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Sample records for african buffalos inferred

  1. Pan-African genetic structure in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): investigating intraspecific divergence.

    PubMed

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today.

  2. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today. PMID:23437100

  3. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  4. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  5. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented.

  6. Contrasting historical and recent gene flow among African buffalo herds in the Caprivi Strip of Namibia.

    PubMed

    Epps, Clinton W; Castillo, Jessica A; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Naidoo, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Population genetic structure is often used to infer population connectivity, but genetic structure may largely reflect historical rather than recent processes. We contrasted genetic structure with recent gene-flow estimates among 6 herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia, using 134 individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested whether historical and recent gene flows were influenced by distance, potential barriers (rivers), or landscape resistance (distance from water). We also tested at what scales individuals were more related than expected by chance. Genetic structure across the Caprivi Strip was weak, indicating that historically, gene flow was strong and was not affected by distance, barriers, or landscape resistance. Our analysis of simulated data suggested that genetic structure would be unlikely to reflect human disturbances in the last 10-20 generations (75-150 years) because of slow predicted rates of genetic drift, but recent gene-flow estimates would be affected. Recent gene-flow estimates were not consistently affected by rivers or distance to water but showed that isolation by distance appears to be developing. Average relatedness estimates among individuals exceeded random expectations only within herds. We conclude that historically, African buffalo moved freely throughout the Caprivi Strip, whereas recent gene flow has been more restricted. Our findings support efforts to maintain the connectivity of buffalo herds across this region and demonstrate the utility of contrasting genetic inferences from different time scales.

  7. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  8. Home on the range: factors explaining partial migration of African buffalo in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call "expanders". Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area.

  9. Home on the Range: Factors Explaining Partial Migration of African Buffalo in a Tropical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call “expanders”. Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722

  10. Histo-morphology of the uterus and early placenta of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and comparative placentome morphology of the African buffalo and cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Gerber, D; Soley, J T; Aire, T A; Boos, A

    2006-08-01

    Differences exist in reproductive physiology between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The aim of this study was to histo-morphologically compare the anatomy of non-pregnant and pregnant uteri of buffalo and cattle. Two non-pregnant uteri and placentae of six pregnant African buffalo were used. Early placentome formation (fetal crown rump length (CRL): 2-17.5 cm) in S. caffer and B. taurus was compared. The endometrium of buffalo uteri comprises round to ovoid, dome-shaped and gland-free caruncles. A predominantly simple columnar epithelium of non-ciliated cells covers caruncular tissue, while, additionally, ciliated cells occur in the epithelium of the intercaruncular areas and within the simple columnar or pseudostratified epithelium of the endometrial glands. During early gestation, multiple placentomes develop. Unlike the placentomes in cattle at similar CRL, buffalo placentomes do not develop a caruncular stalk. The sessile, dome-shaped buffalo placentome has simple, slightly conical villi branching less than in cattle, thus indicating different and less complex feto-maternal interdigitation than seen in the latter. A synepitheliochorial interhaemal barrier can be expected in the buffalo placenta, as the occurrence and ultrastructure of trophoblast giant cells resemble those described in cattle.

  11. Thelazia rhodesii in the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2011-03-01

    We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin.

  12. An experimental intratonsilar infection model for bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer.

    PubMed

    De Klerk, L; Michel, A L; Grobler, D G; Bengis, R G; Bush, M; Kriek, N P J; Hofmeyr, M S; Griffin, J F T; Mackintosh, C G

    2006-12-01

    An infection model for Mycobacterium bovis in African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, was developed, using the intratonsilar route of inoculation. Two groups of 11 buffaloes each, aged approximately 18 months, were infected with either 3.2 x 10(2) cfu (low dose) or 3 x 10(4) cfu (high dose) of M. bovis strain isolated from a buffalo. A control group of six buffaloes received saline via the same route. The infection status was monitored in vivo using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and in vitro by the modified interferon-gamma assay. All buffaloes were euthanazed 22 weeks post infection and lesion development was assessed by macroscopic examination, culture and histopathology. It was found that the high dose caused macroscopic lesions in nine out of 11 buffaloes. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all buffaloes in the high-dose group and from six out of 11 in the low-dose group.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Konnai, S; Okagawa, T; Githaka, N W; Kariuki, E; Gakuya, F; Kanduma, E; Shirai, T; Ikebuchi, R; Ikenaka, Y; Ishizuka, M; Murata, S; Ohashi, K

    2012-04-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) has been implicated as the reservoir of several bovine infectious agents. However, there is insufficient information on the protective immune responses in the African buffalo, particularly in infected animals. In this study, we analysed Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. The cloned cDNA of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ contained an open reading frame of 468, 501, 408 and 540 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 155, 166, 135 and 179 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 was more than 98% between the African buffalo and cattle, which resulted in identical polypeptides. Meanwhile, IL-10 gene of African buffalo and cattle had 95% homology in nucleotide sequence, corresponding to thirteen amino acid residues substitution. Cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the family Bovinae. Phylogenetic analyses including cytokines of the African buffalo placed them within a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and artiodactyl wildlife. A deeper understanding of the structure of these cytokines will shed light on their protective role in the disease-resistant African buffalo in comparison with other closely related species.

  14. Cape buffalo mitogenomics reveals a Holocene shift in the African human-megafauna dynamics.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rasmus; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Siegismund, Hans R

    2012-08-01

    Africa is unique among the continents in having maintained an extraordinarily diverse and prolific megafauna spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene epochs. Little is known about the historical dynamics of this community and even less about the reasons for its unique persistence to modern times. We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from 43 Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) to infer the demographic history of this large mammal. A combination of Bayesian skyline plots, simulations and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) were used to distinguish population size dynamics from the confounding effect of population structure and identify the most probable demographic scenario. Our analyses revealed a late Pleistocene expansion phase concurrent with the human expansion between 80 000 and 10 000 years ago, refuting an adverse ecological effect of Palaeolithic humans on this quarry species, but also showed that the buffalo subsequently declined during the Holocene. The distinct two-phased dynamic inferred here suggests that a major ecological transition occurred in the Holocene. The timing of this transition coincides with the onset of drier conditions throughout tropical Africa following the Holocene Optimum (∼9000-5000 years ago), but also with the explosive growth in human population size associated with the transition from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic cultural stage. We evaluate each of these possible causal factors and their potential impact on the African megafauna, providing the first systematic assessment of megafauna dynamics on the only continent where large mammals remain abundant.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of inflammatory cytokine genes in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) infected with Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Mekata, Hirohisa; Githaka, Naftaly; Suzuki, Saori; Kariuki, Edward; Gakuya, Francis; Kanduma, Esther; Shirai, Tatsuya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-15

    Theileria parva (T. parva) causes East Coast fever (ECF), which is of huge economic importance to Eastern and Southern African countries. In a previous bovine model, inflammatory cytokines were closely associated with disease progression in animals experimentally infected with T. parva. The African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), the natural reservoir for T. parva, is completely resistant to ECF despite a persistently high parasitaemia following infection with T. parva. Characterizing basic immunological interactions in the host is critical to understanding the mechanism underlying disease resistance in the African Cape buffalo. In this study, the expression level of several cytokines was analyzed in T. parva-infected buffaloes. There were no significant differences in the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines between the infected and uninfected animals despite a remarkably high parasitaemia in the former. However, the expression level of IL-10 was significantly upregulated in the infected animals. These results indicate a correlation between diminished inflammatory cytokines response and disease resistance in the buffalo.

  16. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae.

  17. Gene polymorphisms in African buffalo associated with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    le Roex, Nikki; Koets, Ad P; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic, highly infectious disease that affects humans, cattle and numerous species of wildlife. In developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of extensive wildlife-human-livestock interfaces poses a significant risk of Mycobacterium bovis transmission between these groups, and has far-reaching ecological, economic and public health impacts. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), acts as a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and maintains and transmits the disease within the buffalo and to other species. In this study we aimed to investigate genetic susceptibility of buffalo for Mycobacterium bovis infection. Samples from 868 African buffalo of the Cape buffalo subspecies were used in this study. SNPs (n = 69), with predicted functional consequences in genes related to the immune system, were genotyped in this buffalo population by competitive allele-specific SNP genotyping. Case-control association testing and statistical analyses identified three SNPs associated with BTB status in buffalo. These SNPs, SNP41, SNP137 and SNP144, are located in the SLC7A13, DMBT1 and IL1α genes, respectively. SNP137 remained significantly associated after permutation testing. The three genetic polymorphisms identified are located in promising candidate genes for further exploration into genetic susceptibility to BTB in buffalo and other bovids, such as the domestic cow. These polymorphisms/genes may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programmes, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national parks and the private sector.

  18. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop

    2013-05-16

    The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  19. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-06-20

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  20. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Mulumba, Misheck; Nambota, Andrew; Munyeme, Musso; Mutoloki, Stephen; Nonga, Hezron

    2009-12-03

    A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia.

  2. A new species of trichostrongyloid in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Artiodactyla: Bovinae) from Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africanastrongylus giganticus n. sp. is described based on large ostertagiine nematodes occurring in the abomasum of African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, from Uganda; this represents the second species recognized in the genus. Specimens of A. giganticus are characterized by large size (15-19 mm in tot...

  3. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

    2005-06-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  4. The host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. To this end the R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN) nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP), Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B.) decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B.) decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs.

  5. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Edward K; Penzhorn, Barend L; Horak, Ivan G

    2012-11-21

    Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Anaplasma species from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Danielle; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Jolles, Anna; Beechler, Brianna; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, mainly caused by Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. This study aimed to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffaloes in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, using the DNA sequences of the genes coding for major surface protein (msp1β) and heat shock protein (groEL), respectively. A total of 747 blood samples were collected from February 2014 to August 2016 from African buffaloes kept in KNP, and DNAs were tested using a molecular-phylogenetic approach. Out of 747 samples tested, 129 (17.3%) and 98 (13.1%) were positive for single infection with A. marginale and A. centrale, respectively; whereas 113 (15.1%) were positive for both Anaplasma spp. Pairwise difference of 1.6-8.5% was observed in msp1β sequences of A. marginale whereas that was only 0.3-2.4% for groEL sequences of A. centrale. Separate phylogenetic analyses of msp1β and groEL sequences of A. marginale and A. centrale, respectively, revealed that sequences of Anaplasma spp. from African buffaloes were unique and they grouped separately when compared with previously published sequences of both species. This is the first study to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffalo using species specific molecular markers. This study will pave the way for future studies to assess genetic variation among Anaplasma spp. from wild ruminants using molecular markers that are better at differentiating between species and strains than the more commonly used 16S rRNA gene, and help to undertake health and fitness studies and host-parasite dynamics using quantitative molecular tools.

  8. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Winnie, John A; Cross, Paul; Getz, Wayne

    2008-05-01

    Top-down effects of predators on prey behavior and population dynamics have been extensively studied. However, some populations of very large herbivores appear to be regulated primarily from the bottom up. Given the importance of food resources to these large herbivores, it is reasonable to expect that forage heterogeneity (variation in quality and quantity) affects individual and group behaviors as well as distribution on the landscape. Forage heterogeneity is often strongly driven by underlying soils, so substrate characteristics may indirectly drive herbivore behavior and distribution. Forage heterogeneity may further interact with predation risk to influence prey behavior and distribution. Here we examine differences in spatial distribution, home range size, and grouping behaviors of African buffalo as they relate to geologic substrate (granite and basalt) and variation in food quality and quantity. In this study, we use satellite imagery, forage quantity data, and three years of radio-tracking data to assess how forage quality, quantity, and heterogeneity affect the distribution and individual and herd behavior of African buffalo. We found that buffalo in an overall poorer foraging environment keyed-in on exceptionally high-quality areas, whereas those foraging in a more uniform, higher-quality area used areas of below-average quality. Buffalo foraging in the poorer-quality environment had smaller home range sizes, were in smaller groups, and tended to be farther from water sources than those foraging in the higher-quality environment. These differences may be due to buffalo creating or maintaining nutrient hotspots (small, high-quality foraging areas) in otherwise low-quality foraging areas, and the location of these hotspots may in part be determined by patterns of predation risk.

  10. Evaluation of hematologic values in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Jolles, A E; Ezenwa, V O

    2009-01-01

    As part of a large-scale disease screening program, blood samples were collected from 534 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa's Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in October 2005 and May 2006 to establish age- and sex-specific reference intervals for erythrogram and leukogram values. Sixty-seven of the animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB), allowing for comparisons between TB-positive and TB-negative groups. Positive animals had basopenia and slight lymphopenia compared to TB-negative animals. Blood values were compared to those reported for captive African buffalo, American bison (Bos bison), and cattle (Bos taurus). The free-ranging buffalo sampled in this study had higher white blood cell counts than captive buffalo, and this difference was driven by lymphocytes. Free-ranging buffalo also had higher red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell counts, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and lower mean corpuscular volume (MCV) than cattle. Demographic and environmental factors strongly affected hematologic values in the study population. Older animals had significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while younger animals had a higher red blood cell count, red cell distribution width (RDW), and white blood cell count, which was due to lymphocytes and basophils. Females had a higher hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and basophils than males. At the end of the wet season, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, MCHC, RDW, white blood cell count, and neutrophils were all significantly higher, while basophils and MCV were lower, than at the end of the dry season. Our results emphasize the need to use species-specific data when interpreting hematologic values and point to important differences in hematology between captive and free-ranging animals of the same species. Strong variability in hematologic values with animal age and sex, season, and herd

  11. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Hay, C T; Cross, P C; Funston, P J

    2008-09-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success.

  12. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosing brucellosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Gorsich, Erin E; Bengis, Roy G; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease of veterinary and public health importance worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, where the bacterium Brucella abortus has been identified in several free-ranging wildlife species, successful disease control may be dependent on accurate detection in wildlife reservoirs, including African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (IDEXX Brucellosis Serum Ab test, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) for B. abortus based on a data set of 571 serum samples from 258 buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We defined a pseudogold standard test result as those buffalo that were consistently positive or negative on two additional serologic tests, namely, the rose bengal test (RBT) and the complement fixation test (CFT). The ELISA's cutoff value was selected using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the pseudogold standard, and a threshold criterion that maximizes the total sensitivity and specificity. Then, we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of all three tests using Bayesian inference and latent class analysis. The ELISA had an estimated sensitivity of 0.928 (95% Bayesian posterior credibility interval [95% BCI] = 0.869-0.974) and specificity of 0.870 (95% BCI = 0.836-0.900). Compared with the ELISA, the RBT had a higher estimated sensitivity of 0.986 (95% BCI = 0.928-0.999), and both the RBT and CFT had higher specificities, estimated to be 0.992 (95% BCI = 0.971-0.996) and 0.998 (95% BCI = 0.992-0.999), respectively. Therefore, no single serologic test perfectly detected the antibody. However, after adjustment of cutoff values for South African conditions, the IDEXX Brucellosis Serum Ab Test may be a valuable additional screening test for brucellosis in Kruger National Park's African buffalo.

  13. Theileria-infected cell line from an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Zweygarth, Erich; Koekemoer, Otto; Josemans, Antoinette I; Rambritch, Natasha; Pienaar, Ronel; Putterill, John; Latif, Abdalla; Potgieter, Fred T

    2009-08-01

    Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of a buffalo infected with a Theileria sp. using density gradient centrifugation, and the cells were put into culture flasks covered by a monolayer of bovine endothelial cells. Twenty days after culture initiation, cells containing macroschizonts were detected in Giemsa-stained smears. The first subculture was carried out on day 45 of culture propagation. Subsequently, infected cells were subcultured twice a week, and each time 1 to 2 x 10(6) per milliliter cells were harvested. DNA was extracted from culture material and a partial polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was carried out using Theileria genus-specific primers. Sequence data and phylogenetic analysis using the 18S rRNA gene indicated a close relationship to Theileria sp. buffalo, previously described in literature. Here, the first successful attempt to establish a macroschizont-infected lymphoblastoid cell line of Theileria sp. (buffalo) from an African buffalo is described.

  14. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  15. Sarcocystis cafferi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lane, Emily P; van Wilpe, Erna; Suleman, Essa; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Verma, S K; Rosenthal, B M; Mtshali, Moses S

    2014-12-01

    Sarcocystis infections have been reported from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), but the species have not been named. Here we propose a new name Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo. Histological examination of heart (92), skeletal muscle (36), and tongue (2) sections from 94 buffalos from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, and a review of the literature revealed only 1 species of Sarcocystis in the African buffalo. Macrocysts were up to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide and were located in the neck muscles and overlying connective tissue. They were pale yellow; shaped like a lychee fruit stone or cashew nut; turgid or flaccid and oval to round (not fusiform). By light microscopy (LM) the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped villar protrusions (vp) that were of different sizes and folded over the sarcocyst wall. The entire surfaces of vp were covered with papillomatous structures. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was up to 3.6 μm thick and had highly branched villar protrusions that were up to 3 μm long. The villar projections contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections, but some tubules criss-crossed, especially at the base. Granules were absent from these tubules. Longitudinally cut bradyzoites were 12.1 × 2.7 μm in size, had a long convoluted mitochondrion, and only 2 rhoptries. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences indicated that this Sarcocystis species is very closely related to, but distinct from, Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Thus, morphological findings by LM, SEM, and TEM together with molecular phylogenetic data (from 18S rRNA and cox1) confirm that the Sarcocystis species in the African buffalo is distinct from S. fusiformis and has therefore been named Sarcocystis

  16. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  17. Differential Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in African Buffalo Is Related to Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Francois; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Gubbins, Simon; Zhang, Fuquan; Seago, Julian; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Reid, Liz; Scott, Katherine; van Schalkwyk, Louis; Bengis, Roy; Juleff, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. In particular, the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the African buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple SAT serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. However, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. FMD in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study FMDV persistence, as transmission from carrier ruminants has convincingly been demonstrated for only this species. Following coinfection of naive African buffaloes with isolates of three SAT serotypes from field buffaloes, palatine tonsil swabs were the sample of choice for recovering infectious FMDV up to 400 days postinfection (dpi). Postmortem examination identified infectious virus for up to 185 dpi and viral genomes for up to 400 dpi in lymphoid tissues of the head and neck, focused mainly in germinal centers. Interestingly, viral persistence in vivo was not homogenous, and the SAT-1 isolate persisted longer than the SAT-2 and SAT-3 isolates. Coinfection and passage of these SAT isolates in goat and buffalo cell lines demonstrated a direct correlation between persistence and cell-killing capacity. These data suggest that FMDV persistence occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid tissue but that the duration of persistence is related to virus replication and cell-killing capacity. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in domestic livestock and wildlife species. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the primary carrier hosts of FMDV in African savannah ecosystems, where the disease is endemic. We have shown that the virus persists for up to 400 days in buffaloes and that there is competition between viruses during mixed infections. There was similar competition in cell culture: viruses that killed cells quickly

  18. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  19. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  20. Disease Control in Wildlife: Evaluating a Test and Cull Programme for Bovine Tuberculosis in African Buffalo.

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Hoal, E G; Jolles, A E

    2016-12-01

    Providing an evidence base for wildlife population management is difficult, due to limited opportunities for experimentation and study replication at the population level. We utilized an opportunity to assess the outcome of a test and cull programme aimed at limiting the spread of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffalo. Buffalo act as reservoirs of M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which can have major economic, ecological and public health impacts through the risk of infection to other wildlife species, livestock and surrounding communities. BTB prevalence data were collected in conjunction with disease control operations in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, from 1999 to 2006. A total of 4733 buffalo (250-950 per year) were tested for BTB using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) test, with BTB-positive animals culled, and negative animals released. BTB prevalence was spatially and temporally variable, ranging from 2.3% to 54.7%. Geographic area was a strong predictor of BTB transmission in HiP, owing to relatively stable herds and home ranges. Herds experiencing more intensive and frequent captures showed reduced per capita disease transmission risk and less increase in herd prevalence over time. Disease hot spots did not expand spatially over time, and BTB prevalence in all but the hot spot areas was maintained between 10% and 15% throughout the study period. Our data suggest that HiP's test and cull programme was effective at reducing BTB transmission in buffalo, with capture effort and interval found to be the crucial components of the programme. The programme was thus successful with respect to the original goals; however, there are additional factors that should be considered in future cost/benefit analyses and decision-making. These findings may be utilized and expanded in future collaborative work between wildlife managers, veterinarians and scientists, to optimize wildlife disease control programmes and

  1. Characterization of tuberculous lesions in naturally infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Laisse, Cláudio J M; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Ramis, Guillermo; Bila, Custódio G; Machado, Adelina; Quereda, Juan J; Agren, Erik O; van Helden, Paul D

    2011-09-01

    Tuberculosis pathology was studied on 19 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from a herd in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in South Africa. The animals tested positive with the comparative intradermal tuberculin test and were euthanized during a test-and-cull operation to decrease prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the park. The lymph nodes and lungs were examined grossly for presence of tuberculous lesions, which were scored on a 0-5 scale for macroscopic changes. The gross lesions were examined histologically and classified into grade I, II, III, or IV according to a grading system used for bTB lesions in domestic cattle. Macroscopic lesions were limited to the retropharyngeal, bronchial, and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lungs. The most frequently affected lymph nodes were the bronchial (in 16 animals) and mediastinal (in 11 animals). All four grades of microscopic lesions were observed, grade II lesions were the most frequent. Mycobacterium bovis was detected by PCR in 8 out of 19 animals, and acid-fast bacilli were seen in 7 out of 19 animals, together both techniques identified mycobacteria in 5 out of 19 animals. Lesions were paucibacillary, as acid-fast bacilli were only rarely observed. The absence of lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes and the high frequency of lesions in respiratory tract associated lymph nodes suggest that the main route of M. bovis infection in African buffalo is by inhalation.

  2. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewals, Benjamin; Gillet, Laurent; Gerdes, Truuske; Taracha, Evans L N; Thiry, Etienne; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2005-10-31

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, P.A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal AlHV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and AlHV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in AlHV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against AlHV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response.

  3. Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, using high-throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    le Roex, Nikki; Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andrew; Bradley, Daniel G; Kemp, Steven J; Kay, Suzanne; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the most abundant and ecologically important species of megafauna in the savannah ecosystem. It is an important prey species, as well as a host for a vast array of nematodes, pathogens and infectious diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis and corridor disease. Large-scale SNP discovery in this species would greatly facilitate further research into the area of host genetics and disease susceptibility, as well as provide a wealth of sequence information for other conservation and genomics studies. We sequenced pools of Cape buffalo DNA from a total of 9 animals, on an ABI SOLiD4 sequencer. The resulting short reads were mapped to the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly using both BWA and Bowtie software packages. A mean depth of 2.7× coverage over the mapped regions was obtained. Btau4 gene annotation was added to all SNPs identified within gene regions. Bowtie and BWA identified a maximum of 2,222,665 and 276,847 SNPs within the buffalo respectively, depending on analysis method. A panel of 173 SNPs was validated by fluorescent genotyping in 87 individuals. 27 SNPs failed to amplify, and of the remaining 146 SNPs, 43-54% of the Bowtie SNPs and 57-58% of the BWA SNPs were confirmed as polymorphic. dN/dS ratios found no evidence of positive selection, and although there were genes that appeared to be under negative selection, these were more likely to be slowly evolving house-keeping genes.

  4. BCG vaccination failed to protect yearling African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) against experimental intratonsilar challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Lin-Mari; Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G; Kriek, Nicolaas P J; Godfroid, Jacques

    2010-09-15

    Vaccination has been discussed as a practical option to control bovine tuberculosis in countries where a wildlife reservoir of the disease is present. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the main wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in certain South African game parks and vaccination is not only the most promising but the only ethically acceptable control measure currently available. The use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (Pasteur strain) to vaccinate fourteen African buffalo yearlings and their reactions to subsequent intratonsilar challenge with a field strain of M. bovis are described. The BCG vaccine was administered twice intramuscularly, six weeks apart. All vaccinates and thirteen control buffaloes were euthanized and necropsies performed 9 months after the challenge. Standard sets of lymph nodes from the head, the thoracic cavity and abdomen were cultured and examined histopathologically. No significant reduction in number of lesions or severity of disease was noted, concluding that the BCG vaccine did not induce sufficient protection able to limit the shedding of organisms. The age of the buffaloes, route of vaccination and prior exposure to environmental mycobacteria are among the possible reasons for vaccination failure.

  5. Disentangling association patterns in fission-fusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Getz, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.

  6. AN EXPLORATION OF DIVERSITY AMONG THE OSTERTAGIINAE: AFRICANASTRONGYLUS BUCEROS GEN. NOV. ET SP. NOV. (NEMATODA: TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA) IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abomasal nematodes (Ostertagiine: Trichostrongyloidea) representing a previously unrecognized genus and species are reported in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) from Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. Africanastrongylus buceros gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a symmetrical tapering ...

