Science.gov

Sample records for african caribbean women

  1. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  2. Factors Influencing Resource Use by African American and African Caribbean Women Disclosing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Mana-Ay, Margarita; Bertrand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Coverston, Catherine R.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Many victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) do not access services. Education and severity of physical violence have previously been shown to predict resource utilization, but whether these hold true specifically among women of African descent is unknown. This paper furthers our understanding of the relationship between IPV and resource use, considering socio-demographics and aspects of IPV by presenting results from a study conducted with African American and African Caribbean women in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Of the 545 women included in this analysis, 95 (18%) reported emotional abuse only, 274 (50%) reported experiencing physical abuse only, and 176 (32%) had experienced both physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner. Resource utilization was relatively low among these women, with only 57% seeking any help. Among those who did, 13% sought medical, 18% DV, 37% community and 41% criminal justice resources. Generalized linear model results indicated that older age, severe risk for lethality from IPV and PTSD were predictive of certain types of resource use, while education, insurance status, and depression had no influence. Perceived availability of police and shelter resources varied by site. Results suggest that systems that facilitate resource redress for all abused women are essential, particularly attending to younger clients who are less likely to seek help, while building awareness that women accessing resources may be at severe risk for lethality from the violence and may also be experiencing mental health complications. In addition, greater efforts should be made on the community level to raise awareness among women of available resources. PMID:23295377

  3. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  4. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries. PMID:24142953

  5. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy

  6. Correlates of Bone Mineral Density among Postmenopausal Women of African Caribbean Ancestry: Tobago Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Deanna D.; Cauley, Jane A.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Baker, Carol E.; Patrick, Alan L.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Wheeler, Victor W.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Population dynamics predict a drastic growth in the number of older minority women, and resultant increases in the number of fractures. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for fracture. Many studies have identified the lifestyle and health related factors that correlate with BMD in Whites. Few studies have focused on non-Whites. The objective of the current analyses is to examine the lifestyle, anthropometric and health related factors that are correlated with BMD in a population based cohort of Caribbean women of West African ancestry. We enrolled 340 postmenopausal women residing on the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric measures taken. Hip BMD was measured by DXA. We estimated volumetric BMD by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). BMD was 10% and 20% higher across all age groups in Tobagonian women compared to US non-Hispanic Black and White women, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, 35–36% of the variability in femoral neck and total hip BMD respectively was predicted. Each 16 kilogram (one standard deviation (SD)) increase in weight was associated with 7% higher BMD; and weight explained over 10% of the variability of BMD. Each eight year (1 SD) increase in age was associated with 6% lower BMD. Current use of both thiazide diuretics and oral hypoglycemic medication were associated with 4–5% higher BMD. For femoral neck BMAD, 26% of the variability was explained by a multiple linear regression model. Current statin use was associated with 5% higher BMAD and a history of breast feeding or coronary heart disease were associated with 1–1.5% of higher BMAD. In conclusion, African Caribbean women have the highest BMD on a population level reported to date for women. This may reflect low European admixture. Correlates of BMD among Caribbean women of West African ancestry were similar to those reported for U.S. Black and White women. PMID:18448413

  7. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  8. Living in a Large Family does Something for You: Influence of Family on the Achievement of African and Caribbean Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beoku-Betts, Josephine A.

    This article examines the influence of the family on women's achievement in scientific careers in the sub-Saharan African and Caribbean regions. It is based on semistructured interviews with 20 doctoral-level African and Caribbean women scientists working in research and academic institutions in these societies. Given the diversity of structural conditions, and economic, geopolitical, and sociocultural experiences, it is argued that the road to success in the pursuance of a scientific career are not the same, although there are areas of common ground. The study shows that when compared with their North American and European counterparts, there are significant differences in the family experiences of African and Caribbean women scientists that must be made visible and pursued more rigorously in further studies.

  9. Victimization Experiences, Substance Misuse and Mental Health Problems in Relation to Risk for Lethality among African-American and African-Caribbean Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Betrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intimate partner victimization experiences, mental health, and substance misuse problems with the risk for lethality among women of African descent. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from a large case-control study examining the relationship between abuse status and health consequences. Women were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the US Virgin Islands. Logistic regression was used to generate the study findings. Among 543 abused women, physical and psychological abuse by intimate partners, comorbid PTSD and depression symptoms, and PTSD-only problems significantly increased the likelihood of lethality risk. However victims’ substance misuse and depression-only problems were not associated with the risk for lethality. Additionally, PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between severe victimization experiences and risk for lethality. Practitioners should pay attention to victimization experiences and mental health issues when developing treatment and safety plans. Policies to fund integrated services for African-American and African-Caribbean women with victimization and related mental health issues, and training of providers to identify at-risk women may help reduce the risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships. PMID:23929602

  10. Eating as a cultural expression of caring among Afro-Caribbean and African American Women: Understanding the cultural dimensions of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bramble, Joy; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Simpson, Gaynell M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing problem in the United States that is disproportionately increasing among persons of African Americans, yet little is know about the cultural factors that relate to dietary patterns, obesity and exercise among African Americans and other groups of African descent. The purpose of this paper is to examine the cultural context under which physical activity, healthy eating and weight management is viewed among African American and Caribbean American women. Methods Four focus groups were conducted of Afro-Caribbean and African American women (age 40 and older) between May and July of 2007 to explore cultural factors related to physical activity, healthy eating and weight management. Results Cultural variation was observed among Afro-Caribbean and African American woman in terms of indigenous traditions of food and preparation. These traditions influenced how they approached eating, views of obesity and exercise. At the same time community and economic factors influence the availability of healthy eating and exercise alternatives. Conclusions In the development of interventions to improve obesity among persons of African descent it may be important not to assume that one size fits all in terms of community based interventions PMID:19711493

  11. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE assessed when the other or depression is detected. PMID:22849778

  12. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: the influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lucea, Marguerite B; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Campbell, Doris W

    2012-08-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N = 790) in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, from 2009-2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE should be assessed when the other or depression is detected. PMID:22849778

  13. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  14. Impact of Intimate Partner Forced Sex on HIV Risk Factors in Physically Abused African American and African Caribbean Women.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Lucea, Marguerite B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Paterno, Mary T; Bertrand, Desiree R; Sharps, Phyllis W; Campbell, Doris W; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-10-01

    We examined associations between intimate partner forced sex (IPFS) and HIV sexual risk behaviors among physically abused Black women. Women aged 18-55 in intimate relationships were interviewed in health clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Of 426 physically abused women, 38% experienced IPFS; (Baltimore = 44 and USVI = 116). USVI women experiencing IPFS were more likely to have 3+ past-year sex partners (AOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03-4.14), casual sex partners (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.42-5.17), and concurrent sex partners (AOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.73) compared to their counterparts. Baltimore women reporting IPFS were more likely to have exchanged sex (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.19-10.75). Women experiencing IPFS were more likely to report their abuser having other sexual partners in Baltimore (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.22-8.88) and USVI (AOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.20-3.44). Clinicians should consider the influence of IPFS on individual and partnership HIV sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25248623

  15. Achievement and Underachievement: The Experiences of African Caribbeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhamie, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African Caribbeans in all the negative educational statistics has been well documented. Despite this, there are African Caribbeans who achieve academically but relatively few studies have explored this area. This study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to African Caribbean academic success,…

  16. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  17. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  18. Religious Coping Among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African American, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White differences in attitudes regarding religious coping with higher endorsements of religious coping among African Americans and Black Caribbeans (Caribbean Blacks). Comparisons of African Americans and Black Caribbeans revealed both similar and divergent patterns of demographic effects. For both African Americans and Black Caribbeans, women were more likely to utilize religious coping than men and married respondents were more likely than never married respondents to report utilizing prayer when dealing with a stressful situation. Further, for both groups, higher levels of education were associated with lower endorsements of the importance of prayer in dealing with stressful situations. Among African Americans only, Southerners were more likely than respondents who resided in other regions to endorse religious coping. Among Black Caribbeans, those who emigrated from Haiti were more likely than Jamaicans to utilize religious coping when dealing with a stressful episode. PMID:21048887

  19. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  20. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region. PMID:22013618

  1. African Dust Blows over the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shuttle astronauts frequently track Saharan dust storms as they blow from north Africa across the Atlantic Ocean. Dust palls blowing from Africa take about a week to cross the Atlantic. Recently, researchers have linked Saharan dust to coral disease, allergic reactions in humans, and red tides. The top photograph, a classic image showing African dust over the Caribbean, was taken at a time when few scientists had considered the possibility. The image was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts on July 11, 1994 (STS065-75-47). This photograph looks southwest over the northern edge of a large trans-Atlantic dust plume that blew off the Sahara desert in Africa. In this view, Caicos Island in the Bahamas and the mountainous spines of Haiti are partly obscured by the dust. Closer to the foreground, (about 26 degrees north latitude), the skies are clear. The lower photograph (STS105-723-7) was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts while docked to the International Space Station on August 19, 2001. The spacecraft is over the Atlantic Ocean at roughly 45oN, 60oW. The astronauts were looking obliquely to the south; the boundaries of the dust plumes can be traced visually by the abrupt change from clear to hazy atmosphere-the hazy line marks the northern edge of the dust pall near the Caribbean. Images provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Internalization of the Thin Ideal as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; Crump, Stacey; Madhere, Serge; Schutz, William

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was…

  3. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  4. Women in Physics: A Caribbean Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.

  5. Panic disorder among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic whites

    PubMed Central

    Himle, Joseph A.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Abelson, Jamie M.; Matusko, Niki; Muroff, Jordana; Jackson, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated co-morbidities, level of disability, service utilization and demographic correlates of panic disorder (PD) among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods Data are from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Results Non-Hispanic whites are the most likely to develop PD across the lifespan compared to the black subgroups. Caribbean blacks were found to experience higher levels of functional impairment. There were no gender differences found in prevalence of PD in Caribbean blacks, indicating that existing knowledge about who is at risk for developing PD (generally more prevalent in women) may not be true among this subpopulation. Furthermore, Caribbean blacks with PD were least likely to use mental health services compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PD may affect black ethnic subgroups differently, which has important implications for understanding the nature and etiology of the disorder. PMID:22983664

  6. Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites. Selected measures of organizational, nonorganizational and subjective religious participation were examined. African American and Caribbean Blacks were largely similar in their reports of religious involvement; both groups generally indicated higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans were more likely than Black Caribbeans to be official members of their places of worship, engage in activities (choirs, church clubs) at their place of worship and request prayer from others. Black Caribbeans reported reading religious materials more frequently than African Americans. The discussion notes the importance of examining ethnic differences within the black American population of the United States. PMID:20975850

  7. Approaching Change: One School's Approach to Multicultural Education and Raising the Achievement of African Caribbean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes Holy Family College's (London) relationship with Waltham Forest's African Caribbean Attainment Project designed to identify and assess the needs of Caribbean students of African heritage and to raise their academic achievement. How the secondary school maximized the benefits of this partnership are highlighted. (GR)

  8. The Experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean Women in STEM: Voices to Inform Work with Black Females in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…

  9. Atmospheric microbiology in the northern Caribbean during African dust events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Garrison, V.H.; Lisle, J.T.; Borden, T.C.; Shinn, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Between July 2000 and August 2001 forty-three air samples were collected in the northern Caribbean: Twenty-six in the US Virgin Islands, and 17 samples aboard ship during two 1-week cruises. Samples were collected during African dust events and non-dust conditions and screened for the presence of culturable bacteria and fungi. A total of 3,652 liters of air were collected during non-dust conditions, with 19 bacteria and 28 fungi being recovered. During dust conditions a total of 2,369 liters of air were screened resulting in the recovery of 171 bacteria and 76 fungi. A statistically significant difference was found between the two data sets. These results support previous African dust research and further demonstrate that dust particles can serve as a vessel for the global dispersion of bacteria and fungi. Dustborne microorganisms may play a significant role in the ecology and health of downwind ecosystems.

  10. Combating women's over-representation among the poor in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Harris, B

    1994-01-01

    Ending women's overrepresentation among the poor in the Caribbean is not only a human right, but also a political and economic imperative. Caribbean women are central to agriculture, food production, marketing, and processing; moreover, they are the main providers of health, education, and other services. However, in both the Caribbean household and most wings of the Pan-African movement, women are infantalized and regarded as subordinate. If Pan-Africanism is to benefit from the talents and energies of women, it must make female oppression a major concern. The movement must take the lead in speaking out against harmful, degrading social practices such as female circumcision. Hopeful are two approaches to self-organization spearheaded by the Garvey wing of Pan-Africanism. Sistren, san education and theater collective in Jamaica that was initiated by female street cleaners in 1977, has shown working class women an alternative to oppression. Its socialist-feminist street theater, based on the concept that "the personal is political," is organized around personal testimonies that illustrate the link between private experience and social structures. Red Thread, organized in Guyana in 1985, is affiliated with the Working People's Alliance. In addition to supporting self-determination for women, Red Thread sides with the poor and powerless, is committed to multiracial policies, defends indigenous Amerindians evicted from their land by colonialists, and rejects the corruption and one-man leadership style of traditional political organizations. Poor women have been recruited in a nonpartisan manner through use of embroidery groups and income-generating projects. PMID:12318567

  11. Women's Learning and Development Across Borders: Insights from Anglophone Caribbean Immigrant Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    The learning and development experiences of English-speaking Caribbean immigrant women in the United States were examined in a transcultural study. A heuristic phenomenological approach was used to explore how a sample of 15 Anglophone women from the British Caribbean islands who had immigrated to the midwestern, southwestern, and eastern United…

  12. Women, Work and Development. Women in the Caribbean Project, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret; Massiah, Joycelin

    One of a series emanating from a three-year project concerned with the role of women in the English-speaking Caribbean, this publication examines women's work in the Caribbean. The project's purpose is to establish a data base for teaching, research, and planning purposes and to develop guidelines for a cohesive social policy that recognizes…

  13. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the '90s" (de Alvarez);…

  14. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  15. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  16. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  17. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  18. The African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study: a qualitative exploration of similarities and differences between African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin groups in pathways to care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of the reasons for differences in pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in the African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study from the perspective of respondents to the study and their families. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Thirty-four participants in total. Twenty-five young people who had experienced a first episode of psychosis and nine family members. Participants were part of the ACE Pathways to Care study. Design We implemented six focus groups. Furthermore, we implemented four in-depth interviews with two African-origin young women, one Caribbean-origin woman, and one European-origin woman with lived experience of psychosis. Results Factors that influenced help-seeking delays across the three groups were: personal awareness of symptoms, family members’ knowledge of psychotic symptoms and knowledge of mental health services. Youth and their family members described how stigma played a key role in pathways to care by stopping them from asking for help. The way in which stigma operated on the three groups’ members, from feeling ashamed to feeling guilty for their mental illnesses, helped to explain differences in DUP between the groups. Guilt feelings emerged as a prominent theme among members from the African and Caribbean groups and it was not discussed in the European focus group. Delay in entering into first-episode psychosis programmes was also influenced by the stigma perceived by young people in healthcare settings. This had an impact on the therapeutic relationships, disclosure of symptoms and overall trust in the healthcare system. Conclusions The findings of this paper suggest that stigma, especially internalised stigma, may operate in different ways in European-origin, African-origin and Caribbean-origin groups. These findings could inform the development of more equitable services for people in early stages of psychosis. PMID:25588783

  19. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  20. African Dust Concentrations in the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-Garcia, F.; Santos-Figueroa, G.; Custals, L.; Izaguirre, M.; Prospero, J. M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    African dust carried to the Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean was measured during the summer months of 2015. Atmospheric particles during dust events were collected at Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico on stacked-filter units and a high-volume sampler for the fine and coarse fractions and on a low-pressure impactor for size-resolved characterization. The filter ash gravimetric method was used to determine bulk dust mass concentrations for the first time in Puerto Rico. The method was validated analyzing same filter portions at CIAM/ACAR University of Puerto Rico and at RSMAS/MAC University of Miami. Filter's extracts were analyzed for ionic species measured by ion chromatography. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was determined with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Mineral dust concentrations in Puerto Rico were compared to those reported at Miami during summer periods. Comparison between dust concentration and regional PM10 data and results on size-resolved dust concentration will also be presented.

  1. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  2. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  3. African American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Eboni M.

    2003-01-01

    African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

  4. Religious Media Use Among African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of watching religious television programs and listening to religious radio programs. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites. Several significant findings were noted. Both African Americans and Black Caribbeans watched religious television programs and listened to religious radio programs significantly more frequently than non-Hispanic whites. These differences in electronic religious media consumption were particularly large, especially listening to religious radio programming. Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans, several significant demographic differences in frequency of consuming religious programming (e.g., age, gender, region, marital status, immigration status) emerged. Lastly, our analysis found that consuming electronic religious programming did not substitute for attending church service but, instead, complemented weekly service attendance. PMID:26045698

  5. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  6. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  7. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  8. Afro-Caribbean Women in the United States: Images and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Annette

    Most American-born (or native) blacks think of Afro-Caribbean women as clannish, thrifty to the point of greed, constant strivers, uninvolved in civil rights and women's rights activities, and believing in stereotypes of native blacks' inferiority. These images are tied to the Afro-Caribbean woman's immigrant status. As a foreigner, she constantly…

  9. Correlates of Emotional Support and Negative Interaction Among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship of family and demographic factors to the frequency of receiving emotional support and the frequency of engaging in negative interactions with family members (i.e., criticism, burden, and being taken advantage of). The study uses the ambivalence framework and data from the National Survey of American Life, a national sample of African Americans and Caribbean Blacks (Caribbean Blacks). Overall, no significant differences were found between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the frequency of emotional support or negative interaction; several significant correlates (e.g., age, family closeness) were found for both groups. However, a number of unique associations were also demonstrated (e.g., marital status, frequency of family contact), indicating differences in the ways that these variables operate within the two populations. These and other findings are discussed in relation to the ambivalence framework and subgroup differences in family phenomena within the Black population. PMID:26617426

  10. Characteristics of a French African Caribbean Epidemiological Psychiatric Sample with a History of Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slama, Frederic; Dehurtevent, Benedicte; Even, Jean-Daniel; Charles-Nicolas, Aime; Ballon, Nicolas; Slama, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Research on vulnerability factors among ethnic groups, independent of primary psychiatric diagnosis, may help to identify groups at risk of suicidal behavior. French African Caribbean general psychiatric patients (N = 362) were recruited consecutively and independently of the primary psychiatric diagnosis. Demographic and clinical characteristics…

  11. Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White…

  12. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  13. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  14. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  15. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  16. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  17. Trends in African dust transport to the Caribbean: African sources, changing climate, and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    decades population growth and increased land-use are having an impact on soil mobilization. As to the future, the IPCC 2007 multi-model projections of rainfall in Africa show drier conditions in the North but they could not produce a consensus in the SS region. The absence of a clear relationship between dust transport and African-Atlantic climate and the uncertainties in climate projections make it impossible to anticipate how transport to the Caribbean might change in the future.

