, and…

  15. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  16. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis.

  17. Pinniped tuberculosis in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and its transmission to other terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Jurczynski, Kerstin; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gomis, David; Moser, Irmgard; Greenwald, Rena; Moisson, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otariaflavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.

  19. Occurrence of the Rumen Ciliate Oligoisotricha bubali in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus) †

    PubMed Central

    Dehority, B. A.; Damron, W. S.; McLaren, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Oligoisotricha bubali, previously observed twice in water buffalo, was detected in rumen contents of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in two different areas of Tennessee. Concentrations ranged from <1 to 35% of the total protozoa in unweaned calves and up to 72% in older animals in feedlot. In contrast to the other genera of holotrichs, both total numbers and percent composition of O. bubali increased when animals were fed a corn silage-concentrate diet. Images PMID:16346277

  20. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Newman, Scott H.; Scott, Graham R.; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Bishop, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000 m in 7–8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8–2.2 km·h−1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power. PMID:21628594

  1. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Táňa

    2011-01-01

    Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

  2. Immunodominant protein MIP_05962 from Mycobacterium indicus pranii displays chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Equbal, Md Javed; Pandey, Saurabh; Sheikh, Javaid A; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Hasnain, Seyed E; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculosis, a contagious disease of infectious origin is currently a major cause of deaths worldwide. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a saprophytic nonpathogen and a potent immunomodulator is currently being investigated as an intervention against tuberculosis along with many other diseases with positive outcome. The apparent paradox of multiple chaperones in mycobacterial species and enigma about the cellular functions of the client proteins of these chaperones need to be explored. Chaperones are the known immunomodulators; thus, there is need to exploit the proteome of MIP for identification and characterization of putative chaperones. One of the immunogenic proteins, MIP_05962 is a member of heat shock protein (HSP) 20 family due to the presence of α-crystallin domain, and has amino acid similarity with Mycobacterium lepraeHSP18 protein. The diverse functions of M. lepraeHSP18 in stress conditions implicate MIP_05962 as an important protein that needs to be explored. Biophysical and biochemical characterization of the said protein proved it to be a chaperone. The observations of aggregation prevention and refolding of substrate proteins in the presence of MIP_05962 along with interaction with non-native proteins, surface hydrophobicity, formation of large oligomers, in-vivo thermal rescue of Escherichia coli expressing MIP_05962, enhancing solubility of insoluble protein maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) under in-vivo conditions, and thermal stability and reversibility confirmed MIP_05962 as a molecular chaperone. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  4. Studies on characterization of bioflocculant exopolysaccharide of Azotobacter indicus and its potential for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish Vitthalrao; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Bathe, G A; Patil, Deepak M

    2011-02-01

    Partially characterized bioflocculant exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from an Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain reported in our previous study was further characterized, and its flocculant potential was investigated at different pH, temperature, and cations concentrations. Flocculant activity at different concentrations of EPS in the absence of cations was reanalyzed by slight modified flocculant assay. It revealed that flocculant activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L⁻¹ EPS concentration, even in the absence of cations. At the concentration of 10 mg L⁻¹, CaCl₂ showed more significant activity (92%) than AlCl₃ and MnSO₄. Differential scanning calorimetry study and flocculant assay revealed high temperature stability of EPS up to 97 °C. Molecular weight of the EPS determined by size exclusion chromatography was found to be approximately 2 x 10⁶ kDa. Investigation on flocculation efficacy of the characterized EPS for wastewater treatment of dairy, woolen, starch, and sugar industry suggested it to be effective and stable at wide pH range of 5-10. Wastewater treatment with biopolymer at 500 mg L⁻¹ showed reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (38-80%), chemical oxygen demand (37-79%), and suspended solids (41-68%). This study suggests that Azotobacter polymer has high potential in wastewater treatment as bioflocculant and can be used as a potential alternative to chemical flocculants.

  5. Massive gene acquisitions in Mycobacterium indicus pranii provide a perspective on mycobacterial evolution

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vikram; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Tyagi, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria. PMID:22965120

  6. A novel L-fucose-binding lectin from Fenneropenaeus indicus induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biji; Ghosh, Krishna; Yadav, Nitin; Kanade, Santosh R

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are omnipresent in almost all life forms, being the proteins which specifically bind to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface; they have been explored for their anti-tumour activities. In this study, we purified a fucose specific-lectin (IFL) from Fenneropenaeus indicus haemolymph using fucose-affinity column and characterized for its haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, dependency on cations and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The lectin showed non-specificity against human erythrocytes. It was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin which remained stable over wide pH and temperature ranges. The lectin showed effective dose dependent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by DNA ladder assay and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, an increased p21 level corresponding to cyclin D downregulation in response to IFL treatment was observed which might work as probable factors to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, we report a novel lectin from the prawn haemolymph with high specificity for L-fucose and antiproliferative towards human cancer cells. However, further establishment of the modus operandi of this lectin is required to enable its biotechnological applications.

  7. Anterior ocular abnormalities of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kraiwong, Natapong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Diskul, Phiphatanachatr; Charoenphan, Patara; Pintawong, Weerasak; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2016-07-01

    To survey and classify anterior ocular abnormalities in 1478 captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in six regions of Thailand. Anterior ocular examination was performed in both eyes (n = 2956) of 1478 elephants selected from the annual health check program involving 2958 animals within six regions of Thailand from January to November 2013. Lesions were described and compared between age and gender. A total of 17.83% (527/2956) of examined eyes from 24.97% (369/1478) of examined elephants had anterior ocular abnormalities. The most common lesions in these examined eyes were frothy ocular discharge (5.85%), corneal edema (5.31%), and conjunctivitis (5.18%). In addition, epiphora, phthisis bulbi, other corneal abnormalities, anterior uveitis, and lens abnormalities were noted. Almost all lesions increased in frequency with age (P < 0.01). Regular ophthalmic examination in elephants should be included in their annual health check program. Early detection and treatment of any ocular abnormality may avoid the development of subsequent irreversible ocular pathology. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on wettability of narra ( Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Henry J.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Blantocas, Gene Q.