  7. Selection at the Y chromosome of the African buffalo driven by rainfall.

    PubMed

    van Hooft, Pim; Greyling, Barend J; Prins, Herbert H T; Getz, Wayne M; Jolles, Anna E; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2007-10-31

    Selection coefficients at the mammalian Y chromosome typically do not deviate strongly from neutrality. Here we show that strong balancing selection, maintaining intermediate frequencies of DNA sequence variants, acts on the Y chromosome in two populations of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Significant correlations exist between sequence variant frequencies and annual rainfall in the years before conception, with five- to eightfold frequency changes over short time periods. Annual rainfall variation drives the balancing of sequence variant frequencies, probably by affecting parental condition. We conclude that sequence variants confer improved male reproductive success after either dry or wet years, making the population composition and dynamics very sensitive to climate change. The mammalian Y chromosome, interacting with ecological processes, may affect male reproductive success much more strongly than previously thought.

  8. Transmission of Cowdria ruminantium by Amblyomma gemma from infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and eland (Taurotragus oryx) to sheep.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, F D; Mukolwe, S W; Grootenhuis, J

    2001-10-01

    Two African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), an eland (Taurotragus oryx) and a waterbuck (Kobus defassa) were intravenously inoculated with Cowdria ruminantium (Kiswani). Amblyomma gemma nymphs were fed on the animals at 3 weekly intervals. Jugular blood was also collected at 3 weekly intervals and inoculated into sheep. Nymphal ticks that fed on one buffalo on days 16 and 37 and on the other buffalo on day 58 after infection transmitted the disease as adults to sheep. Nymphs that were applied to the eland 16 days after infection also transmitted the disease to sheep. No nymphs that had fed on the waterbuck transmitted the disease. This is the first report of transmission of heartwater by Amblyomma gemma from infected wild ruminant species to a susceptible domestic ruminant species.

  9. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: evidence of interepidemic transmission.

    PubMed

    LaBeaud, A Desirée; Cross, Paul C; Getz, Wayne M; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk.

  11. Survey of ixodid ticks and two tick-borne pathogens in African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, from the Caprivi Strip, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Cammà, Cesare; Marcacci, Maurilia; Di Domenico, Marco; Lelli, Rossella; Scacchia, Massimo; Jago, Mark; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Hager, Anna Laure; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Caporale, Vincenzo

    2011-12-01

    A capture operation to ascertain health status in free-ranging buffaloes from six different areas in the Caprivi Strip in the northeast corner of Namibia was conducted in October 2009. Basic information on the ticks and tick-borne pathogens normally found in wildlife from this area are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for ixodid ticks and two selected tick-borne pathogens in the Caprivi Strip, a key area bordering Angola, Zambia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. Four different tick species have been identified among the 233 collected specimens, and, of 95 tested buffaloes, 54 (57%) were positive for Theileria parva, whereas only 3 (3%) showed evidence of being infected with Ehrlichia ruminantium.

  12. Genetic parameters for buffalo milk yield and milk quality traits using Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Baldi, F; Bignardi, A B; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-05-01

    The availability of accurate genetic parameters for important economic traits in milking buffaloes is critical for implementation of a genetic evaluation program. In the present study, heritabilities and genetic correlations for fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and milk (MY305) yields, milk fat (%F) and protein (%P) percentages, and SCS were estimated using Bayesian methodology. A total of 4,907 lactations from 1,985 cows were used. The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by Bayesian inference method, applying an animal model, through Gibbs sampling. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), number of milking (2 levels), and age of cow at calving as (co)variable (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The posterior means of heritability distributions for MY305, FY305, PY305, %F, P%, and SCS were 0.22, 0.21, 0.23, 0.33, 0.39, and 0.26, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.13 (between %P and SCS) to 0.94 (between MY305 and PY305). The permanent environmental correlation estimates ranged from -0.38 (between MY305 and %P) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305). Residual and phenotypic correlation estimates ranged from -0.26 (between PY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305) and from -0.26 (between MY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305), respectively. Milk yield, milk components, and milk somatic cells counts have enough genetic variation for selection purposes. The genetic correlation estimates suggest that milk components and milk somatic cell counts would be only slightly affected if increasing milk yield were the selection goal. Selecting to increase FY305 or PY305 will also increase MY305, %P, and %F.

  13. Utility of a fecal real-time PCR protocol for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Geoghegan, Claire; Wellington, Elizabeth; Miller, Woutrina A; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Cooper, David; Clifford, Deana L; Mazet, Jonna A K; Parsons, Sven

    2014-01-01

    A real-time PCR protocol for detecting Mycobacterium bovis in feces was evaluated in bovine tuberculosis-infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Fecal samples spiked with 1.42 × 10(3) cells of M. bovis culture/g and Bacille Calmette-Guérin standards with 1.58 × 10(1) genome copies/well were positive by real-time PCR but all field samples were negative.

  14. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species.

  16. Comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Simões, M

    2009-01-15

    Panels of sera from African buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (A and B) for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis. The sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. Overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their use in bovine tuberculosis management and control strategies in South African game reserves.

  17. Modification of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (In-Tube) assay for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sven D C; Cooper, David; McCall, Alicia J; McCall, Warren A; Streicher, Elizabeth M; le Maitre, Nicholas C; Müller, Annélle; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2011-07-15

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the most significant wildlife maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative organism of bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Current diagnostic tests for the detection of M. bovis infection in free-ranging buffaloes have numerous limitations and we wished to evaluate a modification to a human TB assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (In-Tube) assay (QFT), as a practical diagnostic test for BTB in buffaloes. One hundred and seventy-five buffaloes were tested using the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) and a modified QFT (mQFT). An appropriate cut-off point for the mQFT was derived from SICTT results using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Twenty-six SICTT-positive buffaloes were killed and subjected to necropsy, and selected tissues were processed for mycobacterial culture and speciation. An optimal cut-off point for the mQFT was calculated as 66pg/ml. The assay correctly detected 39/40 SICTT-positive buffaloes and 129/134 TST-negative buffaloes and M. bovis was cultured from 21/26 slaughtered SICTT/mQFT-positive animals. The mQFT shows promise as a practical test for M. bovis infection in buffaloes and shows a sensitivity and specificity at least similar to that of the TST.

  18. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347

  19. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P < 0·0001), and infection was associated with a 2·0 (95% CI = 1·1-3·7) fold increase in mortality (χ(2)  = 2·039, P = 0·036). Buffalo in low body condition were associated with lower reproductive success (F = 2·683, P = 0·034), but there was no association between brucellosis and pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring.

  20. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas.

  1. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas.

  2. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations.

  3. Hidden consequences of living in a wormy world: nematode‐induced immune suppression facilitates tuberculosis invasion in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Etienne, Rampal S; Luikart, Gordon; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Jolles, Anna E

    2010-11-01

    Most hosts are infected with multiple parasites, and responses of the immune system to co-occurring parasites may influence disease spread. Helminth infection can bias the host immune response toward a T-helper type 2 (Th2) over a type 1 (Th1) response, impairing the host’s ability to control concurrent intracellular microparasite infections and potentially modifying disease dynamics. In humans, immune-mediated interactions between helminths and microparasites can alter host susceptibility to diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. However, the extent to which similar processes operate in natural animal populations and influence disease spread remains unknown. We used cross-sectional, experimental, and genetic studies to show that gastrointestinal nematode infection alters immunity to intracellular microparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Buffalo that were more resistant to nematode infection had weaker Th1 responses, there was significant genotypic variation in nematode resistance, and anthelminthic treatment enhanced Th1 immunity. Using a disease dynamic model parameterized with empirical data, we found that nematode-induced immune suppression can facilitate the invasion of bovine TB in buffalo. In the absence of nematodes, TB failed to invade the system, illustrating the critical role nematodes may play in disease establishment. Our results suggest that helminths, by influencing the likelihood of microparasite invasion, may influence patterns of disease emergence in the wild.

  4. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bastos, A D; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Bengis, R G; Thomson, G R

    2000-06-01

    VP1 gene sequences of SAT-2 type foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from impala and African buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP) were used to determine intra- and interspecies relationships of viruses circulating in these wildlife populations. On this basis five distinct lineages of SAT-2 virus were identified in routine sampling of oesophageopharyngeal epithelium from buffalo between 1988 and 1996. Different lineages were associated with discrete geographic sampling localities. Over the period 1985-95, four unrelated epizootics occurred in impala in defined localities within the KNP. Evidence for natural transmission of FMD between buffalo and impala is presented for the most recent 1995 outbreak, with data linking the 1985 and 1988/9 impala epizootics to viruses associated with specific buffalo herds.

  5. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species☆

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  6. Antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in selected National Parks in Uganda (2001-2003).

    PubMed

    Ayebazibwe, C; Mwiine, F N; Balinda, S N; Tjørnehøj, K; Masembe, C; Muwanika, V B; Okurut, A R A; Siegismund, H R; Alexandersen, S

    2010-08-01

    In East Africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates have over time included serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1 and SAT 2, mainly from livestock. SAT 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer). To investigate the presence of antibodies against FMDV serotypes in wildlife in Uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. Thirty-eight samples from African buffalos collected from Lake Mburo, Kidepo Valley, Murchison Falls and Queen Elizabeth National Parks were screened using Ceditest FMDV NS to detect antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSP). The seroprevalence of antibodies against non-structural proteins was 74%. To characterize FMDV antibodies, samples were selected and titrated using serotype-specific solid phase blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs). High titres of antibodies (> or =1 : 160) against FMDV serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were identified. This study suggests that African buffalos in the different national parks in Uganda may play an important role in the epidemiology of SAT serotypes of FMDV.

  7. Virulence of Trypanosoma congolense strains isolated from cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Motloang, Makhosazana Y; Masumu, Justin; Mans, Ben J; Latif, Abdalla A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax are major species that infect cattle in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Of the two genetically distinct types of T. congolense, Savannah and Kilifi sub-groups, isolated from cattle and tsetse flies in KZN, the former is more prevalent and thought to be responsible for African animal trypanosomosis outbreaks in cattle. Furthermore, variation in pathogenicity within the Savannah sub-group is ascribed to strain differences and seems to be related to geographical locations. The objective of the present study was to compare the virulence of T. congolense strains isolated from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) inside Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, and from cattle on farms near wildlife parks (< 5 km), to isolates from cattle kept away (> 10 km) from parks. To obtain T. congolense isolates, blood of known parasitologically positive cattle or cattle symptomatically suspect with trypanosomosis, as well as isolates from buffaloes kept inside Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park were passaged in inbred BALB/c mice. A total of 26 T. congolense isolates were obtained: 5 from buffaloes, 13 from cattle kept near parks and 8 from cattle distant from parks. Molecular characterisation revealed 80% and 20% of isolates to belong to T. congolense Savannah and Kilifi, respectively. To compare virulence, each isolate was inoculated into a group of six mice. No statistical differences were observed in the mean pre-patent period, maximum parasitaemia or drop in packed cell volume (PCV). Significant differences were found in days after infection for the drop in PCV, the patent period and the survival time. These differences were used to categorise the isolates as being of high, moderate or low virulence. Based on the virulence, 12 of 26 (46%) isolates were classified as highly virulent and 27% each as either of moderate or of low virulence. Whilst 11 of 12 high virulent strains were from buffaloes or cattle near the park, only 1 of 7 low virulent

  8. The evaluation of candidate biomarkers of cell-mediated immunity for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Cooper, David; Warren, Robin M; Miller, Michele A; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2014-12-15

    We evaluated commercially available bovine enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and a human IP-10 ELISA to measure IP-10, MIG, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3 and IL1-RA in buffalo plasma in order to identify sensitive markers of the immune response to Mycobacterium bovis-specific peptides. Additionally, we found that all coding mRNA sequences of these cytokines showed very high homology with their homologues in domestic cattle (97-99%) as did the derived amino acid sequences (97-99%). This high sequence homology between cattle and buffaloes supports the use of bovine ELISAs for the detection these cytokines in buffaloes. MCP-1 concentration showed a positive correlation with that of IFN-γ (p=0.0077) and appears to occur in far greater abundance in buffaloes when compared to humans. Using a bovine IP-10 ELISA, levels of this cytokine were found to be significantly increased in antigen-stimulated blood samples from M. bovis test positive buffaloes (p<0.0001) and IP-10 was detected in far greater abundance than IFN-γ. Measurement of IP-10 with this ELISA may prove to be a sensitive marker of M. bovis infection in African buffaloes.

  9. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  10. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hlokwe, Tiny M; Jenkins, Akinbowale O; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Venter, Estelle H; Cooper, Dave; Godfroid, Jacques; Michel, Anita L

    2011-06-20

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a chronic disease of mammals caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a threat to South African wildlife. It has been reported that African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of BTB in South African wildlife populations. This study reports on the molecular identification and typing of 31 M. bovis isolates collected between 1993 and 2008, mainly from buffaloes but also from two lions and a bush pig, in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in KwaZulu-Natal. To study the dynamics of BTB in the buffalo populations, 28 M. bovis isolates from the HiP and epidemiologically related parks were characterised using regions of difference deletion analysis for species identification and spoligotyping, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), polymorphic G-C-rich sequences and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping methods. At least three distinct M. bovis genotypes were found amongst HiP samples. The combination of VNTR typing (using a 16-loci panel) and IS6110 RFLP revealed the presence of three additional genetic profiles in individual buffaloes, demonstrating that the highest level of discrimination was achieved by these typing methods. One of the observed spoligotypes (SB0130) was dominant and represented 75% of isolates from buffaloes. A novel M. bovis spoligotype (SB1474), which is reported for the first time in this study, was observed in 14.3% of isolates from buffaloes. Based on the observed genetic relationships, the findings suggest independent introductions from at least three unrelated sources. These findings improve the knowledge regarding the diversity of circulating M. bovis strains in the HiP.

  11. Infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) by oryx bacillus, a rare member of the antelope clade of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Perrett, Keith D; Michel, Anita L; Keet, Dewald F; Hlokwe, Tiny; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species cause tuberculosis disease in animals and humans. Although they share 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level, several host-adapted ecotypes of the tubercule bacilli have been identified. In the wildlife setting, probably the most well-known member of this complex is Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. The recently described oryx bacillus is an extremely rare slow-growing member of the antelope clade of the M. tuberculosis complex and is closely related to the dassie bacillus, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium microti. The antelope clade is a group of strains apparently host adapted to antelopes, as most described infections were associated with deer and antelope, most specifically the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). In this study, oryx bacillus was isolated from a free-ranging adult female African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), in good physical condition, which tested strongly positive on three consecutive comparative intradermal tuberculin tests. Upon necropsy, a single pulmonary granuloma and an active retropharyngeal lymph node was found. Comprehensive molecular genetic assays were performed, which confirmed that the causative microorganism was not M. bovis but oryx bacillus. Oryx bacillus has never been reported in Southern Africa and has never been found to infect African buffalo. The identification of this microorganism in buffalo is an important observation in view of the large and ever-increasing epidemic of the closely related M. tuberculosis complex species M. bovis in some African buffalo populations in South Africa.

  12. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  13. Development of a diagnostic gene expression assay for tuberculosis and its use under field conditions in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sven D C; Menezes, Angela M; Cooper, David; Walzl, Gerhard; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2012-08-15

    The development of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) in exotic species is constrained by host biology and the limited availability of suitable assay reagents. As such, we evaluated a gene expression assay (GEA) which is easily modified for novel species and allows for initial sample processing under field conditions. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) were categorized using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and blood from test-positive and test-negative animals was incubated for 20 h in "Nil" tubes (containing saline) and "TB Antigen" tubes (containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC)-specific antigens) of a commercial human TB test, the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (In-Tube) (QFT) assay. Blood samples were then stabilized in RNAlater(®) and transported to the laboratory for RNA extraction. A Custom TaqMan GEA was used to calculate the relative abundance of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA in the TB Antigen tube compared to that in the Nil tube as a marker of immune activation in response to MTC antigen recognition. The GEA results from the two buffalo groups were compared and a cutoff value of 2.85 was calculated to differentiate between animals from these groups with a sensitivity of 80% (95% C.I.: 56-94%) and a specificity of 95% (95% C.I.: 75-100%). Further optimization of this assay could provide a highly useful tool for the diagnosis of MTC infection in exotic species.

  14. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  15. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, E M D L; Jenkins, A O; Cooper, D V; Rutten, V P M G; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an alternative, the BOVIGAM® 1G, an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, is frequently used. The test performance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI-) and humoral immunity (HI-) based assays for the detection of M. bovis infections in buffaloes was compared to identify the test or test combination that provided the highest sensitivity in the study. Buffaloes were sampled during the annual BTB SICTT testing in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi-Park (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) during June 2013. A total of 35 animals were subjected to the SICTT, 13 of these tested positive and one showed an inconclusive reaction. CMI-based assays (BOVIGAM® 1G (B1G) and BOVIGAM® 2G (B2G)) as well as a serological assay (IDEXX TB ELISA) were used to further investigate and compare immune responsiveness. Thirteen SICTT positive buffaloes and one inconclusive reactor were slaughtered and a post-mortem (PM) examination was conducted to confirm BTB. Lesions characteristic of BTB were found in 8/14 animals (57.1%). Test results of individual assays were compared with serial and parallel test interpretation and the sensitivity was calculated as a percentage of test positives out of the number of SICTT positive animals with granulomatous lesions (relative sensitivity). The B1G assay showed the highest individual sensitivity (100%; 8/8) followed by the B2G assay (75%; 6/8) and the IDEXX TB ELISA (37.5%; 3/8). Therefore, using in parallel interpretation, any combination with the B1G showed a sensitivity of 100% (8/8), whereas combinations with the B2G showed a 75% sensitivity (6/8). Out of the 21 SICTT negative animals, 7 animals showed responsiveness in the B2G or IDEXX TB ELISA. In conclusion, this study has shown

  16. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  17. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-10-16

    Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in Africa and some parts of the Middle East, but with increasing potential for global emergence. Wild ruminants, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. This study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) by determining seroprevalence to these viruses during an inter-epidemic period. Buffaloes from the Kruger National Park (n = 138) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (n = 110) in South Africa were sampled and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies against LSDV and RVFV using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the serum neutralisation test (SNT). The I-ELISA for LSDV and RVFV detected IgG antibodies in 70 of 248 (28.2%) and 15 of 248 (6.1%) buffaloes, respectively. Using the SNT, LSDV and RVFV neutralising antibodies were found in 5 of 66 (7.6%) and 12 of 57 (21.1%), respectively, of samples tested. The RVFV I-ELISA and SNT results correlated well with previously reported results. Of the 12 SNT RVFV-positive sera, three (25.0%) had very high SNT titres of 1:640. Neutralising antibody titres of more than 1:80 were found in 80.0% of the positive sera tested. The LSDV SNT results did not correlate with results obtained by the I-ELISA and neutralising antibody titres detected were low, with the highest (1:20) recorded in only two buffaloes, whilst 11 buffaloes (4.4%) had evidence of co-infection with both viruses. Results obtained in this study complement other reports suggesting a role for buffaloes in the epidemiology of these diseases during inter-epidemic periods.

  18. The use of thiafentanil oxalate and azaperone for reversible immobilisation of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) within a nature reserve - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Venter, Diederik Jacobus; Luyt, Eustatius Du Chavoux; Raath, Cobus

    2015-03-01

    Although thiafentanil oxalate has been widely used for wildlife immobilisation on different species, no report has been published about its usefulness on African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Thirty-four African buffaloes were successfully immobilised at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa in July 2013. The animals were kept in bomas of the nature reserve. The purpose of the immobilisation was to provide opportunity for microchip implantation, ear tag placement, intradermal tuberculin test and blood sampling. All animals were immobilised with thiafentanil oxalate 6 mg/animal (0.007-0.01 mg/kg) and azaperone 40 mg/animal (0.07-0.04 mg/kg) using Dan-inject darts and gun. The opioid reversal agent naltrexone hydrochloride 60 mg/animal (0.07-0.1 mg/kg) was given intravenously to the ear vein. The mean induction time was 3.9 ± 0.2 min, the recovery time was 1.65 ± 0.87 min. The results of the present study indicate that thiafentanil oxalate, this low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combined with azaperone provides fast induction and smooth recovery. The authors recommend this drug combination as a reliable immobilising regimen for African buffalo.

  19. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  20. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence < 5%) depends upon the duration that a vaccine grants protection. Vaccination programs are more efficient (i.e. fewer wasted doses) when they focus on younger individuals. However, even with a lifelong vaccine and a closed population, the model suggests that >70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  1. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  2. Evaluation of a real-time PCR test for the detection and discrimination of theileria species in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Janssens, Michiel E; Vermeiren, Lieve; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Collins, Nicola E; Geysen, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay based on the cox III gene was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of Theileria species in buffalo and cattle blood samples from South Africa and Mozambique using melting curve analysis. The results obtained were compared to those of the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria spp. in mixed infections, and to the 18S rRNA qPCR assay results for the specific detection of Theileria parva. Theileria parva, Theileria sp. (buffalo), Theileria taurotragi, Theileria buffeli and Theileria mutans were detected by the cox III assay. Theileria velifera was not detected from any of the samples analysed. Seventeen percent of the samples had non-species specific melting peaks and 4.5% of the samples were negative or below the detection limit of the assay. The cox III assay identified more T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples than the RLB assay, and also detected more T. parva infections than the 18S assay. However, only a small number of samples were positive for the benign Theileria spp. To our knowledge T. taurotragi has never been identified from the African buffalo, its identification in some samples by the qPCR assay was unexpected. Because of these discrepancies in the results, cox III qPCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated extensive inter- and intra-species variations in the probe target regions of the cox III gene sequences of the benign Theileria spp. and therefore explains their low detection. The cox III assay is specific for the detection of T. parva infections in cattle and buffalo. Sequence data generated from this study can be used for the development of a more inclusive assay for detection and differentiation of all variants of the mildly pathogenic and benign Theileria spp. of buffalo and cattle.

  3. Characterisation of a SAT-1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; de Klerk, L-M; Boshoff, C I; Botha, B; Dwarka, R M; Keet, D; Haydon, D T

    2007-03-10

    African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the SAT types of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in southern Africa. These long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. During an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP), an outbreak of SAT-1 occurred and was further investigated. The clinical signs were recorded and all animals demonstrated significant weight loss and lymphopenia that lasted 100 days. In addition, the mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin values were significantly higher than before the outbreak started. Virus was isolated from several buffalo over a period of 167 days post infection and the molecular clock estimated to be 3 x 10(-5) nucleotide substitutions per site per day. Seven amino acid changes occurred of which four occurred in hypervariable regions previously described for SAT-1. The genetic relationship of the outbreak virus was compared to buffalo viruses previously obtained from the KNP but the phylogeny was largely unresolved, therefore the relationship of this outbreak strain to others isolated from the KNP remains unclear.

  4. Approaches towards optimising the gamma interferon assay for diagnosing Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Cooper, D; Jooste, J; de Klerk, L-M; Jolles, A

    2011-02-01

    The application of diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in wildlife poses formidable technical difficulties and the use of the gamma interferon assay offers a simplified approach to testing wild animal species. We compared the performance of the gamma interferon assay in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) under the recommended guidelines for interpretation of test results and found a high sensitivity (92.1%) at the cost of a greatly reduced specificity (68.3%). The optimised cut-off value for positive test results under local conditions was identified at an optical density of 0.385 at wavelength 450nm as the preferred compromise between sensitivity and specificity. Additional optimisation approaches to improve test performance were examined and showed that the application of 'a priori exclusions' of test results on the basis of reactivity to fortuitum PPD (sensitin produced from Mycobacterium fortuitum) and to a lesser degree, avian PPD, increased specificity without losing sensitivity. The implications of these findings on a modified testing protocol adjusted to include measurement of immune responsiveness to fortuitum PPD and other interpretation schemes are discussed.

  5. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  6. Sequence variation identified in the 18S rRNA gene of Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2013-01-16

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a natural reservoir host for both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Theileria species. These often occur naturally as mixed infections in buffalo. Although the benign and mildly pathogenic forms do not have any significant economic importance, their presence could complicate the interpretation of diagnostic test results aimed at the specific diagnosis of the pathogenic Theileria parva in cattle and buffalo in South Africa. The 18S rRNA gene has been used as the target in a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva infections. However, the extent of sequence variation within this gene in the non-pathogenic Theileria spp. of the Africa buffalo is not well known. The aim of this study was, therefore, to characterise the full-length 18S rRNA genes of Theileria mutans, Theileria sp. (strain MSD) and T. velifera and to determine the possible influence of any sequence variation on the specific detection of T. parva using the 18S rRNA qPCR. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to select samples which either tested positive for several different Theileria spp., or which hybridised only with the Babesia/Theileria genus-specific probe and not with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes. The full-length 18S rRNA genes from 14 samples, originating from 13 buffalo and one bovine from different localities in South Africa, were amplified, cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. Variations in the 18S rRNA gene sequences were identified in T. mutans, Theileria sp. (strain MSD) and T. velifera, with the greatest diversity observed amongst the T. mutans variants. This variation possibly explained why the RLB hybridization assay failed to detect T. mutans and T. velifera in some of the analysed samples.