  18. Religious involvement and suicidal behavior among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Joe, Sean

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the relationship between religious denomination, four dimensions of religious involvement, and suicidality (lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempts) within a nationally representative sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults. The relationship between religious involvement and suicide for African Americans and Black Caribbeans indicated both similarities and differences. For both groups, religious involvement was largely protective against suicidal ideation and attempts, although, in some instances, specific measures were associated with higher suicidality. Looking to God for strength, comfort, and guidance was protective against suicidal attempts and ideation, whereas stating that prayer is important in stressful situations was associated with higher levels of ideation for both groups and higher attempts among Black Caribbeans. For African Americans, reading religious materials was positively associated with suicidal ideation. Among Black Caribbeans, subjective religiosity was negatively associated with ideation, and being Catholic was inversely associated with attempts, whereas being Pentecostal was inversely associated with ideation. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and current conceptual frameworks that specify multiple (e.g., prevention and resource mobilization) and often divergent pathways of religious effects on physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:21716062

  19. African Women in the Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)

  20. Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1982-01-01

    The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and

  1. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  2. Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

  3. Correlates of Spirituality among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the United States: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined differences in reports of spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans), and non-Hispanic whites using data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Bivariate analyses indicated that African Americans were most likely to endorse statements regarding the importance of spirituality in their lives (“How important is spirituality in your life?”) and self-assessments of spirituality (“How spiritual would you say you are?”), followed by Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic whites. Regression analyses indicated that African Americans and Caribbean Blacks had significantly higher levels of spirituality than did non-Hispanic whites. However, there were no significant differences in spirituality between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Separate regression analyses for African Americans and Caribbean Blacks indicated distinctive patterns of sociodemographic and denominational correlates of spiritual sentiments. Findings are discussed in relation to available survey and ethnographic data on self-assessments of spirituality. PMID:21031157

  4. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  5. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  6. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Poznik, G David; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L F; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B; Dee, Michael W; Stafford, Thomas W; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-03-24

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions. PMID:25755263

  7. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B.; Dee, Michael W.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions. PMID:25755263

  8. Research conducted on Caribbean women's perceived human immunodeficiency virus risks: A narrative review and methodological critique

    PubMed Central

    Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caribbean women have the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates among women in the Americas; however, their self-assessment of HIV risk is alarmingly low. This reflects a low perceived risk for HIV. English-speaking Caribbean countries are typically understudied in this area. It is important for health researchers and practitioners to understand the underlying perceptions of women who are now driving this epidemic. This review discusses and critiques the published literature that examines Caribbean women's perceived HIV risks. Methods: Medline, PsycINFO, Global Health, Women's Studies International, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched using various combinations of the following keywords: Caribbean, women, HIV, STD, AIDS, risk, perceived risk, risk perception, and sex. Searches were restricted to English. A total of 69 peer-reviewed studies were obtained from the initial 239 records. The reviewer screened the peer-reviewed articles and excluded 50 studies that did not directly assess perceived HIV risks in Caribbean women. An additional 12 studies were excluded based on the following exclusion criteria: an undetermined proportion or more than 50% of the sample consisted of pregnant women, sex workers, drug users, Latinas, and/or people living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Seven studies on perceived HIV risk in Caribbean women were reviewed. Jamaican women were the most represented ethnic demographic (43%). All studies assessed perceived risk as a subset of HIV psychosocial factors, sexual-risk behaviors, HIV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Four studies used cross-sectional research design and two studies used qualitative methodology. Only one study described items used to measure perceived risk. General findings indicate overall perceptions of invulnerability among Caribbean women, despite high sexual-risk behaviors. Conclusions: Published studies that specifically assess Caribbean women's HIV risk perceptions are

  9. Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

  10. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  11. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990–800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition. PMID:27071012

  12. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  13. African women and AIDS: negotiating behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Ulin, P R

    1992-01-01

    Trends in the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection among women in Sub-Saharan Africa suggest this population is increasingly at risk. Many of the same factors that have predisposed rural African women to ill health in the past now increase their vulnerability to AIDS, including poverty and malnutrition, uncontrolled fertility, and complications of childbirth. As men travel out from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment, their sexual contacts multiply; many will acquire the HIV virus and carry it back to infect wives at home. Women, too, are leaving rural areas for the promise of a better life in cities and commercial centers along the way. Their struggle for economic survival and personal autonomy has led many to form relationships with new sexual partners, with a consequent increase in HIV seroprevalence among women once considered at low risk of infection. This paper argues that AIDS prevention campaigns have not yet taken into account the cultural, social, and economic constraints on most African women's ability to comply with advice to limit partners and use condoms. The author proposes a research agenda to explore the meaning of AIDS and AIDS prevention in the sociocultural context of women's lives. A better understanding of how women, themselves, perceive and respond to current attempts to prevent the transmission of AIDS is an increasingly critical factor in the intervention process. Most important, it is a necessary first step toward their effective participation with men in the development of culturally relevant strategies for protecting themselves and their families. PMID:1738858

  14. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  15. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups. PMID:24566508

  16. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  17. The Effects of Immigrant Generation and Ethnicity on Educational Attainment among Young African and Caribbean Blacks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan; Brown, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of census data shows how educational attainment varies with race, nationality (African blacks, Caribbean blacks, European whites), and generation of U.S. residence. Educators should move beyond the notation that race equates with culture and ethnicity and learn about the effect of assimilation on schooling. (Contains 82 references.) (SK)

  18. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  19. "Women...mourn and men carry on": African women storying mourning practices: a South African example.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-09-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to highlight the navigation of some cultural and gendered issues relating to mourning, against the backdrop of the everyday experiences of loss of life in South Africa due to violence and HIV/AIDS. The article draws on African womanist and feminist scholarship and focuses on the intersections between cultural and gender practices of bereavement in the lives of professional urban African women. The authors argue for the use of positioning theory and witnessing practices to honor and story the ongoing struggle of African women as these women take different agentic positions by accepting, questioning, resisting, and/or changing cultural mourning practices while they compassionately witness the self and others in the narratives they live. PMID:24563939

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Occupational Characteristics, and Sleep Duration in African/Caribbean Immigrants and US White Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: o advance our understanding of the interplay of socioeconomic factors, occupational exposures, and race/ethnicity as they relate to sleep duration. We hypothesize that non Hispanic African/Caribbean immigrant employees in long term health care have shorter sleep duration than non Hispanic white employees, and that low education, low income, and occupational exposures including night work and job strain account for some of the African/Caribbean immigrant–white difference in sleep duration. Design: Cross sectional Setting: Four extended care facilities in Massachusetts, United States Participants: 340 employees in extended care facilities Measurements and Results: Sleep duration was assessed with wrist actigraphy for a mean of 6.3 days. In multivariable regression modeling controlling for gender and age, African/Caribbean immigrants slept 64.4 fewer minutes (95% CI: −81.0, −47.9) per night than white participants; additional control for education and income reduced the racial gap to 50.9 minutes (−69.2, −32.5); additional control for the occupational factors of hours worked per week and working the night shift reduced the racial gap to 37.7 minutes (−57.8, −17.6). Conclusions: his study provides support for the hypothesis that socioeconomic and occupational characteristics explain some of the African/ Caribbean immigrant–white difference in sleep duration in the United States, especially among health care workers. Citation: Ertel KA; Berkman LF; Buxton OM. Socioeconomic status, occupational characteristics, and sleep duration in African/Caribbean immi grants and US white health care workers. SLEEP 2011; 34(4):509-518. PMID:21461330

  1. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  2. The Cultural Constructs of Race, Gender, and Class: A Study of How Afro Caribbean and Indo Caribbean Women Academics Negotiate Their Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Sheila T.

    Women in the Caribbean share many different commonalities, but their experiences vary by culture and the socioeconomic development and infrastructure of the country in which they reside. The 44 women who participated in a study were all full-time faculty from the University of the West Indies, Mona, St. Augustine, and Cave Hill campuses located in…

  3. Sociocultural Contexts and Learning: Anglophone Caribbean Immigrant Women in U.S. Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2003-01-01

    A study framed by sociocultural theory involved 15 British Caribbean women immigrants in the United States. Home country culture and early schooling involved learning experiences in the host country. They faced challenges in negotiating language and identity. Length of time in the new culture, level of social support, and sociocultural environment…

  4. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  5. Servitude to Service: African-American Women as Wage Earners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines how the employment position of African-American women changed due to southern economic policies established after emancipation. Uses primary documents to assist in analyzing social and economic discrimination against African-American women in the work force. (MJP)

  6. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  7. Fungal Spore Concentrations and Ergosterol Content in Aerosol Samples in the Caribbean During African Dust Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Bolaños-Rosero, B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Fungal spores are a major component of primary biogenic aerosol particles that are emitted to the atmosphere, are ubiquitous, and play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, climate, and public health. Every year, during summer months, African dust (AD) particles are transported to the Caribbean region causing an increase in the concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere. AD is one of the most important natural sources of mineral particulate matter at the global scale, and many investigations suggest that it has the ability to transport dust-associated biological particles through long distances. The relationship between AD incursions and the concentration of fungal spores in the Caribbean region is poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of AD incursions on fungal spore's emissions, fungal spore concentrations were monitored using a Burkard spore trap at the tropical montane cloud forest of Pico del Este at El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico. The presence of AD was supported with satellite images of aerosol optical thickness, and with the results from the air masses backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Basidiospores and Ascospores comprised the major components of the total spore's concentrations, up to a maximum of 98%, during both AD incursions and background days. A considerably decrease in the concentration of fungal spores during AD events was observed. Ergosterol, biomarker for measuring fungal biomass, concentrations were determined in aerosols that were sampled at a marine site, Cabezas de San Juan Nature Reserve, in Fajardo Puerto Rico, and at an urban site, Facundo Bueso building at the University of Puerto Rico. Additional efforts to understand the relationship between the arrival of AD to the Caribbean and a decrease in spore's concentrations are needed in order to investigate changes in local spore's vs the contribution of long-range spores transported within the AD.

  8. Religious involvement and obsessive compulsive disorder among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Himle, Joseph A; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2012-05-01

    Prior research is equivocal concerning the relationships between religious involvement and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature indicates limited evidence of denomination differences in prevalence of OCD whereas findings regarding OCD and degree of religiosity are equivocal. This study builds on prior research by examining OCD in relation to diverse measures of religious involvement within the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) examine the relationship between lifetime prevalence of OCD and religious denomination, service attendance, non-organizational religiosity (e.g., prayer, religious media) subjective religiosity, and religious coping. Frequent religious service attendance was negatively associated with OCD, whereas Catholic affiliation (as compared to Baptist) and religious coping (prayer when dealing with stressful situations) were both positively associated with OCD. With regard to demographic factors, persons of older age and higher education levels were significantly less likely to have OCD. PMID:22397898

  9. HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive African and Afro-Caribbean people in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Shiripinda, Iris; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; de Bruin, Marijn; Nellen, Jeannine F J B; Kok, Gerjo; Prins, Jan M; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-02-01

    HIV status disclosure is often characterized as a dilemma. On the one hand, disclosure can promote health, social support, and psychological well-being. On the other, disclosure can lead to stigmatization, rejection, and other negative social interactions. Previous research has shown that HIV status disclosure is a reasoned process whereby the costs and benefits to oneself and to others are weighed. As such, understanding disclosure requires understanding the reasons for and against disclosure employed by people living with HIV (PLWH). In this study, disclosure among a population disproportionately affected by HIV in the Netherlands, namely African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora, was investigated. Reasons for nondisclosure were fear of stigmatization, previous negative experiences with disclosure, having observed the stigmatization of other PLWH, shame, the desire to protect others - particularly one's children and family - from stigmatization by association and/or worrying, and the belief that one's HIV status is a private matter. Participants reported disclosing because they were in a close and supportive relationship, disclosure led to emotional release, disclosure could lead to emotional or financial support, they felt a perceived duty to inform, and they had a desire to educate others about sexual risk-taking. The findings suggest that stigma plays an important role in disclosure decisions among these populations. They further point to a need for HIV-related stigma reduction interventions in African and Afro-Caribbean communities and culturally sensitive counseling for PLWH whereby caregivers do not automatically assume that disclosure is best but rather provide a safe environment in which the costs and benefits of disclosure can be weighed and strategies for disclosure can be developed, if perceived as beneficial by PLWH. PMID:21259132

  10. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  11. African Sojourn: Two Narratives of African American Women Educators' Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Mignonne Y.

    This paper examines how the educational philosophies of two representative African American women university professors were influenced by multiple sojourns between Africa and North America. Two African American women born in the 1940s were interviewed about their early educational experiences, racial identity, and experiences in Africa. Each…

  12. The Impact of African Dust on PM10 Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados and Miami have yielded a broad picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin. These measurements show that in summer the aerosol mass is often dominated by dust. At such times over 90% of the dust mass is comprised of particles less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter and thus fits the EPA criteria for PM10. A number of sites in the Caribbean monitor PM10 using the same instrumentation commonly deployed in European and United States networks. By comparing data from individual islands that have multiple monitoring sites (e.g., Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe), it is shown that during dust events PM10 concentrations track very closely and that local sources have a minor impact on PM10 above about 15 to 20 μg m-3. Moreover the PM10 measurements are coherent with the movement of dust clouds over the islands as observed by satellites. In this way dust movement can be tracked at PM10 sites along the Gulf and southeast coasts of the United States. To assess the specific impact of African dust on PM10 in the region, I compare the daily records of dust measurements at Miami and Barbados with concurrent measurements made at proximate PM10 sites. I then use these relationships and the long term dust measurements at Barbados and Miami to assess the long-term variability of PM10 across the region. At Barbados the record goes back 50 years and provides a basis of assessing the effects of climate variability on PM10 transport. This study shows that there is great variability on scales ranging from daily to decadal. The impact of the droughts in the 1970s and 1980s was particularly significant. Across the Caribbean, the rates of exceedances of the WHO PM10 guideline is comparable to those observed in many major urban areas in Europe and the US. The dominance of dust in large PM10 events and the absence of major pollution sources on many islands offers the opportunity to study the health impacts of desert dust in

  13. Alcoholism and African-American women: a medical sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.

    1996-01-01

    Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062

  14. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  15. The Divergent Roles of African Women in Place Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asojo, Abimbola O.; Asojo, Theresa T.

    The role of women in many African societies has been formed and contained by age-old traditions that have relegated their place to the home. Where they are compelled to play second fiddle, women rarely discover their authentic identity. This paper presents the roles of women in place making in Africa. It discusses non-formal and formal education…

  16. Adverse effect of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on arterial stiffness in Europeans, South Asians, and African Caribbeans in the SABRE study.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chloe M; Tillin, Therese; March, Katherine; Jones, Siana; Whincup, Peter H; Mayet, Jamil; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ethnic minority groups in the UK experience marked differences in cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated differences in arterial central hemodynamics, stiffness and load in a tri-ethnic population-based cohort. Methods 1312 participants (70±6y) underwent echocardiography and measurement of brachial and central blood pressure to assess central arterial hemodynamics including central pulse pressure (cPP), arterial stiffness (cPP/stroke volume (SV)), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and load (Ea). Results Brachial and central systolic blood pressures were similar in all ethnic groups. Compared to Europeans, cPP, cPP/SV and Ea were higher in South Asians. In contrast, cPP/SV was lower in African Caribbeans despite higher mean arterial pressure, higher SVR and higher diabetes prevalence. cPP/SV and Ea remained significantly higher in South Asians and significantly lower in African Caribbeans after multivariate adjustment. Diabetes and higher HbA1c were more strongly associated with higher cPP/SV in South Asians than in Europeans (p interaction=0.045 and 0.005 respectively); higher HbA1c was also more strongly associated with increased Ea in South Asians than Europeans (p interaction=0.01). There was no evidence of an interaction between glycemia and cPP/SV in African Caribbeans. Conclusion Compared to Europeans, South Asians have unfavourable arterial function. Diabetes and hyperglycemia have a more deleterious effect on cPP/SV and Ea in South Asians. In contrast African Caribbeans have more favourable arterial function than Europeans and South Asians. These differences may contribute to the differential ethnic rates of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26628109

  17. Pathways to First-Episode Care for Psychosis in African-, Caribbean-, and European-Origin Groups in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kelly K; Flora, Nina; Ferrari, Manuela; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; Tang, Taryn; Kirmayer, Laurence J; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) for people of Black-African, Black-Caribbean, or White-European origin with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: We recruited a sample of 171 patients with FEP of Black-African, Black-Caribbean, and White-European origin from hospital- and community-based early intervention services (EIS) in the cities of Toronto and Hamilton. We compared the 3 groups on DUP and key indicators of the pathway to care. Results: We observed differences in pathways to care across the 3 groups. Black-Caribbean participants had an increased odds of referral from an inpatient unit to EIS (OR 3.33; 95% CI 1.46 to 7.60) and a decreased odds of general practitioner involvement on the pathway to care (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.46), as well as fewer total contacts (exp[β] 0.77; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99) when compared with White-European participants. Black-African participants had an increased odds of contact with the emergency department at first contact (OR 3.78; 95% CI 1.31 to 10.92). The differences in the DUP between groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are significant differences in the pathways to EIS for psychosis for people of African and Caribbean origin in our Canadian context. It is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the pathways that different population groups take to mental health services, and the reasons behind observed differences, to inform the development of equitable services, targeting patients in the critical early stages of psychotic disorder. PMID:26174526

  18. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation. PMID:12188469

  19. Female Immigrants to the United States: Caribbean, Latin American, and African Experiences. RIIES Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.; Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.

    Seminar papers on the recent immigrantion of women from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are collected in the first part of this two-part book. Titles (and authors) of the papers are: (1) "The New Immigration: The Female Majority" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "Race, Ethnicity, and Sex in the Recent Immigration: Some Preliminary Comments"…

  20. Gendered testimonies: autobiographies, diaries, and letters by women as sources for Caribbean history.

    PubMed

    Brereton, B

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of memoirs, diaries, and letters written by English-speaking women living in the Caribbean region since the early 1800s pays particular attention to testimony on their gendered life experiences. The analysis draws examples from five autobiographical writings, three memoirs, three diaries, and the letters of three women in its consideration of various aspects of the women's lives. The essay opens with an acknowledgement of the recent efforts of historians to incorporate women's experiences into the concept of "history" and a discussion of the ways that women's voices can be recaptured that notes the paucity of primary sources. The topics covered in the examined documents reveal information about motherhood and marriage, health and sexuality, domestic life and household management, the conditions and suffering of female slaves, the rearing and education of girls, the influence of Christian missionaries, and the general status of women. PMID:12294237

  1. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  2. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  3. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  4. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

  5. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  6. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  7. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection. PMID:25735402

  8. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  9. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  10. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  11. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  12. Portraits of Outstanding African American Women. Grades 4-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Doris Hunter

    This resource book provides information and activity sheets on the achievements and contributions of exceptional African American women, past and present. The book contains six sections, thematically organized around the central issue(s) affecting the lives of the women featured. Introductory questions, biographical portraits and skill-building…

  13. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic pathogens in pregnant women from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  14. Seroprevalence of Seven Zoonotic Pathogens in Pregnant Women from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A.; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  15. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  16. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  17. Parameters of obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Railey, M T

    2000-10-01

    Non-Hispanic African-American women have the highest incidence of overweight in the United States, at 48%. For non-Hispanic white females, the prevalence is 32.9%. This striking difference can be expected to have a great impact on morbidity and mortality within this culture. The purpose of this study is to ascertain, by descriptive analysis of data derived from a questionnaire, whether there are modifiable factors specific to African-American women that could lead to an increased prevalence of obesity. Forty adult, African-American obese women were given a questionnaire covering personal socioeconomics, dietary habits, educational level, exercise patterns, childhood exposures, and stress management. Data from the questionnaire were grouped and collated to determine whether specific trends could be discerned. This descriptive evaluation found that hair care issues had some effect on exercise patterns. In addition, a lack of childhood role models for exercise and an adult pattern of sedentary lifestyles appeared to be significant factors contributing to obesity. After this pilot study, a comparative study with a white group of obese women or a group of nonobese African-American women should be the next step in evaluation to further define and understand these observations. PMID:11105728

  18. Parameters of obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Railey, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Non-Hispanic African-American women have the highest incidence of overweight in the United States, at 48%. For non-Hispanic white females, the prevalence is 32.9%. This striking difference can be expected to have a great impact on morbidity and mortality within this culture. The purpose of this study is to ascertain, by descriptive analysis of data derived from a questionnaire, whether there are modifiable factors specific to African-American women that could lead to an increased prevalence of obesity. Forty adult, African-American obese women were given a questionnaire covering personal socioeconomics, dietary habits, educational level, exercise patterns, childhood exposures, and stress management. Data from the questionnaire were grouped and collated to determine whether specific trends could be discerned. This descriptive evaluation found that hair care issues had some effect on exercise patterns. In addition, a lack of childhood role models for exercise and an adult pattern of sedentary lifestyles appeared to be significant factors contributing to obesity. After this pilot study, a comparative study with a white group of obese women or a group of nonobese African-American women should be the next step in evaluation to further define and understand these observations. PMID:11105728

  19. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  20. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Shiripinda, Iris; de Bruin, Marijn; Pryor, John B; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological consequences of HIV-related stigma among those diagnosed with HIV reported were emotional pain, sadness, loneliness, anger, frustration and internalised stigma. The social consequences included decreased social network size, limited social support and social isolation, and resulted from not only enacted stigma but also self-imposed social withdrawal. Also, poor treatment adherence was a health-related consequence. People living with HIV employed both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of stigma. Problem-focused coping strategies included selective disclosure, disengagement, affiliating with similar others, seeking social support and, to a lesser extent, activism. Emotion-focused strategies included distraction, positive reappraisal, religious coping, external attributions, disidentification and acceptance. HIV-related stigma clearly permeates African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands, and should be targeted for intervention. PMID:21678184

  1. Unravelling Barriers to Accessing HIV Prevention Services Experienced by African and Caribbean Communities in Canada: Lessons from Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Amibor, Paulson; Ogunrotifa, Ayodeji Bayo

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, experienced by African and Caribbean communities in Canada, is an issue warranting sustained research. This study seeks to achieve a better understanding of the nature of HIV-prevention services in Canada, and to explore the dynamics, which underpin barriers to accessing these services confronting African and Caribbean populations in Toronto (Canada). This study also endeavours to assess what is being done to reduce these barriers. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 7 professionals and community workers who were involved in organizing, researching and delivering HIV-prevention services were conducted for this study. Four themes pertaining to barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, including, levels of cultural competence and sensitivity among service providers; cultural and social stigma directed at persons living with HIV/AIDS; various social determinants of health, including gender, race and precarious immigration status’; as well as constrained funding resources that are available for service providers; were uncovered in the findings of the study. The paper concludes that several health promotion and health education initiatives exist, which can help reduce these barriers to HIV-prevention service access for these populations. However, in order to ensure their effectiveness there will be much needed involvement from community and other relevant government agencies, which will need to work separately and in conjunction with one another, in order to tackle some of the broader issues that affect these populations. PMID:22980228

  2. Relationship between African dust carried in the Atlantic trade winds and surges in pediatric asthma attendances in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Blades, Edmund; Naidu, Raana; Mathison, George; Thani, Haresh; Lavoie, Marc C.