    2006-01-01

    Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips were irradiated with positive hydrogen ions H+ and H2+ to make them hydrophobic. The ions were produced and extracted from a gas discharge ion source. The extracted beam current ranges from 0.01 to 0.07 μA for discharge currents of 1.0-4.0 mA, discharge potential between 600 V and 1000 V. The chips, positioned at 70 mm downstream from the ion source, were processed for different time periods and discharge currents. The wettability was characterized by the contact angle of the liquid droplet with respect to the wood surface. Surface modifications were assessed with by measurements of the water contact angle. Tests indicate retarded absorption characteristics for ion-irradiated samples compared to controlled samples. The longest absorptive inhibition were exhibited by samples irradiated for 30 min, at discharge current of 1.0 mA, 720 eV ion energy and 0 V extraction potential. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the difference in morphologies of treated and untreated samples. The results prove that low energy beams of hydrogen from a gas discharge ion source are suitable in transforming surfaces of wood chips to be water resistant.

  9. Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73T

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Yuan, Jun; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    Celeribacter indicus P73T, isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Indian Ocean, is capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is the first fluoranthene-degrading bacterium within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Here, the complete genome sequence of strain P73T is presented and analyzed. Besides a 4.5-Mb circular chromosome, strain P73T carries five plasmids, and encodes 4827 predicted protein-coding sequences. One hundred and thirty-eight genes, including 14 dioxygenase genes, were predicted to be involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, and most of these genes are clustered in four regions. P73_0346 is the first fluoranthene 7,8-dioxygenase to be discovered and the first fluoranthene dioxygenase within the toluene/biphenyl family. The degradative genes in regions B and D in P73T are absent in Celeribacter baekdonensis B30, which cannot degrade PAHs. Four intermediate metabolites [acenaphthylene-1(2H)-one, acenaphthenequinone, 1,2-dihydroxyacenaphthylene, and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride] of fluoranthene degradation by strain P73T were detected as the main intermediates, indicating that the degradation of fluoranthene in P73T was initiated by dioxygenation at the C-7,8 positions. Based on the genomic and metabolitic results, we propose a C-7,8 dioxygenation pathway in which fluoranthene is mineralized to TCA cycle intermediates. PMID:25582347

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Dadhwal, Poonam; Cheng, Zhihui; Zianni, Michael R.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Liang, Fang Ting; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1-bp variation in the spacer length. Putative BosR-binding sites have been identified upstream of 156 B. burgdorferi genes. Some of these genes share the same expression pattern as ospA and ospD. Most notably, 12 (67%) of the 18 genes previously identified in a genome-wide microarray study to be most significantly repressed in the mammal are among the putative BosR regulon. These data indicate that BosR may directly repress transcription of many genes that are down-regulated in the mammal. PMID:23869590

  11. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421

  12. Analysis of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa X and Y chromosome transcriptome highlights reproductive driver genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Kai; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Shujun, Zhang

    2017-08-15

    The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively. The consensus module calculation yields an overall 167 overlapped genes which were mapped to 846 DEGs in Bos taurus to finally get a list of 67 dual feature genes. We develop gene co-expression network of selected 67 genes that consists of 58 nodes (27 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated genes) enriched to 66 GO biological process (BP) including 6 GO annotations related to reproduction and two KEGG pathways. Moreover, we searched significantly related TF (ISRE, AP1FJ, RP58, CREL) and miRNAs (bta-miR-181a, bta-miR-17-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-146a) which targeted the genes in co-expression network. In addition we performed genetic analysis including phylogenetic, functional domain identification, epigenetic modifications, mutation analysis of the most important reproductive driver genes PRM1, PPP2R2B and PAFAH1B1 and finally performed a protein docking analysis to visualize their therapeutic and gene expression regulation ability.

  13. Analysis of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa X and Y chromosome transcriptome highlights reproductive driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Kai; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Shujun, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively. The consensus module calculation yields an overall 167 overlapped genes which were mapped to 846 DEGs in Bos taurus to finally get a list of 67 dual feature genes. We develop gene co-expression network of selected 67 genes that consists of 58 nodes (27 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated genes) enriched to 66 GO biological process (BP) including 6 GO annotations related to reproduction and two KEGG pathways. Moreover, we searched significantly related TF (ISRE, AP1FJ, RP58, CREL) and miRNAs (bta-miR-181a, bta-miR-17-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-146a) which targeted the genes in co-expression network. In addition we performed genetic analysis including phylogenetic, functional domain identification, epigenetic modifications, mutation analysis of the most important reproductive driver genes PRM1, PPP2R2B and PAFAH1B1 and finally performed a protein docking analysis to visualize their therapeutic and gene expression regulation ability. PMID:28903352

  14. Immunological adjuvant effect of Boswellia serrata (BOS 2000) on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Khajuria, A; Singh, J; Singh, S; Suri, K A; Qazi, G N

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the biopolymeric fraction BOS 2000 from Boswellia serrata was evaluated for its potential ability as adjuvants on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 μg alone or with OVA 100 μg dissolved in saline containing alum (200 μg) or BOS 2000 (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg) on Days 1 and 15. Two weeks later, OVA specific antibodies in serum; concanavalin A (Con A), OVA stimulated splenocyte proliferation, CD4/CD8/CD80/CD86 analysis in spleen cells and its estimation of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN gamma) from cell culture supernatant were measured. OVA specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by BOS 2000 (80 μg) compared with OVA control group. Moreover, the adjuvant effect of BOS 2000 (80 μg) on the OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody responses to OVA in mice were more significant than those of alum. BOS 2000 significantly enhanced the Con A and OVA induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA immunized mice especially at a dose of 80 μg (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed among the OVA group and OVA/alum group. At a dose of 80 μg (p<0.001), there was a significant increase in the CD4/CD8 and CD80/CD86 analysis in spleen cells and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) profile in the spleen cell culture supernatant was observed. In conclusion, BOS 2000 seems to be a promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvants which can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine.

  15. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  16. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.

  17. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations.

  18. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide.