  7. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  8. Agreement between assays of cell-mediated immunity utilizing Mycobacterium bovis-specific antigens for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Miller, Michele A; Chegou, Novel N; Cooper, David; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2014-07-15

    We assessed the use of Mycobacterium bovis-specific peptides for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) by evaluating the agreement between the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT), the Bovigam(®) EC (BEC) assay, the Bovigam(®) HP (BHP) assay and two assays utilizing the QuantiFERON(®) TB-Gold (in tube) system employing 20 h (mQFT20 assay) and 30 h (mQFT30 assay) whole blood incubation periods. Of 84 buffaloes, 45% were SICTT-positive, 48% were BEC-positive, 50% were BHP-positive, 37% were mQFT20-positive and 43% were mQFT30-positive. Agreement between the BEC and BHP Bovigam(®) assays was high (κ=0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.97) and these detected the most test-positive animals suggesting that they were the most sensitive assays. Interferon-gamma release was significantly greater in buffaloes that were test-positive for all tests than in animals with discordant but positive Bovigam(®) results. Agreement between the mQFT assays was equally high (κ=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98); however, all buffaloes with discordant mQFT results (n=6) were mQFT30-positive/mQFT20-negative, including three confirmed M. bovis-infected animals, suggesting that the mQFT30 assay is the more sensitive of the two. Agreements between the two Bovigam(®) and two mQFT assays were moderate, suggesting that in its current format the mQFT assay is less sensitive than either the BEC or the BHP assays.

  9. Rainfall-driven sex-ratio genes in African buffalo suggested by correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Y-chromosomal diversity in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park (KNP) is characterized by rainfall-driven haplotype frequency shifts between year cohorts. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism is difficult to reconcile with haplotype frequency variations without assuming frequency-dependent selection or specific interactions in the population dynamics of X- and Y-chromosomal genes, since otherwise the fittest haplotype would inevitably sweep to fixation. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism due one of these factors only seems possible when there are Y-chromosomal distorters of an equal sex ratio, which act by negatively affecting X-gametes, or Y-chromosomal suppressors of a female-biased sex ratio. These sex-ratio (SR) genes modify (suppress) gamete transmission in their own favour at a fitness cost, allowing for stable polymorphism. Results Here we show temporal correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratios in the KNP buffalo population, suggesting SR genes. Frequencies varied by a factor of five; too high to be alternatively explained by Y-chromosomal effects on pregnancy loss. Sex ratios were male-biased during wet and female-biased during dry periods (male proportion: 0.47-0.53), seasonally and annually. Both wet and dry periods were associated with a specific haplotype indicating a SR distorter and SR suppressor, respectively. Conclusions The distinctive properties suggested for explaining Y-chromosomal polymorphism in African buffalo may not be restricted to this species alone. SR genes may play a broader and largely overlooked role in mammalian sex-ratio variation. PMID:20416038

  10. IP-10 Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Antigen Recognition in Whole-Blood Stimulation Assays Used for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Cooper, David; Miller, Michele A; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2015-08-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. They act as reservoirs of this infection for a wide range of wildlife and domestic species, and the detection of infected animals is important to control the geographic spread and transmission of the disease. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) utilizing pathogen-derived peptide antigens are highly specific tests of M. bovis infection; however, the diagnostic sensitivities of these assays are suboptimal. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of measuring antigen-dependent interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) release as an alternative to measuring IFN-γ levels. M. bovis-exposed buffaloes were tested using the Bovigam PC-EC and Bovigam PC-HP assays and a modified QuantiFERON TB-Gold (mQFT) assay. IP-10 was measured in the harvested plasma and was produced in significantly greater abundance in response to M. bovis antigens in Bovigam-positive than in Bovigam-negative animals. For each assay, using the Bovigam results as a reference, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to determine diagnostically relevant cutoff values for IP-10. Thereafter, mQFT test results derived from measurement of IP-10 and IFN-γ were compared and a larger number of Bovigam-positive animals were detected using IP-10 as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, using IP-10, agreement between the mQFT assay and the Bovigam assays was increased, while the excellent agreement between the Bovigam assays was retained. We conclude that IP-10 is a sensitive marker of antigen recognition and that measurement of this cytokine in antigen-stimulated whole blood might increase the sensitivity of conventional IGRAs in African buffaloes.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gcebe, N; Rutten, V; Gey van Pittius, N C; Michel, A

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that a variety of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species to which livestock and wildlife species are naturally exposed induce broadly cross-reactive anti-mycobacterial immune responses which interfere with current standard diagnostic assays. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have also been implicated in Mycobacterium bovis-specific immune responsiveness, hence potentially the development of tuberculosis. Cattle and African buffaloes are both maintenance hosts of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in South Africa, yet the effective diagnosis and control in these species may be hampered by adverse effects of NTM. As part of an investigation of the role of NTM in the immune responsiveness of cattle and African buffaloes to NTM, we conducted a countrywide survey to establish the prevalent NTM species and their distribution in the natural environments of these animals. A total of 1123 samples (water, soil, nasal and pharyngeal swabs) were collected for mycobacterium isolation. In addition, NTM isolated from tissue samples between 1991 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Mycobacteria were isolated from 56% of the samples from the countrywide survey. A total of 420 NTM isolates from soil, water, animal tissues and animal-derived swab samples were genotyped with the following results: 302 belonged to 40 known NTM species, 79 were found to be closely related to 23 known NTM species, and 38 isolates were found to be potentially novel species that are not currently listed in the RIDOM and NCBI BLAST databases. The four NTM species or closely related groups most frequently isolated in this survey included Mycobacterium terrae (11.2% of isolates), a group of mycobacteria closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense (referred to as M. moriokaense-like) (8.1% of isolates), Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum (7.4% of isolates) and Mycobacterium vaccae/M. vanbaalenii (5.2% of isolates). The phylogenetic analysis of the M. moriokaense-like isolates, based on the 16S r

  12. Positive Selection of Deleterious Alleles through Interaction with a Sex-Ratio Suppressor Gene in African Buffalo: A Plausible New Mechanism for a High Frequency Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    van Hooft, Pim; Greyling, Ben J.; Getz, Wayne M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Zwaan, Bas J.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park, through positive selection of these alleles that is ultimately driven by a sex-ratio suppressor. We have previously shown that one in four Kruger buffalo has a Y-chromosome profile that, despite being associated with low body condition, appears to impart a relative reproductive advantage, and which is stably maintained through a sex-ratio suppressor. Apparently, this sex-ratio suppressor prevents fertility reduction that generally accompanies sex-ratio distortion. We hypothesize that this body-condition-associated reproductive advantage increases the fitness of alleles that negatively affect male body condition, causing genome-wide positive selection of these alleles. To investigate this we genotyped 459 buffalo using 17 autosomal microsatellites. By correlating heterozygosity with body condition (heterozygosity-fitness correlations), we found that most microsatellites were associated with one of two gene types: one with elevated frequencies of deleterious alleles that have a negative effect on body condition, irrespective of sex; the other with elevated frequencies of sexually antagonistic alleles that are negative for male body condition but positive for female body condition. Positive selection and a direct association with a Y-chromosomal sex-ratio suppressor are indicated, respectively, by allele clines and by relatively high numbers of homozygous deleterious alleles among sex-ratio suppressor carriers. This study, which employs novel statistical techniques to analyse heterozygosity-fitness correlations, is the first to demonstrate the abundance of sexually-antagonistic genes in a natural mammal population. It also has important

  13. Positive selection of deleterious alleles through interaction with a sex-ratio suppressor gene in African Buffalo: a plausible new mechanism for a high frequency anomaly.

    PubMed

    van Hooft, Pim; Greyling, Ben J; Getz, Wayne M; van Helden, Paul D; Zwaan, Bas J; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2014-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park, through positive selection of these alleles that is ultimately driven by a sex-ratio suppressor. We have previously shown that one in four Kruger buffalo has a Y-chromosome profile that, despite being associated with low body condition, appears to impart a relative reproductive advantage, and which is stably maintained through a sex-ratio suppressor. Apparently, this sex-ratio suppressor prevents fertility reduction that generally accompanies sex-ratio distortion. We hypothesize that this body-condition-associated reproductive advantage increases the fitness of alleles that negatively affect male body condition, causing genome-wide positive selection of these alleles. To investigate this we genotyped 459 buffalo using 17 autosomal microsatellites. By correlating heterozygosity with body condition (heterozygosity-fitness correlations), we found that most microsatellites were associated with one of two gene types: one with elevated frequencies of deleterious alleles that have a negative effect on body condition, irrespective of sex; the other with elevated frequencies of sexually antagonistic alleles that are negative for male body condition but positive for female body condition. Positive selection and a direct association with a Y-chromosomal sex-ratio suppressor are indicated, respectively, by allele clines and by relatively high numbers of homozygous deleterious alleles among sex-ratio suppressor carriers. This study, which employs novel statistical techniques to analyse heterozygosity-fitness correlations, is the first to demonstrate the abundance of sexually-antagonistic genes in a natural mammal population. It also has important

  14. The stability of plasma IP-10 enhances its utility for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M; Miller, Michele A; Parsons, Sven D C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) in antigen-stimulated whole blood is a sensitive biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). However, this species often occurs in remote locations and diagnostic samples must be transported to centralised laboratories for processing. In humans, plasma IP-10 is highly stable and this feature contributes to its diagnostic utility; for this reason we aimed to characterize the stability of this molecule in buffaloes. Blood from M. bovis-infected and -uninfected animals was incubated with pathogen-specific peptides, saline and phytohaemagglutinin, respectively. Plasma fractions were harvested and aliquots of selected samples were: (i) stored at different temperatures for various times; (ii) heat treated before storage at RT, and (iii) stored on Protein Saver Cards (PSCs) at RT for either 2 or 8 weeks before measurement of IP-10. Incubation of plasma at 65°C for 20 min caused no loss of IP-10 and this protein could be quantified in plasma stored on PSCs for 2 and 8 weeks. Moreover, for all storage conditions, IP-10 retained its excellent diagnostic characteristics. These features of IP-10 might allow for the heat inactivation of potentially infectious plasma which would facilitate the safe and simple transport of samples.

  15. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  16. Inferences of demography and selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nadia D; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Clark, Andrew G; Aquadro, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    It remains a central problem in population genetics to infer the past action of natural selection, and these inferences pose a challenge because demographic events will also substantially affect patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Thus it is imperative to explicitly model the underlying demographic history of the population whenever making inferences about natural selection. In light of the considerable interest in adaptation in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster, which are considered ancestral to the species, we generated a large polymorphism data set representing 2.1 Mb from each of 20 individuals from a Ugandan population of D. melanogaster. In contrast to previous inferences of a simple population expansion in eastern Africa, our demographic modeling of this ancestral population reveals a strong signature of a population bottleneck followed by population expansion, which has significant implications for future demographic modeling of derived populations of this species. Taking this more complex underlying demographic history into account, we also estimate a mean X-linked region-wide rate of adaptation of 6 × 10(-11)/site/generation and a mean selection coefficient of beneficial mutations of 0.0009. These inferences regarding the rate and strength of selection are largely consistent with most other estimates from D. melanogaster and indicate a relatively high rate of adaptation driven by weakly beneficial mutations.

  17. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-10-16

    Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in Africa and some parts of the Middle East, but with increasing potential for global emergence. Wild ruminants, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. This study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) by determining seroprevalence to these viruses during an inter-epidemic period. Buffaloes from the Kruger National Park (n = 138) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (n = 110) in South Africa were sampled and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies against LSDV and RVFV using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the serum neutralisation test (SNT). The I-ELISA for LSDV and RVFV detected IgG antibodies in 70 of 248 (28.2%) and 15 of 248 (6.1%) buffaloes, respectively. Using the SNT, LSDV and RVFV neutralising antibodies were found in 5 of 66 (7.6%) and 12 of 57 (21.1%), respectively, of samples tested. The RVFV I-ELISA and SNT results correlated well with previously reported results. Of the 12 SNT RVFV-positive sera, three (25.0%) had very high SNT titres of 1:640. Neutralising antibody titres of more than 1:80 were found in 80.0% of the positive sera tested. The LSDV SNT results did not correlate with results obtained by the I-ELISA and neutralising antibody titres detected were low, with the highest (1:20) recorded in only two buffaloes, whilst 11 buffaloes (4.4%) had evidence of co-infection with both viruses. Results obtained in this study complement other reports suggesting a role for buffaloes in the epidemiology of these diseases during inter-epidemic periods.

  18. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3–7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8–19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife–livestock–human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  19. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; van Dyk, E; Nel, P J; Lane, E; Van Wilpe, E; Bengis, R G; de Klerk-Lorist, L M; van Heerden, J

    2011-06-01

    Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a

  20. Inference and Forecast of the Current West African Ebola Outbreak in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Yang, Wan; Kandula, Sasikiran

    2014-01-01

    The current West African Ebola outbreak poses an unprecedented public health challenge for the world at large. The response of the global community to the epidemic, including deployment of nurses, doctors, epidemiologists, beds, supplies and security, is shaped by our understanding of the spatial-temporal extent and progression of the disease. Ongoing evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics and future course of the Ebola outbreak is needed to stay abreast of any changes to its transmission dynamics, as well as the success or failure of intervention efforts. Here we use observations, dynamic modeling and Bayesian inference to generate simulations and weekly forecasts of the outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Estimates of key epidemiological characteristics over time indicate continued epidemic growth in West Africa, though there is some evidence of slowing growth in Liberia. 6-week forecasts over successive weeks corroborate these findings; forecasts projecting no future change in intervention efficacy have been more accurate for Guinea and Sierra Leone, but have overestimated incidence and mortality for Liberia. PMID:25642378

  1. Genetic parameters for five traits in Africanized honeybees using Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck; Sattler, Aroni; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Heritability and genetic correlations for honey (HP) and propolis production (PP), hygienic behavior (HB), syrup-collection rate (SCR) and percentage of mites on adult bees (PMAB) of a population of Africanized honeybees were estimated. Data from 110 queen bees over three generations were evaluated. Single and multi-trait models were analyzed by Bayesian Inference using MTGSAM. The localization of the hive was significant for SCR and HB and highly significant for PP. Season-year was highly significant only for SCR. The number of frames with bees was significant for HP and PP, including SCR. The heritability estimates were 0.16 for HP, 0.23 for SCR, 0.52 for HB, 0.66 for PP, and 0.13 for PMAB. The genetic correlations were positive among productive traits (PP, HP and SCR) and negative between productive traits and HB, except between PP and HB. Genetic correlations between PMAB and other traits, in general, were negative, except with PP. The study permitted to identify honeybees for improved propolis and honey production. Hygienic behavior may be improved as a consequence of selecting for improved propolis production. The rate of syrup consumption and propolis production may be included in a selection index to enhance honeybee traits. PMID:23885203

  2. Further evaluation of the use of buparvaquone in the infection and treatment method of immunizing cattle against Theileria parva derived from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Ngumi, P N; Young, A S; Lampard, D; Mining, S K; Ndungu, S G; Lesan, A C; Williamson, S M; Linyonyi, A; Kariuki, D P

    1992-06-01

    Three experiments were undertaken to determine the efficacy of different doses of buparvaquone in the infection and treatment immunization of cattle against Theileria parva derived from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Two of these experiments also compared buparvaquone with standard doses of long- and short-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. In addition, different dilutions of stabilates were used in the experiments. In the first experiment, a 10(-1.0) dilution of stabilate was used to infect groups of cattle treated with buparvaquone at doses of between 5 and 0.625 mg kg-1 body weight (bwt) on Day 0 after infection. All control cattle developed severe theileriosis and none of the treatment regimes (including those utilizing long-acting oxytetracycline) prevented the development of theileriosis. Treatment with buparvaquone at 2.5 mg kg-1 bwt or oxytetracycline gave the most satisfactory results. In the second experiment when the sporozoite dose was reduced to 10(-2.0) dilution, buparvaquone treatment at 5 and 2.5 mg kg-1 bwt and short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline reduced reactions greatly. While all the oxytetracycline treated animals produced a serological response and were immune to a 50-fold higher challenge with the immunizing stabilate, several animals in the buparvaquone groups did not show a serological response and were not immune to challenge. In the third experiment, groups of cattle were infected with 10(-1.2), 10(-1.4) and 10(-1.6) dilutions of stabilate and were treated with 2.5 mg kg-1 bwt of buparvaquone. No animals developed severe theileriosis and all seroconverted. On homologous challenge, however, two out of 14 cattle showed severe reactions. It was concluded that further work on immunization using buparvaquone treatment at 2.5 mg kg-1 bwt and 10(-1.6) dilution of the stabilate would have to be carried out before such a system could be used in the field.

  3. Immunization of cattle using varying infective doses of Theileria parva lawrencei sporozoites derived from an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and treatment with buparvaquone.

    PubMed

    Mutugi, J J; Young, A S; Maritim, A C; Linyonyi, A; Mbogo, S K; Leitch, B L

    1988-04-01

    A Theileria parva lawrencei isolate in the form of a sporozoite stabilate, derived by feeding clean Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal ticks on an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) captured in the Laikipia District, Kenya, was inoculated into groups of cattle at dilutions between 10(0) and 10(-3). Groups of 3 cattle infected with 1 ml inocula at 10(0), 10(-1) and 10(-2) dilutions were treated with 2.5 mg/kg body weight of buparvaquone on day 0 and similar groups were left untreated to act as controls. An additional group, given 10(0) dilution of the stabilate, was treated with buparvaquone on day 8 post-inoculation. It was found that all control cattle inoculated with the stabilate at dilutions between 10(0) and 10(-2) became infected, but only 2 out of 3 cattle developed patent infections at 10(-3) dilution. All 3 control cattle receiving 10(0) dilution died of theileriosis, 2 at 10(-1) and 10(-2) dilutions, and 1 at 10(-3) dilution died. Buparvaquone treatment on day 0 at 10(0) dilution resulted in the survival of 2 of 3 cattle and all the cattle at 10(-1) and 10(-2) dilutions. All the surviving cattle eventually developed a significant serological response against T. parva in the indirect fluorescent antibody test, except 1 in the 10(-3) dilution group, and were immune to homologous challenge when tested 3 months later with a lethal inoculum of stabilate, except 2 cattle in the 10(-3) dilution group. As a result of a theileriosis problem at about day 60 after inoculation in 2 cattle given 10(-2) dilution of stabilate and buparvaquone treatment on day 0, an additional 5 cattle were given 10(-2) dilution of stabilate and developed a good immunity after buparaquone treatment. None was shown to develop the carrier state. Treatment with buparvaquone on day 8 after infection with 10(0) dilution of stabilate was not successful since 2 died. The stabilate used was shown to produce reproducible infection in cattle at different dilutions.

  4. Magnetometer-inferred, Equatorial, Daytime Vertical ExB Drift Velocities Observed in the African Longitude Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Yizengaw, E.

    2011-12-01

    A recent paper has investigated the sharp longitude gradients in the dayside ExB drift velocities associated with the 4-cell, non-migrating structures thought to be connected with the eastward propagating, diurnal, non-migrating (DE3) tides. Observations of vertical ExB drift velocities obtained from the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite were obtained in the Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific, Peruvian and Atlantic sectors for a few days during the months of October, March and December, 2009. Respective ExB drift velocity gradients at the cell boundaries for these 4 longitude sectors were a.) -1.3m/sec/degree, b.) 3m/sec/degree, c.) -4m/sec/degree and d.) 1m/sec/degree and were observed on a day-to-day basis. In this talk, we estimate the longitude gradients in the dayside, vertical ExB drift velocities from magnetometer H-component observations in the African sector. We briefly describe the technique for obtaining realistic ExB drift velocities associated with the difference in the H-component values between a magnetometer on the magnetic equator and one off the magnetic equator at 6 to 9 degrees dip latitude (delta H). We present magnetometer-inferred, dayside ExB drift velocities obtained from the AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research) magnetometer chain in the East Africa (Ethiopian) longitude sector and the West African (Nigerian) longitude sector. We compare the longitude gradients in ExB drift velocities in the African sector with the C/NOFS- observed longitude gradients mentioned above. We also discuss the advantages of using ground-based magnetometer observations to infer ExB drift velocities compared with the C/NOFS satellite observations.

  5. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  6. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  7. Midazolam/ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Stegmann, G F

    2004-03-01

    The use of a midazolam/ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer) is described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  8. Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history

    PubMed Central

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Soi, Sameer; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Africa is the origin of modern humans, the pattern and distribution of genetic variation and correlations with cultural and linguistic diversity in Africa have been understudied. Recent advances in genomic technology, however, have led to genomewide studies of African samples. In this article, we discuss genetic variation in African populations contextualized with what is known about archaeological and linguistic variation. What emerges from this review is the importance of using independent lines of evidence in the interpretation of genetic and genomic data in the reconstruction of past population histories. PMID:20445100

  9. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Patton, John C; Johnston, J Spencer

    2004-05-01

    The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honeybees, the resident population was essentially of eastern and western European maternal ancestry. Three years after detection of the first Africanized swarm there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata (ancestor of Africanized honeybees). This remarkable change in the mitotype composition coincided with arrival of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which was likely responsible for severe losses experienced by colonies of European ancestry. From 1997 onward the population stabilized with most colonies of A. m. scutellata maternal origin.

  10. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; Drake, Nick A

    2015-07-14

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼ 15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼ 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world's greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent.

  11. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Simon J.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Drake, Nick A.

    2015-01-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world’s greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  12. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    PubMed

    Patin, Etienne; Laval, Guillaume; Barreiro, Luis B; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; Van der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Gessain, Antoine; Froment, Alain; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2009-04-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern) groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  13. Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner; Courtenay, Simon C

    2013-03-01

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of monogeneans parasitizing African freshwater Cichlidae inferred from LSU rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mendlová, Monika; Pariselle, Antoine; Vyskočilová, Martina; Simková, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    The African freshwater fish of Cichlidae are parasitized by five genera of monogeneans belonging to Dactylogyridea. Ectoparasitic Scutogyrus, Onchobdella, and the highly diversified Cichlidogyrus represent three genera located on the gills, while the endoparasitic Enterogyrus and Urogyrus are located in the stomach and the urinary bladder, respectively. Representatives of four dactylogyridean genera (except for Urogyrus) were collected from seven cichlid species in West Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between ectoparasitic and endoparasitic dactylogyridaen monogeneans specific to African freshwater Cichlidae and other representatives of Dactylogyridae, including a wide range of species from both freshwater and marine environments. All phylogenetic analyses point to the polyphyletic origin of the subfamily Ancyrocephalinae. Both Enterogyrus and Onchobdella were found to be monophyletic. The phylogenetic position of Scutogyrus longicornis was placed within the Cichlidogyrus species, which suggests the non-monophyly of Cichlidogyrus. Therefore, we have proposed a taxonomical revision of the species recently considered to be Scutogyrus. However, these four dactylogyridean genera-specific to cichlids do not form a monophyletic group. Using LSU rDNA analyses, we found that Enterogyrus and Onchobdella form a clade with Protogyrodactylus, i.e., the parasite species does not live in cichlids, which suggests that endoparasitism in cichlid monogeneans is not an ancestral feature.

  15. Radiation of southern African daisies: biogeographic inferences for subtribe Arctotidinae (Asteraceae, Arctotideae).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robert J; Barker, Nigel P

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the approximately 80-90 species in subtribe Arctotidinae occur in southern Africa with the centre of diversity in the winter-rainfall region. Three species are restricted to afromontane eastern Africa and three species are endemic to Australia. To investigate biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships within Arctotidinae, sequence data from four cpDNA regions (psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF spacers and trnL intron) and the ITS nrDNA region for 59 Arctotidinae species were analyzed with parsimony and Bayesian-inference approaches. Eight well-supported major lineages were resolved. The earliest-diverging extant lineages are afromontane or inhabit mesic habitats, whereas almost all sampled taxa from the winter-rainfall and semi-arid areas have diverged more recently. Molecular dating estimated that the major clades diverged during the Miocene and Pliocene, which is coincident with the trend of increasing rainfall seasonality, aridification and vegetation changes in southwestern Africa. Trans-oceanic dispersal to Australia was estimated to have occurred during the Pliocene.

  16. A Buffalo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Eugene T.

    The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…

  17. The past and present of and potential for the domestic (water) buffalo in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Egypt is the only country in Africa where domestic buffalo have a long-term presence and constitute an important part of the array of domestic animal resources. Attempts to introduce buffalo to other African countries have been made since at least the 1920s. Nine such attempted introductions are documented in this paper, although for most cases, there is very limited information. Buffalo have disappeared without trace in some countries and were slaughtered in at least two because of lack of adaptation or susceptibility to disease. In addition to Egypt, only Tanzania and Mozambique are known to have buffalo in 2012. There are suitable ecological niches for buffalo in many African countries. Failure to provide sufficient financial resources by governments, initially small numbers of animals and probable lack of interest by the private sector are among the reasons for the failure of buffalo to become a contributor to African livestock production. Policy makers and development agencies should very carefully consider the overall benefits against the overall costs of attempted introductions of buffalo (and of other exotic livestock species) in to African countries.