    2008-11-01

    Asthma is epidemic in developed and developing countries including those in the Caribbean where it is widely believed that African dust, transported in high concentrations in the Trade Winds every year, is a major causative factor. The link between asthma and dust in the Caribbean is based largely on anecdotal evidence that associates sharp increases in the occurrence of asthma symptoms with hazy conditions often caused by dust. Here we report on a 2-year study of the relationship between the daily concentrations of dust measured in on-shore Trade Winds at Barbados and pediatric asthma attendance rates at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH). We looked for large increases in QEH daily attendances in relation to daily dust concentrations as previously suggested by anecdotal observations. We could not find any obvious relationship although there may be more subtle linkages between dust and asthma. Our measurements show, however, that the concentration of dust in the size range under 2.5 μm diameter is sufficiently high as to challenge United States Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards for respirable particles. Thus, African dust may constitute a health threat of a different nature, producing symptoms less obvious than those of asthma.

  3. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  4. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  5. Vitamin D supplementation in young White and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326

  6. Pregnancy, parturition and preeclampsia in women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Elliott, Alison M; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Maternal and associated neonatal mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain unacceptably high. In Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda), 2 major causes of maternal death are preeclampsia and obstructed labor and their complications, conditions occurring at the extremes of the birthweight spectrum, a situation encapsulated as the obstetric dilemma. We have questioned whether the prevalence of these disorders occurs more frequently in indigenous African women and those with African ancestry elsewhere in the world by reviewing available literature. We conclude that these women are at greater risk of preeclampsia than other racial groups. At least part of this susceptibility seems independent of socioeconomic status and likely is due to biological or genetic factors. Evidence for a genetic contribution to preeclampsia is discussed. We go on to propose that the obstetric dilemma in humans is responsible for this situation and discuss how parturition and birthweight are subject to stabilizing selection. Other data we present also suggest that there are particularly strong evolutionary selective pressures operating during pregnancy and delivery in Africans. There is much greater genetic diversity and less linkage disequilibrium in Africa, and the genes responsible for regulating birthweight and placentation may therefore be easier to define than in non-African cohorts. Inclusion of African women into research on preeclampsia is an essential component in tackling this major disparity of maternal health. PMID:24184340

  7. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  8. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  9. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  10. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  11. Teaching How to Fish: Employment Skills for African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Zira J.

    1996-01-01

    Agrees with Jeremy Rifkin that "human labor is being systematically eliminated from the economic process" and deplores educators' slowness to recognize implications. Since individuals must create their own work, educational programs should stress entrepreneurship and self-employment skills, not job-seeking behaviors. African American women,…

  12. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  13. Balm in Gilead: Spiritual Dimensions in Counseling African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun; Green, Evelyn L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes African American cultural and spiritual traditions that are the bedrock for therapeutic work with this population. States women who present for counseling with emotional themes of isolation, devaluation, internalized oppression, and low self-esteem and quest for positive racial identity are especially receptive to interventions that…

  14. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  15. Promoting Academic Achievement: The Role of Racial Identity in Buffering Perceptions of Teacher Discrimination on Academic Achievement among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela N.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Faison, Nkesha; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of different dimensions racial identity (i.e., racial centrality and public regard) on perceptions of teacher discrimination and academic achievement among a nationally represented sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescents. The findings revealed that perceived teacher…

  16. Influences on Employment Discrimination in the Caribbean: The Case of the Marginalized Men and Wasted Women of Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    A study considered the global problem of employment discrimination as it is reenacted in the Caribbean. It takes Dominica as a micro-example of how factors of differential education and cultural expectation interact within the influences of changing global economic policies to disadvantage men and women across the spectrum of employment…

  17. Latina and African American women: continuing disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Lillie-Blanton, M; Martinez, R M; Taylor, A K; Robinson, B G

    1993-01-01

    Women of all races have faced incredible challenges as they sought to realize the promises of America. For women of color, these challenges were compounded by the second-class citizenship of U.S. racial and ethnic minority population groups. In an effort to assess the quality of life experienced by Latina and African American women, this article provides descriptive information on racial/ethnic differences in women's social conditions, health status, exposure to occupational and environmental risks, and use of health services. When possible, indices are stratified by family income to limit the effects of social class on the comparison of racial differences. The authors provide evidence that Latina and African American women are more likely than nonminority women to encounter social environments (e.g., poverty, densely populated neighborhoods, hazardous work conditions) that place them at risk for ill-health and injury. Although persistent racial disparities in health are often attributed to the lifestyle behaviors of racial minority populations, they are undoubtedly a consequence of poorer social conditions as well as barriers in access to quality health services. To achieve further gains, public policies must reduce social inequalities (i.e., by gender, race, and social class) and assure greater equity in access to resources that facilitate healthier environments and lifestyles. Public health initiatives should be community-based, reflecting a shared partnership that actively engages minority women in decision-making about their lives. PMID:8375955

  18. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Nganda, Benjamin; Mwabu, Germano M; Chatora, Rufaro; Mwase, Takondwa

    2005-01-01

    Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS). The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary), high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing) for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services. PMID:15733326

  19. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  20. Rain chemistry and cloud composition and microphysics in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest under the influence of African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, Elvis; Valle-Diaz, Carlos J.; Baumgardner, Darrel; McDowell, William H.; González, Grizelle; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that huge amounts of mineral dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions in Africa over the Atlantic Ocean reaching the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America; however, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how the presence of this dust affects cloud's composition and microphysics. This African dust reaches the Caribbean region mostly in the summer time. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) in the Caribbean region we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summer 2013, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and in summer 2014, as a part of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) and in collaboration with the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE). Measurements were performed at the TMCF of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Data from aerosol models, satellites, and back-trajectories were used together with CSJ measurements to classify air masses and samples collected at PE in the presence or absence of dust. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH and conductivity were measured for cloud and rainwater. Preliminary results for summer 2013 showed that in the presence of LRTAD (1) the average conductivity of cloud water

  1. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  2. The Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among African Americans, Afro Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Soto, José A.; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A.; BeLue, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African Americans, but not other groups. We did not expect non-race based discrimination to predict GAD. Results showed that while more frequent experiences of non-race based discrimination predicted GAD for all groups, experiencing race based discrimination was associated with significantly higher odds of endorsing lifetime GAD for African Americans only. Results are interpreted in light of the different contexts that these three ethnic groups represent relative to their history within the United States as well as their present day circumstances. PMID:21041059

  3. HYPERTENSION, PREECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA AMONG HIV-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN FROM LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz; Krauss, Margot R; Megazzini, Karen; Coutinho, Conrado Milani; Kreitchmann, Regis; Melo, Victor Hugo; Pilotto, José Henrique; Ceriotto, Mariana; Hofer, Cristina B.; Siberry, George K.; Watts, D. Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for hypertensive disorders in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods Hypertensive disorders (HD) including preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) and pregnancy-induced hypertension, and risk factors were evaluated in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women from Latin America and the Caribbean enrolled between 2002-2009. Only pregnant women enrolled for the first time in the study and delivered at ≥ 20 weeks gestation were analyzed. Results HD were diagnosed in 73 (4.8%, 95%CI: 3.8%-6.0%) of 1513 patients; 35(47.9%) had PE/E. HD was significantly increased among women with a gestational age-adjusted body mass index (gBMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (OR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.9-5.0), hemoglobin (Hg) ≥11 g/dL at delivery (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 1.2-3.6) and age ≥35 years (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.2). PE/E was increased among women with a gBMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR=3.0; 95%CI: 1.5-6.0) and Hg ≥11 g/dL at delivery (OR=2.8; 95%CI: 1.2-6.5). A previous history of PE/E increased the risk of PE/E 6.7 fold (95%CI: 1.8-25.5). HAART before conception was associated with PE/E (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.9) Conclusions HIV-infected women, with a previous history of PE/E, a gBMI ≥25 kg/m2, Hg at delivery ≥11 g/dL and in use of HAART before conception are at an increased risk of developing PE/E during pregnancy. PMID:24462561

  4. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  5. African American Women Instructors: In a Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elaine B.

    1997-01-01

    Offers insights into the electronic net as it is encountered by professional women English instructors of color. Suggests new directions for research on the influence of socioeconomic class and culture on composition instructors. Demonstrates that although recognition and acceptance of class and cultural difference is fundamental to literacy…

  6. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL. PMID:26371771

  7. Identification and characterisation of vaginal lactobacilli from South African women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by the species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus namely L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii and L. iners, which have been extensively studied in European populations, albeit less so in South African women. In this study, we have therefore identified the vaginal Lactobacillus species in a group of 40 African women from Soweto, a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Identification was done by cultivating the lactobacilli on Rogosa agar, de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Blood agar plates with 5% horse blood followed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. BV was diagnosed on the basis of Nugent scores. Since some of the previous studies have shown that the lack of vaginal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing lactobacilli is associated with bacterial vaginosis, the Lactobacillus isolates were also characterised for their production of H2O2. Results Cultivable Lactobacillus species were identified in 19 out of 21 women without BV, in three out of five women with intermediate microbiota and in eight out of 14 women with BV. We observed that L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis were the predominant species. The presence of L. crispatus was associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P = 0.024). High level of H2O2 producing lactobacilli were more often isolated from women with normal microbiota than from the women with BV, although not to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.064). Conclusion The vaginal Lactobacillus species isolated from the cohort of South African women are similar to those identified in European populations. In accordance with the other

  8. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  9. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  10. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, p<0.05). Additionally, results suggested that there were a few significant differences in Afro-Caribbean and African American students' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity

  11. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  12. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  13. Health insurance and cervical cancer screening among older women in Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Velez, Luis F; Camacho, Maria E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use for cervical cancer screening and to estimate its association with type of health care insurance. Methods A cross-sectional study using data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE). The sample includes 6357 women aged 60 and older from seven cities. The outcome was reporting a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening during the previous 2 years. Main independent variable was health care insurance. Covariates were demographic or socioeconomic variables, medical conditions and functional status. Results Prevalence of Pap smear use across the seven cities ranged from 21% in Bridgetown to 45% in Mexico City. In a multivariate analysis of the combined sample, without Havana that has universal health care insurance, women with public insurance (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.71) or with no insurance (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.34) were less likely to have a Pap smear compared with women with private insurance. Also, women with no insurance were less likely to have a Pap smear (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30–0.54) compared with women with any health insurance. Conclusions In general, the prevalence of Pap smear use was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the United States. Overall, lack of health insurance or having public health insurance determined lower odds for having a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18511488

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Digital Rectal Examination Screening among African-American and Afro-Caribbean Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel J; Consedine, Nathan S; Spencer, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of race/ethnicity and fear characteristics on the initiation and maintenance of DRE screening. Methods 533 men from Brooklyn, NY, aged 45–70, were classified into four race/ethnic groups: US-born whites, US-born African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian. Participants recorded the number of DRE’s in the past 10 years. Demographics and structural variables, as well as prostate cancer worry and screening fear were measured with validated tools. Results Overall, 30% of subjects reported never having a DRE and 24% reported annual DRE’s. African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian men have higher prostate cancer worry and screening fear scores than white men (all p<0.05). African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian men were less likely to maintain annual DRE’s than white males (ORs = 0.17, 0.26, and 0.16, respectively, all p<0.05). Men with low screening fear were more likely to have an initial DRE (OR=2.3, p<0.05 vs. high screening fear), but no more or less likely to have annual DRE’s. Having a regular physician, comprehensive physician discussion, and annual visits were also associated with undergoing DRE. Conclusion We identified several ethnically-varying barriers and facilitators to DRE screening. African-American and Afro-Caribbean men undergo DRE less often and have higher prostate cancer worry and screening fear scores than white men. Screening fear predicts the likelihood of undergoing an initial, but not annual, DRE screen. Access to a physician and annual visits facilitate DRE screening. Interventions that include both culturally-sensitive education and patient navigation, and consider whether patients should be initiating or maintaining screening, may facilitate guideline-consistent screening. PMID:21477716

  15. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  16. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Brooks, J. Paul; Serrano, Myrna G.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Girerd, Philippe H.; Edwards, David J.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women

  17. The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

  18. Low vitamin D status among pregnant Latin American and Caribbean women with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Jennifer; Freimanis, Laura; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Monteiro, Jacqueline P.; Cruz, Maria L.; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Branch, Andrea; Siberry, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and predictors of low vitamin D status among pregnant women with HIV infection. Methods The present cross-sectional study analyzed repository specimens collected at 12–34 weeks of pregnancy among women enrolled in across 17 sites in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2002 and 2009. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/mL). Results Among 715 women, 218 (30.5%) were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) and 252 (35.2%) were insufficient (21–29 ng/mL). Factors associated with low vitamin D status included residence in subtropical latitudes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35–2.88), assessment during non-summer seasons (autumn: aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.20–2.86; spring: 4.3, 2.65–6.95; winter: 10.82, 5.74–20.41), employment (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.06–2.38), and assessment before 20 weeks of pregnancy (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.18–3.06). Factors protective against low vitamin D status were CD4 count below 200 cells per mm3 (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26–0.77) and protease inhibitors (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.95). Conclusion Low vitamin D status was prevalent among pregnant women with HIV infection. Further studies are warranted to identify the impact of low maternal vitamin D status. PMID:25912414

  19. Health Behaviors and Breast Cancer: Experiences of Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Wells, Anita M.; Simon, Nolanna; Schiffer, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Breast-cancer survival rates are lower among African American women compared to White women. Obesity may contribute to this disparity. More than 77% of African American women are overweight or obese. Adopting health behaviors that promote a healthy weight status may be beneficial because obesity increases risk for recurrence. Studies among White…

  20. African-American Women Journalists and Their Male Editors: A Tradition of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Rodger

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that African-American women journalists have not been hampered by the sexist attitudes of men to the same degree that white women journalists have been. Presents six case studies of African-American women journalists (three from the nineteenth century and three from the twentieth) in support of this contention. (SR)

  1. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  2. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  3. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  4. Factors associated with hysterectomy among older women from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Daniel A; Botero, Ana M; Cash, Miranda G; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    To identify factors associated with hysterectomy, data collected from 1999-2000 were assessed from seven cities of the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study on 6,549 women, aged 60 years and older. Hysterectomy prevalence ranged from 12.8% in Buenos Aires (Argentina) to 30.4% in Bridgetown (Barbados). The median age for having had a hysterectomy ranged from 45 to 50 years across the cities and was 47 years in the pooled sample. Ethnic differences in hysterectomy rates were partially explained by differences across cities. Factors significantly associated with lower odds for hysterectomy included older age, household crowding conditions, and having public/military or no health insurance, compared to having private health insurance. Women who had three or more children were less likely to have had a hysterectomy, a finding that differs from most previous studies. Socioeconomic position related to rates of hysterectomy in late life rather than hysterectomies earlier in life. However, the nature of these differences varied across birth cohorts. The findings suggested that adverse socioeconomic factors were most likely related to hysterectomy risk by affecting access to health care, whereas parity was most likely acting through an effect on decision-making processes. PMID:26478957

  5. [Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women: review].

    PubMed

    Ly, Madani; Antoine, Martine; André, Fabrice; Callard, Patrice; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Diallo, Dapa A

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Sub-Saharan African women with an incidence of 15-53 per 100,000 women. Using PubMed, we reviewed all the articles published on this topic between 1989 and 2009. Breast cancer is usually diagnosed in women younger than in developed countries (mean age: 42-53 years), with later stages (III or IV, i.e. with axillary nodes and distant metastases). Reported tumors are mostly invasive ductal carcinomas with aggressive characteristics: grade III histoprognosis, absence of hormonal receptors or HER2 expression. According to the new breast cancer classification, nearly half of these tumors should be classified as triple negative. However, studies are rare and require confirmation. In conclusion, data on epidemiology and biology of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women are still scarce and need more extensive studies. In these countries, the pattern of breast cancer will likely change in the future, according to the evolution of lifestyle namely urbanisation. There is a great need for commitment of research and clinical resources in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop specific strategies. PMID:21700549

  6. African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Garrison, V.H.; Herman, J.R.; Shinn, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Air samples collected on St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands were screened for the presence of viable bacteria and fungi to determine if the number of cultivatable microbes in the atmosphere differed between "clear atmospheric conditions" and "African dust-events." Results indicate that during "African dust-events," the numbers of cultivatable airborne microorganisms can be 2 to 3 times that found during "clear atmospheric conditions." Direct microbial counts of air samples using an epifluorescent microscopy assay demonstrated that during an "African dust-event," bacteria-like and virus-like particle counts were approximately one log greater than during "clear atmospheric conditions." Bacteria-like particles exhibiting autofluoresence, a trait of phototrophs, were only detected during an "African dust-event.".

  7. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  8. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  9. Extended Family and Friendship Support Networks are both Protective and Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder, and Depressive Symptoms Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults (n=5,191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and major depressive disorder. For African Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12 month and lifetime MDD; and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791

  10. Extended family and friendship support networks are both protective and risk factors for major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms among African-Americans and black Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Chatters, Linda M

    2015-02-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African-American and Black Caribbean adults (n = 5191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression subscale and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations, close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and MDD. For African-Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African-Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791

  11. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2014-01-01

    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644

  12. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  13. Triple-negative breast cancer in African-American women: disparities versus biology.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Eric C; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo; O'Regan, Ruth; Seewaldt, Victoria L

    2015-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects BRCA1 mutation carriers and young women of African origin. There is evidence that African-American women with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes than women of European descent. However, it is unclear whether survival differences persist after adjusting for disparities in access to health-care treatment, co-morbid disease and income. It remains controversial whether TNBC in African-American women is a molecularly distinct disease or whether African-American women have a higher incidence of aggressive biology driven by disparities: there is evidence in support of both. Understanding the relative contributions of biology and disparities is essential for improving the poor survival rate of African-American women with TNBC. PMID:25673085

  14. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  15. Cultural (De)Coding and Racial Identity among Women of the African Diaspora in U.S. Adult Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, research has suggested there are sometimes tensions arising from differences in the way African Americans and Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States perceive each other as part of the African diaspora. In this autoethnographic study, I explore personal experiences with cross-cultural misperceptions between Black female students…

  16. Identifying African dust sources that contribute to the seasonal cycles of dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.; Ginoux, P. A.; Molinie, J.