  19. Intralesional immunotherapy with killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine for the treatment of extensive cutaneous warts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Chouhan, Kavish; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Multiple cutaneous warts in adults are often symptomatic, cosmetically disabling, and difficult to treat. Killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (previously known as Mycobacterium w, popularly known as Mw) vaccine has earlier been investigated in genital warts with encouraging results. To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of intralesional injected killed Mw vaccine for the treatment of extensive extragenital cutaneous warts. In this study, a retrospective analysis of medical records was performed in patients with cutaneous warts treated with intralesional Mw vaccine. Only patients with more than 5 extra-genital warts, involving at least two body sites and which had not shown any signs of spontaneous regression over 6 months were treated with the vaccine. Forty four patients were treated with intralesional Mw vaccine. The mean number of warts was 41.5±25.7 with a disease duration of 3.1±2.5 years. Complete clearance was achieved in 24 (54.5%) patients with a mean of 3.4±1.1 intralesional injections. Cosmetically acceptable response to therapy (>75% clearance) was achieved in 37 (84.1%) patients. Wart response at distant sites was seen in 38 (86.3%) patients. Thirty-six patients (81.8%) experienced mild therapy-related side effects. Eighteen patients with complete response were followed up for 5.27±1.7 months and none had recurrence of lesions. Killed Mw vaccine is safe and effective in the treatment of extensive cutaneous warts. Larger, preferably randomized controlled trials are needed to assess its efficacy vis a vis standard therapies for warts.

  20. Methanocaldococcus indicus sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from the Central Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, S; Reysenbach, A-L; Banta, A; Messner, P; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Jeanthon, C

    2003-11-01

    An autotrophic, hyperthermophilic methanogen, strain SL43(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney sample collected on the Central Indian Ridge at a depth of 2420 m. The coccoid, surface-layer-carrying, Gram-negative-staining cells were heavily flagellated and exhibited a slight tumbling motility. The temperature range for growth at pH 6.5 was 50-86 degrees C, with optimum growth at 85 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 6.6 and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 30 g l(-1). The novel isolate used H(2) and CO(2) as the only substrates for growth and produced methane. Selenium and yeast extract stimulated growth significantly. In the presence of CO(2) and H(2), the organism reduced elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol and rifampicin, but not by ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin or streptomycin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 30.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this organism was most closely related to Methanocaldococcus infernus ME(T) (3.2 % distance). Its phylogenetic distinctiveness was confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 16S rDNA, a reliable tool for differentiating hyperthermophilic methanococci. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, it is proposed that strain SL43(T) (=DSM 15027(T)=JCM 11886(T)) be designated as the type strain of a novel species, Methanocaldococcus indicus sp. nov.

  1. The inhibition of Clostridium chauvoei (jakari strain) neuraminidase activity by methanolic extracts of the stem barks of Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans.

    PubMed

    Useh, N M; Nok, A J; Ambali, S F; Esievo, K A N

    2004-08-01

    The inhibition of neuraminidase from Clostridium chauvoei (jakari strain) with partially purified methanolic extracts of some plants used in Ethnopharmacological practice was evaluated. Extracts of two medicinal plants, Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans at 100-1000 microg/ml, both significantly reduced the activity of the enzyme in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.001). The estimated IC50 values for Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans were 100 and 150 microg/ml respectively. Initial velocity studies conducted, using fetuin as substrate revealed a non-competitive inhibition with the Vmax significantly altered from 500 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) to 240 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) and 340 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) in the presence of Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans respectively. The KM remained unchanged at 0.42 mM. The computed Index of physiological efficiency was reduced from 1.19min(-1) to 0.57min(-1) and 0.75min(-1) with Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans as inhibitors respectively.

  2. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation.

  3. Mis-Assembled “Segmental Duplications” in Two Versions of the Bos taurus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zimin, Aleksey V.; Kelley, David R.; Roberts, Michael; Marçais, Guillaume; Salzberg, Steven L.; Yorke, James A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the whole genome sequence coverage in two versions of the Bos taurus genome and identified all regions longer than five kilobases (Kbp) that are duplicated within chromosomes with >99% sequence fidelity in both copies. We call these regions High Fidelity Duplications (HFDs). The two assemblies were Btau 4.2, produced by the Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine, and UMD Bos taurus 3.1 (UMD 3.1), produced by our group at the University of Maryland. We found that Btau 4.2 has a far greater number of HFDs, 3111 versus only 69 in UMD 3.1. Read coverage analysis shows that 39 million base pairs (Mbp) of sequence in HFDs in Btau 4.2 appear to be a result of a mis-assembly and therefore cannot be qualified as segmental duplications. UMD 3.1 has only 0.41 Mbp of sequence in HFDs that are due to a mis-assembly. PMID:22880081

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity.

  5. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species.

  6. Alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1-induced malignant catarrhal fever in a Watusi (bos taurus africanus) steer in a North American game park

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 10 year-old Watusi (Bos taurus africanus) steer housed at a drive-through game park in Winston, Oregon developed severe clinical illness including: fever, marked nasal discharge, injected scleral and conjunctival membranes, plus oral hemorrhages and erosions. The animal responded poorly to support...

  7. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  8. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  9. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  10. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  11. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  12. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  13. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle.

  14. Roseovarius indicus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Zhong, Huanzi; Wang, Jianning; Yuan, Jun; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze

    2011-09-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated B108(T), which was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortium, enriched from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. The isolate was Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth of strain B108(T) was observed in 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl and at 10-39 °C and it was unable to degrade Tween 80 or gelatin. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain B108(T) was most closely related to Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (97.1 % sequence similarity), followed by Roseovarius pacificus 81-2(T) (96.6 %) and Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.2 %); other species shared <95.0 % sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization tests showed that strain B108(T) had a low DNA-DNA relatedness to R. halotolerans HJ50(T) and R. pacificus 81-2(T) (48±4 % and 44±5 %, respectively). The predominant fatty acids were C₁₆:₀, C₁₆:₀ 2-OH, summed feature 8 (C₁₈:₁ω7c/ω6c) and C₁₉:₀ω8c cyclo, which accounted for 84.2 % of the total cellular fatty acids. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 63.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q10). Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and some unidentified compounds were detected. These characteristics were in good agreement with those of members of the genus Roseovarius. The pufLM gene was also detected. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Roseovarius but can be readily distinguished from known species of this genus. Therefore, strain B108(T) represents a novel species, of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B108(T) ( = 2PR52-14(T)  = CCTCC AB 208233(T)  = LMG 24622(T)  = MCCC 1A01227(T)).