  18. The placement of South African strains of Beauveria in a phylogeny inferred from rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Morar-Bhana, Nainisha; Cron, Glynis Valerie; Gray, Vincent Myles; Straker, Colin John

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm the identity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana from South African soils and to investigate their phylogenetic relationship with non-indigenous strains from other geographic regions. Sequences of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 23 strains were compared with the Genbank reference sequences of 20 other cosmopolitan strains. Fitch parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions resolved the strains into two distinct clades and matched them to four species groups/lineages: Beauveria bassiana, B. cf. bassiana (pseudobassiana), B. brongniartii and B. caledonica. Two of the South African strains initially identified as B. bassiana grouped with B. caledonica, whereas the third strain was confirmed as B. bassiana. Because of the paucity of Genbank references for B. caledonica, we have designated the two South African B. caledonica strains as B. sp. aff. caledonica. Other reassignments included two strains from Norway, originally classified as B. bassiana, being grouped with B. brongniartii, and three of the B. brongniartii reference taxa from Brazil which were clearly placed in the B. bassiana clade. The study provides a first report of the presence of the B. caledonica lineage in Africa and confirms current Beauveria phylogenies inferred from molecular data.

  19. 1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1859 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1928 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Colloquium paper: working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Soi, Sameer; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2010-05-11

    Although Africa is the origin of modern humans, the pattern and distribution of genetic variation and correlations with cultural and linguistic diversity in Africa have been understudied. Recent advances in genomic technology, however, have led to genomewide studies of African samples. In this article, we discuss genetic variation in African populations contextualized with what is known about archaeological and linguistic variation. What emerges from this review is the importance of using independent lines of evidence in the interpretation of genetic and genomic data in the reconstruction of past population histories.

  2. The evolution and phylogeography of the African elephant inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence and nuclear microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lori S; Rasner, Caylor A; Woodruff, David S

    2002-10-07

    Recent genetic results support the recognition of two African elephant species: Loxodonta africana, the savannah elephant, and Loxodonta cyclotis, the forest elephant. The study, however, did not include the populations of West Africa, where the taxonomic affinities of elephants have been much debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b control region sequences and four microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic differences between the forest and savannah elephants of West and Central Africa. We then combined our data with published control region sequences from across Africa to examine patterns at the continental level. Our analysis reveals several deeply divergent lineages that do not correspond with the currently recognized taxonomy: (i) the forest elephants of Central Africa; the forest and savannah elephants of West Africa; and (iii) the savannah elephants of eastern, southern and Central Africa. We propose that the complex phylogeographic patterns we detect in African elephants result from repeated continental-scale climatic changes over their five-to-six million year evolutionary history. Until there is consensus on the taxonomy, we suggest that the genetic and ecological distinctness of these lineages should be an important factor in conservation management planning.

  3. The evolution and phylogeography of the African elephant inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence and nuclear microsatellite markers.

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Lori S; Rasner, Caylor A; Woodruff, David S

    2002-01-01

    Recent genetic results support the recognition of two African elephant species: Loxodonta africana, the savannah elephant, and Loxodonta cyclotis, the forest elephant. The study, however, did not include the populations of West Africa, where the taxonomic affinities of elephants have been much debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b control region sequences and four microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic differences between the forest and savannah elephants of West and Central Africa. We then combined our data with published control region sequences from across Africa to examine patterns at the continental level. Our analysis reveals several deeply divergent lineages that do not correspond with the currently recognized taxonomy: (i) the forest elephants of Central Africa; the forest and savannah elephants of West Africa; and (iii) the savannah elephants of eastern, southern and Central Africa. We propose that the complex phylogeographic patterns we detect in African elephants result from repeated continental-scale climatic changes over their five-to-six million year evolutionary history. Until there is consensus on the taxonomy, we suggest that the genetic and ecological distinctness of these lineages should be an important factor in conservation management planning. PMID:12396498

  4. Stable isotopes provide independent support for the use of mesowear variables for inferring diets in African antelopes.

    PubMed

    Louys, Julien; Ditchfield, Peter; Meloro, Carlo; Elton, Sarah; Bishop, Laura C

    2012-11-07

    We examine the relationship between mesowear variables and carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 16 species of African antelope (Mammalia: Bovidae). We show significant differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values between individuals exhibiting sharp versus round cusps, and high versus low occlusal relief. We show significant correlations between mesowear variables and both carbon and nitrogen isotopes. We find significant correlations between mesowear score and nitrogen, but not carbon isotopes. Finally, we find no significant correlations between hypsodonty index and either isotope examined. Our results provide strong support for the use of mesowear variables in palaeodietary reconstructions of antelopes. Our results further suggest that for the antelopes examined here, mesowear signals are a direct result of diet, while hyposodonty may be the result of phylogenetic legacy.

  5. Two phases of the Holocene East African Humid Period: Inferred from a high-resolution geochemical record off Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Holger; Li, Anchun

    2017-02-01

    During the Holocene, the most notably climatic change across the African continent is the African Humid Period (AHP), however the pace and primary forcing for this pluvial condition is still ambiguous, particularly in East Africa. We present a high-resolution marine sediment record off Tanzania to provide insights into the climatic conditions of inland East Africa during the Holocene. Major element ratios (i.e., log-ratios of Fe/Ca and Ti/Ca), derived from X-Ray Fluorescence scanning, have been employed to document variations in humidity in East Africa. Our results show that the AHP is represented by two humid phases: an intense humid period from the beginning of the Holocene to 8 ka (AHP I); and a moderate humid period spanning from 8 to 5.5 ka (AHP II). On the basis of our geochemical record and regime detection, the termination of the AHP initiated at 5.5 ka and ceased around 3.5 ka. Combined with other paleoclimatic records around East Africa, we suggest that the humid conditions in this region responded to Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. The AHP I and II might have been related to an eastward shift of the Congo Air Boundary and warmer conditions in the western Indian Ocean, which resulted in additional moisture being delivered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the NH summer and autumn, respectively. We further note a drought event throughout East Africa north of 10°S around 8.2 ka, which may have been related to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to the NH cooling event.

  6. Faecal chemical cues in water buffalo that facilitate estrus detection.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Ramesh Saravanakumar, Veluchamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2013-05-01

    Chemo-signals are among the reliable non-invasive methods for estrus detection in mammals. Water buffalo is a silent heat animal and, hence, there is search for chemo-signals which would be effective non-invasive indicators of estrus state. We analyzed the faecal chemical cues during the estrous cycle in buffalo and to find the estrus-specific faecal volatile compounds adopting bull behavior assay. The faecal samples were collected at three phases of the estrous cycle (i.e., proestrus, estrus and postestrus) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. We found 27 volatile compounds in the faeces of buffaloes, of which 4-methyl phenol (4mp) and trans-verbenol (tv) were found only in estrus faeces. The faecal samples of estrus buffaloes and the estrus-specific compound(s) (4mp+tv) at three different concentrations were tested for behavioral responses (flehmen and mounting behavior) in the bull. The bulls exhibited repeated flehmen when exposed to a combination of the two compounds (i.e., 4mp+tv) as compared to the individual compounds or raw faecal sample collected from buffalo when in estrus (P<0.05). However, higher number of mounting behavior was recorded when bulls were exposed to 4mp followed by a combination of the two compounds (4mp+tv) and trans-verbenol (P<0.05), in that order. By contrast, less number of mounting behavior was exhibited by bulls when exposed to the control sample (i.e., Hexadecanoic acid) (P<0.05). As inferred from the bull behavior assay, the present study suggests that the two compounds, 4 methyl phenol and trans-verbenol would be reliable indicators of estrus in buffaloes.

  7. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: An application to West African rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, II, D. L.; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, Fred; Kumar, Vipin; Samatova, Nagiza F.

    2015-01-13

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall~variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall. As a result, these relationships fall into two categories: well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, such as the relationship with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and putative links, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, that invite further research.

  8. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: An application to West African rainfall

    DOE PAGES

    Gonzalez, II, D. L.; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; ...

    2015-01-13

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall~variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression,more » and dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall. As a result, these relationships fall into two categories: well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, such as the relationship with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and putative links, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, that invite further research.« less

  9. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: an application to West African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D. L., II; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, F.; Kumar, V.; Samatova, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall~variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall. These relationships fall into two categories: well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, such as the relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and putative links, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, that invite further research.

  10. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: an application to West African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D. L., II; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, F.; Kumar, V.; Samatova, N. F.

    2014-04-01

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and Dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall, including well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, as well as promising discoveries that invite further research by the climate science community.

  11. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  12. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Evolutionary history of trypanosomes from South American caiman (Caiman yacare) and African crocodiles inferred by phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes.

    PubMed

    Viola, L B; Almeida, R S; Ferreira, R C; Campaner, M; Takata, C S A; Rodrigues, A C; Paiva, F; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-01-01

    In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDH sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.

  14. Using genetic profiles of African forest elephants to infer population structure, movements, and habitat use in a conservation and development landscape in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Eggert, L S; Buij, R; Lee, M E; Campbell, P; Dallmeier, F; Fleischer, R C; Alonso, A; Maldonado, J E

    2014-02-01

    Conservation of wide-ranging species, such as the African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), depends on fully protected areas and multiple-use areas (MUA) that provide habitat connectivity. In the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in Gabon, which includes 2 national parks separated by a MUA containing energy and forestry concessions, we studied forest elephants to evaluate the importance of the MUA to wide-ranging species. We extracted DNA from elephant dung samples and used genetic information to identify over 500 individuals in the MUA and the parks. We then examined patterns of nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial control-region sequences to infer population structure, movement patterns, and habitat use by age and sex. Population structure was weak but significant, and differentiation was more pronounced during the wet season. Within the MUA, males were more strongly associated with open habitats, such as wetlands and savannas, than females during the dry season. Many of the movements detected within and between seasons involved the wetlands and bordering lagoons. Our results suggest that the MUA provides year-round habitat for some elephants and additional habitat for others whose primary range is in the parks. With the continuing loss of roadless wilderness areas in Central Africa, well-managed MUAs will likely be important to the conservation of wide-ranging species.

  15. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  16. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  17. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  18. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  19. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  20. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  1. Underway view from starboard side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from starboard side in the Buffalo River with grain elevators and lift bridge in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety zone is intended to...

  3. Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

    2014-10-01

    Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at

  4. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Crookes, Steven; Ineich, Ivan; Mané, Youssouph; Pook, Catharine E; Trape, Jean-François; Broadley, Donald G

    2007-11-01

    We use phylogenetic analysis of 1333 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cobra-like elapid snakes, with special reference to the evolution of spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras, a radiation widespread in open vegetational formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that spitting adaptations appear to have evolved three times in cobras, but alternative scenarios cannot be rejected. The Asiatic Naja are monophyletic and originate from a single colonization of Asia from Africa. The radiation of the African spitting Naja appears to date back to the early Miocene and many speciation events in the group predate the Pliocene expansion of grasslands and the radiation of large grazing mammals in Africa. The cladogenic events in this complex appear to have been triggered by both ecological changes and tectonic events associated with the formation and expansion of the African Rift Valley. Taxonomically, our data confirm the inclusion of Boulengerina and Paranaja within Naja, and reveal a clade of African rainforest cobras including N. melanoleuca, Paranaja multifasciata and Boulengerina that constitutes the sister clade of the African open-formation non-spitting cobras. Naja nigricollis is polyphyletic, and we therefore recognize N. nigricincta as a separate species, more closely related to N. ashei and N. mossambica than to N. nigricollis.

  5. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  6. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  7. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  8. In Buffalo, Opening Doors for the Overlooked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…

  9. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  10. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  15. Phylogeography and domestication of Chinese swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.

  16. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  17. Papillomatosis in buffaloes: a less-known disease.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, R

    2011-08-01

    Scant information is available on papillomatosis in buffaloes, and it is an almost unknown disease. It has been described from India, Italy and Turkey. Buffalo papillomatosis occurs in cutaneous and mucosal forms. Cutaneous papillomatosis is manifested as cutaneous wart (CW) and teat papilloma types. The condition is known to be caused by bovine papillomaviruses (BPV)-1 and 2 and their mixed infections. Buffalo CWs are experimentally transmissible to hamsters, cattle as well as buffaloes. Once BPV establishes infection in buffaloes, infection spreads from buffalo to buffalo, without cattle intermediary. Histologically, CWs are mostly diagnosed as fibropapillomas. The mucosal form occurs as urinary bladder tumours similar to enzootic bovine haematuria which is also associated with bracken fern infested areas. BPVs are yet to be demonstrated in teat papillomas and urinary bladder tumours of buffalo cases. Papillomatosis in buffaloes is a little-known disease, but it is a separate infectious ailment of buffaloes and deserves more attention by researchers.

  18. Trypanosoma vivax in water buffalo of the Venezuelan Llanos: An unusual outbreak of wasting disease in an endemic area of typically asymptomatic infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Herakles A; Ramírez, Oneyda J; Rodrigues, Carla M F; Sánchez, Rafael G; Bethencourt, Angelica M; Del M Pérez, Gabriela; Minervino, Antonio H H; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2016-10-30

    Trypanosoma vivax has been associated with asymptomatic infections in African and South American buffalo. In this study, T. vivax was analyzed in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Venezuela in a molecular survey involving 293 blood samples collected from 2006 to 2015 across the Llanos region. Results demonstrated constant infections (average 23%) during the years analyzed. In general, animals were healthy carriers of T. vivax with low levels of parasitemia and were diagnosed exclusively by TviCATL-PCR. However, an outbreak of severe acute infections mostly in dairy animals was reported during a prolonged drought affecting 30.4% of a buffalo herd (115 animals examined). During the outbreak, animals exhibiting anemia and neurological disorders developed fatal infections, and 7% of the herd died within nine months before treatment against trypanosomosis. Microsatellite locus genotyping (MLG) of T. vivax samples before and during the outbreak revealed similar genotypes, but outbreak isolates exhibited the most divergent MLG. Venezuelan samples from symptomless and sick buffalo did not share the MLGs previously detected in asymptomatic Brazilian buffalo. Trypanosoma evansi was not detected in the herd examined during the outbreak. However, as expected Babesia sp. (62.6%) and Anaplasma sp. (55.6%) infections were highly prevalent in asymptomatic buffalo in the studied areas. This is the first South American outbreak of highly lethal acute T. vivax infections in water buffalo. Our results suggest that chronically infected and asymptomatic buffalo living in areas of enzootic equilibrium can develop symptomatic/lethal disease triggered by stressful scarcity of green forage and water during long droughts, inappropriate management of herds and likely concomitant anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Altogether, these factors weaken buffalo immune defenses, allowing T. vivax to proliferate and, consequently, allowing for progression to wasting disease.

  19. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population.

  20. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Roswell...Park Cancer Institute Buffalo , NY 14263 REPORT DATE: June 2012 TYPE OF REPORT...microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1

  1. Ecological Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  2. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick

    2015-01-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  3. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2015-12-28

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems.

  4. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  5. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  7. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  8. Cleft palate in a male water buffalo calf.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Y; Ranjbar, R; Ghadiri, A R; Afsahr, F Saberi; Nejad, S Goorani; Mahabady, M Khaksary; Afrough, M; Karampoor, R; Tavakoli, A

    2007-12-15

    Congenital palatal defects are common in animals but there is only one report of water buffalo has been recorded in Iran. One died male water buffalo calf was examined after hysterotomy operation. At necropsy findings, brachygnathia, palate cleft and small lungs were diagnosed. It is the second report of water buffalo cleft palate in Iran.

  9. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  10. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  11. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. 7. Concrete Railing along Buffalo River side of tracks emerging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Concrete Railing along Buffalo River side of tracks emerging from second level of DL&W train shed. Signal Tower/Boiler Room is just out of sight at right of photo. Skyway shows at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D’Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Congenital malformations (due to genetic causes) represent a hidden danger for animal production, above all when genetic selection is undertaken for production improvements. These malformations are responsible for economic losses either because they reduce the productivity of the farm, or because their spread in the population would decrease the total productivity of that species/breed. River buffalo is a species of increasing interest all over the world for its production abilities, as proved by the buffalo genome project and the genetic selection plans that are currently performed in different countries. The aim of this review is to provide a general view of different models of congenital malformations in buffalo and their world distribution. This would be useful either for those who performed buffalo genetic selection or for researchers in genetic diseases, which would be an advantage to their studies with respect to the knowledge of gene mutations and interactions in this species. Abstract The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital

  14. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison between cow and buffalo (including Egyptian buffaloes) mitochondrial displacement-loop regions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I; El-Hefnawi, Mahmoud M

    2008-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has been used extensively for phylogenetic analysis studies and systematics. The displacement loop (D-loop) region inside the mtDNA is a non-coding part whose analysis can indicate variations between closely related populations. This paper reports for the first time the characterization and analysis of the complete sequence of the D-loop region from Egyptian buffaloes and analysis in conjunction with previously published Indian and European Bubalus bubalis and Bos sub-tribe sequences. In the entire D-loop of the Egyptian buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes and nine polymorphic sites from the nine sequenced D-loop regions--while in the studied set of buffaloes we identified 28 polymorphic sites in the entire D-loop, and 49 polymorphic sites in the case of cows. Alignment between buffaloes and cows to evaluate the characteristics of the D-loop region showed that the second region of the conserved sequence block (CSB2) is apparently the most variable region in the D-loop between cows and buffaloes, with four insertions in all buffaloes and two substitutions, followed by the second region of the extended termination associated sequence (ETAS2) with a substitution rate of 1/10. The Egyptian buffaloes were shown to be closest to the Italian counterparts, exemplifying the closeness of ethnicity and the history of civilization of that region.

  15. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D'Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-02-10

    The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy) in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia) and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.

  16. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  17. Cultural Self Meets Cultural Other in the African American Experience: Teachers' Responses to a Curriculum Content Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shujaa, Mwalimu J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…

  18. Clinical and pathological insights into Johne's disease in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dalto, André Cabrera; Bandarra, Paulo Mota; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; de Bitencourt, Ana Paula Gobbi; Gomes, Marcos Pereira; Chies, José; Driemeier, David; da Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias

    2012-12-01

    Alternative diagnostic tools and interesting epidemiological assumptions were associated with an outbreak of Johne's disease. In a buffalo herd infected with paratuberculosis, seven clinically affected animals and 21 animals with anti-Mycobacterium avium ELISA reactions were identified. Total herd included 203 buffaloes. Most lesions were comparable to those described in buffaloes and cattle affected by Johne's disease. Water buffalo behaviors such as communal nursing and allosuckling may be additional risk factors for this disease. Detection of positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining and anti-M. avium immunolabeling in rectal biopsies from one buffalo with paratuberculosis are highlighted as auxiliary diagnostic tools for Johne's disease in live animals.

  19. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Misk, N.A.; Misk, T.N.; Semieka, M.A.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side. PMID:26623341

  20. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Misk, N A; Misk, T N; Semieka, M A; Ahmed, A F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  1. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  2. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, Martha

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  3. Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  4. Parochial School Foundations of Buffalo's Polonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidinski, Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the parochial school as a supportive agent of ethnic socialization in Buffalo's Polish immigrant communities. Describes diverse motives for development of the parish school system as an alternative to the public schools and summarizes the distinctive, communal functions of parish schools. (CMG)

  5. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  6. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C

    2015-08-01

    Perceptual inference refers to the ability to infer sensory stimuli from predictions that result from internal neural representations built through prior experience. Methods of Bayesian statistical inference and decision theory model cognition adequately by using error sensing either in guiding action or in "generative" models that predict the sensory information. In this framework, perception can be seen as a process qualitatively distinct from sensation, a process of information evaluation using previously acquired and stored representations (memories) that is guided by sensory feedback. The stored representations can be utilised as internal models of sensory stimuli enabling long term associations, for example in operant conditioning. Evidence for perceptual inference is contributed by such phenomena as the cortical co-localisation of object perception with object memory, the response invariance in the responses of some neurons to variations in the stimulus, as well as from situations in which perception can be dissociated from sensation. In the context of perceptual inference, sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that have been facilitated by a priming signal may be regarded as comparators in a closed feedback loop, similar to the better known motor reflexes in the sensorimotor system. The adult cerebral cortex can be regarded as similar to a servomechanism, in using sensory feedback to correct internal models, producing predictions of the outside world on the basis of past experience.

  8. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. 30. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo Illustrated file #129B8B92, prints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo Illustrated file #129B8B92, prints inpossession of Ciminilli Construction,Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown,1890 GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia.

  11. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries.

  12. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden "jewels" in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  13. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden “jewels” in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  14. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    in operations by Bethlehem Steel at its Lackawanna facility has been given considerable coverage in both the local and national media . This action...year. The reason for the net out-migration is the lack of new job opportunities in the Buffalo job market ." THE OUTLOOK FOR BUFFALO AND THE METROPOLITAN...the area are from the Research and Marketing Services, Buffalo Area Chamber of Commerce 8/75; Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census and can serve as an

  15. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetal fibroblasts with buffalo defined factors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanfei; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Chen, Shibei; Li, Xiangping; Wang, Caizhu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lei, Xiaocan; Zhang, Huina; Sun, Hongliang; Lu, Fenghua; Jiang, Jianrong; Shi, Deshun

    2012-09-01

    Ectopically, expression of defined factors could reprogram mammalian somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which initiates a new strategy to obtain pluripotent stem cell lines. Attempts have been made to generate buffalo pluripotent stem cells by culturing primary germ cells or inner cell mass, but the efficiency is extremely low. Here, we report a successful method to reprogram buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) into pluripotent stem cells [buffalo induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSCs)] by transduction of buffalo defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) using retroviral vectors. The established biPSCs displayed typical morphological characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, normal karyotype, positive staining of alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, E-Cadherin, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, STAT3, and FOXD3. They could form embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas after injecting into the nude BALB/C mice, and 3 germ layers were identified in the EBs and teratomas. Methylation assay revealed that the promoters of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated in biPSCs compared with BFFs and pre-biPSCs, while the promoters of Sox2 and E-Cadherin were hypomethylated in both BFFs and biPSCs. Further, inhibiting p53 expression by coexpression of SV40 large T antigen and buffalo defined factors in BFFs or treating BFFs with p53 inhibitor pifithrin-a (PFT) could increase the efficiency of biPSCs generation up to 3-fold, and nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with biPSCs could develop to blastocysts. These results indicate that BFFs can be reprogrammed into biPSCs by buffalo defined factors, and the generation efficiency of biPSCs can be increased by inhibition of p53 expression. These efforts will provide a feasible approach for investigating buffalo stem cell signal pathways, establishing buffalo stem cell lines, and producing genetic modification buffaloes in the future.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in water buffaloes: epidemiological survey and molecular evidence of ovine (G1) and buffalo (G3) strains.

    PubMed

    Capuano, F; Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Garippa, G; Genchi, C; Musella, V; Cringoli, G

    2006-04-30

    A survey of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of the Italian Mediterranean breed was carried out in Campania, a region of southern Italy. In addition, a molecular study was performed on 48 hydatid cysts coming from 48 water buffaloes in order to determine the Echinococcus granulosus strain(s) present in this host. Out of a total of 722 water buffaloes examined for CE, 76 (10.5%) were found infected. The average number of cysts per buffalo was 4.3 (minimum 1, maximum 45). Seventeen buffaloes had hydatid cysts only in the liver (with an average of 5 cysts/liver), 34 only in the lungs (with an average of 1.8 cysts/lungs), and 25 buffaloes had cysts both in the liver and in the lungs. Fertile cysts were found in 10 (13.2%) out of the 76 positive buffaloes. The sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene of the 48 hydatid cysts produced sequences of 419 bp for each sample analysed. For 33 samples, alignment of the obtained sequences with those present in GenBank showed a total homology with the common domestic sheep strain G1; for 15 samples, sequences obtained showed 100% homology with buffalo strain G3. The findings of the present survey represent the first epidemiological and molecular comprehensive studies on CE in water buffalo from an endemic area for E. granulosus.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  18. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26.

  19. MicroRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-1-0379 TITLE: MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL... MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women Hua Zhao Health Research Inc. Buffalo, NY 14263 So far...identified several SNPs in microRNA processing genes and microRNA genes are associated with breast cancer risk in either Caucasian Americans or

  20. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  1. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  2. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  3. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  4. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  5. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  6. Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)

  7. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  8. Isolation of Arcobacter species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea; Florio, Daniela; Giacometti, Federica; Pasquali, Frederique; Manfreda, Gerardo; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2013-05-01

    This is the first report of Arcobacter spp. in rectal fecal samples from healthy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared on a dairy farm. Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty samples were examined and Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 96.7% of water buffaloes tested: 38 Arcobacter spp. isolates were obtained, with A. cryaerophilus as the dominant species followed by A. butzleri and A. skirrowii. Nine animals (31%) were colonized by more than one Arcobacter species. The present study indicates that water buffaloes can harbor a variety of Arcobacter spp. and that healthy buffaloes may act as hosts. Water buffalo fecal shedding of Arcobacter spp. may be of significance to human health, considering the potential fecal contamination during harvesting of raw milk and slaughtering.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Eland, buffalo, and wild pigs: were Middle Stone Age humans ineffective hunters?