    2014-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Recently Prospero et al. (Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014) presented 10 years (2002 - 2011) of aerosol measurements made at Cayenne, French Guiana, along with concurrent dust measurements on Barbados. The Cayenne study, coupled with satellite products and other evidence, shows that during spring African dust is carried to a broad region of northeastern South America in quantities comparable to, or greater than, those measured at Barbados in summer. Various lines of evidence suggest that the sources that impact on Cayenne in spring are mainly in the Sahel region, including the Bodélé Depression. In summer transport to Barbados is believed to be most affected by emissions that lie in more northerly regions. Thus the record of measurements at Cayenne and Barbados provide a data set that could be used to test the ability of dust transport models to replicate the seasonal shift of dust sources and the consequent impact on transport to these two sites. Here we attempt to link the measurements at Cayenne and Barbados to specific source regions using the GFDL global climate model (Donner et al., 2011) which simulates aerosol mass distributions for dust and other aerosol components. Winds are nudged with the NCEP re-analysis as in Li et al. (2008). The model is run repeatedly over the years 1999-2010, activating dust sources in only one North African country in each run (e.g., Mali, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, etc.). The model accurately depicts the strong seasonal contrast in dust transport to Barbados and Cayenne and shows the changing impact of African sources over the course of the year. In our presentation we will discuss the model results and compare them to the measurements at the receptor sites. It is notable that during the dust seasons at

  17. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  18. Breast cancer in sub-Saharan African women.

    PubMed

    Anim, J T

    1993-03-01

    The literature on breast cancer in sub-Saharan women is reviewed. In general, breast cancer is the second most common malignancy of women in the region, after cancer of the uterine cervix. Available reports indicate that data on the disease are incomplete and mostly, of epidemiological or clinical nature. Breast cancer is less common in sub-Saharan Africa compared to the Western countries (USA or Europe), occurs in younger individuals with peak incidences about a decade younger and the majority present late, with advanced, sometimes terminal disease. Absence of health educational programmes on cancer as well as lack of screening facilities in nearly all countries in the region are contributory factors to the late presentation of the cases. The need for more in-depth studies of the disease in the black African population has been highlighted. PMID:7839882

  19. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  20. African American Women Principals: Heeding the Call to Serve as Conduits for Transforming Urban School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…

  1. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  2. Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Psychological Correlates of Current Overweight and Obesity in Older, Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…

  3. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  4. Career Commitment and African American Women in Undergraduate STEM Majors: The Role of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Felysha L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the odds, African American women are achieving some success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the mechanisms that contribute to their persistence. This study contributes to understanding how African American women are successful in obtaining baccalaureate degrees…

  5. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  6. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  7. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  8. Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

  9. Redefining Leadership: Examination of African American Women Serving as Presidents in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausmer, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…

  10. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  11. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  12. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518

  13. Coping With Perceived Racism: A Significant Factor in the Development of Obesity in African American Women?

    PubMed Central

    Mwendwa, Denee T.; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C. Jules; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2016-01-01

    Background African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. Objective The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. Methods A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Conclusion Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity. PMID:21999035

  14. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  15. The Role of African Dust Particles on Cloud Chemistry and Microphysics in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, E.; Valle-Diaz, C. J.; Baumgardner, D.; McDowell, W. H.; Gonzalez, G.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Huge amounts of African dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions to the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America. However, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how it affects cloud's composition and microphysics. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). Measurements were performed at the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both ground stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater for chemical analyses and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Summer 2015 was the first attempt to characterize microphysical properties of the summer period (June to August) at PE, where dust is in its higher concentrations of the year. Samples were classified using data from models and satellites together with CSJ measurements as low or high dust influenced. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH, conductivity, total and dissolved organic carbon and total and dissolved nitrogen were measured for cloud and rainwater. Enrichment factor analysis was used to determine sea and crustal contribution of species by sample, as well as the neutralization factor and fractional acidity. Some preliminary results show cloud water conductivity for low

  16. New paradigms for transcultural nursing: frameworks for studying African American women.

    PubMed

    Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2004-01-01

    African American women continue to experience disparities in health status when compared to their European American counterparts, yet, often their unique perspectives are not presented in the nursing literature. This article will discuss various theoretical frameworks arising from Black women's thought and reality that can be used to enhance and expand transcultural nursing knowledge. Historical, sociocultural, and literary perspectives will be used to illuminate the realities of African American women's lives. Selected frameworks arising from these realities will be discussed that recognize the impact of race, class, and gender on the lives of African American women and have the potential to guide nursing research and practice. PMID:14768411

  17. Mammography use among older women of seven Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Freeman, Jean L.; Peláez, Martha; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Goodwin, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence of mammography use, and to estimate its association with sociodemographics. Methods A sample of 6207 women aged 60 and older from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE) in seven cities (Buenos Aires, Bridgetown, Havana, Mexico, Montevideo, Santiago, and Sao Paulo). The outcome was reporting a mammogram within the last 2 years. Results Prevalence of mammography use ranged from 9.8% in Havana to 34.4% in Sao Paulo. Independent predictors of mammography use across cities were older age (lowest odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.95), higher education (highest OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.20), public health insurance (lowest OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.76), or no insurance (lowest OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.34) compared with private insurance. In a combined sample of six cities, higher education was associated with higher mammography use, but older age and insurance (public: OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.45–0.65; no insurance: OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.23–0.40; compared with private insurance) were associated with lower mammography use. Conclusions Prevalence of mammography use across cities was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the US. In the overall sample, mammography use was increased in highly educated people and decreased in people without insurance. PMID:16563480

  18. Sister Circles as a Culturally Relevant Intervention for Anxious African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert; Murray, Marsheena; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Thomas, Anisha; Salley, Bernadette B.

    2011-01-01

    Research on anxiety treatment with African American women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. Sister circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among African Americans females. Sister circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore sister circles as an intervention for anxious African American women. Culturally-infused aspects from our sister circle work with middle-class African American women are presented. Further research is needed. PMID:22081747

  19. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Gollop, C J

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150

  20. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed

    Gollop, C J

    1997-04-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150

  1. Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Reimann, M; De Ridder, J H; van der Merwe, A; Schwarz, P E H; Malan, N T

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index, were included. Correlations between obesity (total body fat, abdominal obesity and peripheral fat) and cardiovascular risk markers (haemodynamic parameters, lipids, inflammatory markers, prothrombotic factors, adipokines, HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance)) were compared between the ethnic groups (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity). Comparisons between low- and high-BP groups were also made for each ethnic group. Results showed that African women had higher BP (P<0.01) with increased peripheral vascular resistance. Surprisingly, African women showed significantly weaker correlations between obesity measures and cardiovascular risk markers when compared to Caucasian women (specifically systolic BP, arterial resistance, cardiac output, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and resistin). Interestingly, the latter risk markers were also not significantly different between low- and high-BP African groups. African women, however, presented significant correlations of obesity with triglycerides, C-reactive protein and HOMA that were comparable to the Caucasian women. Although urban African women have higher BP than Caucasians, their obesity levels are weakly related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to Caucasian women. The results, however, suggest a link with the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18432254

  2. A Multilevel Understanding of HIV/AIDS Disease Burden among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2016-01-01

    Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively—primarily from an individually-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyper-incarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. This paper proposes a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. PMID:25139057

  3. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  4. The Influence of African Dust on Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin: An Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrievals, Ground Observations, and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Chin, M.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface measurements in several locations extending from northeastern coast of South America to Miami in Florida have shown that African dust arrives in the Greater Caribbean Basin throughout a year. This long-range transported dust frequently elevates the level of particulate matter (PM) above the WHO guideline for PM10, which raises a concern of possible adverse impact of African dust on human health in the region. There is also concern about how future climate change might affect dust transport and its influence on regional air quality. In this presentation we provide a comprehensive characterization of the influence of African dust on air quality in the Caribbean Basin via integrating the ground observations with satellite retrievals and model simulations. The ground observations are used to validate and evaluate satellite retrievals and model simulations of dust, while satellite measurements and model simulations are used to extend spatial coverage of the ground observations. An analysis of CALIPSO lidar measurements of three-dimensional distribution of aerosols over 2007-2014 yields altitude-resolved dust mass flux into the region. On a basis of 8-year average and integration over the latitude zone of 0°-30°N, a total of 76 Tg dust is imported to the air above the Greater Caribbean Basin, of which 34 Tg (or 45%) is within the lowest 1 km layer and most relevant to air quality concern. The seasonal and interannual variations of the dust import are well correlated with ground observations of dust in Cayenne, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Miami. We will also show comparisons of the size-resolved dust amount from both NASA GEOS-5 aerosol simulation and MERRA-2 aerosol reanalysis (i.e., column aerosol loading being constrained by satellite measurements of radiance at the top of atmosphere) with the ground observations and satellite measurement.

  5. African, Amerindian and European hepatitis B virus strains circulate on the Caribbean Island of Martinique.

    PubMed

    Brichler, Ségolène; Lagathu, Gisèle; Chekaraou, Mariama Abdou; Le Gal, Frédéric; Edouard, André; Dény, Paul; Césaire, Raymond; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Ten Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, as well as numerous subgenotypes, have been described in well-characterized ethnogeographical populations. Martinique has been at a crossroads between Africa, Europe, India and the Americas because of the slave trade (17th-19th centuries), followed by an important immigration of Indian and West African workers. In this work, we aimed to study the molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Martinique according to this unique settlement pattern. To that end, blood samples from 86 consecutive HBV-infected patients from the main hospitals of the island, were retrospectively analysed. Direct sequencing of the pre-S1 or pre-C-C region or complete genome sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analyses were performed. HBV genotypes were: HBV/A1 (68.6 %), HBV/A2 (10.5 %), HBV/D, mainly HBV/D3 and HBV/D4 (8.1 %), HBV/F (3.5 %), and also HBV/E (2.3 %), two strains isolated from two West-African patients. Moreover, 74 % of the HBeAg-negative strains harboured classical pre-C-C mutations, and most HBV/A1 strains also containing specific mutations. Finally, various patterns of deletion mutants in pre-S and pre-C-C regions were found. In conclusion, our findings point to historical and migration-related issues in HBV-genotype distribution suggesting that HBV/A1, but not HBV/E, was imported from Africa during the slave trade, and further supporting the hypothesis that HBV/E has emerged recently in West Africa (<150 years). Potential origins of 'European' HBV/A2 and HBV/D3, 'Amerindian' HBV/F, and HBV/D4 strains are also discussed. Such HBV genetic diversity, beyond its epidemiological interest, may have a clinical impact on the natural history of HBV infection in Martinique. PMID:23884366

  6. Black African and Caribbean British Communities’ Perceptions of Memory Problems: “We Don’t Do Dementia.”

    PubMed Central

    Berwald, Sharne; Roche, Moïse; Adelman, Simon; Mukadam, Naaheed; Livingston, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to identify and explore the barriers to help-seeking for memory problems, specifically within UK Black African and Caribbean communities. Method We purposively recruited participants from community groups and subsequent snowball sampling, to achieve a maximum variation sample and employed thematic analysis. Our qualitative semi-structured interviews used a vignette portraying a person with symptoms of dementia, and we asked what they or their family should do. We stopped recruiting when no new themes were arising. Results and significance We recruited 50 people from a range of age groups, country of origin, time in the UK, religion and socio-economic background. Some of the barriers to presentation with dementia have been reported before, but others were specific to this group and newly identified. Many people recognised forgetfulness but neither that it could be indicative of dementia, nor the concept of dementia as applying to them. Dementia was viewed as a white person’s illness. Participants felt there was little point in consulting a doctor for forgetfulness. Many thought that seeing a GP was only for severe problems. Some said that their culture was secretive and highly valued privacy of personal affairs and therefore did not want to discuss what they regarded as a private and stigmatising problem with a GP. Participants did not appreciate their GP could refer to memory services who have more time and expertise. They were concerned about harm from medication and compulsory institutionalisation. Care should be from the family. Any intervention should emphasise the legitimacy of seeing a doctor early for memory concerns, that dementia is a physical illness which also occurs in the Black community, that help and time are available from memory services whose role is to prolong independence and support families in caring. PMID:27045999

  7. African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives.

    PubMed

    Nies, M A; Vollman, M; Cook, T

    1999-02-01

    Sedentary behavior is a major public health problem for African American women. A qualitative study used focus groups to explore African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives. Women aged 35-50 were recruited to participate in the focus groups. Transcripts from the focus groups were coded and analyzed. African American women's facilitators of physical activity were daily routine, practical and convenient activities, personal safety, child care, weight loss, stress reduction, knowledge and commitment, enjoyment, pets, family and peer support, home and work facilities, and daylight and climate conditions. Barriers to physical activity were lack of child care, no person to exercise with, competing responsibilities, lack of space in the home, inability to use exercise facilities at work, lack of motivation, fatigue, and unsafe neighborhood. This information will provide the basis for generating new strategies to increase physical activity for African American women in the community. PMID:10074819

  8. [Sexuality, reproductive health and violence against the African Brazilian women: aspects of interest for nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Isabel Cristina Fonseca

    2004-12-01

    Based on the referential of the critical racial theory, a review of the literature was made with the objective of searching for information that leads to an affirmative professional action against racism and sexism, based on scientific evidences and culturally competent. It was evidenced that the sexuality, reproductive health and violence against African Brazilian women are themes with scarce literature, suggesting that racism and sexism occur by the omission and negligence of State to weigh on African Brazilian women's mobilization. The study concluded that institutional discrimination in health needs to be neutralized by affirmative actions regarding to African Brazilian women that must be implemented or strengthen to promote equity in health. PMID:15689003

  9. Answering the Call: African American Women in Higher Education Leadership. Journeys to Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Beverly L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about leaders and leadership, we unfortunately know little about women, particularly minority women, who fill this particular role. This book--the second in a series that explores women leaders in different contexts--presents the stories, and the reflections on their paths to leadership, of seven African American…

  10. African American Women's Perception of Their Own Weight Status Compared to Measured Weight Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates that African American (AA) women may be more accepting of larger body sizes compared with women of other races. This study assessed whether AA women perceived their own weight status accurately, when compared with their actual weight classification. Participants were 528 ...

  11. Examining Both Race and Gender in the Experiences of African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study examined how African American women defined who they were in their respective college contexts, focusing on the roles of gender, race, and institutional type. A total of 20 women from a white coeducational institution, a predominantly white women's college, and a coeducational, historically black college participated in in-depth…

  12. The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Walcott-McQuigg, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight. PMID:7595965

  13. Gender Ratio Imbalance Effects on HIV Risk Behaviors in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2015-01-01

    Although literature suggests that African American women are no more likely to engage in risky sex than their White counterparts, they are more likely to have sex partners with higher HIV risk. Thus, it is not solely an individual’s behavior that determines their risk, but also the behavior of their partner and their position within a sexual network. For this reason, it is important to consider the dynamics of heterosexual relationships in the African American community. An important area of concern regarding African American heterosexual relationships is that of partner availability. A shortage of available African American men for potential partnerships exists and is reportedly due to poorer health and higher mortality rates. Some have argued that gender-ratio imbalance may be responsible for increased HIV vulnerability for African American women. This article reviews the literature on gender ratio imbalance and HIV risk in the African American community, and presents implications and suggestions for future research and intervention. PMID:23041754

  14. The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

  15. Osteoporosis screening is unjustifiably low in older African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Goldfeder, Jason S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than one million Americans suffer osteoporotic fractures yearly, resulting in a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite a decrease in bone mineral density with increasing age in all ethnic groups and both genders, preventative and therapeutics efforts in osteoporosis have been focused on caucasian and Asian women. This study assesses the osteoporosis screening practices and the frequency of low bone density in a primarily African-American population of older women. METHODS: Medical records of 252 women at risk for osteoporosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, prior osteoporosis screening, prior breast cancer screening, and the use of calcium, vitamin D or estrogen. Subsequently, 128 women were assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis, and their bone mineral density was measured using a peripheral bone densitometer. RESULTS: Osteoporosis screening had been performed in 11.5% of the subjects. Of the women evaluated by peripheral bone densitometry, 44.5% of all women, 40.4% of African-American women, and 53.3% of caucasian women had abnormally low bone density measurements. The frequency of abnormal bone density increased with both increasing age and decreasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Although few women in this population were previously screened for osteoporosis, low bone density occurred in African-American women at substantial rates. Increasing age and low body mass are important risk factors for low bone density in African-American women. Ethnicity should not be used as an exclusion criterion for screening for osteoporosis. PMID:15101666

  16. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  17. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; Dimartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-10-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical trials and identified leverage points that future interventions may use to improve enrollment rates. Study findings highlight variation in community knowledge regarding cancer clinical trials, and the importance of community education regarding clinical trials and overcoming historical stigma associated with clinical research specifically and the health care system more generally. Study participants commented on the centrality of churches in their communities, and thus the promise of the church as loci of such education. Findings also suggested the value of informed community leaders as community information sources, including community members who have a previous diagnosis of cancer and clinical trial experience. The sample size and location of the focus groups may limit the generalizability of the results. Since the women in the focus groups were either cancer survivors or caregivers, they may have different experiences than nonparticipants who lack the close connection with cancer. Trust in the health system and in one's physician was seen as important factors associated with patient willingness to enroll in clinical trials, and participants suggested that physicians who were compassionate and who engaged and educated their patients would build important trust requisite for patient participation in clinical trials. PMID:24905181

  18. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; Dimartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical trials and identified leverage points that future interventions may use to improve enrollment rates. Study findings highlight variation in community knowledge regarding cancer clinical trials, and the importance of community education regarding clinical trials and overcoming historical stigma associated with clinical research specifically and the health care system more generally. Study participants commented on the centrality of churches in their communities, and thus the promise of the church as loci of such education. Findings also suggested the value of informed community leaders as community information sources, including community members who have a previous diagnosis of cancer and clinical trial experience. The sample size and location of the focus groups may limit the generalizability of the results. Since the women in the focus groups were either cancer survivors or caregivers, they may have different experiences than nonparticipants who lack the close connection with cancer. Trust in the health system and in one's physician was seen as important factors associated with patient willingness to enroll in clinical trials, and participants suggested that physicians who were compassionate and who engaged and educated their patients would build important trust requisite for patient participation in clinical trials. PMID:24905181

  19. Sister to Sister: Dynamics of Mentoring Relationships among African American Women in Leadership and Nonleadership Positions within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiff, MaNesha M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…

  20. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  1. Evaluation of decision rules for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E.; Holiday, David; Turner, Lori W.; Keenum, Amy J.; Pearman, Cynthia M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While African-American women tend to have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than caucasian women, they are still at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Clinical decision rules (i.e., algorithms) have been developed to assist clinicians identify women at greatest risk of low BMD. However, such tools have only been validated in caucasian and Asian populations. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of five clinical decision rules in identifying postmenopausal African-American women at greatest risk for low femoral BMD. METHODOLOGY: One hundred-seventy-four (n=174) postmenopausal African-American women completed a valid and reliable oral questionnaire to assess lifestyle characteristics, and completed height and weight measures. BMD at the femoral neck was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying African-American women with low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) using five clinical decision rules: Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and body weight less than 70 kg. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of African-American women had low BMD, half of whom had osteoporosis (BMD T-Score < or = -2.5 SD). Sensitivity for identifying women with a low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) ranged from 65.57-83.61%, while specificity ranged from 53.85-78.85%. Positive predictive values ranged from 80.95-87.91%, while negative predictive values ranged from 48.44-58.33%. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the clinical decision rules analyzed in this study have some usefulness for identifying postmenopausal African-American women with low BMD. However, there is a need to establish cut-points for these clinical decision rules in a larger, more diverse sample of African-American women

  2. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  3. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  4. Another Look at HIV in African American Women: The Impact of Psychosocial and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Cotton, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model that integrates structural and psychological determinants of HIV prevention for African American women. The sample consisted of African American mothers (N = 129) of children in Head Start programs. Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of HIV risk; higher levels of perceived…

  5. Developing weight loss interventions for African-American women: elements of successful models.

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Yvonne; Boyington, Josephine E. A.