  15. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p < 0.0005) were observed on live Gastrothylax indicus worm as evident from their mortality at 4 h post exposure to both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids. LC-50 values were determined to be 12.05 mg/ml ± 3.24 and 23.52 mg/ml ± 6.4 for C. procera, 24.37 mg/ml ± 4.11 and 21.02 mg/ml ± 4.6 for A. indica, 18.92 mg/ml ± 4.54 and 24.43 mg/ml ± 6.96 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera, 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  16. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  17. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  18. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  19. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-09-03

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (dN = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bos gaurus gon-shan (Bovidae; Bovinae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Li, Wei-Guo; Shi, Ji-Peng; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Liang, Le

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a wild gon-shan chinese cattle Bos gaurus gon-shan. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,356 bp with the base composition of 33.4% for A, 27.2% for T, 26.0% for C, and 13.4% for G and an A-T (60.6%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of cattle.

  1. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  2. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  3. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  4. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records.

  5. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  6. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  7. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  8. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  9. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  10. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  11. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  12. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  13. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  14. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  15. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae.

  16. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24.26% (148/610) black yaks and 19.10% (186/974) white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.73, P < 0.05), the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks.

  17. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  18. Characterization of interstitial cells of Cajal in bowel of cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Márquez, S G; Galotta, J M; Portiansky, E L; Barbeito, C G

    2006-04-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been described in the gastrointestinal tract of different mammals including humans, horses, pigs, rats, dogs, mice and guinea-pigs. In the present study, ICC were identified in the jejunum of Bos taurus using polyclonal anti-c-Kit antibodies in immunohistochemical assays. Vimentin and desmin intermediate filaments were also determined using monoclonal antibodies. ICC were found in the tunica muscularis either in a palisade distribution pattern between the outer longitudinal and the inner circular layers (ICC-MP) or freely distributed in clusters in the longitudinal layer (ICC-LM). Morphometric studies determined that ICC have a fusiform shape presenting cytoplasmic prolongations. ICC were positive to c-Kit and vimentin antigens but negative to desmin. We have observed and described for the first time the presence of ICC in a ruminant. As observed in the aforementioned mammals, bovine ICC were associated with the myenteric plexus. Nevertheless, the presence of widespread ICC in the longitudinal muscular layer of the jejunum differs from previously described studies of other mammals.

  19. Assessment of Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Yak (Bos grunniens)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Fang, Lei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Chai, Shatuo; Liu, Shujie; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbial community composition in the rumen of yaks under different feeding regimes. Microbial communities were assessed by sequencing bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments obtained from yaks (Bos grunniens) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Samples were obtained from 14 animals allocated to either pasture grazing (Graze), a grazing and supplementary feeding regime (GSF), or an indoor feeding regime (Feed). The predominant bacterial phyla across feeding regimes were Bacteroidetes (51.06%) and Firmicutes (32.73%). At genus level, 25 genera were shared across all samples. The relative abundance of Prevotella in the graze and GSF regime group were significantly higher than that in the feed regime group. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus was lower in the graze group than the feed and GSF regime groups. The most abundant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota, which accounted for 99.67% of the sequences. Ten genera were detected across feeding regimes, seven genera were shared by all samples, and the most abundant was genus Methanobrevibacter (91.60%). The relative abundance of the most detected genera were similar across feeding regime groups. Our results suggest that the ruminal bacterial community structure differs across yak feeding regimes while the archaeal community structures are largely similar. PMID:28223980

  20. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  1. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (p<0.05) to the isotope composition in meteoric water in a regression analysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  2. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine. PMID:26783529

  3. Neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa de; Macedo, Madlaine Frigo Silveira Barbosa de; Cardim, Sergio Tosi; Paiva, Milaine Cristiane Dantas Custódio; Taroda, Alessandra; Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cunha, Ivo Alexandre Leme da; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Garcia, João Luis

    2013-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide parasite recognized as one of the main parasites responsible for abortion in cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate vertical transmission of N. caninum in dairy cows (Bos taurus) that were slaughtered at an abattoir in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Blood samples (with and without EDTA) from 60 pregnant dairy cows and blood and tissue samples (brain, lung, heart and liver) from their fetuses were collected and used for PCR and serological evaluation. Blood samples from 60 non-pregnant cows were collected and used to detect antibodies. Anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against N. caninum were observed in 41.6% (25∕60) of the pregnant cows and in 43.3% (26∕60) of the non-pregnant cows. Antibodies against the parasite were detected in sera from three fetuses (5.5%). PCR analysis revealed that 3.3% (2∕60) of the cows and 6.6% (4∕60) of the fetuses evaluated were positive for specific N. caninum primers. These positive fetuses were between 4-6 months of age. Therefore, considering PCR and serological tests to be indicative of vertical transmission in fetuses, 11.6% (7∕60) of the fetuses were infected by N. caninum during gestation.

  4. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.

  5. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Marco; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Patrini, Massimiliano; Milanesi, Elisabetta; Achilli, Alessandro; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Piazza, Alberto; Torroni, Antonio; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2007-05-07

    The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine and human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) have been investigated, based on the well-recognized strict legacy which links human and livestock populations. In the region corresponding to ancient Etruria (Tuscany, Central Italy), several Bos taurus breeds have been reared since historical times. These breeds have a strikingly high level of mtDNA variation, which is found neither in the rest of Italy nor in Europe. The Tuscan bovines are genetically closer to Near Eastern than to European gene pools and this Eastern genetic signature is paralleled in modern human populations from Tuscany, which are genetically close to Anatolian and Middle Eastern ones. The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support. As the Latin philosopher Seneca wrote: Asia Etruscos sibi vindicat (Asia claims the Etruscans back).