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler

    2008-07-01

    Patterns of faunal exploitation play a central role in debates concerning the behavioral modernity of Middle Stone Age (MSA) peoples. MSA foragers have been portrayed as less effective hunters than their Later Stone Age (LSA) successors on the basis of relative species abundances from ungulate assemblages in southern Africa. Specifically, MSA hunters are said to focus on docile eland while avoiding more aggressive prey, particularly buffalo and wild pigs. To evaluate these arguments and compare subsistence behavior, I present a quantitative examination of 51 MSA and 98 LSA ungulate assemblages from southern Africa to show that: (1) with respect to ungulate exploitation, MSA diet breadth may have exceeded LSA diet breadth, (2) ungulate assemblage evenness is equivalent in the MSA and LSA, (3) eland, buffalo, and wild pig are equally abundant in the MSA and LSA, and (4) large ungulate prey are more common in the MSA than in the LSA. With few exceptions, the broad patterns, which sample a range of geographic and environmental contexts, are supported by an environmentally controlled comparison of Middle and Later Stone Age faunas that accumulated under interglacial conditions along the southern African coastline. When interpreted within a foraging theory framework, these differences suggest that MSA hunters enjoyed increased meat yields due to elevated encounter rates with large prey. These results need not imply cognitive differences, but are consistent with an increase in human populations from the Middle to Later Stone Age, which resulted in diminished abundances of large ungulates.

  11. Four p67 alleles identified in South African Theileria parva field samples.

    PubMed

    Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Geysen, Dirk; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matthee, Conrad A; Troskie, Milana; Potgieter, Frederick T; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-02-10

    Previous studies characterizing the Theileria parva p67 gene in East Africa revealed two alleles. Cattle-derived isolates associated with East Coast fever (ECF) have a 129bp deletion in the central region of the p67 gene (allele 1), compared to buffalo-derived isolates with no deletion (allele 2). In South Africa, Corridor disease outbreaks occur if there is contact between infected buffalo and susceptible cattle in the presence of vector ticks. Although ECF was introduced into South Africa in the early 20th century, it has been eradicated and it is thought that there has been no cattle to cattle transmission of T. parva since. The variable region of the p67 gene was amplified and the gene sequences analyzed to characterize South African T. parva parasites that occur in buffalo, in cattle from farms where Corridor disease outbreaks were diagnosed and in experimentally infected cattle. Four p67 alleles were identified, including alleles 1 and 2 previously detected in East African cattle and buffalo, respectively, as well as two novel alleles, one with a different 174bp deletion (allele 3), the other with a similar sequence to allele 3 but with no deletion (allele 4). Sequence variants of allele 1 were obtained from field samples originating from both cattle and buffalo. Allele 1 was also obtained from a bovine that tested T. parva positive from a farm near Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. East Coast fever was not diagnosed on this farm, but the p67 sequence was identical to that of T. parva Muguga, an isolate that causes ECF in Kenya. Variants of allele 2 were obtained from all T. parva samples from both buffalo and cattle, except Lad 10 and Zam 5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that alleles 3 and 4 are monophyletic and diverged early from the other alleles. These novel alleles were not identified from South African field samples collected from cattle; however allele 3, with a p67 sequence identical to those obtained in South African field samples from

  12. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  14. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  15. Folliculogenesis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): a review.

    PubMed

    Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K; Sharma, V

    2002-01-01

    The urgent need for improving the reproductive performance of buffalo necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling ovarian follicular growth and development. Attention needs to be focused on improving superovulation responses and conception rates, and reducing the variability in ovulation rate and embryo loss. Application of ultrasonic imaging has revealed that follicular turnover during an unstimulated oestrous cycle occurs in waves, with each wave involving synchronous development of a group of follicles, one dominant and several subordinate follicles. There is a predominance of two waves with the first wave beginning around Day 0 (day of ovulation) and the second wave around Day 9 or 10. Primary reasons for a lower superovulation response in buffalo compared with that in cattle is a lower number of primordial and antral follicles, a slower shift from small to large follicles during superovulation, a higher incidence of deep atresia and inability of several large follicles to ovulate, especially when superovulation is induced by equine chorionic gonadotrophin treatment. There is near complete lack of information in Bubalus bubalis on the factors controlling the selection of the dominant follicle, the period of functional dominance and the effects of environmental factors, such as climate and nutrition, on follicular dynamics.

  16. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  17. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  18. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  19. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  20. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality.

  1. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Sequence diversity and molecular evolutionary rates between buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Moaeen-ud-Din, M; Bilal, G

    2015-02-01

    Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study, gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined using 86 gene orthologues. There was approximately 3% difference in all genes in terms of nucleotide diversity and 0.267 ± 0.134 in amino acids, indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non-synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo; however, there was similar difference in terms of dN- dS (4.414 versus 4.745) in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non-synonymous sites, indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae.

  3. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  4. Separation and quantification of milk casein from different buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production.

  5. Identification and IVC of spermatogonial stem cells in prepubertal buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Riaz, Hasan; Dong, Ping; Chong, Zhenlu; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Aixin; Yang, Liguo

    2014-06-01

    Development of suitable selective marker for buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), optimization of long-term IVC conditions, and their pluripotent retention capacity in buffaloes can be of prime importance in selective genetic modifications of this species. In the present study, we identified CDH1 as a specific marker for buffalo SSCs and revealed that it existed in two protein isoforms (large [135 kDa] and small [90 kDa] subunits) in the buffalo testis; furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CDH1 expression was present in spermatogonia but absent in the somatic cells of 4-month-old buffalo testis. After 7 days of enrichment, expression of CDH1 was also detectable in IVC colonies (∼53% enrichment efficiency by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). For long-term culture of SSCs, proliferation studies with different factors showed that combination of 20 ng/mL GDNF, 10 ng/mL FGF2, and 1000 U/mL LIF could significantly promote number of colonies (∼two folds) and proliferation of buffalo SSCs (∼three folds) compared with those of control or single-treatment groups; furthermore, addition of these combination growth factors significantly upregulated the messenger RNA level of spermatogonial-specific and pluripotency-related markers (BCL6B, GFRA1, and POU5F1), whereas downregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT). For confirmation of their stem cell potential, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin-stained cells were identified in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. These findings indicate the identification of a new buffalo SSCs marker; furthermore, it may help in establishing long-term culture that would assist in genetic modification of these buffaloes.

  6. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  7. Heterochromia iridis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Misk, N.A.; Semieka, M.A.; Fathy, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study included 45 unaffected animals and 593 animals affected with heterochromia irides, and 85 enucleated eyeballs with heterochromia irides. The classification of heterochromia irides, morphology of normal and heterochromic irides, and the histology, ultrastructure, and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The incidence of heterochromia irides in water buffaloes was 7.62% affecting either one or both eyes. Both complete and partial heterochromia irides occurred. Complete heterochromia iridis is more frequent than the partial form in either bilateral or unilateral cases. The pupil has a dumb-bell-shape appearance. Granula iridica occurred at the upper (100%) and lower (30%) pupillary margins and originated from the posterior pigmented epithelium. In heterochromia irides, the melanocytes is absent in the anterior border and stromal layers, and iridal thickness appeared thinner than that of normal eyes.

  8. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds.

  9. Four novel polymorphisms of buffalo INSIG2 gene are associated with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Ma, Xiaoya; Lu, Xingrong; Duan, Anqin; Zhu, Peng; Liang, Xianwei

    2016-10-01

    Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals. The results showed that four SNPs were significantly associated with 305-day milk yield or protein percentage in Murrah and crossbred breeds (P < 0.05), but they had no significant effect on milk production traits in Nili-Ravi buffaloes (P > 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed that one haplotype block was successfully constructed, of which the diplotype H1H1 showed significant association with 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes (P < 0.05). Our findings provide evidence that polymorphisms in buffalo INSIG2 gene are associated with milk production traits, and could be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding program.

  10. Deep Learning for Population Genetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Sara; Song, Yun S.

    2016-01-01

    Given genomic variation data from multiple individuals, computing the likelihood of complex population genetic models is often infeasible. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a novel likelihood-free inference framework by applying deep learning, a powerful modern technique in machine learning. Deep learning makes use of multilayer neural networks to learn a feature-based function from the input (e.g., hundreds of correlated summary statistics of data) to the output (e.g., population genetic parameters of interest). We demonstrate that deep learning can be effectively employed for population genetic inference and learning informative features of data. As a concrete application, we focus on the challenging problem of jointly inferring natural selection and demography (in the form of a population size change history). Our method is able to separate the global nature of demography from the local nature of selection, without sequential steps for these two factors. Studying demography and selection jointly is motivated by Drosophila, where pervasive selection confounds demographic analysis. We apply our method to 197 African Drosophila melanogaster genomes from Zambia to infer both their overall demography, and regions of their genome under selection. We find many regions of the genome that have experienced hard sweeps, and fewer under selection on standing variation (soft sweep) or balancing selection. Interestingly, we find that soft sweeps and balancing selection occur more frequently closer to the centromere of each chromosome. In addition, our demographic inference suggests that previously estimated bottlenecks for African Drosophila melanogaster are too extreme. PMID:27018908

  11. Deep Learning for Population Genetic Inference.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Sara; Song, Yun S

    2016-03-01

    Given genomic variation data from multiple individuals, computing the likelihood of complex population genetic models is often infeasible. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a novel likelihood-free inference framework by applying deep learning, a powerful modern technique in machine learning. Deep learning makes use of multilayer neural networks to learn a feature-based function from the input (e.g., hundreds of correlated summary statistics of data) to the output (e.g., population genetic parameters of interest). We demonstrate that deep learning can be effectively employed for population genetic inference and learning informative features of data. As a concrete application, we focus on the challenging problem of jointly inferring natural selection and demography (in the form of a population size change history). Our method is able to separate the global nature of demography from the local nature of selection, without sequential steps for these two factors. Studying demography and selection jointly is motivated by Drosophila, where pervasive selection confounds demographic analysis. We apply our method to 197 African Drosophila melanogaster genomes from Zambia to infer both their overall demography, and regions of their genome under selection. We find many regions of the genome that have experienced hard sweeps, and fewer under selection on standing variation (soft sweep) or balancing selection. Interestingly, we find that soft sweeps and balancing selection occur more frequently closer to the centromere of each chromosome. In addition, our demographic inference suggests that previously estimated bottlenecks for African Drosophila melanogaster are too extreme.

  12. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal) disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month), and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90%) and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840) at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI) 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP) 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP) 12%, reticular abscess (RA) 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI) 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU) 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%). ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years) of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years of

  13. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... reverse the decision. The War Department's action in this matter was controversial, especially within the... cavalry troops ``buffalo soldiers'' because of their dark, curly hair, which resembled a buffalo's...

  14. Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships with genotypes found in other ruminants.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Herakles A; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Martinkovic, Franjo; Minervino, Antonio H H; Campaner, Marta; Nunes, Vânia L B; Paiva, Fernando; Hamilton, Patrick B; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2011-11-01

    Species of the subgenus Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) have been reported in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A previous study in Brazil found at least four genotypes infecting cattle (Bos taurus), but only one in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). However, the small number of isolates examined from buffalo, all inhabiting nearby areas, has precluded evaluation of their diversity, host associations and geographical structure. To address these questions, we evaluated the genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of 25 isolates from water buffalo and 28 from cattle from four separate locations in Brazil and Venezuela. Multigene phylogenetic analyses of ssrRNA, internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITSrDNA), 5SrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b), spliced leader (SL) and cathepsin L-like (CATL) sequences positioned all isolates from sympatric and allopatric buffalo populations into the highly homogeneous genotype TthIA, while the cattle isolates were assigned to three different genotypes, all distinct from TthIA. Polymorphisms in all of these sequences separated the trypanosomes infecting water buffalo, cattle, sheep, antelope and deer, and suggested that they correspond to separate species. Congruent phylogenies inferred with all genes indicated a predominant clonal structure of the genotypes. The multilocus analysis revealed one monophyletic assemblage formed exclusively by trypanosomes of ruminants, which corresponds to the subgenus T. (Megatrypanum). The high degree of host specificity, evidenced by genotypes exclusive to each ruminant species and lack of genotype shared by different host species, suggested that the evolutionary history of trypanosomes of this subgenus was strongly constrained by their ruminant hosts. However, incongruence between ruminant and trypanosome phylogenies did not support host-parasite co-evolution, indicating that host switches have occurred across

  15. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  16. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  17. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  18. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  19. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles...

  20. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  1. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles...

  2. 8. View of DL&W complex from across Buffalo River. Two ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of DL&W complex from across Buffalo River. Two passenger buildings are at center, with train shed extending toward right. Skyway shows at top left, with Naval Park construction below. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles...

  4. Five Year Financial and Management Assessment of the Buffalo Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Financial Plan Commission, NY.

    In February 1993 the Buffalo Financial Plan Commission was asked to conduct a financial and management assessment of the Buffalo (New York) public schools. The effort involved the work of 115 volunteers from 75 businesses and community organizations in the Buffalo area. Thirty-four recommendations were produced, which were expected to yield annual…

  5. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the

  6. Ultrasonographic findings in cattle and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ultrasonographic findings in cattle and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. To the best of the author's knowledge, this report is the first to document ultrasonographic findings in buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. Ultrasonographic findings included distended gallbladders with either homogenous or heterogeneous contents, edema of the gallbladder walls, which ranged from mild or moderate to severe and bile duct mineralization. In 78% of the buffaloes, there was an ultrasonographic picture of hepatic fibrosis in which heterogeneous and hyperechogenic hepatic parenchymas with multiple echogenic foci were imaged. Other ultrasonographic findings included peritoneal, pleural and pericardial effusions. Two cows and one buffalo were slaughtered and examined postmortem. Hence, it was possible to verify distended gallbladders, edema of the gallbladder wall, calcified bile ducts, cholestasis and hepatic fibrosis by using ultrasonography in the cows and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. The procedure offers a useful supplement to clinical, hematological and biochemical examinations on the diagnosis of this condition.

  7. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the Buffalo Cave fossil site, Makapansgat, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herries, Andy I. R.; Reed, Kaye E.; Kuykendall, Kevin L.; Latham, Alf G.

    2006-09-01

    Speleological, stratigraphic, paleomagnetic and faunal data is presented for the Buffalo Cave fossil site in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Speleothems and clastic deposits were sampled for paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic analysis from the northern part of the site, where stratigraphic relationships could be more easily defined and a magnetostratigraphy could therefore be developed for the site. This is also where excavations recovered the fossil material described. A comparison of the east and South African first and last appearance data with the Buffalo Cave fauna was then used to constrain the magnetostratigraphy to produce a more secure age for the site. The magnetostratigraphy showed a change from normal to reversed polarity in the basal speleothems followed by a short normal polarity period in the base of the clastic deposits and a slow change to reversed directions for the remainder of the sequence. The biochronology suggested an optimal age range of between 1.0 Ma and 600,000 yr based on faunal correlation with eastern and southern Africa. A comparison of the magnetobiostratigraphy with the GPTS suggests that the sequence covers the time period from the Olduvai event between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, through the Jaramillo event at 1.07 Ma to 990,000 yr, until the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary at 780,000 yr. The faunal-bearing clastic deposits are thus dated between 1.07 Ma and 780,000 yr with the main faunal remains occurring in sediments dated to just after the end of the Jaramillo Event at 990,000 yr.

  8. Production of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Priya, D; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Saini, M; Sahare, A A; Nala, N; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing wild buffalo embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) through handmade cloning using wild buffalo somatic cells and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Somatic cells derived from the ear skin of wild buffalo were found to express vimentin but not keratin and cytokeratin-18, indicating that they were of fibroblast origin. The population doubling time of skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, and the cell proliferation rate was significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared with that of skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo. Neither the cleavage (92.6 ± 2.0% vs 92.8 ± 2.0%) nor the blastocyst rate (42.4 ± 2.4% vs 38.7 ± 2.8%) was significantly different between the intraspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo and interspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo. However, the total cell number (TCN) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (192.0 ± 25.6 vs 345.7 ± 42.2), and the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (15.1 ± 3.1 vs 8.0 ± 1.4) for interspecies than that for intraspecies cloned embryos. Following vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS) and warming, although the cryosurvival rate of both types of cloned embryos, as indicated by their re-expansion rate, was not significantly different (34.8 ± 1.5% vs 47.8 ± 7.8), the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for vitrified-warmed interspecies than that for corresponding intraspecies cloned embryos (48.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.9 ± 2.8). The global level of H3K18ac was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies cloned embryos than that in intraspecies cloned embryos. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a and CASPASE3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, that of P53 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies than in intraspecies embryos, whereas that of DNMT1 was similar between the two

  9. Potential association of reduced cholinesterase activity with Trypanosoma evansi pathogenesis in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K

    2016-07-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (P<0.001) lower. However, no significant difference was observed in cholinesterase activity between the T. evansi-infected buffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders.

  10. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-03-22

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  11. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease.

  12. Investigations of Allerton-type herpes virus infection in East African game animals and cattle.

    PubMed

    Plowright, W; Jessett, D M

    1971-06-01

    Neutralization tests with a strain (BA) of Allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of E. African game animals and on cattle sera from Tanzania (2001), Kenya (792) and Uganda (410).Buffalo populations throughout E. Africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. Antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, eland, bushbuck and oryx. Data are provided on the titres of positive samples; the mean titre of buffalo sera increased with age.Cattle in many localities of N. Tanzania and S. Kenya showed a very high rate of infection, 85-95% of sera from animals more than 2-years old containing antibody; the titres recorded were lower than those in buffaloes. Very high infection rates were also found in Karamoja and Teso (Uganda) and also in some other areas of Kenya, whilst a considerably lower incidence of infection was detected in W. Nile Province of Uganda and in central Tanzania. Differences in infection rates may have been related to herd size and husbandry practices.It was shown that a wave of infection was probably spreading through cattle in N. Tanzania at about the same time as an outbreak of disease occurred in buffaloes and it is suggested that virus transmission may have been by biting flies.No clinical signs attributable to the virus were reported in cattle but mouth lesions similar to those recorded in buffaloes, or nasal lesions, could have passed undetected. Allerton-type virus probably produces a range of clinical syndromes in cattle, closely resembling those associated with some herpes viruses in primates but infection is seldom related in the field to either pseudo-lumpy skin disease, mammillitis or stomatitis.

  13. The Institutionalization of an Internal Change Team: The Buffalo Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Lafornara, Paul A.

    This paper explores the creation, organizational stages, intervention activities, and outcomes of the School Improvement Resource Team (SIRT) in the Buffalo Public Schools (New York) from 1977 to 1980. Intended primarily to defuse tensions during implementation of court ordered desegregation, the SIRT effort serves as an apparently successful…

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the omasum in cows and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, Jitender; Kumar, Ashwani; Sangwan, Vandana; Udehiya, Rahul; Singh, Simrat Sagar

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish the ultrasonographic features of the healthy and impacted omasum in cows and buffaloes. Scanning was done using a 3.5 MHz microconvex transducer. In healthy buffaloes, the omasum could be scanned at the eighth to ninth intercostal space as a round or oval structure having thick echogenic wall with echogenic leaves. Gradual slow movements of omasal leaves could also be seen in real-time B-mode. The omasum appeared to be very clear, large, and close to the transducer at the start of the omasal contraction, and as the contraction progressed the omasum retracted away from the transducer and became very small. In healthy cows the omasum was seen as a crescent-shaped structure with an echogenic wall. The contents of the omasum or omasal leaves could not be visualized. Omasal contractility was not as prominent as in buffaloes. In buffaloes, the impacted omasum appeared amotile, the omasal leaves were not visible, and the omasum as a whole gave a prominent distal acoustic shadow. In cows, the impaction could be diagnosed based on amotile omasum covering a large area on the right side. Ultrasonography was found to be helpful in subjective assessment of omasal impaction but could not aid in diagnosing the severity of impaction.

  15. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Buffalo River Subbasin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    October 1977 and April 1978 .... .............. . . . 35 10 Groundwater Quality Data from Comuunities in the Buffalo River Subbasin...weed and insect control. Groundwater quality problems are related to high concentrations of iron and manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate (Upper...unable to meet water supply needs g(because of inadequate storage potentials). Communities in the subbasin 14 use groundwater for all municipal needs

  16. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

  17. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation.

  18. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  19. Comparison of CNVs in Buffalo with other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...

  20. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  1. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  2. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  3. The role of MC1R gene in buffalo coat color.

    PubMed

    Miao, YongWang; Wu, GuiSheng; Wang, Lei; Li, DaLin; Tang, ShouKun; Liang, JianPing; Mao, HuaMing; Luo, HuaiRong; Zhang, YaPing

    2010-02-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) plays a major role in pigmentation in many species. To investigate if the MC1R gene is associated with coat color in water buffalo, the coding region of MC1R gene of 216 buffalo samples was sequenced, which included 49 black river buffalo (Murrah and Nili-Ravi), 136 swamp buffalo (Dehong, Diandongnan, Dechang, Guizhou, and Xilin) with white and gray body, and 31 hybrid offspring of river buffalo Nili-Ravi (or Murrah) and swamp buffalo. Among the three variation sites found, SNP684 was synonymous, while SNP310 and SNP384 were nonsynonymous, leading to p.S104G and p.I128M changes, respectively. Only Individuals carrying homozygote E(BR)/E(BR) were black. The genotype and phenotype analysis of the hybrid offspring of black river buffalo and gray swamp buffalo further revealed that the river buffalo type allele E(BR) or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was important for the full function of MC1R. The in silico functional analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions p.G104S and p.M128I had significant impact on the function of MC1R. Above results indicate that the allele E(BR) or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was associated with the black coat color in buffalo.

  4. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.

  5. Evaluation of fasting metabolism of growing water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis).

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangsheng; Zou, Caixia; Pang, Chunying; Yang, Bingzhuan; Liang, Xianwei; Liu, Jianxin; Xia, Zhongsheng; Wen, Qiuyan; Yan, Tianhai

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fasting metabolism (FM) of water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis) at three stages of growth (12, 18 and 24 months) in Guangxi, China. Five female water buffalo were used for each age group and their live weight was on average 254, 326 and 338 kg, respectively. All animals were of average body condition, healthy and de-wormed before start of the study. Prior to a 6-day fasting period, buffalo were offered a mixed diet of forage and concentrates (70% and 30%, dry matter basis) on a restricted nutritional level (419 kJ/kg(0.75) of metabolizable energy, ME) for 15 days. Gas exchanges for each animal were determined for 3 days from day 4 of starvation, using open-circuit respiratory head hoods. Fasting body weight was 0.918 of live weight (P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.99). Both fasting heat production (FHP) and FM (MJ/day) increased significantly with increased age of animals (P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis indicated a positive relationship between fasting body weight (kg(0.75)) and FHP (MJ/day, P < 0.01, r(2) = 0.49) or FM (MJ/day P < 0.01, r(2) = 0.52) when using individual animal data across three groups. However, when expressed as kJ/kg(0.75) of fasting body weight, the differences in FHP or FM between three groups of animals were not significant. The present average FHP and FM (322 and 347 kJ/kg(0.75) of fasting body weight) were compatible to those published in the literature for water buffalo, beef and dairy cattle. The present FM data were also used to estimate net energy (NE(m)) and ME (ME(m)) requirements for maintenance for water buffalo. The results for these two parameters were similar to those for FHP and FM. There was no significant difference between three groups of buffalo in NE(m) or ME(m) when expressed as kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight. The present average NE(m) and ME(m) values (347 and 506 kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight) are close to those proposed by the Agricultural and Food Research Council adopted in UK for

  6. Isolation, purification and properties of cathepsin B from buffalo liver.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, A; Siddiqui, F A; Salahuddin, P

    1996-08-01

    Cathepsin B was isolated from buffalo liver by salt fractionation, ion-exchange resin treatment, gel filtration and repeated ion-exchange chromatography using a linear salt gradient. The enzyme showed activity, against denatured hemoglobin (or ovalbumin), alpha-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), and alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamine (BANA). It inactivated buffalo muscle aldolase with a half life period of 21 min. The pH-activity profiles obtained for the digestion of hemoglobin (or ovalbumin) and aldolase inactivation by the enzyme were found to be different. The enzyme (mol wt 27,800 by SDS-PAGE) eluted in gel filtration with a molecular weight of 27,000 and a Stokes radius of 2.31 nm. The results showed buffalo cathepsin B to be a single-chain molecule. The N- and C-terminal amino acids of the enzyme were found to be leucine and aspartic acid, respectively. It contained 0.7% concanavalin A reactive neutral carbohydrate. The amino acid composition of buffalo cathepsin B was found to be similar to that of human liver cathepsin B. The optical properties of the buffalo enzyme were found consistent with its aromatic amino acid content. The isoionic pH of the enzyme was found to be 5.70 and the intrinsic viscosity was 3.48 ml/g whence the frictional ratio, f/f0 was computed to be 1.10 suggesting that the native enzyme conformation is compact and is globular in solution.