    2002-01-01

    This review examines published reports of weight-loss interventions targeted to overweight African-American women and identifies specific factors that may account for the variability in observed outcomes. The review will identify program elements that have been associated with weight loss in obese African-American women, describe behavior modification elements of weight loss programs, and provide a list of "lessons learned" that may be useful in planning future weight-loss intervention programs for this target population. PMID:11991335

  6. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  7. African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:15719869

  8. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  9. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  10. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  11. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  12. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  13. A Culturally-Specific Dance Intervention to Increase Functional Capacity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36–82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women. PMID:19202718

  14. Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, G D; St Lawrence, J S; Little, C E; Shelby, M C; Brasfield, T L

    1995-01-01

    Low-income African-American women (N = 178) entering health clinics completed surveys assessing perceived barriers to condom use for themselves personally and for African-American women generally. Following the survey, each woman received a demonstration of five barrier contraceptive methods and then rated her preference among those methods. The women perceived relatively few personal barriers to use of the male condom but perceived significantly greater barriers for other African-American women (all p < .0001). The male condom was first choice of the largest percentage of women (45%) and last choice of the smallest percentage of women (11%). The male condom was preferred for its convenience, availability, and safety, although the necessity for active cooperation by the male partner was considered a hindrance to using the method. Only 23% of women ranked the female condom as first choice and 35% ranked the female condom as last choice. Reasons for selecting the female condom included preference for a female-controlled method, safety, and protection. However, the female condom was perceived to be uncomfortable, to require the partner's acquiescence, and to interfere with sexual experience. Differences in the women's perceptions of barriers to condom use for themselves and for other African-American women are consistent with Weinstein's theory of optimistic bias. Preferences among barrier methods indicate that further research and product development are needed to develop barrier methods that are female-controlled, do not require the awareness of the male partner, and are safe, comfortable, and convenient. PMID:7483652

  15. Neighborhood Characteristics, Adherence to Walking, and Depressive Symptoms in Midlife African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Oh, April; McDevitt, Judith; Block, Dick; McNeil, Sue; Ju, SuKyung

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background African American women have more symptoms of depressed mood than white women. Adverse neighborhood conditions may contribute to these symptoms. Although reductions in depressive symptoms with physical activity have been demonstrated in white adults, little research has examined the mental health benefits of physical activity in African American women. Further, it is unknown whether physical activity can offset the effects of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods on depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among neighborhood characteristics, adherence to a physical activity intervention, and change over time in depressive symptoms in midlife African American women. Methods Two hundred seventy-eight women participated in a home-based, 24-week moderate-intensity walking intervention. Either a minimal treatment (MT) or enhanced treatment (ET) version of the intervention was randomly assigned to one of the two community health centers. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective and perceived measures of neighborhood deterioration and crime were included. Results Adjusting for demographics, body mass index (BMI), and depressive symptoms at baseline, walking adherence and objective neighborhood deterioration were associated with significantly lower depressive symptoms, whereas perceived neighborhood deterioration was associated with significantly higher depressive symptoms at 24 weeks. Conclusions Adherence to walking as well as aspects of the environment may influence depressive symptoms in African American women. In addition to supporting active lifestyles, improving neighborhood conditions may also promote mental health among African American women. PMID:19630546

  16. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329

  17. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  18. Experiences of Reentry and Nontraditional African American Women and Their Support Networks: A Journey in Pursuit of a College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of how support networks impact the success of African American women in completing their college degree. A phenomenological research methodology of 10 African American women participants of in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to collect the data. Fifty percent of the women completed their degree and…

  19. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  20. Toxoplasmosis in Caribbean islands: Seroprevalence in pregnant women in ten countries, and isolation and report of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii from dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in the Caribbean countries. We investigated the prevalence of IgG and IgMantibodies in 437 pregnant women from 10 English speaking Caribbean countries. Antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT, cut-off 1:6) were f...

  1. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  2. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  3. The Influence of Both Race and Gender on the Experiences of African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa R.

    1998-01-01

    At four colleges, 135 African American women students completed measures of self-concept, gender identity, and ethnic identity, and were interviewed. Results suggest that women's self-concepts of race and gender are experienced differently depending on their school's racial and gender composition. Colleges should reexamine diversity efforts to…

  4. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2010-01-01

    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  5. Factors Influencing Condom Use and STD Acquisition among African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa M.; Melton, Richard S.; Succop, Paul A.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed 123 sexually experienced African-American college women at a state university to identify factors influencing their condom use and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The women who were older, had initiated sex earlier, or had more recent sexual partners were more likely than others to report a history of an STD.…

  6. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  7. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  8. Effects of Parity on Blood Pressure among African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Chambers, Angelina N.; Funnell, Beth; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that age, ethnicity, weight, and lifestyle behaviors can affect blood pressure (BP). Co-morbid conditions such as HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), pre-eclampsia, and previous hypertension diagnosis might also be risks for chronic hypertension among women who have had children. Although parity has been linked to changes in blood pressure in White women, these findings have not been replicated among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to determine if the number of pregnancies urban African-American women have effects BMI and blood pressure readings later in life. Results indicated that women with a previous diagnosis of hypertension had higher SBP and DBP, and a slightly higher BMI than women who had never been diagnosed. Additionally, women with a prior history of hypertension had more children than those without a diagnosis of hypertension. As parity increased, SBP increased. However, DBP decreased after 3 to 4 children, even with increases in BMI. This study shows that parity may increase African-American women’s risk for hypertension in terms of increased SBP and BMI with increased parity. However, increased parity and BMI may also serve as protective factors in lowering DBP. Further studies, with larger samples followed throughout their pregnancies, is needed before more definitive statements may be drawn about the effects of parity on BMI and blood pressure readings among African-American women can be made. PMID:19397049

  9. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  10. Leading School Improvement: African American Women Principals in Urban Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Yejide S.

    2010-01-01

    African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…

  11. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  12. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  13. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  14. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  15. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  16. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  17. Breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by physicians and WIC counselors.

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Anne C.; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perrin, James M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined rates of breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by medical providers and WIC nutrition counselors, and sought to determine whether racial differences in advice contributed to racial differences in rates of breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of mothers with a live birth, infant death, or fetal death in 1988. The authors compared white women (n=3,966) and African American women (n=4,791) with a live birth in 1988 on self-reported rates of medical provider and WIC advice to breastfeed, WIC advice to bottlefeed, and breastfeeding. RESULTS: Self-reported racial identification did not predict medical provider advice. However, being African American was associated with less likelihood of breastfeeding advice and greater likelihood of bottlefeeding advice from WIC nutrition counselors. In multivariate analyses controlling for differences in advice, being African American was independently associated with lower breastfeeding rates (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41, 95% CI 0.32, 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: African American women were less likely than white women to report having received breastfeeding advice from WIC counselors and more likely to report having received bottlefeeding advice from WIC counselors. However, African American and white women were equally likely to report having received breastfeeding advice from medical providers. Lower rates of breastfeeding advice from medical or nutritional professionals do not account for lower rates of breastfeeding among African American women. PMID:12815087

  18. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  19. Naming and Claiming Cancer among African American Women: An Application of Problematic Integration Theory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elisia L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how a sample of African American women understands the uncertainties fundamental to cancer risk communication. Utilizing data from four focus groups, Problematic Integration (PI) theory is applied as an interpretive lens for illustrating their felt difficulties of talking openly about cancer and breast cancer in everyday life. The women describe worry about cancer and its prevalence among African American women; ambivalence and uncertainty; belief that what is not uncertain is certain and awful; fear and avoidance; contradictions in “claiming” and “rebuking” cancer; and hopefulness. PMID:20160969

  20. The LIFE Project: A Community-Based Weight Loss Intervention Program for Rural African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Veronica G.; Coles, Charlton; Logan, Barbara N.; Davis, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a significant health problem for African American women. While a number of obesity interventions target urban African American women, few target rural ones. The LIFE Project is a 10-week intervention designed to reduce obesity in this rural population. Two different interventions (spiritually-based and nonspiritually-based) were pilot tested, each utilizing a pretest, posttest design. Results demonstrated that both interventions led to significant reductions in weight, but the spiritually-based intervention led to additional improvements. The LIFE project also demonstrated that churches are appropriate settings to deliver health interventions to these women. PMID:20216356

  1. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146

  2. Evaluation of Health Disparity in Bacterial Vaginosis and the Implications for HIV-1 Acquisition in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Alcendor, Donald J

    2016-08-01

    There is a health disparity for both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African American women that may be linked. The evidence that BV predisposes women to higher risk for HIV infection is well documented. The underlying mechanisms to support the epidemiological connections will require further investigations. This review explores the risk factors for BV disease with implications for HIV-1 acquisition in the context of race as a potential driver of the 20-fold increase in HIV-1 acquisition for African American women compared to white women. Specifically, it explores (i) disparities for BV in African American women, (ii) racial disparity for HIV-1 acquisition in African American women, (iii) common factors associated with BV and HIV acquisition in African American women, and (iv) potential mechanisms of the enhancement of HIV-1 transmission by BV. PMID:26847837

  3. African American child-women: nutrition theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically investigated in the context of early puberty. The present study analyzed nutritional differences among AA girls who experience early sexual maturation with those who do not, as well as the dynamics of early sexual maturation, food consumption, and body image perceptions of AA girls. Participants were 45 AA girls ages 7-10 years, and guardians who were recruited from Boys and Girls Clubs in the southeastern part of the U.S. The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Fallon and Rozin's (1985) Body Image Checklist was used to assess the food intake and body image perceptions of the young girls. Evidence of early sexual maturation was operationalized as the parental report of development of any secondary sexual characteristics (breasts, hips, pubic hair) in the young girl. A two-day food intake recall was conducted over a representative weekday period. Results revealed a significant difference between the calcium and fiber consumption of the AA girls who experienced early sexual maturation versus those who did not. Also, results indicated a relationship between parental characteristics, household shopping practices, and food consumption of the young girls. These findings are important and can be used to predict, prepare, and educate the AA population as well as establish appropriate support systems for these child-women. PMID:16689443

  4. Tipping the scales on obesity: church-based health promotion for African American women.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kami C; King, Michalene A; Sarpong, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that over 80% of U.S. adult African American (AA) women are at risk for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In 2011-2012, 56.6% of non-Hispanic Black women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Project TEACH--Transforming, Empowering, and Affecting Congregation Health was designed to determine the effectiveness of a faith-based, culturally competent, nutrition and exercise program targeting AA women in a church setting. PMID:25585468

  5. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  6. Social and Proximate Determinants of the Frequency of Condom Use Among African, Caribbean, and Other Black People in a Canadian City: Results from the BLACCH Study.

    PubMed

    Baidoobonso, Shamara; Bauer, Greta R; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lawson, Erica

    2016-02-01

    African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) people are a priority group for HIV prevention in Canada, but little is known about condom use in this population. This exploratory community-based research project addresses this gap in knowledge. 125 sexually active ACB people completed a questionnaire covering condom use and social determinants of health. The data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses. 20.5 % of sexually active ACB adults used condoms consistently. Male gender, wealth, unstable immigration classes, and unsecure employment statuses were independently associated with more frequent condom use. Proximate determinants mediating these relationships included: not having a cohabiting regular partner, not disliking condoms, and having a history of unwanted sex. The proximate determinants mediated 85.7-97.6 % of the effects of the social determinants. These results link social context and proximate factors with condom use. They can be used to design evidence-informed interventions for ACB people. PMID:24488693

  7. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks

  8. Making the Hurt Go Away: Psychological and Spiritual Healing for African American Women Survivors of Childhood Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tracy L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the psychological and spiritual healing for African American women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Considers adult sexuality for these women. Includes implications for counselors and recommendations for their self-care. (Author/JDM)

  9. Social factors that make South African women vulnerable to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Leáne; de, KlerkGerhardtW

    2002-02-01

    The degree to which women are able to control various aspects of their sexual lives is clearly a critical question for health promotion and the prevention of AIDS. It is evident that social factors such as the high rate of rape, the unfavourable economic position of women, and the inability to insist on condom usage make South African women unable to negotiate the timing of sex and the conditions under which it occurs. They are thus rendered powerless to protect themselves against HIV infection. Prevention campaigns often do not take into account the reality of the daily lives of South African women and the difficulties they face gaining control over their own sexual lives. The rampant spread of this disease can only be stemmed if the subordinate position of women is acknowledged and addressed. PMID:11868963

  10. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Rogers, Christopher K; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans, particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, and content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among African American women ages 18 to 25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups (n = 38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across four African American churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting, and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk-reduction interventions. Incorporating additional social context-related factors into HIV risk-reduction interventions for young African American women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  11. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-type 2 in African-American college women.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, L. M.; Bernstein, D. I.; Rosenthal, S. L.; Stanberry, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sexual behaviors and prevalence of herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2) among African-American college women. Subjects (n = 138) were recruited randomly from a state university to participate in a study regarding sexual attitudes and behaviors and to have their blood drawn for type-specific HSV seroprevalence. Sera were analyzed for 96 college women with a mean age of 21 years. Of the 96 women, 29 (30%) were HSV-2 seropositive. The results of this study revealed that a history of sexually transmitted disease was predictive of HSV-2 infection. Number of lifetime partners, however, was not related to HSV-2 seropositivity. Four (31%) of the 13 women who reported only one lifetime partner were seropositive. These findings indicate that for young African-American college women, the risk of being infected with HSV-2 is high even with only one lifetime partner. Behavioral strategies focused on decreasing the number of sexual partners are not likely to be sufficient in preventing the spread of HSV-2 infection among young African-American women. The development and use of alternative approaches to prevent the spread of HSV-2 among young African Americans should be considered. PMID:10333670

  12. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167

  13. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  14. Addressing health concerns of pregnant African American women using the lens of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Sims, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant African American women are at higher risk for multiple complex health issues, including depression, than their European American counterparts (Canady, Bullen, Holzman, Broman, & Tian, 2008; Martin et al, 2011; Mathews & MacDorman, 2007; Orr, Blazer, & James, 2006; Segre, Losch, & O'Hara, 2006). Various strategies must be used to address depression through preventive care and promotion of access to appropriate mental health services. Nurses and other health care providers need to examine the relationships between the multifactorial problems to improve the health and well-being of pregnant African American women and their unborn children. This article presents a case study demonstrating the use of complexity science theory to understand and prevent poor health outcomes for pregnant African American women with depression and their unborn children. PMID:26050422

  15. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.

    2016-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  16. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: The Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Donin, A. S.; Nightingale, C. M.; Owen, C. G.; Rudnicka, A. R.; McNamara, M. C.; Prynne, C. J.; Stephen, A. M.; Cook, D. G.; Whincup, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, South Asian adults have increased risks of CHD, type 2 diabetes and central obesity. Black African-Caribbeans, in contrast, have increased risks of type 2 diabetes and general obesity but lower CHD risk. There is growing evidence that these risk differences emerge in early life and that nutritional factors may be important. We have therefore examined the variations in nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children, using 24 h recalls of dietary intake collected during a cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular health in eighty-five primary schools in London, Birmingham and Leicester. In all, 2209 children aged 9–10 years took part, including 558 of South Asian, 560 of black African-Caribbean and 543 of white European ethnicity. Compared with white Europeans, South Asian children reported higher mean total energy intake; their intakes of total fat, polyunsaturated fat and protein (both absolute and as proportions of total energy intake) were higher and their intakes of carbohydrate as a proportion of energy (particularly sugars), vitamin C and D, Ca and haem Fe were lower. These differences were especially marked for Bangladeshi children. Black African-Caribbean children had lower intakes of total and saturated fat (both absolute and as proportions of energy intake), NSP, vitamin D and Ca. The lower total and saturated fat intakes were particularly marked among black African children. Appreciable ethnic differences exist in the nutritional composition of children’s diets, which may contribute to future differences in chronic disease risk. PMID:20230652

  17. African American Women Working in the Twin Cities during the Mid-Twentieth Century: Discovering Their Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    Existing scholarship has no examination of attributing the discourse on vocational identity to African American women, which in this study, has been defined as what a woman ought to be and do. African American women have been a subject of scholarly inquiry on having the longest history of paid work. This qualitative dissertation contains their…

  18. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  19. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  20. Psychosocial Influences on Suboptimal Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Adherence among African American Women: Implications for Education and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…

  1. Exploring Generational Identity in the Professional Lives of African-American Women: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the professional lives of African-American women in relation to their affiliations to a generation. Relationships between race, gender, generation, and class are explored. This study builds on the work of generational theorists and feminist scholars, and seeks to understand the experiences of African-American women in an…

  2. Sexual Risk Behavior among African American College Women: Understanding Socio-Cultural Factors in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Maya A.

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at the center of the discussion on health disparities, specifically disparities regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Though there has been substantial research examining sexual risk behavior among low income African American women, little has been done to understand sexual behavior…

  3. Weight loss maintenance in African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African-American women are disproportionally burdened by obesity. Results from behavioral weight loss interventions report that African-American women lose less weight compared to other subgroups but, show improvement in their cardiometabolic risk profile. Unfortunately, the health benefits are not ...

  4. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  5. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  6. The Gestational Vaginal Microbiome and Spontaneous Preterm Birth among Nulliparous African American Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Deborah B; Shin, Hakdong; Wu, Jingwei; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Early markers to identify pregnant women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) have not been established and preventive options are limited. Recent attention has focused on examining the importance of characterizing the vaginal microbiome to predict SPTB. Results We examined the diversity and structure of the vaginal microbiome in nulliparous African American women during early pregnancy and compared 13 women who delivered preterm and 27 women who delivered at term. Samples were taken at one of two points in gestation, before 16 weeks or between 20 and 24 weeks. Among women who delivered preterm, we found lower bacterial diversity with lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae, Sneathia, Prevotella, and Aerococcus compared with women delivering at term (linear discriminant analysis score > 3.0). The Shannon diversity index was not significantly different between the groups (p-value = 0.239). Phylogenetic diversity and Chao1 suggested a lower diversity in the vaginal microbiota of women who delivered preterm compared with term, but these findings were not significantly different (p = 0.077 and p = 0.066, respectively). Conclusion These data suggest that the vaginal microbiome of women delivering preterm had lower diversity than women delivering after 37 weeks, although these findings need to be explored in a larger sample of nulliparous African American women. PMID:27057772

  7. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. PMID:21541069

  8. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  9. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M.; Gross, Susan M.; Silver, Kristi D.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Design Cross-sectional study Setting African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. Results The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P=.004) and health compared to others (P=.006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r=.319) but was not correlated with BMI (r=.095). Decreased physical exercise (P=.02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Conclusion Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population. PMID:22764641

  10. Antenatal inflammation and gestational diabetes mellitus risk among pregnant African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bossick, Andrew S; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Kakumanu, Naveen; Shill, Jessica E; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2016-06-01

    Although inflammation is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), little is known if there is an association between inflammation and GDM in African-American women, a group at higher risk for GDM complications. In the present study, we aimed to determine if selected inflammatory cytokines (i.e. TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-6/IL-10 ratio, IL-1β) measured in the 2nd trimester, were associated with GDM risk in 185 pregnant African-American women. GDM was defined as a physician-documented GDM diagnosis, a fasting glucose between 92 and 125mg/dl, or evidence of glucose intolerance (defined using the 3-h glucose tolerance test). A total of 18 women (9.7%) had GDM. After covariate adjustment, C-reactive protein, measured at a mean 21.2±3.7 weeks gestation, was statistically significantly associated with GDM development (P=0.025); for every one-unit increase in log-transformed C-reactive protein, the odds of GDM increased by 5.3. Results were similar using a principal component analysis approach. This study provides evidence that higher levels of 2nd trimester C-reactive protein is associated with increased risk of GDM in African-American women. Further research is needed to examine whether C-reactive protein may be a useful early-pregnancy screen for evaluating potential GDM risk in African-American women. PMID:27061480

  11. Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

  12. Attitudes Toward Contraceptive Methods Among African American Men and Women: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Men’s attitudes toward contraceptives are an understudied area, even though many men participate in contraceptive decision-making. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes and perceptions regarding a selection of contraceptive methods among a national sample of African Americans, with a particular focus on gender differences. Methods Data come from a telephone survey of African Americans (aged 15–44 years) living in the contiguous U.S. For the present analyses, the sample was restricted to 152 men and 281 women who reported having had a sexual partner of the opposite gender at some point in their lives. Bivariate analyses compared men and women’s ratings of birth control pills, male condoms, female condoms, Norplant, Depo Provera, female sterilization, and male sterilization along several dimensions: bad/good, harmful/beneficial, difficult/easy, dangerous/safe, immoral/moral, and effectiveness. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between gender and contraceptive attitudes, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Results Male condoms were given the most favorable ratings along most dimensions by both African American men and women. In general, ratings of male condoms, female condoms, and Norplant did not significantly differ by gender. African American men did, however, give female and male sterilization, birth control pills, and Depo Provera significantly poorer ratings than did African American women. Conclusion African American men had less favorable evaluations of some contraceptive methods than did African American women. Further research is needed to examine how such gender differences may play a role in contraceptive decisions. PMID:17321945

  13. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421

  14. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  15. Lactation in Relation to Long-Term Maternal Weight Gain in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Julie R; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen; Wise, Lauren A; Yu, Jeffrey; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-06-15

    We assessed the relationship of lactation to long-term maternal weight gain among African-American women, who have a lower prevalence of lactation and a higher prevalence of obesity than other US women. A pregnancy cohort of 3,147 African-American women from the Black Women's Health Study who gave birth for the first time between 1995 and 2003 was followed for 8 years postpartum. Participants provided data on weight, lactation, gestational weight gain, education, diet, and exercise. Mean differences in weight gain were estimated in multivariable models. Overall, lactation was not associated with mean weight gain. However, the association was modified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) (P for interaction=0.03): Among women with BMI<30 prior to the pregnancy, mean weight gain decreased with increasing months of lactation (P for trend<0.01), whereas among obese women (BMI≥30), mean weight gain increased with increasing duration of lactation (P for trend=0.04). Adjusted mean differences for ≥12 months of lactation relative to no lactation were -1.56 kg (95% confidence interval: -2.50, -0.61) among nonobese women and 2.33 kg (95% confidence interval: -0.35, 5.01) among obese women. The differences in postpartum mean weight gain persisted over the 8-year study period. Residual confounding by factors more common in women who breastfeed longer may have influenced the results. PMID:25944887

  16. Intuitive Eating Practices Among African-American Women Living With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Amanda L.; Richardson, Brittany S.; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Intuitive Eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class in 2009–2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Verbatim group transcriptions were analyzed by two independent reviewers for themes using a combined inductive-deductive approach. Participants (n=35) had an average age of 52±9 years, mean body mass index of 39±7, and mean time with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis of 10±10 years. Participants’ self-reported dietary practices were poorly aligned with intuitive eating concepts. The women reported a lack of self-control with food and regularly eating in the absence of hunger, yet stated that the determinant factor for when to stop eating was to recognize a feeling of fullness. Participants reported knowing they were full when they felt physically uncomfortable or actually became sick. Women frequently cited the belief that individuals with diabetes have to follow a different diet than that recommended for the general public. Many women also discussed diabetes-related stigma from family/friends, and often did not tell others about their diabetes diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that intuitive eating techniques are not currently applied by the women in this sample. Future studies should assess the impact of intuitive eating interventions on dietary habits among low-income African-American women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24699138

  17. Partner Incarceration and African-American Women's Sexual Relationships and Risk: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L

    2015-06-01

    Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment. PMID:25694224

  18. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  19. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. PMID:21111694

  20. Mediators of the Daily Hassles-Suicidal Ideation Link in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated depressive symptoms and hopelessness as mediators of the daily hassles-suicidal ideation link in low income African American women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 100). As hypothesized, daily hassles, depressive symptoms, and hopelessness were each significantly and positively associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, the relation between daily hassles and suicidal ideation was, in part, accounted for by depressive symptoms and hopelessness. This study demonstrates the importance of assessing for the presence of these risk factors when determining the likelihood that an abused African American woman will consider suicide. The findings further highlight the value of designing and implementing interventions that target the reduction of depressive symptoms and hopelessness in abused African American women exposed to daily hassles to reduce their suicide risk. PMID:24797082

  1. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women.