  7. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Patrini, Massimiliano; Milanesi, Elisabetta; Achilli, Alessandro; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Piazza, Alberto; Torroni, Antonio; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine and human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) have been investigated, based on the well-recognized strict legacy which links human and livestock populations. In the region corresponding to ancient Etruria (Tuscany, Central Italy), several Bos taurus breeds have been reared since historical times. These breeds have a strikingly high level of mtDNA variation, which is found neither in the rest of Italy nor in Europe. The Tuscan bovines are genetically closer to Near Eastern than to European gene pools and this Eastern genetic signature is paralleled in modern human populations from Tuscany, which are genetically close to Anatolian and Middle Eastern ones. The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support. As the Latin philosopher Seneca wrote: Asia Etruscos sibi vindicat (Asia claims the Etruscans back). PMID:17301019

  8. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Zimin, Aleksey V; Delcher, Arthur L; Florea, Liliana; Kelley, David R; Schatz, Michael C; Puiu, Daniela; Hanrahan, Finnian; Pertea, Geo; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Marçais, Guillaume; Roberts, Michael; Subramanian, Poorani; Yorke, James A; Salzberg, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    Background The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion base pairs that has multiple improvements over previous assemblies: it is more complete, covering more of the genome; thousands of gaps have been closed; many erroneous inversions, deletions, and translocations have been corrected; and thousands of single-nucleotide errors have been corrected. Our evaluation using independent metrics demonstrates that the resulting assembly is substantially more accurate and complete than alternative versions. Conclusions By using independent mapping data and conserved synteny between the cow and human genomes, we were able to construct an assembly with excellent large-scale contiguity in which a large majority (approximately 91%) of the genome has been placed onto the 30 B. taurus chromosomes. We constructed a new cow-human synteny map that expands upon previous maps. We also identified for the first time a portion of the B. taurus Y chromosome. PMID:19393038

  9. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  10. Comparison of meat quality between eland (Taurotragus oryx) and cattle (Bos taurus) raised under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Kotrba, Radim; Sales, James

    2014-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat were compared between non-domestic eland (Taurotragus oryx) bulls (n=6) and domestic Fleckvieh (Bos taurus) bulls (n=6) which were finished under controlled conditions of feeding and management. Musculus longissimus lumborum from eland were darker and less yellow in colour, with a higher pH24 and lower contents of intramuscular fat and total collagen, compared to cattle. Contents (mg/100 g muscle tissue) and proportions (g/100 g of FA determined) of SFA and MUFA were higher (P<0.01) in cattle. Although the proportion of total PUFA were higher (P<0.001) in eland, contents of PUFA were similar between species. Meat from cattle was consistently scored higher (P<0.05) for sensory texture characteristics, juiciness, flavour, and overall acceptance. We concluded that bulls of eland provided low-fat meat with a beneficial fatty acid composition from a human nutrition perspective, but with lower sensory scores, compared to bull beef.

  11. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  12. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan < 100 animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  13. New cryptic karyotypic differences between cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Planas, Jordi; Rossi, Elena; Malagutti, Luca; Parma, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus) belong to the Bovidae family, and they share a common ancestor 19.7-21.5 Ma ago (MYA). The Bovidae family apparently experienced a rapid species radiation in the middle Miocene. The present day cattle and goat possess the same diploid chromosome number (2n = 60) and structurally similar autosomes, except that a small subcentromeric portion of cattle chromosome nine has been translocated to goat chromosome 14. In this study, we adopted a new strategy that involves the use of bioinformatics approach to detect unknown cryptic chromosome divergences between cattle and goat using and subsequent validation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. We identified two hypothetical discrepancies between the cattle and goat genome assemblies: an inversion in the goat chromosome 13 and a transposition in the goat chromosome 6. The FISH technique allowed clear validation of the existence of a new 7.4 Mb chromosomal inversion in the goat chromosome 13. Regarding the transposition in the goat chromosome six, FISH analyses revealed that the cattle and goat genomes shared the same organization, with the assembly of the goat genome being the correct one. Moreover, we defined, for the first time, the size and orientation of the translocated fragment involved in the evolutionary translocation between cattle chromosomes 9 and goat chromosome 14. Our results suggest that bioinformatics represents an efficient method for detecting cryptic chromosome divergences among species.

  14. Studies on "stiffness of extremities disease" in the yak (Bos mutus).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Renduo

    2012-07-01

    Wild yak (Bos mutus) are affected by a disorder known colloquially as "stiffness of extremities disease," characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. Results from preliminary epidemiologic and clinical observations suggested that this was a local, nutritional and metabolic disease associated with some mineral deficiency. Our objective was to determine the possible relationship between this disease and phosphorus (P) deficiency. We found that P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than were those from unaffected areas, and the mean calcium:P ratio in the affected forage was 14:1. Phosphorus concentrations of blood, bone, teeth, and hair from affected yak were also significantly lower than were those from reference yak. Serum P levels of affected animals were much lower than were those of reference yak, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher than were those from reference yak. The P deficiency disease could be cured with supplement of disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na(2)HPO(4)). We conclude that the disease is mainly caused by P deficiency in forage.

  15. Anesthesia of Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) using thiafentanil - xylazine and carfentanil - xylazine.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Andrew; McClean, Modesto; Stanford, Michael; Lohe, Tessa; Alcantar, Benjamin E; Chirife, Andrea Denise

    2011-12-01

    The use of 0.025 +/- 0.012 mg/kg (median +/- interquartile range) thiafentanil with 0.15 +/- 0.03 mg/kg xylazine (TX) and 0.011 +/- 0.0015 mg/kg carfentanil with 0.25 +/- 0.093 mg/kg xylazine (CX), with dosages based on estimated bodyweight, was used in the anesthesia of 37 Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) housed within a drive-through animal park setting. The median time to lateral recumbency was 5 and 7 min for each group, respectively. With the addition of propofol in 8 CX animals and 17 TX animals, the anesthetic plane was suitable for a wide range of procedures. The median time to standing recovery following administration of naltrexone was 4 +/- 3.5 min with TX and 7 +/- 1.5 min with CX. There was one fatality and one case of renarcotization in the TX group. Overall, the dosages used in the study provided a reliable and useful anesthetic induction protocol, with TX animals demonstrating a more rapid induction and recovery with less cardiac depression than CX animals.

  16. The transmission of Jembrana disease, a lentivirus disease of Bos javanicus cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Soeharsono, S.; Wilcox, G. E.; Putra, A. A.; Hartaningsih, N.; Sulistyana, K.; Tenaya, M.