  7. Splice variants and seasonal expression of buffalo HSF genes.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Mohanta, Debashish; De, Bidan Chandra; Chopra, Meenu; Dass, Gulshan; Vats, Ashutosh; Upadhyay, Ramesh C; Datta, T K; De, Sachinandan

    2015-05-01

    In eukaryotes, the heat shock factors (HSFs) are recognized as the master regulator of the heat shock response. In this respect, the genes encoding the heat shock factors seem to be important for adaptation to thermal stress in organisms. Despite this, only few mammalian HSFs has been characterized. In this study, four major heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 were studied. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the cDNA encoding using conserved gene specific primers and to investigate the expression status of these buffalo HSF genes. Our RT-PCR analysis uncovered two distinct variants of buffalo HSF-1 and HSF-2 gene transcripts. In addition, we identified a variant of the HSF5 transcript in buffalo lacking a DNA-binding domain. In silico analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for buffalo HSF genes showed domain architecture similar to other mammalian species. Changes in the gene expression profile were noted by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We detected the transcript of buffalo HSF genes in different tissues. We also evaluated the seasonal changes in the expression of HSF genes. Interestingly, the transcript level of HSF-1 gene was found upregulated in months of high and low ambient temperatures. In contrast, the expression of the HSF-4 and 5 genes was found to be downregulated in months of high ambient temperature. This suggests that the intricate balance of different HSFs is adjusted to minimize the effect of seasonal changes in environmental conditions. These findings advance our understanding of the complex, context-dependent regulation of HSF gene expression under normal and stressful conditions.

  8. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  9. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  10. Multiple Instance Fuzzy Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    INFERENCE A novel fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The...fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The framework introduces a...or learned from data. In multiple instance problems, the training data is ambiguously labeled. Instances are grouped into bags, labels of bags are

  11. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

    2015-01-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum.

  12. The complete coding region sequence of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Parma, Pietro; Feligini, Maria; Greppi, Gianfranco; Enne, Giuseppe

    2004-02-01

    The Y-linked SRY gene is responsible for testis determination in mammals. Mutations in this gene can lead to XY Gonadal Dysgenesis, an abnormal sexual phenotype described in humans, cattle, horses and river buffalo. We report here the complete river buffalo SRY sequence in order to enable the genetic diagnosis of this disease. The SRY sequence was also used to confirm the evolutionary divergence time between cattle and river buffalo 10 million years ago.

  13. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country.

  14. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes.

  16. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    1379 Grain Elevators of Buffalo. Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Vol. 1. Buffalo. s7O iii. - A Davis , Margaret, B. 1958 Three Pollen...Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 65. Ann Arbor. Hedin, Karl E. 1966 Directory of Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. Bruce Humphries . Boston. Hill...the War of 1812.. 4. International Railroad Bridge -Niagara and Bridge Streets. This bridge crossing the Niagara River was built by Sir Casimer S

  17. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  18. Bilateral dissemination of malignant pleural mesothelioma via iatrogenic buffalo chest: a rare route of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Tanaka, Eisaku; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Hashimoto, Seishu; Shindo, Toru; Noma, Satoshi; Kobashi, Yoichiro; Taguchi, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    Buffalo chest refers to the pleuro-pleural communication that results in a single pleural cavity. Iatrogenic buffalo chest can occur following heart or heart-lung transplantation and other major thoracic surgeries. We present the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma in which iatrogenic buffalo chest after extended thymectomy caused bilateral pneumothoraces and contralateral dissemination of the disease. The free communication between bilateral pleural cavities had facilitated the rapid progression of tumor and the consequent bilateral malignant pleural effusions had made the management of disease much more difficult, leading to the early fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of buffalo chest that was associated with bilateral malignant pleural effusions.

  19. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required.

  20. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  1. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  2. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.

  3. Embryonic Development of Heart in Indian Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anuradha; Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 35 buffalo foetuses from 0.9 cm CVRL (32 days) to 99.5 cm CVRL (298 days) to observe the morphogenesis and histogenesis of heart. The study revealed that, in 0.9 cm CVRL buffalo foetus, heart was unseptated and tubular which was clearly divided into common atrial chamber dorsally, primitive ventricles ventrally, primitive outflow tract with bulbous cordis region proximally, and aortic sac distally at 1.2 cm CVRL. Septum primum appeared at 1.9 cm CVRL whereas the truncal swellings and fold of interventricular septum appeared at 2.5 cm CVRL foetus. At 3.0 cm CVRL septum primum, endocardial cushions, septum secundum, and foramen ovale were observed. At 7.6 cm CVRL the endocardial cushions fused to form right and left atrioventricular openings and ventricular apex became pointed. Interventricular canal was obliterated and four-chambered heart was recognised along with atrioventricular valve, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles in 8.7 cm CVRL (66 days) buffalo foetus. The endocardium as well as epicardium of the atria was thicker as compared to ventricle, whereas the myocardium of atria was thin as compared to ventricles in all the age groups. All the internal structures of heart were well differentiated from 50 cm CVRL onwards. The detailed structural components of buffalo heart during prenatal period have been discussed in the present paper. PMID:27355030

  4. A combinatorial model for effective estrus detection in Murrah buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Ramu Muthu; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Buffaloes are silent heat animals and lacunae in their estrus detection results a substantial economic loss in developing countries. Many advanced tools to aid heat detection have been developed but are neither affordable nor easily interpretable by marginal farmers. Aim: The present investigation was made to develop a cost-effective estrus detection model by combining several known estrus predicting parameters. Materials and Methods: Various signs of estrus were classified under major parameters such as visual, cow behavioral, bull behavioral, biochemical, and gyneco-clinical. Expression of those parameters was observed in buffaloes, and the percentage of positive estrus detection was calculated for each combination of estrus prediction parameters. Results: The present result concludes that the model comprises of five parameters group with several signals with twenty-six different combinations. It was observed that the expression of individual combinations and their corresponding estrus detection efficiency varies significantly, i.e., detection efficiency rises as the number of combination increases. Conclusion: Combination of three parameters would provide an estrus detection efficiency >70% and suggested for an easy estrus detection. This would be a cost-effective model for farmers and benefits in enhancing buffalo population/reproduction. PMID:28344404

  5. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  6. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    PubMed

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P

  7. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  8. Comparison of Copy Number of HSF Genes in Two Buffalo Genomes.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Mukherjee, Ayan; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Saini, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Purushottam; Ahlawat, Sonika; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C; Datta, Tirtha K; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    The copy number variation (CNV) is the number of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. Recent evidences show that the CNVs can vary in frequency and occurrence between breeds. These variations reportedly allowed different breeds to adapt to different environments. As copy number variations follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance, identification and distribution of these variants between populations can be used to infer the evolutionary history of the species. In this study, we have examined the absolute copy number of four Heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 in two different breeds of buffalo species using real-time PCR. Here, we report that the absolute copy number of HSF2 varies between the two breeds. In contrast no significant difference was observed in the copy number for HSF-1, 4, and 5 between the two breeds. Our results provide evidence for the presence of breed specific differences in HSF2 genomic copy number. This seems to be the first step in delineating the genetic factors underlying environmental adaptation between the two breeds. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is needed to characterize the functional consequence of this variation.

  9. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-10 Section 3.45-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Buffalo's office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of...

  10. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  11. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  12. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, Lander and Humboldt Counties, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze and disclose impacts associated with the Buffalo Valley Mine Project,...

  13. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...

  14. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  15. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  16. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  17. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  18. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone listed in 33 CFR 165.939 for the following...

  19. Extrarenal effects on the pathogenesis and relapse of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in Buffalo/Mna rats.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Ludmilla; Godfrin, Yann; Günther, Eberhard; Buzelin, Françoise; Perretto, Sabine; Smit, Helga; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Usal, Claire; Cuturi, Cristina; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Dantal, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    Buffalo/Mna rats spontaneously develop a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with a histological pattern similar to the human disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of recurrence of the disease by transplantation of normal kidneys into Buffalo/Mna recipients. Kidneys from healthy LEW.1W rats were grafted into proteinuric 6-month-old Buffalo/Mna rats without or with specific tolerance induction following donor-specific transfusion (DST) aimed at controlling host anti-donor immune responses. The inverse combination was carried out to determine whether a proteinuric Buffalo/Mna kidney can recover its permselectivity in a normal environment. As a control, LEW.1W kidneys were grafted into Wistar Furth recipients. After transplantation without DST, recurrence of proteinuria in LEW.1W kidneys appeared at approximately 10 days, possibly associated with rejection of the graft. In the same combination with DST, proteinuria occurred after 20 days, and the attendant glomerular damage suggested that the initial kidney disease had recurred. Transplanted control animals remained free of proteinuria. In the opposite combination, the proteinuria and the lesions of Buffalo/Mna kidneys regressed after transplantation into healthy LEW.1W rats. The recurrence of proteinuria after transplantation in Buffalo/Mna and the remission of lesions in Buffalo/Mna kidneys transplanted into normal hosts suggests that Buffalo/Mna rats express circulating albuminuric factors, which may be relevant to the relapse of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in humans.

  20. Return of the Buffalo: The Efforts to Restore Bison to Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (ITBC), a nonprofit group founded to help tribes return buffalo to Indian reservations. Describes the cultural and economic motives behind the movement. Indicates that the ITBC has grown to 40 member tribes and utilizes a consensus-building approach to rebuilding buffalo herds. (MAB)

  1. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  2. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  3. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  4. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  5. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  6. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  7. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  8. Ruminal fermentation and microbial ecology of buffaloes and cattle fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki

    2012-12-01

    Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle.

  9. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  10. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  11. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  12. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY... announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases. A lot of 100 presentation cases will be offered for sale at a price of $299.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B....

  13. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed.

    PubMed

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2014-06-01

    DOMESTIC BUFFALOES ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUP BASED ON CYTOGENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITATS: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  14. Estimation of the methane emission factor for the Italian Mediterranean buffalo.

    PubMed

    Cóndor, R D; Valli, L; De Rosa, G; Di Francia, A; De Lauretis, R

    2008-08-01

    In order to contribute to the improvement of the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, this work aimed at estimating a country-specific enteric methane (CH4) emission factor for the Italian Mediterranean buffalo. For this purpose, national agriculture statistics, and information on animal production and farming conditions were analysed, and the emission factor was estimated using the Tier 2 model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Country-specific CH4 emission factors for buffalo cows (630 kg body weight, BW) and other buffalo (313 kg BW) categories were estimated for the period 1990-2004. In 2004, the estimated enteric CH4 emission factor for the buffalo cows was 73 kg/head per year, whereas that for other buffalo categories it was 56 kg/head per year. Research in order to determine specific CH4 conversion rates at the predominant production system is suggested.

  15. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  16. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  17. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  18. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring.

  19. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  20. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  1. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  2. Molecular and serological prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa da Silva, Jenevaldo; Vinhote, Wagner Marcelo Sousa; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world and is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. Approximately 60% of the buffalo herds in South America are located in northern Brazil. However, compared with the research on cattle, research on buffaloes has been neglected. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the distribution of A. marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil. A total of 500 buffalo blood samples was randomly collected from 16 provinces and was analyzed using both nPCR assay and ELISA techniques. The percentage of animals that were seropositive for A. marginale according to ELISA was 49% (245/500). The main risk factors associated with seroprevalence were the region (p=0.021; OR=1.2) and the reproductive status (p=0.0001; OR=1.6). Anaplasma marginale DNA was detected in 5.4% (27/500) of the sampled buffaloes. Our data provide information about the incidence of A. marginale infection in water buffaloes and may guide future programs aimed at controlling the disease in the northern region of Brazil. Although these water buffaloes are exposed to A. marginale, a low rate of A. marginale PCR-positive animals was found, which could be explained by the habitat in which the sampled animals live because they exhibited a low rate of attached ticks on their skin.

  3. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  4. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of buffalo fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and its differential expression among bovines.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Kumari, N; Mishra, S K; Mukesh, M; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-10

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene seems to be structurally and functionally different in bovines in view of their distinctive fatty acid synthesis process. Structural variation and differential expression of FASN gene is reported in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a bovine species close to cattle, in this study. Amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of functionally important thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN revealed its conserved nature across mammals. Amino acid residues at TE domain, responsible for substrate binding and processing, were found to be invariant in all the mammalian species. A total of seven polymorphic nucleotide sites, including two in coding region of TE domain were identified across the 10 buffalo populations of riverine and swamp types. G and C alleles were found almost fixed at g18996 and g19056 loci, respectively in riverine buffaloes. Principal component analysis of three SNPs (g18433, g18996 and g19056) revealed distinct classification of riverine and swamp buffalo populations. Reverse Transcription-PCR amplification of mRNA corresponding to exon 8-10 region of buffalo FASN helped in identification of two transcript variants; one transcript of 565 nucleotides and another alternate transcript of 207 nucleotides, seems to have arisen through alternative splicing. Both the transcripts were found to be expressed in most of the vital tissues of buffalo with the highest expression in mammary gland. Semi-quantitative and real-time expression analysis across 13 different buffalo tissues revealed its highest expression in lactating mammary gland. When compared, expression of FASN was also found to be higher in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle of buffalo tissues, than cattle. However, the FASN expression was highest in adipose among the three tissues in both the species. Results indicate structural and functional distinctiveness of bovine FASN. Presence of alternate splicing in buffalo FASN also seems to be a unique phenomenon to the bovines

  6. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651

  7. Inference as Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Inference, or decision making, is seen in curriculum documents as the final step in a statistical investigation. For a formal statistical enquiry this may be associated with sophisticated tests involving probability distributions. For young students without the mathematical background to perform such tests, it is still possible to draw informal…

  8. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with

  9. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  11. Parentage verification in field progeny testing program of Mehsana buffalo.

    PubMed

    Jakhesara, S J; Rank, D N; Kansara, J D; Parikh, R C; Patel, V M; Vataliya, P H; Solanki, J V

    2012-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to construct a multiplex microsatellite panel for parentage testing in Mehsana buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The study was based on a total of 212 Mehsana buffalos (100 dams, 100 daughters, and 12 sires). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and semen samples. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers (CSSM61, ILSTS29, ILSTS17, ILSTS28, CSSM57, CSSM22, ILSTS61, CSSM8, ETH152, and ILSTS11) was amplified in a single multiplex reaction and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis on an automated DNA sequencer. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.642 to 0.833 (mean 0.762). The total exclusion probability using 10 microsatellite loci with 1 known parent was 0.993. Seven out of 10 microsatellite loci revealed relatively high polymorphic information content (>0.7). Eighty-one daughters out of 100 daughters qualified by compatibility according to Mendelism. The results suggest that multiplex microsatellite panel is a fast, robust, reliable, and economic tool to verify the parentage as well as to assign the putative sire to daughters under progeny testing with very high accuracy and hence can be used in routine parentage testing.

  12. Assessment of genetic variability and structuring of riverine buffalo population (Bubalus bubalis) of Indo-Gangetic basin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R K; Banerjee, Priyanka; Sharma, Upasna; Tantia, M S; Vijh, R K

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo population of Uttar Pradesh (UP) constitutes 26.1% of the total buffalo population of India, yet this population has not been classified into distinct breeds or subpopulations due to lack of systematic study. Genetic variation at 30 microsatellite loci was examined and statistical analysis was carried out to reveal genetic diversity, demographic parameters of these buffaloes and to investigate the existence of population substructures underlying geographical distribution. The mean number of alleles per locus was 13.26 and mean effective number of alleles was 3.74, whereas mean observed and expected heterozygosities were found to be 0.57 and 0.67 in UP buffaloes. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on allele frequency data revealed subclustering of UP buffalo population. Bayesian analysis result also revealed clear membership of individuals into five clusters indicating a genetic subdivision within the UP buffalo population. The buffaloes of Western and Central regions of UP were subtly separated while buffaloes of Tarai area and Bhadawari buffaloes revealed distinctive population structure. The buffaloes of Mau, Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Eastern region also had a distinctive genetic structure. The analysis of data on buffaloes of Indo-Gangetic plains revealed that population was in mutation drift equilibrium. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) suggesting that it has not suffered any severe reduction in effective population size. The statistical tests revealed a historical constancy of size of buffalo in this geographical area. The high level of genetic variability indicates UP buffalo population is a vast reservoir of genetic diversity and this shall help in taking informed conservation decisions and sustainable utilization.

  13. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  14. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  15. Optical Inference Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-27

    de olf nessse end Id e ;-tl Sb ieeI smleo) ,Optical Artificial Intellegence ; Optical inference engines; Optical logic; Optical informationprocessing...common. They arise in areas such as expert systems and other artificial intelligence systems. In recent years, the computer science language PROLOG has...cal processors should in principle be well suited for : I artificial intelligence applications. In recent years, symbolic logic processing. , the

  16. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  17. Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes from northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Wongpanit, Kannika; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xiao, Lihua; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae.

  18. Some qualitative and chromatic aspects of thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat.

    PubMed

    Tateo, A; De Palo, P; Quaglia, N C; Centoducati, P

    2007-06-01

    After thawing, the meat of beef calves (Italian Frisian breed) and buffalo calves (Mediterranean breed) slaughtered at 4, 8 and 12 months of age was examined. Both the pH and the thawing loss confirmed that the meat of buffalo calves is more suitable for preservation by freezing. With increased age and time of exposure to air the lightness of the non-renewed surface was reduced. The lightness of the fresh cut surface remained stable in the various thawing phases though it was less in the older animals. The a(∗) index increased with animal age but decreased during the 4 days post-thawing. The fresh cut surface of buffalo meat from calves slaughtered at 4 and 8 months was not darker than beef slaughtered at the same age. On the contrary at 12 months of age, the buffalo meat had a lower redness index than beef and a higher haematin concentration.

  19. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in South African game reserves.

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Coetzee, M L; Keet, D F; Maré, L; Warren, R; Cooper, D; Bengis, R G; Kremer, K; van Helden, P

    2009-02-02

    Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in African buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in South Africa. It was thought that the infection had been introduced into the KNP ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by IS6110 and PGRS restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. The molecular characterisation of 189 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine wildlife species in the HiP, including three smaller associated parks, and the Kruger National Park with adjacent areas showed that the respective epidemics were each caused by an infiltration of a single M. bovis genotype. The two M. bovis strains had different genetic profiles, as demonstrated by hybridisation with the IS6110 and PGRS RFLP probes, as well as with regard to evidence of evolutionary changes to the IS profile. While the M. bovis type in HiP was transmitted between buffaloes and to at least baboon, bushpig and lion without obvious genetic changes in the RFLP patterns, in the KNP a dominant strain was represented in 73% of the M. bovis isolates, whilst the remaining 27% were variants of this strain. No species-specific variants were observed, except for one IS6110 type which was found only in a group of five epidemiologically related greater kudu. This finding was attributed to species-specific behaviour patterns rather than an advanced host-pathogen interaction.

  1. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  2. Inferring Past Effective Population Size from Distributions of Coalescent Times

    PubMed Central

    Gattepaille, Lucie; Günther, Torsten; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Inferring and understanding changes in effective population size over time is a major challenge for population genetics. Here we investigate some theoretical properties of random-mating populations with varying size over time. In particular, we present an exact solution to compute the population size as a function of time, Ne(t), based on distributions of coalescent times of samples of any size. This result reduces the problem of population size inference to a problem of estimating coalescent time distributions. To illustrate the analytic results, we design a heuristic method using a tree-inference algorithm and investigate simulated and empirical population-genetic data. We investigate the effects of a range of conditions associated with empirical data, for instance number of loci, sample size, mutation rate, and cryptic recombination. We show that our approach performs well with genomic data (≥ 10,000 loci) and that increasing the sample size from 2 to 10 greatly improves the inference of Ne(t) whereas further increase in sample size results in modest improvements, even under a scenario of exponential growth. We also investigate the impact of recombination and characterize the potential biases in inference of Ne(t). The approach can handle large sample sizes and the computations are fast. We apply our method to human genomes from four populations and reconstruct population size profiles that are coherent with previous finds, including the Out-of-Africa bottleneck. Additionally, we uncover a potential difference in population size between African and non-African populations as early as 400 KYA. In summary, we provide an analytic relationship between distributions of coalescent times and Ne(t), which can be incorporated into powerful approaches for inferring past population sizes from population-genomic data. PMID:27638421

  3. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Seerapu, Sandeep Reddy; Kancharana, Ananda Rao; Chappidi, Venkata Seshaiah; Bandi, Eswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI), milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control) was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), total solids (TS), specific gravity. Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001) decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers), GroupIII (fans), and GroupIV (foggers and fans) compared to GroupI (control). Significant (p<0.001) decrease in average rectal temperature (°F), respiration rate (breaths/min) and pulse rate (beats/min) values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk yield (kg/day) was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo houses

  4. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country.

  5. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    PubMed

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of blastocyst development was observed in the NT embryos activated by calcium ionophore and 6-DMAP when compared with 6-DMAP alone (33% versus 17%). The results indicate that the somatic nuclei from buffalo can be reprogrammed after transfer to enucleated bovine oocytes, resulting in the production of cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of the first automatic milking system for buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Caria, M; Tangorra, F M; Leonardi, S; Bronzo, V; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of buffaloes to automatic milking, examining the relationships between milking interval, milk production, and milking time for this species. A total of 7,550 milking records from an average of 40 buffaloes milked by an automatic milking system (AMS) were analyzed during a 3-mo experimental period at a commercial farm with Italian Mediterranean buffaloes in southern Italy. Date and time of animal identification, milk yield, milking duration, milking interval, and average milk flow rate were determined for each milking. The results were also used to predict the maximum number of milkings per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS for different levels of milk production. The average interval period between 2 consecutive milkings was 10.3 h [standard deviation (SD) 3.3]. Overall, 3.4 and 25.7% of the milkings had an interval of ≤ 6 h or >12 h, respectively. Milking duration averaged 8.3 min per buffalo per milking (SD 2.7). The average milk flow rate was 1.3 kg/min (SD 0.5) at a milk yield of 2.8 kg per milking (SD 1.4). Assuming that the milking station is occupied 80% of the time, the number of milkings ranged from 136 to 152 per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS ranged from 59 to 66 when the production level increased from 2 to 5 kg of milk per milking. Automatic milking systems are suitable for buffalo, opening new options for the management of dairy buffalo farms.

  7. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.

  8. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Erie County Along Lake Erie and Niagara River Shoreline Protection Interim.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Buffalo PISA ) 393,195 : 88 : 102,947 : 10 : 19,330 : 2 : 363,944 Buffalo (C) : 252,365 : 71 : 95,116 : 27 : 10,389 2 : 87,387 Table 2 - Population...1969--1983, and Projected, 1990-2035 rrho-ana 01 WA)5 1060𔃻 197V 1378 1063 1000 I 1005 2000 2M 2015 2ŗ T a .pi.y

  9. Investigation into omocysteine, vitamin E and malondialdehyde as indicators of successful artificial insemination in synchronized buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Barbato, Olimpia; Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; Pierri, Francesca; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Terracina, Luigi; Canali, Claudio; Avellini, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe modifications in plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin E (VitE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the first 56 days after artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo. Thirty-five buffalo cows were divided, ex post, into three groups on the basis of pregnancy diagnosis: pregnant, not pregnant, with embryonic mortality. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Our results showed that, in pregnant buffaloes, included those with embryonic mortality, MDA increased progressively while VitE decreased. In non-pregnant buffaloes, MDA and Vit E were unchanged. Hcy concentrations also remained unchanged within each group throughout the study period, but were lower in non-pregnant buffaloes than in the pregnant ones and in those with embryonic mortality. In conclusion, present data suggest that successful pregnancy in buffalo cows might be linked to Hcy metabolism and oxidative stress involvement.

  10. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  11. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-03

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime.

  12. Demonstration of alternative and classical complement pathway activity in colostrum from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Matheswaran, K; Dhinakar Raj, G; Nachimuthu, K

    2003-09-01

    Buffalo colostrum caused lysis of unsensitized red blood cells (RBC) from sheep, goats, rabbits and chickens. RBC from cattle and buffalo were resistant to lysis. That lysis was due to the presence of natural antibodies to these RBC was ruled out since there was no reduction in haemolytic titres even after adsorption with the respective RBC. The addition of EGTA to the diluent had no effect on the haemolytic activity. These findings indicate the presence of alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity in buffalo colostrum. The haemolytic activity of buffalo complement for unsensitized rabbit RBC was reduced to very low levels by heating at 50 degrees C for 45 min. Treatment with zymosan also inhibited the haemolytic activity, while inulin had no effect. The maximum activity of ACP occurred in the presence of 4 mmol/L Mg(2+) in the diluent. The range of ACP activities in colostrum from buffaloes varied from 4.06 to 8.48 CH50 units/ml. Using a standard system for titrating the classical complement pathway and rabbit red blood cells sensitized with goat haemolysin, the range of complement activity in buffalo colostrum was 4.81-6.77 CH50/ml.