    PubMed

    Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, Go; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-03-17

    BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. METHODS: Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18-29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. RESULTS: The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with

  2. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-01-01

    Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with

  3. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  4. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  5. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  6. Impact of Selection Practices on Career Advancement of African American Women in Community College Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…

  7. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  8. Physical Activity among African American Women: A Response to Karla A. Henderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the issues raised by Karla A. Henderson in her presentation, it is the intervention strategies and suggestions to improve the research dealing with African American women and physical activity and leisure pursuits that the author finds most intriguing and valuable. He could not agree more that investigators need to be aware that African…

  9. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  10. The Invisible Realities of Welfare Reform in Wisconsin: Perspectives of African American Women and Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of African American women as they transitioned from welfare to work and develop economic self-sufficiency. The barriers to self-sufficiency included the "work-first" philosophy and case management practices, labor market conditions and employment practices, and personal history. HRD can help minimize these…

  11. Intervention Approaches for Addressing Breast Cancer Disparities among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to prevent deaths from breast cancer and to address breast cancer disparities have focused on early detection through routine mammography and timely referral for treatment. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages for African American women to increase their knowledge and awareness of health behaviors for the early detection of breast cancer. Several promising intervention approaches are reviewed in this article including: 1) the use of cell phone text messaging and smart phone apps to increase breast cancer screening; 2) the use of radio stations that target African American audiences (“black radio”) for health promotion activities; and 3) church-based behavioral interventions to promote breast cancer screening among African American women. PMID:25568890

  12. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  13. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban, midlife African American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the…

  14. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  15. "There Are Two Truths": African American Women's Critical, Creative Ruminations on Love through New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what happens when a group of African American women came together to engage with popular culture narratives (PCNs) soon after 9/11. The author relies on Endarkened Feminist Epistemology to understand the development of raced and gendered meaning making and knowledge development within the inquiry. She also…

  16. Rearticulating the Leadership Experiences of African American Women in Midlevel Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayborne, Hannah L.; Hamrick, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study of African American women holding midlevel administrative positions sought to broaden and challenge conceptualizations of leadership by focusing on respondents' descriptions of their leadership experiences. Findings centered principally on the intensely relational qualities associated with leadership and leading, mentoring…

  17. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  18. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  19. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  20. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, LaTasha K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  1. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  2. Generous with Our Uniqueness: Forging New Directions for African-American Women in the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdino-Sullwold, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    African-American women have played a major role in the history of the arts. This history, which is filled with discrimination, is traced for music, dance, drama, and the visual arts. Those who have overcome these obstacles can be effective teachers for future audiences, artists, and decision makers. (SLD)

  3. Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

  4. "Views from the Nano Edge": Women on Doctoral Preparation Programmes in Selected African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the conceptual views of "critical mass", alongside micro experiences, of women, at a practice level, on a doctoral preparation programme which was implemented within the South African Development Community (SADC) and Ethiopian contexts. At the strategising level of policies, insufficient attention has been paid to the…

  5. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  6. Family, Self, and Sociocultural Contributions to Body-Image Attitudes of African-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1995-01-01

    Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)

  7. African American Women Making Race Work in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    2012-01-01

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks,…

  8. Voices from the Inside: African American Women's Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…

  9. A Mixed-Method Analysis of African-American Women's Attendance at an HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…

  10. African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Families as Sources of Support and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings from interviews conducted with 18 African American women living with HIV/AIDS. Presents their perceptions of ways in which their families function as a source of support and as a source of stress in their dealings with HIV/AIDS issues. Provides information on supportive aspects provided by family in emotional, concrete, and…

  11. Adapting a Comprehensive Approach to African American Women's Sexual Risk Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Romero, Gloria J.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Newcomb, Michael D.; Wayment, Heidi A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Solis, Beatriz M.; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Examined factors predicting the context of HIV-related sexual behaviors in African American women. Surveys investigated demographics; sexual history, behavior, attitudes, risk, and communication; drug use; contraception; and risk reduction efforts since Magic Johnson's HIV disclosure. Demographics, sexual communication, and past sexual experiences…

  12. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." PMID:26773423

  13. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  14. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  15. The College Choice Process of African American and Hispanic Women: Implications for College Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butner, Bonita; Caldera, Yvonne; Herrera, Patricia; Kennedy, Francesca; Frame, Mary; Childers, Chandra

    2001-01-01

    Qualitatively examined the college choice process for African American and Hispanic females at a large southwestern university. Identified, through the voices of these women, three major themes that support their decision to attend college: familial influences, the quintessential American dream, and striving to overcome. (EV)

  16. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471

  17. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-15

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10(-6)) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65-70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry. PMID:24852375

  18. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    PubMed

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships. PMID:25996075

  19. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  20. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  1. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID:25862565

  2. Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

  3. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  4. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    PubMed

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered. PMID:22657146

  5. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  6. Critical Consciousness, Racial and Gender Discrimination, and HIV Disease Markers in African American Women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Dale, Sannisha K.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination. PMID:24077930

  7. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination. PMID:24077930

  8. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control. PMID:8045092

  9. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  10. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  11. Socio-Economic Position and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors: Patterns in UK Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Claudia; Nightingale, Claire M.; Donin, Angela S.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Socio-economic position (SEP) and ethnicity influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in adults. However, the influence of SEP on emerging T2DM risks in different ethnic groups and the contribution of SEP to ethnic differences in T2DM risk in young people have been little studied. We examined the relationships between SEP and T2DM risk factors in UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin, using the official UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) and assessed the extent to which NS-SEC explained ethnic differences in T2DM risk factors. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional school-based study of 4,804 UK children aged 9–10 years, including anthropometry and fasting blood analytes (response rates 70%, 68% and 58% for schools, individuals and blood measurements). Assessment of SEP was based on parental occupation defined using NS-SEC and ethnicity on parental self-report. Associations between NS-SEC and adiposity, insulin resistance (IR) and triglyceride differed between ethnic groups. In white Europeans, lower NS-SEC status was related to higher ponderal index (PI), fat mass index, IR and triglyceride (increases per NS-SEC decrement [95%CI] were 1.71% [0.75, 2.68], 4.32% [1.24, 7.48], 5.69% [2.01, 9.51] and 3.17% [0.96, 5.42], respectively). In black African-Caribbeans, lower NS-SEC was associated with lower PI (−1.12%; [−2.01, −0.21]), IR and triglyceride, while in South Asians there were no consistent associations between NS-SEC and T2DM risk factors. Adjustment for NS-SEC did not appear to explain ethnic differences in T2DM risk factors, which were particularly marked in high NS-SEC groups. Conclusions SEP is associated with T2DM risk factors in children but patterns of association differ by ethnic groups. Consequently, ethnic differences (which tend to be largest in affluent socio-economic groups) are not explained by NS-SEC. This suggests that strategies aimed at reducing social

  12. Struggling to survive: sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  13. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  14. SNPs and breast cancer risk prediction for African American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Allman, Richard; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Gordon, Ora; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Chlebowski, Rowan; Kooperberg, Charles

    2015-12-01

    For African American or Hispanic women, the extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models are improved by including information on susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unknown, even though these women comprise increasing proportions of the US population and represent a large proportion of the world's population. We studied 7539 African American and 3363 Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. The age-adjusted 5-year risks from the BCRAT and IBIS risk prediction models were measured and combined with a risk score based on >70 independent susceptibility SNPs. Logistic regression, adjusting for age group, was used to estimate risk associations with log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was measured by the odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). When considered alone, the ORs for African American women were 1.28 for BCRAT, and 1.04 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.23), the corresponding ORs were 1.39 and 1.22. For Hispanic women the corresponding ORs were 1.25 for BCRAT, and 1.15 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.39), the corresponding ORs were 1.48 and 1.42. There was no evidence that any of the combined models were not well calibrated. Including information on known breast cancer susceptibility loci provides approximately 10 and 19% improvement in risk prediction using BCRAT for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. The corresponding figures for IBIS are approximately 18 and 26%, respectively. PMID:26589314

  15. Violence, homelessness, and HIV risk among crack-using African-American women.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Lam, Wendy K K; Zule, William; Hall, Grace; Middlesteadt, Rachel; Edwards, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of out-of-treatment, homeless, crack-using African-American women with those who are not homeless to determine what risks and protective factors differentiate the two groups. From 1999 to 2001, 683 out-of-treatment, African-American crack-using women (of whom 219 were categorized as homeless) were interviewed and serologically tested. Risk factors that were examined include adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, physical health, violence and victimization, drug use, and risky sex behaviors. Protective factors that were examined include marital status, education, public assistance, and the responsibility of caring for children. Overall, both groups of women started crack use in their mid-twenties and started drug use with alcohol in their teenage years, though differed significantly on each risk factor examined. Logistic regression analysis found that variables associated with increased odds of being homeless are physical abuse before age 18, crack runs greater than 24 hours, income less than dollars 500 in the last 30 days, depression, and current cigarette smoking. Protective factors found are marital status, living with children under 18, having had a physical in the past year, and receiving money from welfare in the last 30 days. Being sexually assaulted in the past 90 days was marginally associated with homelessness in the model. These findings, specific to crack-using African-American women, suggest that not only do these women overall report painful histories and currently stressful lives, but homeless women are more likely than women who are not homeless to have experienced childhood abuse and are more involved with drug use. Interventions designed for these women need to consider gender, cultural, and contextual issues that not only incorporate aspects of risk reduction related to violence, alcohol use, and comorbid conditions, but also linkages that will address housing issues, education, and skills

  16. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  17. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  18. Yo-Yo Dieting in African American Women: Weight Cycling and Health

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Robyn L.; Forys, Kelly L.; Psota, Tricia L.; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of weight cycling on health is mixed, strife with inconsistent definitions and the exclusion of African Americans. This study examined weight cycling prevalence among African American women prior to enrolling in a weight management program. Associations of weight cycling with physical and psychological health were conducted. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Community-based weight-management program. Participants 167 overweight or obese treatment-seeking African American women. Main Outcome Measures Weight cycling was examined in relation to physiological factors, including eating pathology, mood, self esteem, and physical health, specifically current weight, ideal weight, peak weight, and blood pressure. Results Weight cycling was prevalent (63%). Cyclers had higher current and peak weights (P<.01). Blood pressure did not differ between groups. Cyclers had higher drive for thinness, less body satisfaction, and less self-esteem for appearance (P<.05). Conclusion African American women are at risk for weight cycling and it may be associated with greater weight and poorer measures of psychological health. (Ethn Dis PMID:21942158

  19. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  20. African American women and breast cancer: notes from a study of narrative.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J

    2001-02-01

    Survival after breast cancer and after all cancers is significantly worse for African American women than for others. Although many reasons have been proposed, no studies have explored the reception of messages about breast cancer by African American survivors of this disease, and how public images and discourses about breast cancer affects both their perceived risk for this disease and their experiences of illness. Narrative accounts of their lived experiences with breast cancer were collected from 23 African American survivors of breast cancer. Three themes have emerged: (a) Breast cancer is perceived to be a white woman's disease; (b) cancer is caused by experiences of repeated traumatic heartbreak; and finally, (c) there is a perceived lack of social support and understanding for the unique life experiences of the African American survivor of breast cancer. Nurses are on the front line of patient care. In the context of the managed care environment, they spend more time with patients than other health care providers and are soundboards for many patient concerns. As such, they can use the information provided in this study to inform high-risk women, current patients, partners, and other individuals in the medical community of how African American women might inaccurately access their personal risks for breast cancer, despite the public emphasis on this disease. Through the use of culturally sensitive pamphlets, nurses and other medical practitioners can also open discussions with underserved and minority patients as a means of realistically addressing some of these women's fears about breast cancer. These fears are barriers to effective cancer prevention because these individuals may consciously or unconsciously link a diagnosis of breast cancer, or even behaviors related to cancer prevention, to a potential death sentence. PMID:11219421

  1. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  2. Motivational interviewing at the intersections of depression and intimate partner violence among African American women.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally tailored, multi-faceted intervention that used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  3. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  4. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  5. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  6. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T; Akinremi, Titilola O; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Roberts, Robin; Yu, Daohai; Reams, R Renee; Freedman, Matthew L; Rivers, Brian; Green, B Lee; Kumar, Nagi

    2009-01-01

    Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group. PMID:19208207

  7. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral Pr

  8. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192

  9. Assessing the Stages of Change Among African American Women in a Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Osborn, Robyn; Clark, Robert D.; Hsiao, Chiao-Wen; Carter, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stage of change (SOC) and behavioral outcomes among African American women entering obesity treatment in two settings. Fifty-five overweight/obese (body mass index = 26.50–48.13), but otherwise healthy African American women, 23 to 56 years old, attended a 13-week weight loss–treatment program that took place at churches (n = 36) or a university (n = 19). Participants were weighed, completed SOC measures, and had a physical fitness test at pre- and posttreatment. Pretreatment measures of SOC placed 47% of the participants as actors, 31% as contemplators, and 22% as maintainers. Of the 45 women who reported posttreatment SOC, 7% regressed, 44% did not change, and 31% progressed in SOC. Pretreatment SOC predicted posttreatment weight loss in the church setting but not in the university setting. At churches, contemplators lost more weight than actors and maintainers. The church may be a more conducive setting for weight change behaviors for African American women who are categorized as contemplators in the SOC model. PMID:24683280

  10. Cultural barriers to cancer screening among African American women: a critical review of the qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, L; Mills, S L

    1997-01-01

    There have been numerous studies demonstrating the enormous cancer burden for African American women and the impact of structural barriers in the dissemination of cancer control interventions. Few of these studies have dealt with the influence of cultural factors in the success or failure of intervention research. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of qualitative studies that inform on social-cultural factors in cancer screening programs for African American women, and to evaluate the extent to which general methodologic criteria have been used in these studies. The article discusses the theoretical underpinnings of social science qualitative methodologies, including ethnography, hermeneutics, ethnomethodology, and symbolic interactionism. Published qualitative studies from 1980 to 1996 on cancer screening among African American women are critically reviewed. Among the themes identified were bruises as contributory to breast cancer development; the low priority women placed on personal preventive screening behaviors in the context of other family health priorities; and the importance of female friends, relatives, and social networks in the flow of cancer information. The importance of qualitative approaches to cancer prevention and control programs and policies is threefold: (a) collection of greater depth of information, (b) identification of processes and relations among behaviors, and (c) framing of variables and hypotheses for quantitative research. Greater emphasis on methodologic rigor will be necessary, however, if qualitative studies of cancer screening are to effectively inform the development of research, programs, and policies. PMID:9426493

  11. Breast Cancer Surgery Decision-Making and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n = 14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948

  12. The relationship of perceived benefits of and barriers to reported exercise in older African American women.

    PubMed

    Jones, M; Nies, M A

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of older African American women in senior citizen centers in an urban area in the mid-South. This descriptive study utilized a convenience sample of older African American women over 60 years of age and examined the relationship among their current exercise levels, their perceptions regarding the importance of exercise, and the benefits of and barriers to engaging in regular exercise. The level of exercise was measured using the Exercise scale of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), the perceptions of the importance of exercise were measured by a Cantril ladder, and the benefits of and barriers to exercise were measured by the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) and one open-ended question on perceived barriers. A significant relationship was found between reported exercise levels and perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise (p < 0.001). Benefits most cited by participants reflected those categorized as life enhancing. Barriers cited most often related to exercise accessibility and availability. Results of this study support the need for community-based exercise programs for specific populations. Nursing interventions are needed that help women in general and African American women in particular to adopt exercise as a daily health-promotive activity. PMID:8936249

  13. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911

  14. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. PMID:26899801

  15. The experience of African American women living with HIV: creating a prevention film for teens.

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    The personal and social costs of HIV are well documented. What remains unknown is the effect of public disclosure of HIV status on the individual who is doing the disclosing. This study describes the experience of four African American women living with HIV who participated in the development of an intergenerational education intervention for African American adolescent girls. These women suggested that they be filmed discussing the "dark side" of HIV in an effort to create an intergenerational education intervention that would alter the risk-taking behavior that they observed in young women in their community. After a rough cut of the film was completed, these women viewed the film and participated in a focus group during which they discussed what it was like to reveal and revisit their own painful experiences associated with becoming infected and then living with HIV. Findings from content analysis of transcribed dialogue included the following positive themes: (a) self-acceptance by telling one's own story and hearing the stories of the other women, (b) a sense of liberation by disclosing publicly one's image and message and letting go of others' judgments, (c) feeling supported by meeting other women who share the same experience, (d) value of using the film to impact or save young people from the pain one has experienced. A negative theme emerged related to personal pain in reliving the individual's history with HIV. PMID:16438124

  16. Risk factors for suicide attempts among African American women experiencing recent intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Martie P; Kaslow, Nadine J; Kingree, J B

    2002-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify risk factors for suicide attempts among 200 African American abused women (100 attempters, 100 nonattempters) and to test a cumulative risk model to determine if a woman's likelihood of making a suicide attempt increased as the number of risk factors increased. Results revealed that attempters were significantly more likely than nonattempters to report high levels of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, drug abuse, and childhood abuse and neglect. Results from the cumulative risk model revealed a linear association between the number of risk factors and the odds of making a suicide attempt. Compared to women with no risk factors, women with two risk factors, women with three risk factors, and women with four to five risk factors were 10, 25, and 107 times, respectively, more likely to attempt suicide. The identification of risk variables highlights the importance of designing interventions to address these factors in order to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in abused, African American women. PMID:12102054

  17. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.