    1995-01-01

    Methods of transmission of Jembrana disease, an acute and severe disease of Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) caused by a recently-identified bovine lentivirus known as Jembrana disease virus, are described. During the acute disease virus can be detected in saliva and milk. There is evidence of direct transmission from acutely affected animals in close contact with susceptible cattle, possibly by virus in these secretions infecting cattle by the conjunctival, intranasal or oral routes, by which it was possible to infect cattle experimentally. During the acute disease the titre of infectious virus in blood is high, about 10(8) 50% cattle infectious units (ID50)/ml, and it is probable that the virus is also transmitted mechanically by haematophagous arthropods. Recovered cattle are also a potential but probably infrequent source of infection; recovered cattle are persistently viraemic but the titre of infectious virus in blood decreases to about 10(1) ID50/ml by 60 days after recovery from the acute disease, and virus cannot be detected in secretions. PMID:7589275

  17. Differential gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus infected Fenneropenaeus indicus by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    James, Roswin; Thampuran, Nirmala; Lalitha, K V; Rajan, Lawrance Anbu; Joseph, Toms C

    2010-11-01

    Suppression Subtractive Hybridization was employed in order to identify the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus infected Fenneropenaeus indicus. A forward subtracted cDNA library generated 356 clones following a white spot syndrome virus infection. A total of 345 clones with more than 100 nucleotides were selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools after vector screening. Twenty-three contigs and 111 singletons were generated from a total of 134 consensuses. The consensuses, on a sequence homology search using BLASTX (NCBI), revealed that 74 (55%) of them had no significant match to reported sequences in the database, suggesting that they were found for the first time and are probably associated with shrimp immune function. Out of the remaining 60 (45%) consensuses, 43 had significant homology to known protein sequences in the database while 17 consensuses are homologous to unknown proteins in the database which are considered novel. The most abundant genes in the subtracted library were antimicrobial peptides accounting for 56 clones; among which one is a member of SNF2 family of proteins and another belonged to PfP1 family of proteins on analysis using Antimicrobial peptide predictor software. The other predicted genes in the subtracted library include signal transduction molecules (GTPase, Serine threonine kinase, Armadillo repeats etc), antioxidant enzymes (Cytochrome oxidase, Monomeric sarcosine oxidase and Catalase), active transporters (Nuclear Localization Signal [NLS], calcium ATPase, sodium glutamate symporter, Store-Operated Calcium Entry [SOCE] and ribonucleoprotein [RNP]) contributing to 19, 14 and 5 clones respectively. Three clones are homologous to reverse transcriptase; a first time report in shrimp and one each belong to cell adhesion molecule and Proteinase. InterProScan at EMBL, when used for an integrated search at PROSITE predicted; signal sequences and transmembrane regions for 13

  18. Impact of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) and 6-Minute Walking Distance at 3, 6, and 12 Months and Annually on Survival and Occurrence of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Mohammed; Ingemansson, Richard; Algotsson, Lars; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2017-09-05

    BACKGROUND Development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a great limitation for patient survival in lung transplantation (LTx). A curative treatment for BOS is still missing, and in terminal stages re-transplantation (Re-LTx) is the only salvation. It is possible to slow the progress of BOS if it is detected at an early stage. This might be possible by assessing pulmonary function pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 1990 and 2014, 278 patients underwent LTx at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden. Pulmonary function was followed using spirometry (FEV1) and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) measured at 3, 6, and 12 months and annually. The endpoint used was freedom from BOS (BOS grade ≤1), BOS (BOS grade ≥2), and death or Re-LTx. RESULTS Double-lung transplantation (DLTx) showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.514 (p=0.001) versus recipients who underwent single-lung transplantation (SLTx). Regarding freedom from BOS, FEV1 showed an HR of 0.597 and 6MWT an HR of 0.982 (p<0.001). Regarding combined endpoint BOS ≥2 and Re-LTx, FEV1 showed an HR of 0.618 and 6MWT an HR of 0.972 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Recipients with higher FEV1 or 6MWT values had better chances of survival. Recipients with DLTx had a significant survival benefit and a protective effect against development of BOS. As the distance that the patient can walk in 6 minutes increases, risk for death or Re-LTx is significantly lower, as is incidence of developing BOS grade ≥2. Understanding changes within pulmonary function are probably key to understanding patient prognosis.

  19. African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Maudlin, I

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosomiasis remains one of the most serious constraints to economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and, as a consequence, related research has been subject to strong social and political as well as scientific influences. The epidemics of sleeping sickness that occurred at the turn of the 20th Century focussed research efforts on what became known as 'the colonial disease'. This focus is thought to have produced 'vertical' health services aimed at this one disease, while neglecting other important health issues. Given the scale of these epidemics, and the fact that the disease is fatal if left untreated, it is unsurprising that sleeping sickness dominated colonial medicine. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that, if anything, the colonial authorities greatly under-estimated the mortality attributable to sleeping sickness. Differences in approach to disease control between Francophone and Anglophone Africa, which in the past have been considered ideological, on examination prove to be logical, reflecting the underlying epidemiological divergence of East and West Africa. These epidemiological differences are ancient in origin, pre-dating the colonial period, and continue to the present day. Recent research has produced control solutions, for the African trypanosomiases of humans and livestock, that are effective, affordable and sustainable by small-holder farmers. Whether these simple solutions are allowed to fulfil their promise and become fully integrated into agricultural practice remains to be seen. After more than 100 years of effort, trypanosomiasis control remains a controversial topic, subject to the tides of fashion and politics.

  20. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice.

    PubMed

    Jeyasekaran, G; Ganesan, P; Anandaraj, R; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2006-09-01

    Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. Shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. Shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. Total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) cfu g(-1). Total lactics were found in the levels of 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1). H(2)S producers were from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Lowest temperature of -4.8 degrees C was observed in shrimps stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio. Bacterial flora associated with fresh raw shrimp were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Aeromonas constituted 38% of the flora in raw shrimp. Flavobacterium (43%), Pseudomonas (47%) and Pseudomonas (38%) were the dominant bacterial flora in the shrimp stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio, in the combination package, and in water ice at 1:1 ratio, respectively.