  13. HSP70 as a marker of heat and humidity stress in Tarai buffalo.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Rao; Yadav, Mrigakshi; Ramesh, Kandasamy; Uniyal, Sarveshwa; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar; Sejian, Veerasamy; Hyder, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Heat and humidity stress is a constant challenge to buffalo rearing under tropical climatic conditions. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) constitute a ubiquitous class of highly conserved proteins that contribute to cell survival during different conditions of stress. The present study was carried out in Tarai buffaloes to study the expression of HSP70 in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells during different seasons and establish it as a marker of heat and humidity stress in buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from each healthy, non-lactating and non-pregnant buffalo above 2 years of age, once in the month of January (temperature-humidity index (THI) < 72) and in the month of May (THI > 72). Blood samples were also collected during October (THI = 72) to be used as calibrator/control. Real-time PCR was used to profile the HSP70 gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The relative expression values of HSP70 in Tarai buffalo was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) during summer season (2.37 ± 0.12) as compared to winter season (0.29 ± 0.04). The expression positively correlated with changes in physiological parameters like respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR) and rectal temperature (RT). In conclusion, it can be said that RR and HSP70 may act as characteristic physiological and cellular markers of heat and humidity stress in buffaloes.

  14. Analysis of DRB3 gene polymorphisms in Jafarabadi, Mediterranean, and Murrah buffaloes from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Olivatto, L M; Naressi, B C M; Tonhati, H; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2016-03-31

    The DRB3 gene is an MHC class II gene that has a high degree of polymorphism with more than 100 alleles described in cattle. This variation contributes to differences among individuals in immune responsiveness and disease resistance. In this study, we searched for allelic variants in exon 2 of the DRB3 gene in 80 river buffaloes of three breeds in Brazil using a PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR product showed genetic polymorphism when digested with RsaI, PstI or HaeIII restriction enzymes. In total, 16 restriction patterns were identified: nine restriction patterns and 16 genotypes were found with RsaI; four restriction patterns and nine genotypes were found with HaeIII; and, three restriction patterns and four genotypes were found with PstI. Three RFLP patterns were exclusive to Jafarabadi buffaloes (RsaI-b, RsaI-c and RsaI-f) and three others were only observed in Mediterranean buffaloes (RsaI-g, RsaI-h and PstI-y). Jafarabadi buffaloes had a larger number of RFLP patterns than Mediterranean and Murrah breeds. The analysis showed that the DRB3 exon 2 was highly polymorphic, with the highest degree of polymorphism in Mediterranean buffaloes. This study provides the first assessment of allelic variation among three different buffalo breeds from Brazil and provides a basis for further investigations into the association between the DRB3 alleles and disease resistance.

  15. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  16. Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Clinical Findings and the Associated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashker, Maged; Salama, Mohamed; El-Boshy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG) examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF)-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen (Fb), and serum sialic acid (SSA). It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful. PMID:26464911

  17. Bioaccumulation of lead in milk of buffaloes from Cooum River Belt in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Sahayaraj, P Arockia; Ayyadurai, K

    2009-09-01

    Bioaccumulation of heavy metals has been studied in aquatic flora and fauna to a greater extent than in terrestrial animals. Hence, this study was performed to find out whether lead was excreted in the milk of buffaloes reared near the Cooum belt which was fed by contaminated feed and polluted water from the nearby wells. The concentrations of lead in milk of buffaloes fed under farm conditions were also studied. The results have indicated that the ground water (0.32 microg ml(-1)) and feed (8.62 microg g(-1)) are the sources of lead in buffalo milk (0.06 microg ml(-1)). It revealed that one unit increases of lead in water and feed corresponded to an increase of 77.38 and 37.77 units respectively in milk of buffaloes reared near the contaminated watercourse. However, the milk of buffaloes from Central Cattle Breeding Farm is free from lead (0.013 microg ml(-1)) pollution. The reason for bioaccumulation of lead in the milk of buffaloes reared near the sewage carrying river is due to drinking of contaminated ground water from wells and bore-wells dug near the river.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Zhu, Peng; Liao, Biyun; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of the transcription factor complex in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. Of the seven STAT isoforms, STAT1 is a key mediator of type I and type III IFN signaling, but limited information is available for the STAT genes in the water buffalo. Here, we amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo STAT1 gene by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the buffalo STAT1 gene length size was 3437 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2244 bp that encoded 747 amino acids for the first time. The buffalo STAT1 CDS showed 99, 98, 89, 93, 86, 85, and 87% identity with that of Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Capra hircus. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the nearest relationship existed between the water buffalo and B. taurus. The STAT1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in 11 buffalo tissues by real-time PCR, whereas STAT1 was expressed at higher levels in the lymph. The STAT1 gene contained five targeted microRNA sequences compared with the B. taurus by the miRBase software that provide a fundamental for identifying the STAT1 gene function.

  19. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

  20. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use.

  1. Inhibin in individual buffalo ovarian follicles in relation to size.

    PubMed

    Palta, P; Prakash, B S; Manik, R S; Madan, M L

    1996-06-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was validated and applied for measurement of inhibin in follicular fluid (bFF) obtained from individual buffalo ovarian follicles. Follicular size was measured with an ultrasound machine and follicles were categorized as small, medium and large. Presence of inhibin was detected in all the antral follicles above 3 mm diameter. Inhibin concentration showed a positive relationship (R = 0.27, P < 0.01) with follicular diameter and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in bFF from medium and large follicles (8.44 +/- 0.54 and 7.70 +/- 0.45 micrograms/ml, respectively) in comparison to that from small follicles (5.74 +/- 0.80 micrograms/ml). Total inhibin content was highly correlated (R = 0.92, P < 0.001) with follicular diameter and the inhibin content was higher (P < 0.001) in large > medium > small follicles.

  2. Seasonal variations in seminal plasma proteins of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, D K

    2014-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls.

  3. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes and meat cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Laura M J de F; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; Farias, Nara Amélia da R; Ruas, Jerônimo L

    2013-09-01

    Serum samples from 169 water buffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of water buffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant.

  4. Visual Inference Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Timucin, Dogan; Rabbette, Maura; Curry, Charles; Allan, Mark; Lvov, Nikolay; Clanton, Sam; Pilewskie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The goal of visual inference programming is to develop a software framework data analysis and to provide machine learning algorithms for inter-active data exploration and visualization. The topics include: 1) Intelligent Data Understanding (IDU) framework; 2) Challenge problems; 3) What's new here; 4) Framework features; 5) Wiring diagram; 6) Generated script; 7) Results of script; 8) Initial algorithms; 9) Independent Component Analysis for instrument diagnosis; 10) Output sensory mapping virtual joystick; 11) Output sensory mapping typing; 12) Closed-loop feedback mu-rhythm control; 13) Closed-loop training; 14) Data sources; and 15) Algorithms. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  5. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

  6. Preovulatory follicular and subsequent luteal size influence pregnancy success in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Shohag, Abu Said; Kamal, Md Mostofa; Bari, Farida Yeasmin; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and its effects on subsequent corpus luteum (CL) size and conception were studied in 38 lactating indigenous cycling buffaloes in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Body condition score (BCS) at estrus was estimated for the buffaloes. The buffaloes were synchronized with two injections of a synthetic analogue of PGF2α administered 11 days apart. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out at estrus and on days 5, 9, 12 and 16 post ovulation to determine the POF and successive CL size. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound examination on day 40-45 post ovulation. Twenty one (55.3%) buffaloes were diagnosed as pregnant. The conception rates of thin (BCS ≤2.0), good (BCS 2.5-3.5) and fat (BCS glt;3.5) buffaloes were 7.7, 88.2 and 62.5% (χ² = 19.54; P<0.05), respectively. The mean diameter of the POF at estrus was larger (P<0.01) in buffaloes that ultimately were diagnosed as pregnant compared with their nonpregnant counterparts (13.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively). The conception rates of buffaloes having small (9 to ≤ 12 mm), medium (>12 to ≤14 mm) and large (>14 to 16 mm) POFs at estrus were 9.1, 70.0 and 85.7% (χ² = 13.87, P<0.01), respectively. On day 5 post ovulation, CL size was positively correlated (CL: r=.74, P<0.01) with POF diameter. Retrospective analysis revealed that on day 5 post ovulation, the pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) post ovulation CL sizes than their nonpregnant counterparts (15.6 vs. 11.8 mm). Similarly, on day 9 post ovulation, the difference in CL size (14.3 vs. 13.6 mm) between pregnant and nonpregnant buffaloes was significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the diameter of the POF in buffaloes has a positive impact on the size of the post ovulation CL and conception.

  7. Postpartum ovarian follicular dynamics in primiparous and pluriparous Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Bella, Antonino; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; De Santis, Giuseppe; Senatore, Elena Maria

    2005-03-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor ovarian function in postpartum primiparous and pluriparous Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during months of increasing daylength. Ovarian ultrasound monitoring was carried out for a total of 60 days from calving in 10 primiparous and 10 pluriparous buffaloes. Progesterone was determined from calving until a week after first postpartum ovulation. The study was undertaken during months of increasing day length. Time required for complete postpartum uterine involution was 31 +/- 1.0 and 33 +/- 1.3 days in primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (P = 0.1). The first postpartum ovulation was recorded on 4 primiparous and 8 pluriparous buffaloes (P = 0.16). Time for first postpartum ovulation to occur was 25.5 +/- 6.9 and 15.5 +/- 1.3 days in primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes, respectively (P = 0.07). Overall, 8 of the 12 first postpartum ovulations (66.6%) occurred in the ovary contra-lateral to the one bearing the gravidic CL, one out of 4 in primiparous and 3 out of 8 in pluriparous buffaloes (P = 1.0). Following a first postpartum ovulation, 3 primiparous and 4 pluriparous buffaloes displayed a complete wave of follicular development leading to a new ovulation. Ovulation following parturition was not recorded in 6 primiparous and two pluriparous buffaloes for the 60 days of ultrasound monitoring. Growth rate (mm/d) and largest size (mm) of first postpartum ovulating follicle was 0.95 +/- 0.18 and 1.07 +/- 0.07 (P = 0.4), and 13.5 +/- 0.8 and 14.1 +/- 0.4 (P = 0.4) in primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes, respectively. Following calving, the total number of available antral follicles (> or =2 mm) declined gradually towards the end of the study period. Follicles greater or equal to 3 mm in diameter on the contrary showed a prominent increase in the first 2 weeks from calving. The number of follicles greater or equal to 3 mm in diameter was significantly higher in the ovary contra-lateral to

  8. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  9. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia.

  10. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  11. Moment inference from tomograms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Interim Report on Feasibility of Improving Recreation Access and Related Water and Land Management in the Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    western and eastern markets. Outside the Buffalo urbanized area, the study area is primarily agri- cultural, consisting of small farms and dairies with...9422 Great Lame 16 October 1975 Robwl A. SwOeeny, Dec Col. Bernard Hughes, District Engineer Buffalo District - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1776...ADA102 434 CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO NY BUFFALO DISTRICT F/ 13/2 I NTERIM REPORT ON FEASIBILITY OF IMPROVING RECREATION ACCESS AN-ETC(U) APR

  13. Molecular and cellular characterization of buffalo bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gade, N E; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, A; Dubey, P K; Amarpal; Sharma, B; Saikumar, G; Taru Sharma, G

    2013-06-01

    Immune privileged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types and possess great potential for human and veterinary regenerative therapies. This study was designed with an objective to isolate, expand and characterize buffalo bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) at molecular and cellular level. Buffalo BM-MSCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient method and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). These cells were characterized through alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, mRNA expression analysis (CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, Oct4 and Nanog), immunolocalization along with flow cytometry (Stro 1, CD 73, CD 105, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and in situ hybridization (Oct4 and Sox2). Multilineage differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) was induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. Buffalo BM-MSCs have the capacity to form plastic adherent clusters of fibroblast-like cells and were successfully maintained up to 16(th) passage. These cells were AP positive, and further CFU assay confirmed their clonogenic property. RT-PCR analysis and protein localization study showed that buffalo BM-MSCs are positive for various cell surface markers and pluripotency markers. Cytoplasmic distribution of mRNA for pluripotency markers in buffalo BM-MSCs and multilineage differentiation were induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of buffalo BM-MSCs, which suggests that MSCs can be derived and expanded from buffalo bone marrow and can be used after characterization as a novel agent for regenerative therapy.

  14. A study on postpartum metritis in Iraqi buffalo cows: bacterial causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationship between bacteriological findings, clinical signs and histopathological changes in postpartum metritis. Evaluation of the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics with some hormonal preparations for the treatment of postpartum metritis. Data were collected from 50 buffalo cows with history of calving of more than 1 month. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from uterine lumen from each buffalo included in the present study. Bacteria identified using API systems following aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Vaginal mucus scored for character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment including prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and oestradiol benzoate. Results revealed that the most predisposing factor for postpartum uterine infection was retained placenta and toxic puerperal metritis. The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were Escherichia coli, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium necrophorum the most prevalent bacteria in buffaloes with postpartum metritis. A. pyogenes and F. necrophorum were an important pathogens causing severe uterine inflammation as found in histopathological examinations. Buffaloes with postpartum metritis showed good clinical cure when oxytetracycline injected systemically with PGF2 alpha. Intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline had no advantage for the treatment of uterine infection in buffalo cows with postpartum metritis. PGF2 alpha improved clinical cure of buffaloes with postpartum metritis.

  15. Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring

  16. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dhillod, Sandeep; Kar, Dipankar; Patil, C. S.; Sahu, Subhasish; Singh, Narender

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), body length (BL), muzzle width (MW), height at wither (HW), abdominal girth (AG), chest girth (CG), body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD), pin bone distance (PBD), skin thickness (STK), and tail length (TL). Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05) correlation between MY and BW (0.26). Highly significant (p<0.01) correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64), MW (0.42). Significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79). Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK) were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo. PMID:28246443

  17. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  18. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology.

  19. Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Hosamani, M; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the HA gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of 96.2-99.8 and 94.6-98.7% at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, with VACVs, particularly with VACV-MVA, a vaccine strain. Further, C18L (ankyrin repeat protein)-gene-based BPXV-specific PCR confirmed them as BPXV. It is apparent from this study that pox-like outbreaks in cows and buffaloes in India are caused, in most cases, by BPXV. Considering the zoonotic implications of buffalopox, such outbreaks involving both buffaloes and cows in a mixed flock may pose a significant public health threat. Transmissibility of BPXV between different species including cows, buffaloes and human beings implies the potential reemergence of the virus in the subcontinent, similar to vaccinia-like outbreaks witnessed recently in other countries.

  20. BIE: Bayesian Inference Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayesian Inference Engine (BIE) is an object-oriented library of tools written in C++ designed explicitly to enable Bayesian update and model comparison for astronomical problems. To facilitate "what if" exploration, BIE provides a command line interface (written with Bison and Flex) to run input scripts. The output of the code is a simulation of the Bayesian posterior distribution from which summary statistics e.g. by taking moments, or determine confidence intervals and so forth, can be determined. All of these quantities are fundamentally integrals and the Markov Chain approach produces variates heta distributed according to P( heta|D) so moments are trivially obtained by summing of the ensemble of variates.

  1. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  2. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  3. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  4. Follicle turnover and pregnancy rates following oestrus synchronization protocols in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, G A; Senatore, E M; De Santis, G; Bella, A

    2005-10-01

    An ultrasound assessment of follicle turnover following two different protocols for synchronization of oestrus and ovulation, as well as an assessment of achieved synchronization between ovulation and AI and conception rates in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes were carried out during months of increasing day length. Nulliparous buffaloes (n = 30) were subjected only to Ovsynch protocol whereas pluriparous buffaloes (n = 31) were assigned to Ovsynch (n = 14) or to PRID-pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) (n = 17) protocol according to the presence of functional CL confirming cyclic and acyclic conditions. Ultrasound examination of ovarian follicular dynamics at critical days in the course of synchronization treatments was employed to monitor the fate of the largest available follicles at the beginning of treatments. Such available dominant follicle would persist throughout the protocol as ovulating follicle (no-follicle shift) or would regress giving way to a new follicle to become dominant and ovulate (follicle shift). Furthermore, ultrasound monitoring would determine the degree of synchronization of ovulation and final outcome represented by pregnancy rates. Pregnancy rate following Ovsynch protocol was 40% (12/30) and 42.8% (6/14) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.8575). Most ovulations were synchronized and recorded at AI and the following day in nulliparous (24/30; 80%) and pluriparous (12/14; 85.7%) buffaloes respectively (p = 1.000). A follicle shift was recorded in 14 of 30 (46.6%) and 11 of 14 (78.5%) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.0466). Among established pregnancies: eight derived from follicle shift (66.6%) and four from no-follicle shift (33.3%) in nulliparous buffaloes, p = 0.0729 whereas in pluriparous buffaloes five (83.3%) derived from follicle shift and one from no-follicle shift (16.6%), p = 0.6154. Collectively, from 18 pregnancies in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes

  5. Comparative moleculo-immunological analysis of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes responses.

    PubMed

    Mingala, Claro N; Konnai, Satoru; Cruz, Libertado C; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-01

    This moleculo-epidemiological and immunological study through cytokine response assessment was done to know the dynamics of cytokines in the initiation, persistence and association to physiological changes of a particular pathogen in water buffaloes. This is important to understand the magnitude and behavior of disease progression. Water buffalo blood samples gathered from different places in the Philippines revealed a 9.4%, 27.6%, 10.3% and 4.4% prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina infection, respectively. This was the first surveillance study of BVDV and BLV in the country. Furthermore, cytokine expression of these naturally infected animals was also quantified. BVDV-infected animals had up-regulated expressions of TNFalpha, IL-2 and IL-4; and down-regulated expressions of IFNgamma and IL-12p40 while BLV positive animals had an up-regulated IL-4 and IL-6, and highly expressed IL-10 and IL-12p40 with unchanged IFNgamma expression. Meanwhile, animals infected with A. marginale had all interleukins and IFNgamma up-regulated with significant expression of IL-10 and IL-12p40 similar to the BLV positive animals. Since it was also observed that swamp-type buffaloes were more disease tolerant than riverine-type buffaloes based on the gathered infection rate of each examined pathogen, further assessment was done focusing on the two vital cytokines, IFNgamma and TNFalpha. We quantified IFNgamma and TNFalpha expressions in ConA-stimulated PBMC from both swamp and riverine buffaloes by real-time PCR. Cytokine expression from ConA-stimulated PBMC revealed that both IFNgamma and TNFalpha were more highly expressed in swamp than in riverine buffalo. To further examine the probable cause of expression differences, the proximal promoter region of these two cytokines were sequenced for the presence of nucleotide polymorphism followed by luciferase assay to analyze the effect of these polymorphisms

  6. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request is...) a proposed decommissioning plan and license amendment application from the State University of...

  7. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1α) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1α gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (α-β-β-β-Γ) and (α-β-β-Γ), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  9. 78 FR 59923 - Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...

  10. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone...

  11. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  12. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.

  13. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  14. The radiographic appearance of reticular diaphragmatic herniation and traumatic pericarditis in buffaloes and cattle.

    PubMed

    Misk, N A; Semieka, M A

    2001-01-01

    Survey radiography is used in diagnosis of different affections in buffaloes and cattle. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of radiography in diagnosis of reticular diaphragmatic hernias and traumatic pericarditis in buffaloes and cattle. The present study was carried out on 69 animals (51 buffaloes and 18 cattle). Reticular diaphragmatic hernias (40 buffaloes, 4 cattle) and traumatic pericarditis (11 buffaloes, 14 cattle) were evaluated. Lateral right-left survey radiography of the thorax was performed. In diaphragmatic hernia, radiography revealed presence of a rounded or vertical oval mass of soft tissue opacity superimposed over the heart. Radiopaque foreign bodies of variable shape and size were seen within the herniated part of the reticulum. The apex of the heart was difficult to visualize. With traumatic pericarditis, survey radiography of the thorax revealed poor differentiation of thoracic contents. The contour of the diaphragm was lost and the cardiac silhouette was obscured. In several animals radiopaque foreign bodies (sewing needles, nails, and pieces of wire) were detected at the level of the heart or in the area connecting the dome of the diaphragm with the heart.

  15. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  16. Water buffalo genome characterization by the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Borquis, R R A; Baldi, F; de Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Santos, D J A; Lugo, N H; Sargolzaei, M; Schenkel, F S; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2014-06-09

    To define the best strategies for genomic association studies and genomic selection, it is necessary to determine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the genetic structure of the study population. The current study evaluated the transference of genomic information contained in the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip from cattle to buffaloes, and assessed the extent of the LD in buffaloes. Of the 688,593 bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that were successfully genotyped from the 384 buffalo samples, only 16,580 markers were polymorphic, and had minor allele frequencies greater than 0.05. A total of 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were identified, which were uniformly distributed throughout the autosomes, because the density and mean distance between markers were similar for all autosomes. The average minor allele frequency for the 16,580 SNPs was 0.23. The overall mean LD for pairs of adjacent markers was 0.29 and 0.71, when measured as for r2 and |D'|, respectively. The 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were matched to Bos taurus chromosome in the current bovine genome assembly (Btau 4.2), and could be utilized in association studies. In conclusion, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip contains approximately 16,580 polymorphic markers for the water buffalo, which are broadly distributed across the genome. These data could be used in genomic association and genomic selection studies; however, it might be necessary to develop a panel with specific SNP markers for water buffaloes.

  17. Molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle and water buffaloes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Ueno, Akio; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2011-12-01

    Here we report on an epidemiological study regarding the molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis present among domestic cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Thailand. A phylogenetic analysis based on the parasitic gene encoding a major piroplasm surface protein revealed the presence of 5 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5, 7, and N-3) in cattle and 7 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, N-2, and N-3) in water buffaloes. Types 4, 7, and N-3 of T. orientalis were reported for the first time in water buffaloes. The previously reported C and Thai types from Thailand clustered as types 7 and 6, respectively, in the present analysis. Great similarities were observed among nucleotide sequences of isolates of the same genotype from cattle and water buffaloes, and, therefore, water buffaloes were considered to serve as a reservoir for these genotypes of T. orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated.

  18. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  19. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  20. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  1. Analysis of rumen methanogen diversity in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) under three different diets.

    PubMed

    Franzolin, Raul; St-Pierre, Benoit; Northwood, Korinne; Wright, André-Denis G

    2012-07-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a prominent livestock species for the production of milk and meat in many countries. We investigated the diversity of rumen methanogens in Mediterranean water buffaloes maintained in Brazil under different diets: corn silage, grazing pasture, or sugar cane. A total of 467 clones were isolated from three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries that each represented a distinct feed type. The 467 clones were assigned to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Four OTUs were represented in all three libraries, eight OTUs were library-specific, six OTUs were found in only the corn silage and pasture grazing libraries, and one OTU was shared only between pasture grazing and sugar cane libraries. We found that Methanobrevibacter-related sequences were the most abundant in the water buffaloes sampled for our analysis, in contrast to previously reported studies showing that Methanomicrobium mobile-like methanogens were the most abundant methanogens in water buffaloes of Murrah and Surti breeds sampled in India. Considering the worldwide distribution of water buffaloes and the likely wide variety of diets provided, our results combined with studies from other groups support that larger scope analyses of microbiomes for this livestock species would provide great insight into the contribution of geographical location, breed, and diet in determining the population structure of rumen microorganisms.

  2. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries.

  4. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  5. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  6. Establishment and Characterization of a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mammary Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of β-casein, κ-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions. PMID:22792341

  7. The detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in cattle and buffalo in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Q L; Song, H Q; Lin, R Q; Yuan, Z G; Yang, J F; Zhao, G H; Huang, W Y; Zhu, Xing Quan

    2010-12-01

    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" is a hemoplasma species found in cattle and has been recently reported in Switzerland and Japan. In this study, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" was shown to occur in cattle and buffalo in tropical China by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from blood samples. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence, a specific PCR assay was developed. Occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in cattle and buffalo in Guangxi, China, was determined by examining 25 buffalo blood samples, 12 yellow cattle blood samples and 42 dairy cow blood samples. The results showed that 32% (8/25) of buffalo, 41.7% (5/12) of yellow cattle, and 14.3% (6/42) of dairy cows were positive for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos", respectively. Direct sequencing of representative PCR products confirmed that the amplified partial 16S rDNA sequence represented "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos". This is the first report of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in buffalo, yellow cattle, and dairy cows in China.

  8. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene of buffaloes by PCR-SSCP

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Ashwin A.; Kumar, Anil; Kala, Sheo N.; Chhokar, Vinod; Rana, Neeraj; Beniwal, Vikas; Jaglan, Sundeep; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Singh, Jitender K.; Mishra, Anamika

    2012-01-01

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo. PMID:23055800

  9. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  10. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  11. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  12. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  13. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  14. RFMix: a discriminative modeling approach for rapid and robust local-ancestry inference.

    PubMed

    Maples, Brian K; Gravel, Simon; Kenny, Eimear E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-08-08

    Local-ancestry inference is an important step in the genetic analysis of fully sequenced human genomes. Current methods can only detect continental-level ancestry (i.e., European versus African versus Asian) accurately even when using millions of markers. Here, we present RFMix, a powerful discriminative modeling approach that is faster (~30×) and more accurate than existing methods. We accomplish this by using a conditional random field parameterized by random forests trained on reference panels. RFMix is capable of learning from the admixed samples themselves to boost performance and autocorrect phasing errors. RFMix shows high sensitivity and specificity in simulated Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans and admixed Europeans, Africans, and Asians. Finally, we demonstrate that African Americans in HapMap contain modest (but nonzero) levels of Native American ancestry (~0.4%).