    PubMed

    Whitson, M H

    1997-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system. PMID:12349145

  18. African-American Women Artists: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontemps, Arna Alexander; Fonvielle-Bontemps, Jacqueline

    1987-01-01

    Black women artists--from the sculptor Edmonia Lewis (born 1843/5) through the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, to the Harlem Renaissance--have played a vital role in developing those forms of self-expression by which Black people in America have managed to survive centuries of racial oppression. (BJV)

  19. Women's Leadership: A Study of African American Female Principal Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…

  20. Counseling African American Women: Multiple Identities--Multiple Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun

    2005-01-01

    Multicultural counseling theories, developed over the last 35 years, have elucidated the experiences of marginalized populations--women, people of color, gay men and lesbians, working-class people, people with disabilities, and other stigmatized groups--within a sociopolitical context that is embedded with negative messages about their worth.…

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of African-American women toward menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Phillips, Janice; Oguntimalide, Lola; Saling, Jessica; Yun, Stephanie

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and health practices related to menopausal health among African-American women (N= 106) from diverse SES levels, between 40 to 65 years of age. The mean age was 49 years of age, 60.7% were college graduates, 45.8% were married, 85% employed full-time and 88% had medical insurance. Two-thirds rated their health as good, and half believed their health was better than other women. Most women (58%) use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or would consider using HRT. In general women were knowledgeable about the process of menopause. Among this diverse group of women there were significant differences (p<.05) in use of HRT and health promotion behaviors. Most women (48.5%) sought information from printed materials. Women and their physicians should be encouraged to discuss menopausal health. Culturally appropriate materials should be provided in all women's health settings, through media and places where women gather including churches, beauty parlors, community centers. PMID:15011939

  2. Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and cancer screening among inner-city African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Coates, R. J.; Alema-Mensah, E.

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred twenty-one inner-city African-American women were interviewed to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and cancer screening, and their cancer screening histories. The women were recruited from a variety of sources in Atlanta and were interviewed in their homes by trained lay health workers. Half of the subjects had an annual household income of < $15,000. About half had received a Pap smear and clinical breast examination within the year preceding the interviews. For women > 35 years old, 35% had received a mammogram within the recommended interval. Younger women and women with higher incomes were more likely than older women and those with lower incomes to have received a Pap test and clinical breast examination within the preceding year, but income was not significantly associated with mammography histories. In general, women who were more knowledgeable about cancer and its prevention were more likely to have been appropriately screened. However, various attitudes and beliefs regarding cancer generally were not associated with screening histories. We conclude that cancer screening programs for inner-city minority women should focus on improving knowledge levels among older women rather than attempting to alter attitudes and beliefs. PMID:9195801

  3. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  4. Discriminatory Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among African American Women: Do Skin Tone and Mastery Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    We apply structural equation modeling techniques to data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American women ages 18–98 years (N=2,299). In addition, we evaluate whether or not personal mastery accounts for the intensity of African American women’s psychological response to discrimination and whether or not exposure to discrimination varies by skin complexion. Findings reveal that discrimination is a major threat to African American women’s mental health. They are vulnerable to discrimination, in part, because discrimination undermines their beliefs in mastery making them less psychologically resilient. Experiences of discrimination do not differ by complexion. We conclude that complexion does not matter, but mastery does. PMID:21151821

  5. HIV stigma and discrimination in medical settings: stories from African women in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cannon Poindexter, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in New Zealand's HIV and immigration situations have sparked a need to understand the experiences of HIV-positive African newcomers there. Here a narrative lens was brought to a previous qualitative study to harvest stories about discrimination in medical settings in New Zealand, told by four HIV-positive African women. Despite describing positive experiences with specialist HIV providers, their accounts shed light on weaknesses within the health care system regarding the rights and treatment of immigrants living with HIV. Participants reported inappropriate use of universal precautions, violations of confidentiality rights, discriminatory comments about Africans or persons with HIV, and misinformation about HIV transmission. Interventions must include enforcement of The Privacy Law and consistent training and monitoring of employee behavior in health care organizations. PMID:24028736

  6. Prepregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, and risk of preterm birth in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Heffner, Linda J.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the risk of preterm birth in relation to prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference, adult weight gain, and gestational weight gain among African-American women. Methods Using prospective data from the Black Women's Health Study, we assessed the association between maternal anthropometric factors and preterm birth among 7,841 singletons born to women ages 21–44 in 1995–2003. We compared mothers of infants born three or more weeks early (597 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB); 517 medically-indicated preterm births (MPTB)) with mothers of 6,727 term infants. We used generalized estimating equation models to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders. Results Women with prepregnancy BMI <18 were at increased risk of SPTB and MPTB relative to normal weight women (BMI 20–24), and obese women (BMI ≥30) were at increased risk of MPTB. There were modest positive associations between waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, and both preterm birth subtypes. Adult weight gain was also positively related to both preterm birth subtypes. Associations with SPTB were generally stronger for gestations of <32 weeks. Low gestational weight gain (<0.5 lbs/week) was associated with an increased risk of SPTB among normal weight and obese women. High gestational weight gain (≥1.5 lbs/week) was associated with increased risk of SPTB among overweight (BMI 25–29) and obese women. Conclusion Our data suggest that prepregnancy adiposity (overall and central), prepregnancy weight gain, and gestational weight gain influence risk of preterm birth among African-American women. PMID:20124904

  7. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism. PMID:24482547

  8. An Exploration of the Leadership Style Preferences among African American Women Administrators of the 1890 Cooperative Extension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shelvy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and explore the leadership style preferences among current African American Administrators of the 1890 Land-Grant Cooperative Extension system. The population used in this study was African American women administrators from eighteen mostly southern states. The researcher used a "two-phase…

  9. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  10. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  11. African American Women Coping with the Lived Experiences of Limited Mental Healthcare Access in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane, Everick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…

  12. Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …

  13. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  14. Sub-Saharan African Women Living with HIV/AIDS: An Exploration of General and Spiritual Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Roby, Jini L.

    2010-01-01

    From a global perspective, the typical person living with HIV/AIDS is likely a sub-Saharan African woman. Yet despite calls from NASW to adopt a global outlook on the HIV/AIDS crisis, little research has examined how such women cope. In this study, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore how one sample of sub-Saharan African women (N…

  15. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban midlife African-American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the women’s neighborhoods included: walkability (land use mix, street intersection density, housing unit density, public transit stop density), aesthetics (physical deterioration, industrial land use), availability of outdoor (recreational open space) and indoor (recreation centers, shopping malls) walking facilities/spaces, and safety (violent crime incidents). Ordinary least squares regression estimated relationships. We found presence of one and especially both types of indoor walking facilities were associated with greater adherence. No associations were found between adherence and the other environmental variables. The effect of the enhanced intervention on adherence did not differ by environmental characteristics. Aspects of the environment may influence African-American women who want to be more active. PMID:18669878

  16. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed. PMID:17607059

  17. Gendered racism, psychological distress, and coping styles of African American women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen M; Speight, Suzette L

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory. A positive significant relationship between global psychological distress was found with experiences of gendered racism. Regression analyses suggest some degree of partial mediation on the relationship between gendered racism and global psychological distress via cognitive-emotional coping styles, but no mediating effects with spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:18954166

  18. Depression, stressful life events, social support, and self-esteem in middle class African American women.

    PubMed

    Warren, B J

    1997-06-01

    African American women, are at risk for development of depression because they are a racial minority and female, and often have multiple roles which affect their social supports and self-esteem. An exploratory study was conducted that examined relationships between depression, stressful life events, social support, and self-esteem in 100 middle class African American women aged 20 to 35 years. The conceptual framework for the study was derived from Beeber's (1987) model. Correlational analysis revealed a positive relationship between depression and stressful life events and a negative relationship between depression and social support. Regression analysis revealed that stressful life events and social support added significantly to the model whereas self-esteem did not. PMID:9193115

  19. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Daniel O.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; DeMichele, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guoliang; Long, Jirong; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Cox, Nancy J.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Simon, Michael S.; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Young, Alicia; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Rhie, Suhn K.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10−6 and 10−5 in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3×10−6; rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5×10−5). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample. PMID:22923054

  20. Genetic and BMI Risks for Predicting Blood Pressure in Three Generations of West African Dogon Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Sampson, Deborah; Taylor, Andre D.; Caldwell, Dennis; Sun, Yan V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of genetic polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI) among African women in Africa and in the United States contributes to our understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors for hypertension. African American women have the highest prevalence of hypertension and obesity compared to other ethnic groups in the United States. Using a crosssectional research design, we examined the effects of genetic and environmental risks of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and BMI on blood pressure (BP) among three generations of West African Dogon women (N = 199). We genotyped six SNPs located in the candidate genes known to be related to hypertension. We tested the associations between these SNPs and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) with Fisher’s exact tests, chi-square tests for independence, and multivariable linear mixed models. The SNP rs8179526 (SLC4A5) was significantly associated with SBP adjusted for age, age2, and BMI (p = .02). The “C” allele variant of rs8179526 (allele frequency of 0.445) was associated with higher SBP. This SNP did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) with p value of .772. The SNP × BMI interaction effects associated with SBP and DBP were not significant. rs8179526 is located on the SLC4A5 gene on chromosome 2. SLC4A5 encodes a protein that transports sodium and bicarbonate across cell membranes while regulating cellular pH and contains several SNPs linked to elevated BP. Knowledge of the SNP’s effect on hypertension among West African women can help health practitioners educate their patients about genetic risks of developing hypertension. PMID:21859746

  1. African American Women: The Face of HIV/AIDS in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amutah, Ndidiamaka N.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the estimated HIV and AIDS case rates among adult and adolescent African-American females in the United States was 60.6 per 100,000, as compared to 3.3 per 100,000 for adult and adolescent white American females. Women living with HIV or AIDS often face complex social problems that may inhibit them from accessing resources and healthcare…

  2. A four-phase program to recruit African American women into breast cancer promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L M

    2000-01-01

    The author discusses a successful, nurse-coordinated collaborative community-based breast health program that targeted older African American women from the state of South Carolina. Over 16 community organizations and health care partners supported the four-phase program that was funded by the South Carolina Breast and Cervical Risk Reduction Program and the South Carolina Chapter of the American Cancer Society. PMID:11760311

  3. Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection among African Women

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak’Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D.; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF–FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF–FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. RESULTS HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF–FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P = 0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF–FTC group (P = 0.04, P<0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF–FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P = 0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF–FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS Prophylaxis with TDF–FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.) PMID:22784040

  4. Neighborhood Disorder, Spiritual Well-Being, and Parenting Stress in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Wilson, Christina K.; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a culturally-informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in among a high risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES), African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children aged between 8 and 12 reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and three types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relationship with God) well-being, moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  5. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  6. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  7. Neighborhood disorder, spiritual well-being, and parenting stress in African American women.

    PubMed

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-12-01

    Using a culturally informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in a high-risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES) African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children between 8 and 12 years old, reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and 3 types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relation with God) well-being moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress, such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  8. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  9. Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Yanek, L. R.; Becker, D. M.; Moy, T. F.; Gittelsohn, J.; Koffman, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the impact on cardiovascular risk profiles of African American women ages 40 years and older after one year of participation in one of three church-based nutrition and physical activity strategies: a standard behavioral group intervention, the standard intervention supplemented with spiritual strategies, or self-help strategies. METHODS: Women were screened at baseline and after one year of participation. The authors analyzed intention-to-treat within group and between groups using a generalized estimating equations adjustment for intra-church clustering. Because spiritual strategies were added to the standard intervention by participants themselves, the results from both active groups were similar and, thus, combined for comparisons with the self-help group. RESULTS: A total of 529 women from 16 churches enrolled. Intervention participants exhibited significant improvements in body weight (-1.1 lbs), waist circumference (-0.66 inches), systolic blood pressure (-1.6 mmHg), dietary energy (-117 kcal), dietary total fat (-8 g), and sodium intake (-145 mg). The self-help group did not. In the active intervention group, women in the top decile for weight loss at one year had even larger, clinically meaningful changes in risk outcomes (-19.8 lbs). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention participants achieved clinically important improvements in cardiovascular disease risk profiles one year after program initiation, which did not occur in the self-help group. Church-based interventions can significantly benefit the cardiovascular health of African American women. PMID:11889276

  10. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  11. Race and Gender Matter: A Multidimensional Approach to Conceptualizing and Measuring Stress in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2008-01-01

    Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Results support the multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization of stress. Race-related, gender-related, and generic stress contributed equally to the global stress factor, and global stress predicted a significant amount of variance in distress symptoms and intensity. This model exhibited better fit than a model without a global stress factor, in which each stress component predicted distress directly. Furthermore, race-related, gender-related, and generic stress did not contribute to distress beyond their representation in the global stress factor. These findings illustrate that stress related to central elements of identity, namely race and gender, cohere with generic stress to define the stress experience of African American women. PMID:18624581

  12. Effects of a culturally informed intervention on abused, suicidal African American women.

    PubMed

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J; Siegelman, Asher E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined (a) the relative efficacy of a culturally sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing 3 protective factors-self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources-versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and (b) the impact of participants' readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the 2 conditions. The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants who were "less ready to change" (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally informed intervention. PMID:25403027

  13. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption. PMID:20497787

  14. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  15. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  16. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, the structural model was invariant, suggesting that the relationships among these variables may be similar for both groups. Thus, objectification theory does appear to be applicable to African American women, although specification of relevant constructs and refinement of assessment instruments are warranted. PMID:20221314

  17. African women struggling against female circumcision and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Tell, K

    1999-04-01

    In France, Mariatou Koita, a woman born of Malian parents, endured female genital mutilation as a child at the hands of another Malian immigrant. When the mutilator returned years later to perform genital mutilation on Koita's younger sister, Koita took action that resulted in the first case of female genital mutilation tried in France upon the complaint of a victim. The mutilator was sentenced to 8 years in jail for mutilating 48 young girls in the period 1983-94, and 23 mothers and 3 fathers received prison or suspended prison sentences. Women are struggling against another form of sexual violence in South Africa, where Johannesburg is gaining the reputation as the "rape capital" of the world. Surveys by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) have revealed that a third of 4000 women interviewed were raped in the past year and that 25% of the boys in a sample of 1500 school children considered gang rape a recreational activity. In response, the NGO is creating recommendations to address the problem in schools and to raise the role model profile of men who oppose sexual violence. Also, in Wynberg, Western Cape, a special Sexual Offenses Court has been created to mitigate some of the difficulties rape victims have encountered with the legal system. Global studies indicate that most victims of sexual assaults are adolescent girls. PMID:12349047

  18. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity. PMID:27045156

  19. [Ethnic disparities in the use of reproductive health services by indigenous and African-descendant Colombian women].

    PubMed

    Noreña-Herrera, Camilo; Leyva-Flores, René; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study in Colombia was to analyze the use of reproductive health services (prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum) according to women's ethnicity, based on the National Demographic and Health Survey for 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported (indigenous, African-descendant, or neither), and logistic models were performed for each service. The use of reproductive health services was lower among indigenous and African-descendant Colombian women when compared to those that did not declare their ethnicity. According to the regression models, indigenous women showed lower odds of having an adequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 0.61), and the same was true for African-descendant women. The same situation prevailed for institutional childbirth care: indigenous women (OR = 0.33) and African-descendant women (OR = 0.60); and postpartum follow-up: indigenous (OR = 0.80), African-descendant (OR = 0.80). In conclusion, there are inequities in the use of reproductive health services by women belonging to ethnic groups in Colombia, who should be targeted with government strategies to guarantee their right to health. PMID:26872239

  20. Psychosocial and sociocultural correlates of depressive symptoms among diverse African American women.

    PubMed

    Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne

    2012-01-01

    African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p < .01), low self-esteem (r = 0.58, p < .01), stressful life events (r = 0.43, p < .05), low social support (r = 0.46, p <.01), depression stigma (r = 0.36, p < 01), and indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p < .01). Depressive symptoms were significant and negatively associated with resiliency (r = -0.48, p < .01) and spiritual well-being (r = -.47, p < .01). This research adds to the empirical data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women. PMID:23560351

  1. Psychosocial and Sociocultural Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among Diverse African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha B.; Hall, Stephanie P.; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L. DiAnne

    2013-01-01

    African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p < .01), low self-esteem (r = 0.58, p < .01), stressful life events (r = 0.43, p < .05), low social support (r = 0.46, p < .01), depression stigma (r= 0.36, p < 01), and indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p <.01). Depressive symptoms were significant and negatively associated with resiliency (r = −0.48, p < .01) and spiritual well-being [r = −.47, p < .01). This research adds to the empirical data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women. PMID:23560351

  2. African dust in the Caribbean: chemical, physical and optical properties of transported African dust across the Atlantic: observations from Atmospheric Observatory in Cabezas de San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiñones Rosado, M.; Vallejo, P. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ogren, J. A.; Desboeufs, K.; Formenti, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present results on the assessment of aerosols chemical, physical, and optical properties at the atmospheric observatory of Cabezas de San Juan in Fajardo, PR, during the summer 2011, where periods in the presence and absence of dust were studied as part of the project Dust-ATtACk (Dust- Aging and Transport, from Africa to the Caribbean). Dust events were identified through observation and using air-mass back-trajectories, Saharan Air Layer images, measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), in situ scattering and absorption coefficients, and chemical analyses. We focused on results obtained for intense dust events observed in June 22-24 and July 9, 2011. Those events were characterized by higher concentration of coarse particles, higher concentration of metals associated with mineral dust (e.g., Si 3 μg/m3 compared to background concentrations of 0.15 μg/m3), higher scattering and absorption coefficients (up to 100 Mm-1 and 2.5 Mm-1 at 550 and 530 nm, respectively), and AOT (from 0.4 to 0.8) values. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was calculated for the periods of interest for the PM10 and the PM1 mass fractions and plotted against wavelength. For PM10, SSA values ranged from 0.93 to 0.99 and had the same trend reported for dust, with lower SSA values at shorter wavelengths. For PM1, values ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 and more variability was observed in terms of SSA wavelength dependence, likely as species other than dust contribute. Satellite products (e.g., Calipso, Seviri) are used in the attempt to trace these events back to their source region at North Africa.