  2. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  3. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  4. Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a booster vaccine enhances BCG induced immunity and confers higher protection in animal models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Mohd; Khatri, Rahul; Singh, Bindu; Gupta, Ananya; Kumar, Arvind; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2016-12-01

    BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection. MIP booster via aerosol route was found to be more effective in protection than subcutaneous route of booster immunization. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-17 were induced at higher level in infected lungs of 'BCG-MIP' group both at mRNA expression level and in secretory form when compared with 'only BCG' group. BCG-MIP groups had increased frequency of multifunctional T cells with high MFI for IFN-γ and TNF-α in Mtb infected mice. Our data demonstrate for the first time, potential application of MIP as a booster to BCG vaccine for efficient protection against tuberculosis. This could be very cost effective strategy for efficient control of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Satyavathi; Khan, Ritindra N; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao

    2002-02-01

    The estuaries and backwaters that are the potential breeding grounds of penaeid shrimps are subject to heavy metal pollution through industrial effluents and domestic sewage. In the present investigation, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae. Static bioassay tests were employed to determine tolerance limits. Oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were determined in postlarvae by exposing them to different concentrations of lead for a period of 48 h. Oxygen consumption measurements were made by using a respiratory chamber equipped with an oxygen electrode and ammonia-N was determined with trione (dichloro-S-triamine 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione)). Accumulation of metal was estimated by wet-ash method. The LC50 value for 96 h was 7.223 ppm and the regression equation Y=4.1638+0.9738X with correlation coefficient of 0.9613 was obtained by probit method. A decrease in oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion was observed in postlarvae with increasing concentration of lead. A concentration-dependent accumulation of metal was noticed in these postlarvae. Modifications in O:N ratios of postlarvae suggest that lead accumulation might have altered utilization patterns.

  6. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    PubMed

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  7. Metagenomic profiling of gut microbial communities in both wild and artificially reared Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Sun, Hao; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Li, Laixing; Xiao, Zhixiong

    2017-04-01

    Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus), a species endemic to Asia, has become one of the most popular species in recent years for rare bird breeding industries in several provinces of China. There has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in both wild and artificially reared Bar-headed geese, even though the importance of gut microbiome in vertebrate nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction is widely acknowledged. In this study, metagenomic methods have been used to describe the microbial community structure and composition of functional genes associated with both wild and artificially reared Bar-headed goose. Taxonomic analyses revealed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the four most abundant phyla in the gut of Bar-headed geese. Bacteroidetes were significantly abundant in the artificially reared group compared to wild group. Through functional profiling, we found that artificially reared Bar-headed geese had higher bacterial gene content related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy metabolism and coenzyme transport, and metabolism. A comprehensive gene catalog of Bar-headed geese metagenome was built, and the metabolism of carbohydrate, amino acid, nucleotide, and energy were found to be the four most abundant categories. These results create a baseline for future Bar-headed goose microbiology research, and make an original contribution to the artificial rearing of this bird. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii against tuberculosis and underlying local lung immune responses in guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankan; Ahmad, F J; Ahmad, Faiz; Gupta, U D; Natarajan, M; Katoch, V M; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2012-09-21

    Tuberculosis kills two million people each year. As the current vaccine BCG fails to prevent adult cases of TB, an improved vaccine and/or vaccination strategy is urgently needed to combat TB. Previously we reported the higher protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), formerly known as Mycobacterium w (M.w) as compared to BCG in murine model of TB. In this study we further evaluated the protective efficacy of MIP in guinea pig model of TB. Modulation of post infection immune response was analyzed in the lungs of MIP immunized and control groups. We found reduced bacterial loads, improved pathology and organized granulomatous response at different post infection time points in the MIP-immunized group as compared to the BCG-immunized group. Combined results suggest that MIP-immunization results in heightened protective Th1 response as compared to BCG group, early after infection with M.tb and a balanced Th1 versus immunosuppressive response at late chronic stage of infection. The study demonstrates the higher antigen presenting cells function both inside the granuloma as well as in the single cell suspension of the lung in the MIP-immunized group. We further demonstrate that live MIP is safe to use in vivo as we observed quick clearance of MIP from the body and no untoward reaction was found. Aerosol route of immunization provided higher protection. Further this study provides evidence that MIP-immunization gives significantly better long term protection as compared to BCG against TB.

  9. Genome-wide characterization of perfect microsatellites in yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhijie

    2015-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) constitute a significant portion of genomes and play an important role in gene function and genome organization. The availability of a complete genome sequence for yak (Bos grunniens) has made it possible to carry out genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in this species. We analyzed the abundance and density of perfect SSRs in the yak genome. We found a total of 723,172 SSRs with 1-6 bp nucleotide motifs, indicating that about 0.47 % of the yak whole genome sequence (2.66 Gb) comprises perfect SSRs, the average length of which was 17.34 bp/Mb. The average frequency and density of perfect SSRs was 272.18 loci/Mb and 4719.25 bp/Mb, respectively. The proportion of the six classes of perfect SSRs was not evenly distributed in the yak genome. Mononucleotide repeats (44.04 %) with a total number of 318,435 and a average length of 14.71 bp appeared to be the most abundant SSRs class, while the percentages of dinucleotide, trinucleotide, pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats was 24.11 %, 15.80 %, 9.50 %, 6.40 % and 0.15 %, respectively. Different repeat classes of SSRs varied in their repeat number with the highest being 1206. Our results suggest that 15 motifs comprised the predominant categories with a frequency above 1 loci/Mb: A, AC, AT, AG, AGC, AAC, AAT, ACC, ATTT, GTTT, AATG, CTTT, ATGG, AACTG and ATCTG.

  10. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M

    2017-02-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management. The principal component analysis, the model-based clustering and a distance-based network analysis support previous works suggesting different histories for north-western and southern European cattle. Population admixture analysis indicates a zebu gene flow in the Balkan and Italian Podolic cattle populations. Our analysis supports the previous report of gene flow between British and Irish primitive cattle populations and local aurochs. In addition, we show evidence of aurochs gene flow in the Iberian cattle populations indicating wide geographical distribution of the aurochs. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) reveal that demographic processes like genetic isolation and breed formation have contributed to genomic variations of European cattle populations. The ROH also indicate recent inbreeding in southern European cattle populations. We conclude that in addition to factors such as ancient human migrations, isolation by distance and cross-breeding, gene flow between domestic and wild-cattle populations also has shaped genomic composition of European cattle populations.