  15. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (< 1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  16. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-06-04

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance.

  17. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cattle and buffaloes with respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Oikawa, Shin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cattle and buffaloes with respiratory disorders, determine the extent of the lesions, and assess prognosis. The results were compared with the findings determined following physical examination and at slaughter. Animals were referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospitals because of inappetance, loss of body condition, cough, dyspnea, and nasal discharges. Ultrasonographically, it was possible to detect bronchopneumonia, consolidation, pleural effusion, pulmonary emphysema, and pleuritis. It was not possible to visualize lesions located deeper within the lungs where peripheral tissue was not affected. Laboratory findings included a neutrophilic leukocytosis, γ-globulinemia, and increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase. A diagnosis of respiratory disease was made on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic findings and confirmed in 25 cases at slaughter. Bovine ultrasonography appears to be suitable as a screening tool for detection of pathologic lung processes near the pleura. Thoracic ultrasonography allows assessment of the extent and severity of pulmonary changes so that further evaluations can be considered.

  18. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

  19. Social Inference Through Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulasvirta, Antti

    Awareness cues are computer-mediated, real-time indicators of people’s undertakings, whereabouts, and intentions. Already in the mid-1970 s, UNIX users could use commands such as “finger” and “talk” to find out who was online and to chat. The small icons in instant messaging (IM) applications that indicate coconversants’ presence in the discussion space are the successors of “finger” output. Similar indicators can be found in online communities, media-sharing services, Internet relay chat (IRC), and location-based messaging applications. But presence and availability indicators are only the tip of the iceberg. Technological progress has enabled richer, more accurate, and more intimate indicators. For example, there are mobile services that allow friends to query and follow each other’s locations. Remote monitoring systems developed for health care allow relatives and doctors to assess the wellbeing of homebound patients (see, e.g., Tang and Venables 2000). But users also utilize cues that have not been deliberately designed for this purpose. For example, online gamers pay attention to other characters’ behavior to infer what the other players are like “in real life.” There is a common denominator underlying these examples: shared activities rely on the technology’s representation of the remote person. The other human being is not physically present but present only through a narrow technological channel.

  20. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  1. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  2. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  3. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  4. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  5. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging.

  6. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  7. Clinical, haematological and therapeutic studies on tropical theileriosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Salama A; Al-Gaabary, Magdy H

    2007-05-31

    Thirty buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata and 10 parasitologically free controls were used to determine the potential clinical, haematological and therapeutic impact of tropical theileriosis in Egypt. The clinical signs in the infected buffaloes were pyrexia (40.5-41.5 degrees C), enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, slight nasal and ocular discharges, salivation, anaemia and respiratory distress. Eye lesions also were recorded. There was a significant decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content and a significant decrease in total leucocyte counts in infected buffaloes compared to controls. Early treatment with buparvaquone was 100% effective in eliminating the protozoan parasites from the blood and lymph nodes and led to an improvement in the clinical state whereas treatment in the later stages of the disease whilst eliminating the parasites failed to improve the clinical condition of the animal.

  8. HSFY and ZNF280BY show copy number variations within 17 water buffalo populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Han, H; Zhang, T; Sun, T; Xi, Y; Chen, N; Huang, Y; Dang, R; Lan, X; Chen, H; Lei, C

    2017-04-01

    Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed abundant presence of multi-copy protein coding gene families on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY). Copy number variations (CNVs) of several MSY genes are closely related to semen quality and male reproduction in cattle. However, the CNVs of MSY genes in water buffalo are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY of 298 buffaloes from 17 populations distributed in China, Vietnam and Laos using quantitative PCR. Our results revealed that the median copy numbers of the HSFY and ZNF280BY genes were 47 (ranging from 20 to 145) and 269 (ranging from 73 to 974) respectively. In conclusion, this study indicated that HSFY and ZNF280BY showed abundant CNVs within swamp buffalo populations.

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (<0.008-0.032 µg/L) in 27% (34 out of 126) of the buffalo milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk.

  11. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 μm and wall thickness of 2.47 μm in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 μm cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 μm in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 μm in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 μm in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health.

  12. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection.

  13. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  14. Congenital ocular dermoid cyst in a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, F; Farshid, A A; Saifzadeh, S

    2007-02-01

    Clinical and histopathological findings of a congenital ocular dermoid cyst, located at the lower eyelid of a river female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf were presented. A soft, fluctuant, non-tender, hyperaemic cystic mass was detected overlaying the left eye. Fine needle aspirate revealed filamentous debris with no malignant cells. The cyst was treated surgically by orbital exenteration and subsequently subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological study disclosed a conjunctival dermoid cyst. This report is novel, in that; such ocular cyst has not previously been described in river buffalo calves.

  15. Seasonal variations of Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mozzarella cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, David; Garofalo, Angela; Urbani, Eleonora; Rea, Stefano; Loschi, Anna Rita; Stocchi, Roberta; Miraglia, Dino; Branciari, Raffaella

    2016-11-01

    Water buffalo Mozzarella cheese is more appreciated in the summer, but milk production is higher during wintertime, as water buffalo are seasonally polyoestrous animals. The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate the effect of the reversing of the calving period on Mozzarella cheese composition and quality traits. Ten batches of Mozzarella cheeses produced during the summer and winter periods were analysed for pH, colour, chemical composition. Seasonal differences were observed for cheese yield (26·66% in winter and 25·61% in summer), moisture content (66·54% in winter and 61·18% in summer) colour and consumer evaluation.

  16. A study of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling iraqi buffalo cows.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the non-specific aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling Iraqi buffalo cows at Nineveh province, validate diagnostic criteria for endometritis and to evaluate the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics for the treatment of endometritis. Data were collected from 60 buffalo cows with history of repeat breeding in different herds. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement. Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline with tylosin in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment. The most pre-disposing factor for uterine infection was retained placenta (13.3%). The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were E. coli (23%), Archanobacterium pyogenes (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%) were mostly isolated from buffaloes with repeat breeding. Vaginal mucus character score was associated with the bacterial growth density score. The difference in PMN was highly significant (p < 0.01) in animals with repeat breeding than control groups. In addition, PMNs was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated r = 0.894 with the character of vaginal discharge. High level of PMNs observed in buffaloes infected with A. pyogenes. Buffalo cows with endometritis had higher CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 162.01 +/- 16.41 U/l) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 97.01 +/- 6.86 U/l) activities (p < 0.05) than control-heifers, but no significant difference was observed between buffalo cows with endometritis in CK (321

  17. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  18. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  19. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level.

  1. Eating and rumination behaviour in Brahman grade cattle and crossbred water buffalo fed on high roughage diet.

    PubMed

    Vega, Renato S A; Del Barrio, Arnel N; Sangel, Percival P; Katsube, Osamu; Canaria, Jose C; Herrera, Jose V; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Orden, Edgar A; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Kanai, Yukio

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare feeding and other behavior and nutrient digestibility of tropical grade Brahman (body weight (BW) = 231 kg ± 12.4; n = 3) and crossbred water buffalo (BW = 300 kg ± 13.9; n = 3). This experiment on digestibility and measures of muscles of mastication utilized one-way, and animal behavior two-way, analysis of variance, respectively. Two video camcorders were installed in each pair of buffalo and Brahman for 24 h period programmed on the 107th, 109th and 111th days of the digestion trials. Frequency and duration of feeding, meal intake, rumination, bolus, chews, drinking, defecating, standing and lying were recorded daily. Muscle diameter of Digastricus, Masseter and Pterygoid and different regions of the tongue were sampled and measured under light microscope using a standard micrometer. Buffalo obtained significantly higher intake of dry matter, roughage, crude protein, total digestible nutrient and metabolized energy than Brahman. This was supported by longer meal duration (P ≤ 0.05), and shorter meal breaks (P ≤ 0.05) of buffalo than Brahman. The diameter of the muscles for mastication was bigger (P ≤ 0.05) in buffalo than in Brahman, which is indicative of stronger chewing ability. Briefly, lesser and slower chewing action; higher intake of roughage and crude protein; and longer resting behavior of crossbred water buffalo than Brahman are all indicative of better digestive and metabolic performance of the buffalo under high roughage feeding conditions.

  2. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  3. Bayesian Inference of Galaxy Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Weinberg, M.; Katz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable inference on galaxy morphology from quantitative analysis of ensemble galaxy images is challenging but essential ingredient in studying galaxy formation and evolution, utilizing current and forthcoming large scale surveys. To put galaxy image decomposition problem in broader context of statistical inference problem and derive a rigorous statistical confidence levels of the inference, I developed a novel galaxy image decomposition tool, GALPHAT (GALaxy PHotometric ATtributes) that exploits recent developments in Bayesian computation to provide full posterior probability distributions and reliable confidence intervals for all parameters. I will highlight the significant improvements in galaxy image decomposition using GALPHAT, over the conventional model fitting algorithms and introduce the GALPHAT potential to infer the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological structures, using ensemble posteriors of galaxy morphological parameters from the entire galaxy population that one studies.

  4. Low genetic diversity associated with low prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the etiologic agent of bovine anaplasmosis, an important tick-borne disease affecting cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In endemic regions, the genetic diversity of this pathogen is usually related to the high prevalence of the disease in cattle. The major surface protein 1 alpha (MSP1a) has been used as a marker to characterize the genetic diversity and for geographical identification of A. marginale strains. The present study reports the characterization of A. marginale MSP1a diversity in water buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 200 water buffaloes on Marajó Island, Brazil where the largest buffalo herd is located in the Western hemisphere. Fifteen buffaloes (7.5%) were positive for A. marginale msp1α by PCR. Four different strains of A. marginale with MSP1a tandem repeat structures (4-63-27), (162-63-27), (78-24-24-25-31) and (τ-10-10-15) were found, being (4-63-27) the most common. MSP1a tandem repeats composition in buffalos and phylogenetic analysis using msp1α gene showed that the A. marginale strains identified in buffaloes are closely related to A. marginale strains from cattle. The results demonstrated low genetic diversity of A. marginale associated with low bacterial prevalence in buffaloes and suggested that buffaloes may be reservoirs of this pathogen for cattle living in the same area. The results also suggested that mechanical transmission and not biological transmission by ticks might be playing the major role for pathogen circulation among water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

  5. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  6. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Di Pietro, Francesco; Frisiello, Michele; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%). The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4%) supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected) sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  7. Statistical Inference in Graphical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-17

    Probabilistic Network Library ( PNL ). While not fully mature, PNL does provide the most commonly-used algorithms for inference and learning with the efficiency...of C++, and also offers interfaces for calling the library from MATLAB and R 1361. Notably, both BNT and PNL provide learning and inference algorithms...mature and has been used for research purposes for several years, it is written in MATLAB and thus is not suitable to be used in real-time settings. PNL

  8. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  9. Bayesian Inference: with ecological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William A.; Barker, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference with relevant examples that will be of interest to biologists working in the fields of ecology, wildlife management and environmental studies as well as students in advanced undergraduate statistics.. This text opens the door to Bayesian inference, taking advantage of modern computational efficiencies and easily accessible software to evaluate complex hierarchical models.

  10. Inferring the Why in Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    images. To our knowledge, this challenging problem has not yet been extensively explored in computer vision. We present a novel learning based...automatically infers why people are performing actions in images by learning from visual data and written language. ∗denotes equal contribution 1 Report...explored in computer vision. We present a novel learning based framework that uses high-level visual recognition to infer why people are performing

  11. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering.

  12. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics☆

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others – during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions – both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then – in principle – they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa. PMID:25957007

  13. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Frith, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others--during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions--both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then--in principle--they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa.

  14. Causal inference and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael

    2010-11-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment is not possible in many instances, and for that reason, psychologists must rely on observational studies. Such studies identify associations, and causal interpretation of such associations requires additional assumptions. Research in developmental psychology generally has relied on various forms of linear regression, but this methodology has limitations for causal inference. Fortunately, methodological developments in various fields are providing new tools for causal inference-tools that rely on more plausible assumptions. This article describes the limitations of regression for causal inference and describes how new tools might offer better causal inference. This discussion highlights the importance of properly identifying covariates to include (and exclude) from the analysis. This discussion considers the directed acyclic graph for use in accomplishing this task. With the proper covariates having been chosen, many of the available methods rely on the assumption of "ignorability." The article discusses the meaning of ignorability and considers alternatives to this assumption, such as instrumental variables estimation. Finally, the article considers the use of the tools discussed in the context of a specific research question, the effect of family structure on child development.

  15. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Subrat Kumar; Nayyar, Shashi; Jindal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals) were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm); Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) were assayed in plasma. Results: Significantly (p<0.05) higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to control

  16. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  18. Power of exclusion of 19 microsatellite markers for parentage testing in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, 19 microsatellite markers were assessed for their power of exclusion to test parentage in river buffalo. Microsatellite genotypes of 216 unrelated buffaloes belonging to five different breeds were utilized for the study. The probabilities of exclusion were calculated for three hypothetical situations viz. paternity testing (PE1), one parental genotype unavailable (PE2) and exclusion of both parents i.e. substituted offspring (PE3). The mean probability of exclusion across 19 investigated markers in buffalo was 0.578 (PE1), 0.405 (PE2) and 0.764 (PE3) respectively. The probability of exclusion for paternity (PE1) ranged between 0.297 and 0.814 across different markers. The exclusion probability for the cases one parent unavailable (PE2) and substituted offspring (PE3) varied from 0.143 to 0.688 and 0.465 to 0.946 respectively. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity were found to have significantly high correlation with probability of exclusion of microsatellite markers. The cumulative PE1 of nine marker loci was estimated to be 0.9999 while in case of absence of one of the parental genotypes, a minimum of 11 markers were required to achieve a cumulative PE2 of 0.999. In conclusion, the present study proposes two multiplex sets with four and five markers respectively for routine parentage testing in buffalo and an additional set of four markers for doubtful cases of paternity.

  19. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  20. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  1. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  2. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitate have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  3. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  4. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  5. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  6. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  7. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  8. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  9. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion.

  10. Library Skills Workbook. Featuring: BISON--Buffalo Information System ONline. 14th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Jeannie L.

    The workbook is designed to give students the basic information needed to conduct effective library research. It helps familiarize students with the Buffalo Information System ONline (BISON), as well as other sources, in print and online, that can be used to search for information. A worksheet is included for students to mark their answers to the…

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Pakistani riverine buffalo based on genetic variability of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saif, Rashid; Wasim, Muhammad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is considered to be one of the best markers for breed characterization as well as studying the ancestry in the vertebrates due to its exclusive maternal inheritance. DNA fingerprinting by single nucleotide polymorphism is most reliable and widely used molecular technique in modern forensics and is being considered in this study. Partial sequencing of 1,061 bp of aforementioned gene from 14580 to 15643 was conducted in two famous Pakistani buffalo breeds named Nili-Ravi and Kundi. In which we explore seven haplotypes within earlier and none in the latter breed. Nili-Ravi is polymorphic at four codons of this gene, and the protein translation is also different from the reference sample while monomorphic at three codons with no amino acid replacement. Haplotypes frequency distribution of these four haplotypes named NR3, NR4, NR5, NR7 revealed that the prevalence of each haplotype is 0.04 % in the Pakistani buffalo population of this Nili-Ravi breed while complete homoplasmy was observed in the Kundi breed population. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is genetically more variable than the Kundi breed as far as the gene in subject is concerned. It means later breed has spent more time to propagate its wild type haplotype which make this breed more ancestral as compare to Nili-Ravi. Secondly both breeds share their common ancestors with regional water buffalo rather than the swamp one.

  12. Allelic diversity at MHC class II DQ loci in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): evidence for duplication.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Saket K; Deb, Sitangsu M; Kumar, Subodh; Mitra, Abhijit; Sharma, Arjava; Sakaram, Durgam; Naskar, Soumen; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Sita R

    2010-12-01

    The genetic diversity of MHC class II DQ genes was investigated in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Highly variable regions (exons 2-3) of DQ genes were amplified from 152 buffaloes and genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Alleles identified by differential restriction patterns were sequenced for the characterization. PCR-RFLP was a rapid method to discriminate between DQA1 and duplicated DQA2 genes in buffalo, however, the method appeared to be inadequate for determining the more complicated DQB genotypes. A total of 7 and 10 alleles were identified for DQA and DQB loci, respectively. Nucleotide as well as amino acid variations among DQ alleles particularly at peptide binding regions were high. Such variations were as expected higher in DQB than DQA alleles. The phylogenetic analysis for both genes revealed the grouping of alleles into two major sub-groups with higher genetic divergence. High divergence among DQ allelic families and the isolation of two diverse DQA and DQB sequences from individual samples indicated duplication of DQ loci was similar in buffalo to other ruminants.

  13. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  14. Picobirnavirus detection in bovine and buffalo calves from foothills of Himalaya and Central India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Yashpal Singh; Chandrashekar, K M; Sharma, Kuldeep; Haq, Adil A; Vaid, Nirupama; Chakravarti, Somendu; Batra, Munish; Singh, Rashmi; Pandey, A B

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes detection of picobirnavirus (PBV) in faecal samples from bovine and buffalo calves employing the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 136 faecal samples from buffalo (n = 122) and cow calves (n = 14) exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea and from healthy calves were collected during 2007-2010 from subtropical (central India) and tarai area of western temperate Himalayan foothills (Uttarakhand). The dsRNA nature of the virus was confirmed by nuclease treatment (RNase A, RNaseT1 and DNase 1). PAGE results confirmed 3.67% (5/136) positivity for PBV, showing a typical genomic migration pattern with two discrete bands with size of approximately 2.4 and 1.7 kbps for the larger and smaller segments, respectively. Among the five PBV samples identified, three were from buffalo calves and one from cow calf exhibiting clinical signs of acute diarrhoea, while one sample from non-diarrhoeic buffalo calf also showed the presence of PBV. None of the samples showed dual infection of rotavirus and PBV. The preliminary findings indicate sporadic incidences of PBV in bovine calves and emphasize the need for the development of better diagnostics for early detection and genetic characterization of these emerging isolates of farm animals of economic significance.

  15. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martucciello, Alessandra; De Mia, Gian Mario; Giammarioli, Monica; De Donato, Immacolata; Iovane, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that primarily infects ruminants, leading to several clinical problems including abortion. BVDV-specific antibodies were reported in a wide range of hosts within domestic and wildlife animal populations, and serological studies also indicated BVDV infection in buffaloes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of BVDV in 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds with a history of abortion. Virus isolation from aborted fetuses and from maternal buffy coat and the molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of BVDV in these animals. The sequence analysis based on the 5' UTR and N(pro) coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.

  16. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165...

  17. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165...

  18. State University of New York College at Buffalo: Selected Financial Management Practices. Report 95-S-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An audit of selected financial management procedures at the State University of New York College at Buffalo is reported. The audit addressed two issues: (1) whether the college's academic departments maintain an adequate time and attendance control system for faculty members and (2) whether the college has established an adequate system of…

  19. Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Noura E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography in prediction and early diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis (TP) in Egyptian buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total number of 47 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased groups (n=37). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Zagazig University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, sudden, and severe reduction of milk production with no response to a previous medical treatment some animals had edema at the dewlap and congestion of the jugulars. These animals were subjected to clinical examination, evaluation by hemato-biochemical analysis including cardiac biomarkers and sonography. Results: The hemato-biochemical analysis revealed leukocytosis with a shift to left and hyperfibrinogenemia (indicating inflammation). Serum cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cTnT, nitric oxide, creatine kinase myocardial band, and lactic dehydrogenase enzyme were significantly increased in buffaloes with TP compared with control ones. Ultrasonographically, there were hypoechoic materials with echogenic fibrin interspersed in between the pericardial sac. Conclusions: The cardiac biomarkers may be considered a useful index in the early diagnosis of TP. Moreover, ultrasonography is an excellent tool for early prediction and diagnosis of such condition. PMID:27733799

  20. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  1. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  2. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes.

  3. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  4. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  5. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  6. 75 FR 13235 - FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas AGENCY: Federal... Kaherine Pyeatt, the permittee of Station KKLB(FM), Madisonville, Texas, to substitute FM Channel 278A for... No. BMPH-20090831ADM), Pyeatt proposes the substitution of FM Channel 299A for Channel 267A...

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  8. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Port of Entry/Peace Bridge Plaza (Plaza), in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. The primary need of the project is to address the limited direct access between the Plaza and Interstate 190. Existing direct access is limited and requires regional and international traffic to use the local...

  9. Skin injuries identified in cattle and water buffaloes at livestock markets in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, M R; Gregory, N G; Jabbar, M A; Uddin, M S; Kibria, A S M G; Silva-Fletcher, A

    2010-09-11

    Skin injuries were assessed in 560 imported and local cattle and water buffaloes at two livestock markets in Bangladesh. The body of each animal was divided into 11 anatomical regions, and abrasions, lacerations, penetrations, ulcerations, bleeding, swelling, hyperkeratosis and scars were recorded for each region. Among the 560 animals studied, 501 were found to have at least one injury. The prevalence of skin injuries was 89 per cent, with 84 per cent of the cattle and 99 per cent of the water buffaloes having obvious skin injuries. The most common types of injury were abrasions that were found in 73 per cent of the animals, followed by scars (50 per cent), and lacerations (41 per cent). Buffaloes had more abrasions (95 per cent), lacerations (57 per cent), swelling (15 per cent) and hyperkeratosis (32 per cent) compared with cattle, whereas scars (60 per cent) were more common in cattle (P<0.001). Within the 11 different anatomical regions, all types of injuries were present but in different proportions. The buttock region had a higher proportion of abrasions (36 per cent) followed by the hip, hindlimb and back regions. Penetration, ulceration, bleeding and swelling were present at lower frequencies in all regions. Causes for these injuries included rubbing against the inside wall of vehicles used for transportation and stock-handler abuse (59 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively). Buffaloes sustained more transport injuries than cattle, and the number of injuries was higher in imported than local animals.

  10. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  11. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  12. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  13. Molecular and epidemiological updates on cystic echinococcosis infecting water buffaloes from Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) represents a serious parasitic disease at both animal and public health levels. The majority of reports negated the CE infection in buffaloes from Egypt; however, one study illustrated their infection with G6 genotype (camel strain). The present work contributed to update the epidemiological and molecular knowledge about CE infecting this economically important animal for better understanding of its role in maintaining the Echinococcus life cycle. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 slaughtered water buffaloes at Mansoura abattoir, Dakahlia province, Egypt, were inspected for the existence of hydatid cysts. Cysts location and fertility were examined. Five out of 27 revealed cysts were tested molecularly using both cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen subunit 1 (nadh1) genes. Results: Low prevalence (4.2%) as well as considerably low fertility rate (14.8%) of buffaloes CE was noted. G1 genotype (common sheep strain) was revealed from the five examined cysts. At the level of nadh1 partial sequences, a globally singleton G1 haplotype was reported. Conclusion: This the first report about the G1 infection in buffaloes from Egypt. This study proposed the minimized role of this animal in echinococcosis transmission. These findings could provide preliminary data for the local control of this disease. PMID:28096605

  14. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  15. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  16. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo.

  17. Estrus induction and fertility response following different treatment protocols in Murrah buffaloes under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L.; Phogat, J. B.; Pandey, A. K.; Phulia, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Dalal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different treatment protocols for estrus induction and conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. Materials and Methods: The 47 postpartum anestrus buffaloes of the 2nd to 6th parity were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=16): Buffaloes received cosynch treatment, that is, buserelin acetate 10 µg on day 0 and 9, cloprostenol 500 µg on day 7 followed by fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) at the time of second buserelin acetate and 24 h later. Group 2 (n=15): Buffaloes received norgestomet ear implant subcutaneously for 9 days, estradiol benzoate 2 mg on the day of implant insertion (day 0), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) 400 IU and cloprostenol 500 µg on day 9 followed by AI at 48 and 72 h after implant removal. Group 3 (Cosynch-plus, n=16): Buffaloes received Cosynch protocol as per Group 1 except an additional injection of PMSG 400 IU (i.m.) was given 3 days before the start of protocol and FTAI done at the same time of Group 1. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed after 45 days of AI. Results: The estrus induction response following the treatment was 81.3%, 100%, and 93.7% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The buffaloes of Group 1, 2, and 3 expressed intense (38.4%, 60% and 46.6%, respectively) and moderate estrus (46.1%, 26.6%, and 40%, respectively). The conception rates in Group 1, 2, and 3, at FTAI and overall including subsequent estrus were 37.5% and 62.5%, 53.3%, and 66.6%, 56.3%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: All the three treatment protocols can be effectively used for induction of estrus with acceptable conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. However, Cosynch-plus (similar to Cosynch protocol except addition of PMSG, 400 IU 3 days before the start of first buserelin acetate administration) protocol results comparatively better pregnancy rate. PMID:28096623

  18. A distinct genetic population of Gongylonema pulchrum from water buffaloes in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Adhikari, Bishunu; Devkota, Bhuminand; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms' morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified.

  19. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  20. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from