  11. Computational prediction of MHC class I epitopes for most common viral diseases in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Tanmaya Kumar; Rao, A R; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Sahoo, Bishnu Charan; Gupta, Satakshi; Rai, Anil

    2015-02-01

    Viral diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), calf scour (CS), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) etc. affect the growth and milk production of cattle (Bos taurus) causing severe economic loss. Epitope-based vaccine designing have been evolved to provide a new strategy for therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity in animals. Therefore, identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding peptides as potential T-cell epitopes is widely applied in peptide vaccine designing and immunotherapy. In this study, MetaMHCI tool was used with seven different algorithms to predict the potential T-cell epitopes for FMD, BVD, IBR and CS in cattle. A total of 54 protein sequences were filtered out from a total set of 6351 sequences of the pathogens causing the said diseases using bioinformatics approaches. These selected protein sequences were used as the key inputs for MetaMHCI tool to predict the epitopes for the BoLA-All MHC class I allele of B. taurus. Further, the epitopes were ranked based on a proposed principal component analysis based epitope score (PbES). The best epitope for each disease based on its predictability through maximum number of predictors and low PbES was modeled in PEP-FOLD server and docked with the BoLA-A11 protein for understanding the MHC-epitope interaction. Finally, a total of 78 epitopes were predicted, out of which 27 were for FMD, 25 for BVD, 12 for CS and 14 for IBR. These epitopes could be artificially synthesized and recommended to vaccinate the cattle for the considered diseases. Besides, the methodology adapted here could also be used to predict and analyze the epitopes for other microbial diseases of important animal species.

  12. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management. The principal component analysis, the model-based clustering and a distance-based network analysis support previous works suggesting different histories for north-western and southern European cattle. Population admixture analysis indicates a zebu gene flow in the Balkan and Italian Podolic cattle populations. Our analysis supports the previous report of gene flow between British and Irish primitive cattle populations and local aurochs. In addition, we show evidence of aurochs gene flow in the Iberian cattle populations indicating wide geographical distribution of the aurochs. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) reveal that demographic processes like genetic isolation and breed formation have contributed to genomic variations of European cattle populations. The ROH also indicate recent inbreeding in southern European cattle populations. We conclude that in addition to factors such as ancient human migrations, isolation by distance and cross-breeding, gene flow between domestic and wild-cattle populations also has shaped genomic composition of European cattle populations. PMID:27677498

  13. Evaluation of foot and mouth vaccination for yak (Bos grunniens) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, J A; Khan, E H Haq; Ali, I; Manzoor, S; Jamil, A; Abubakar, M; Afzal, M; Hussain, M

    2017-04-01

    In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes 'O' (PanAsia-2), 'A' (Iran-05), and 'Asia-1' (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country ('O'-PanAsia-2; 'A'-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes 'O,' 'A,' and 'Asia-1.' These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus.

  14. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  15. The complete genome sequence of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Glanzmann, Brigitte; Möller, Marlo; le Roex, Nikki; Tromp, Gerard; Hoal, Eileen G; van Helden, Paul D

    2016-12-07

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is an important role player in the savannah ecosystem. It has become a species of relevance because of its role as a wildlife maintenance host for an array of infectious and zoonotic diseases some of which include corridor disease, foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis. To date, no complete genome sequence for S. caffer had been available for study and the genomes of other species such as the domestic cow (Bos taurus) had been used as a proxy for any genetics analysis conducted on this species. Here, the high coverage genome sequence of the African buffalo (S. caffer) is presented. A total of 19,765 genes were predicted and 19,296 genes could be successfully annotated to S. caffer while 469 genes remained unannotated. Moreover, in order to extend a detailed annotation of S. caffer, gene clusters were constructed using twelve additional mammalian genomes. The S. caffer genome contains 10,988 gene clusters, of which 62 are shared exclusively between B. taurus and S. caffer. This study provides a unique genomic perspective for the S. caffer, allowing for the identification of novel variants that may play a role in the natural history and physiological adaptations.

  16. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  17. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes.

  18. Analysis of copy number variations in Mexican Holstein cattle using axiom genome-wide Bos 1 array

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Villa-Angulo, Rafael; Villa-Angulo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recently, for copy number variation (CNV) analysis, bovine researchers have focused mainly on the use of genome-wide SNP genotyping arrays. One of the highest densities commercially available SNPchips for cattle is the Affymetrix axiom genome-wide Bos 1, which assays 648,315 informative SNPs across the whole bovine genome. Here, we describe the microarray data, quality controls and validation implemented in a study published in Genetics and Molecular Research Journal in 2015 [1]. The microarray raw data has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under accession #GSE54813. PMID:26981375

  19. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  20. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  1. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  2. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 Genes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Bos grunniens and Lowland Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Bing; Fu, Mei; Lan, Dao-Liang; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) play a pivotal role in regulating cellular hypoxic response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes encoding IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 to improve the current knowledge on their roles in highland Bos grunniens (Yak). We also compared their expression levels in the liver and kidney tissues between yaks and lowland cattle. We obtained full-length 465 bp IGF-1 and 792 bp IGFBP-1, encoding 154 amino acids (AA) IGF-1, and 263 AA IGFBP-1 protein, respectively using reverse transcriptase-polyerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Analysis of their corresponding amino acid sequences showed a high identity between B. grunniens and lowland mammals. Moreover, the two genes were proved to be widely distributed in the examined tissues through expression pattern analysis. Real-time PCR results revealed that IGF-1 expression was higher in the liver and kidney tissues in B. grunniens than in Bos taurus (p<0.05). The IGFBP-1 gene was expressed at a higher level in the liver (p<0.05) of B. taurus than B. grunniens, but it has a similar expression level in the kidneys of the two species. These results indicated that upregulated IGF-1 and downregulated IGFBP-1 are associated with hypoxia adaptive response in B. grunniens.

  3. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  4. [History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from Neolithic to Early Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Schibler, J; Schlumbaum, A

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (approximately 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic until Iron Age. Only with Roman influence larger animals are found. However, after the withdrawal of Romans the average size of cattle decreased again. Archaeogenetic studies will have to show, whether this is due to novel breeding strategies or the import of breeding stock. First genetic results showed that a female genetic type, which is rare in European breeds, is present in Swiss Evolène cattle and in one animal of Roman time cattle from Augusta Raurica. Is this a sign for influence of Roman cattle on today's Swiss breeds?

  5. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  6. Molecular cloning, bioinformatics analysis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 from Tianzhu white yak, Bos grunniens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanwei; Gong, Jishang; Wang, Xueying; Wu, Xiaohu; Li, Yalan; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2014-01-03

    The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens) domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak.

  7. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression model predicted tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P < 0.001). By comparison, 4 other wild ungulate species that share habitats with tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection.

  8. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir.

  9. Stable isotopes suggest low site fidelity in Bar-Headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao,; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-centr