  3. The Cost-effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection in South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Park, Ji-Eun; Wood, Robin; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Scott, Callie A.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Losina, Elena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Seage, George R.; Paltiel, A. David

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent trials report the short-term efficacy of tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PrEP’s long-term impact on patient outcomes, population-level transmission, and cost-effectiveness remains unknown. Methods. We linked data from recent trials to a computer model of HIV acquisition, screening, and care to project lifetime HIV risk, life expectancy (LE), costs, and cost-effectiveness, using 2 PrEP-related strategies among heterosexual South African women: (1) women receiving no PrEP and (2) women not receiving PrEP (a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide). We used a South African clinical cohort and published data to estimate population demographic characteristics, age-adjusted incidence of HIV infection, and HIV natural history and treatment parameters. Baseline PrEP efficacy (percentage reduction in HIV transmission) was 39% at a monthly cost of $5 per woman. Alternative parameter values were examined in sensitivity analyses. Results. Among South African women, PrEP reduced mean lifetime HIV risk from 40% to 27% and increased population discounted (undiscounted) LE from 22.51 (41.66) to 23.48 (44.48) years. Lifetime costs of care increased from $7280 to $9890 per woman, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2700/year of life saved, and may, under optimistic assumptions, achieve cost savings. Under baseline HIV infection incidence assumptions, PrEP was not cost saving, even assuming an efficacy >60% and a cost <$1. At an HIV infection incidence of 9.1%/year, PrEP achieved cost savings at efficacies ≥50%. Conclusions. PrEP in South African women is very cost-effective by South African standards, conferring excellent value under virtually all plausible data scenarios. Although optimistic assumptions would be required to achieve cost savings, these represent important benchmarks for future PrEP study design. PMID:22474224

  4. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  5. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Cruice, Jane F.; Bennett, Gary G.; Rose, Marisa Z.; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence is lacking regarding effective weight control treatments in pregnancy for ethnic minority women with obesity. This study evaluated whether a technology-based, behavioral intervention could decrease the proportion of overweight or obese African American women who exceeded Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Methods We conducted a 2-arm pilot randomized clinical trial. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American pregnant women (12.5 ± 3.7 weeks’ gestation; 36% overweight, 64% obese) recruited from 2 outpatient obstetric practices at Temple University between 2013 and 2014. We randomized participants to usual care (n = 33) or a behavioral intervention (n = 33) that promoted weight control in pregnancy. The intervention included: 1) empirically-supported behavior change goals; 2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; 3) biweekly health coach calls; and 4) skills training and support through Facebook. Results The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines compared to usual care (37% vs. 66%, p = 0.033). Intervention participants gained less weight during pregnancy (8.7 vs. 12.3 kg, adjusted mean difference −3.1 kg, 95% CI −6.2, −0.1). No group differences in neonatal or obstetric outcomes were found. Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:26592857

  6. Explaining health differences between men and women in later life: a cross-city comparison in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Alvarado, Beatriz-Eugenia; Béland, François; Vissandjee, Bilkis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes differences in health and functional status among older men and women and attempts to anchor the explanations for these differences within a lifecourse perspective. Seven health outcomes for men and women 60 years and older from seven Latin American and Caribbean cities are examined, using data from the 2000 SABE survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento-n=10,587). Age-adjusted as well as city- and sex-specific prevalence was estimated for poor self-rated health, comorbidity, mobility limitations, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Logistic regressions were fitted to determine if the differences between men and women in each outcome could be explained by differential exposures in childhood (hunger, poverty), adulthood (education, occupation) and old age (income) and/or by differential vulnerability of men and women to these exposures. Sao Paulo, Santiago and Mexico, cities in countries with a high level of income inequalities, presented the highest prevalence of disability, functional limitations and poor physical health for both women and men. Women showed poorer health outcomes as compared with men for all health indicators and in all cities. Controlling for lifecourse exposures in childhood, adulthood and old age did not attenuate these differences. Women's unadjusted and adjusted odds of reporting poor self-rated health, cognitive impairment and basic activities of daily living disability were approximately 50% higher than for men, twice as high for number of comorbidities, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living disability, and almost three times as high for mobility limitations. Higher vulnerability to lifecourse exposures in women as compared with men was not found, meaning that lifecourse exposures have similar odds of poor health outcomes for men and women. A more integrated understanding of how sex and gender act together to influence

  7. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  8. The Contribution of HBCUS to the Preparation of African American Women for STEM Careers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Drezner, Noah D.; Gasman, Marybeth; Yoon, Susan; Bose, Enakshi; Gary, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    This study uses case study analysis to explore the ways that Spelman College, a historically Black women's college, promotes the attainment of African American women in STEM fields. Although limited to one institution, the findings shed light on the ways that institutional characteristics, policies, and practices may mitigate the barriers that…

  9. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  10. On Deferred Dreams, Callings, and Revolving Doors of Opportunity: African-American Women's Reflections on Becoming Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.

    2005-01-01

    From a life course perspective, this article examines how an intergenerational sample of 20 African-American women in Chicago describe and make meaning out of their struggles and advancements to make inroads into the principalship. Being born on opposite sides of the Civil Rights Movement distinguishes markedly how these women perceive their…

  11. Factors that Enable Women of South Asian and African Descent to Succeed in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamassah, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This research study focused on the factors that enable women of South Asian and African descent to succeed as leaders in the college system. The findings were derived from online questionnaires and in-depth interviews of 16 racialized women from two Greater Toronto Area (GTA) colleges. Many factors and recommendations were shared. Some of the…

  12. Family Planning Knowledge: The Role of Social Networks and Primary Care Providers as Information Sources for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…

  13. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  14. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  15. "I Don't Know Who to Blame": HIV-Positive South African Women Navigating Heterosexual Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Women who become HIV infected through heterosexual transmission are faced with the task of making sense of how they became infected. This paper presents a qualitative analysis based on interviews with 35 HIV-positive South African Black women. A specific theme, that blame of a male partner was avoided or disavowed in interviews, is explored in…

  16. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  17. Who We Are: (In)visible African American Women Setting Traditions of Excellence and Paving Paths for Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryant, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to provide the voice and visibility of African American women who have upheld the tradition of excellence set by Amy Morris Homans in the development of physical education in higher education for women and set pathways to transition our field to be more inclusive and diverse and have served as transformative leaders…

  18. Perceptions about breast cancer among African American women: do selected educational materials challenge them?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela

    2005-02-01

    Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women. PMID:15653249

  19. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  20. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  1. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  2. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  3. Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women

    PubMed Central

    Balayssac‐Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot‐Attoungbré, Marie‐Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24760517

  4. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  5. Breaking the chains: examining the endorsement of modern Jezebel images and racial-ethnic esteem among African American women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Danice L; White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Griffin-Fennell, Felicia D

    2013-01-01

    The historical image of the Black Jezebel - a hypersexual, seductive and manipulative slave woman - has been one of the most pervasive and evolving images influencing the sexual socialization and perceptions of African American women today. This preliminary study examined generational differences in the endorsement of modern depictions of the Jezebel, as well as the relationship between racial-ethnic esteem and endorsement of this sexualised image. A total of 249 African American women completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Results suggested that younger women (aged 18-34) may exhibit higher endorsement of the modern Jezebel depictions. Additionally, aspects of racial-ethnic esteem may be linked to lower endorsement of modern Jezebel depictions among younger and older (55 years and older) African American women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23484482

  6. Challenging controlling images, oppression, poverty and other structural constraints: Survival strategies among African American women in distressed households

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317

  7. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  8. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  9. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  10. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  11. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan W; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention, using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were aged 40 to 65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  12. A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

    2003-01-01

    Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

  13. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-02-28

    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women. PMID:26669283

  14. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  15. Sexual assertiveness in low-income African American women: unwanted sex, survival, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Whyte Iv, James

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of social variables related to sexual relationships in African American women. The study used a quantitative descriptive design to gather data from a convenience sample of 524 African American women aged 18 to 49 who dwelled in the southeastern United States. The study utilized the HIV Risk Behavior Questionnaire to determine the participant's level of HIV risk. Results indicated substantial levels of sex in the women due to violence or fear of violence, relationship loss, lost shelter, and high levels of unwanted sex. There was a positive correlation between level of survival sex and high-risk behavior (R = .651, p < .01). Multiple correlations indicated associations between history of forced sex and sex due to fear of violence (R = .604, p < .01). Further correlations indicated a pattern of association between poverty, age, and sex out of fear of relationship loss or shelter loss. The study indicates a need for a broader definition of HIV-related risk in high-risk populations. PMID:17064233

  16. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  17. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account timevarying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  18. Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies among African American Women Attending an Urban STI Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Heidi E.; McCaul, Mary E.; Norris, Jeanette; Valliant, Julia D.; Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Chander, Geetanjali

    2014-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for HIV/STI acquisition. Sex related alcohol expectancies (SRAE) may partially account for alcohol related risky sexual behaviors. Using qualitative interviews we explored the link between alcohol use and risky sex among 20 African American women attending an STI clinic who had consumed ≥4 alcoholic drinks per drinking day (binge drinking) and/or reported vaginal or anal sex while under the influence of alcohol. Four SRAE emerged which we named: drink for sexual desire, drink for sexual power, drink for sexual excuse, and drink for anal sex. While the desire SRAE has been documented, this study identified three additional SRAEs not currently assessed by expectancy questionnaires. These SRAEs may contribute to high-risk sex when under the influence of alcohol, and suggests the importance of developing integrated alcohol-sexual risk reduction interventions for high-risk women. PMID:25110958

  19. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  20. Employing a Participatory Research Approach to Explore Physical Activity among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Bobitt, Julie; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women's perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants' interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed "physical activity" to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active. PMID:25210628

  1. Guided imagery for stress and symptom management in pregnant african american women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Elswick, R K; French, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI) intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC) completed measures and donated 5 cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women. PMID:24719646

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of a Faith-Based HIV Intervention for African American Women: Importance of Enhancing Religious Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, LaShun R.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Er, Deja L.; Conner, Anita C.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Rubtsova, Anna A.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of P4 for Women, a faith-based HIV intervention. Methods. We used a 2-arm comparative effectiveness trial involving 134 African American women aged 18 to 34 years to compare the effectiveness of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined evidence-based Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA) HIV intervention with P4 for Women, an adapted faith-based version of SISTA. Participants were recruited from a large black church in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments at baseline and follow-up. Results. Both SISTA and P4 for Women had statistically significant effects on this study’s primary outcome—consistent condom use in the past 90 days—as well as other sexual behaviors. However, P4 for Women also had statistically significant effects on the number of weeks women were abstinent, on all psychosocial mediators, and most noteworthy, on all measures of religious social capital. Results were achieved by enhancing structural social capital through ministry participation, religious values and norms, linking trust and by reducing negative religious coping. High intervention attendance may indicate the feasibility of conducting faith-based HIV prevention research for African American women. Conclusions. P4 for Women enhanced abstinence and safer sex practices as well as religious social capital, and was more acceptable than SISTA. Such efforts may assist faith leaders in responding to the HIV epidemic in African American women. PMID:24134367

  3. African-American women: considering diverse identities and societal barriers in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Greene, B

    1996-06-18

    Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of

  4. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  5. Hormone-related pathways and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to investigate genetic variation in hormone pathways in relation to risk of overall and subtype-specific breast cancer in women of African ancestry (AA). Genotyping and imputation yielded data on 143,934 SNPs in 308 hormone-related genes for 3663 breast cancer cases (1098 ER-, 1983 ER+, 582 ER unknown) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. AMBER includes data from four large studies of AA women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, the Women's Circle of Health Study, the Black Women's Health Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Pathway- and gene-based analyses were conducted, and single-SNP tests were run for the top genes. There were no strong associations at the pathway level. The most significantly associated genes were GHRH, CALM2, CETP, and AKR1C1 for overall breast cancer (gene-based nominal p ≤ 0.01); NR0B1, IGF2R, CALM2, CYP1B1, and GRB2 for ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.02); and PGR, MAPK3, MAP3K1, and LHCGR for ER- disease (p ≤ 0.02). Single-SNP tests for SNPs with pairwise linkage disequilibrium r (2) < 0.8 in the top genes identified 12 common SNPs (in CALM2, CETP, NR0B1, IGF2R, CYP1B1, PGR, MAPK3, and MAP3K1) associated with overall or subtype-specific breast cancer after gene-level correction for multiple testing. Rs11571215 in PGR (progesterone receptor) was the SNP most strongly associated with ER- disease. We identified eight genes in hormone pathways that contain common variants associated with breast cancer in AA women after gene-level correction for multiple testing. PMID:26458823

  6. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Patrice L.; Kinsey, Amber W.; Miskell, Edrika L.; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. METHODS African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years (n = 552) in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal). Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android–gynoid ratio (AGR) and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1). An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3), hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7), and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1). CONCLUSION Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians. PMID:27478392

  7. The Role of Social Capital in African-American Women's Use of Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Lorraine; Subramanian, SV; Williams, David R.; Armstrong, Katrina; Charles, Camille Zubrinsky; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Black/African-American women are more likely to get breast cancer at a young age and/or be diagnosed at a late disease stage, pointing to a greater need to promote mammography for Black women at earlier ages than are currently recommended. This study explores how perceived neighborhood social capital, that is, perceptions of how tight-knit a neighborhood is and what power that confers to neighborhood members, relates to use of mammography for Black women in Philadelphia. Living in a community with tight social ties (social cohesion) or that have a collective motivation for community change (collective efficacy) may increase the likelihood that an individual woman in that community will hear health messages from other community members and neighbors (diffusion of information) and will have access to health-related resources that allow them to engage in healthy behaviors. No prior studies have explored the role of social capital in decisions for mammography use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analyzed self-report of mammography in the past year for 2,586, Black women over age 40 across 381 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA census tracts. Our study included individual demographic and aggregates of individual-level social capital data from the Public Health Management Corporation's 2004, 2006, and 2008 Community Health Database waves, and 2000 US Census sociodemographic characteristics. Individual perceptions that a Black woman's neighborhood had high social capital, specifically collective efficacy, had a positive and statistically significant association with mammography use (OR=1.40, CI: 1.05, 1.85). Our findings suggest that an individual woman's perception of greater neighborhood social capital may be related to increased mammography use. Although this analysis could not determine the direction of causality, it suggests that social capital may play a role in cancer preventive screening for African-American women in Philadelphia, which warrants further study

  8. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.; Roth, David L.; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. Design & Setting The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. Participants RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). Interventions RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White.1 Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Main outcome measures Retention at the follow-up interview. Results Retention rates ranged from 39%–41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention. PMID:26118147

  9. Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah E; Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren C; Moorman, Patricia G; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Schwartz, Ann G; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Cote, Michele L; Alberg, Anthony J; Terry, Paul; Bondy, Melissa; Paddock, Lisa E; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Wang, Frances; Camacho, Fabian; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-06-01

    The literature on recreational physical activity (RPA) and ovarian cancer risk is inconclusive and most studies of RPA and ovarian cancer have been conducted in white populations. This study is the first to investigate the association between RPA and ovarian cancer in an exclusively African American (AA) population. We analyzed data from an ongoing U.S. population-based, case-control study of AA women, which included 393 women recently diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (IEOC) and 611 controls. A baseline interview assessed RPA frequency, intensity, and duration. Each RPA intensity was assigned a metabolic equivalent of task (MET) value and MET-min/week were calculated. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between RPA and IEOC risk. Compared with sedentary women, predominantly mild intensity RPA was significantly inversely associated with IEOC risk for women reporting above median (>297) MET-min/week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34, 0.78) and nonsignificantly for <297 MET-min/week (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.12). Predominantly moderate intensity RPA was associated with significantly increased risk for women reporting above median (>540) MET-min/week (OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.23). Predominantly strenuous intensity RPA was nonsignificantly associated with lower IEOC risk for women reporting above median (>1800) MET-min/week (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.57). The inverse associations for mild and strenuous intensity RPA were most pronounced in obese women (body mass index >30 kg/m(2) ). The findings that mild and strenuous RPA may reduce the risk of IEOC particularly among obese women are difficult to reconcile with the increased risk observed for moderate RPA. Further research is warranted to determine whether these findings are genuine and, if so, their mechanistic basis. PMID:26923432

  10. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. METHOD African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). CONCLUSIONS Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. PMID:21071167

  11. Prehypertensive African-American Women Have Preserved Nitric Oxide and Renal Function but High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Williamson, Sheara T.; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Brown, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims African-Americans, in particular women, exhibit disproportionate levels of hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress compared to other ethnic groups. The relationship between prehypertension, renal function, inflammation, and oxidative stress was examined. Methods Twenty-eight African-American women (53.5 ± 1.1 years) followed an AHA diet and then underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring. Urinary albumin (uAlb), serum and urinary creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 24-hour urinary Na+ excretion, plasma superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), urinary (uNOx) and plasma (pNOx) nitric oxide levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Results When the group was divided by average 24-hour ABP into optimal and nonoptimal groups, a significant difference existed between the groups for uNOx (p = 0.001; nonoptimal: 933.5 ± 140.4, optimal: 425.0 ± 52.6 μmol/gCr), and for hsCRP (p = 0.018, nonoptimal: 3.9 ± 0.7, optimal: 1.9 ± 0.6 mg/l). Significant inverse relationships existed between hsCRP and uNOx and between uAlb and pNOx in the non-optimal group, between GFR and pNOx in the entire group, and positive association existed between TAC and uNOx in the optimal group. Conclusions These results suggest that in African-American women as BP levels rise toward hypertension, the NO/NOS balance may be associated with renal function, and may have implications for CV risk based on their hsCRP levels. PMID:20628261

  12. Ethnic Identity and Implicit Anti-fat Bias: Similarities and Differences between African American and Caucasian Women.

    PubMed

    Hart, Erica A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Carter, Michele M

    2016-01-01

    Research using self-report or explicit measures of body image suggests African American women have a more accepting view of larger figures than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. However, increasing research indicates that explicit views may vary from those held at a deeper, implicit level. Our study examined whether African American women held an implicit negative bias toward overweight/fat individuals, despite a greater explicit acceptance of larger body size. Additionally, ethnic identity was measured to assess if strength of identity related to bias. Anti-fat bias was compared within and between ethnic groups using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measures the strength of automatic associations between two concepts. This online IAT measured spontaneous thoughts about figures of various body weights (underweight, overweight, obese) and positive and negative terms (eg, attractive and unattractive or healthy and unhealthy). A pervasive anti-fat bias was found in African American as well as NHW women. For both groups, this bias was related to ethnic identity when thinking about figure size and health. Specifically, African American women with lower ethnic identity were more negatively biased and NHW women with higher ethnic identity were more negatively biased. Findings from this study indicate that implicitly there are few differences in the way these two ethnicities classify heavy figures, and therefore African Americans may not be immune to weight stigma. Given the prevalence of obesity and the lack of research on weight stigma among African American women, there is need to address this issue and its impact on well-being. PMID:26843798

  13. Mediators of a Culturally-Sensitive Intervention for Suicidal African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Neelarambam, Kiranmayi; Schwenke, Tomina J.; Rhodes, Miesha N.; Pittman, Delishia M.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored intervention outcomes and mechanisms that could help explain why low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner abuse and suicide attempt improve in response to a culturally-informed intervention, the Grady Nia Project. Specifically, the investigation examined whether or not the intervention had effects on the women and whether or not spiritual well-being and coping mediated the effects of the intervention on suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, data from 89 women who completed both pre- and post-intervention assessments were analyzed. During the post-intervention follow-up, women in the active intervention group reported lower levels of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms and higher levels of existential well-being and adaptive coping skills than those women randomized to the treatment as usual group. However, only existential well-being was found to mediate treatment effects on suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Religious well-being, as well as adaptive and maladaptive coping, did not serve a mediational function. These findings highlight the importance of designing and implementing culturally-sensitive and evidence-based strategies that enhance existential well-being in this population. PMID:23864403

  14. The meaning and use of spirituality among African American women living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22566288

  15. Perceived Physical and Social Residential Environment and Preterm Delivery in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Giurgescu, Carmen; Helmkamp, Laura; Misra, Dawn P; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-09-15

    Perceptions of the residential environment may be associated with preterm delivery (PTD), though few studies exist. Data from the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study (metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, 2009-2011) were used to examine whether perceptions of the current social and physical environment were associated with PTD rates among postpartum African-American women (n = 1,411). Perceptions of the following neighborhood characteristics were measured with validated multi-item scales: healthy food availability, walkability, safety, social cohesion, and social disorder. No significant associations between perceived residential environment and PTD were found in the total sample. However, education significantly modified 4 of the 5 associations (all interaction P's < 0.05). In women with ≤12 years of education, significant inverse associations were observed between PTD rates and perceptions of the following neighborhood characteristics: healthy food availability (unadjusted prevalence ratio (uPR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 0.98), walkability (uPR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and safety (uPR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95). Women with ≤12 years of education also had higher PTD rates with higher social disorder (age-adjusted PR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.17). Null associations existed for women with >12 years of education. The PTD rates of women with lower education may be significantly affected by the physical and social residential environment. PMID:26163532

  16. The Meaning and Use of Spirituality Among African American Women Living With HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22566288

  17. Depressive symptoms in the second trimester relate to low oxytocin levels in African-American women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Lindsey; Giurgescu, Carmen; Carter, C Sue; Holditch-Davis, Diane; McFarlin, Barbara L; Schwertz, Dorie; Seng, Julia S; White-Traut, Rosemary

    2015-02-01

    Low-income African-American women report elevated prenatal depressive symptoms more often (42 %) than the national average (20 %). In the USA in 2012, 16.5 % of African-American women experienced a premature birth (less than 36 completed gestational weeks) compared to 10.3 % of white women. In addition, 13 % of African-American women had a low-birth weight infant (less than 2,500 g) compared to 7 % of white women. Variation in the neuropeptide, oxytocin has been implicated in perinatal depression, maternal behavior, regulation of stress responses, and may be associated with this health disparity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors associated with prenatal depressive symptoms, including plasma oxytocin levels and birth weight, in a sample of urban African-American women. Pregnant African-American women (N = 57) completed surveys and had blood drawn twice during pregnancy at 15-22 weeks and 25-37 weeks. In addition, birth data were collected from medical records. A large number of participants reported elevated prenatal depressive symptoms at the first (n = 20, 35 %) and the second (n = 19, 33 %) data points. Depressive symptoms were higher in multigravidas (t(51) = -2.374, p = 0.02), women with higher anxiety (r(47) = 0.71, p = 0.001), women who delivered their infants at an earlier gestational age (r(51) = -0.285, p = 0.04), and those without the support of the infant's father (F(4, 48) = 2.676, p = 0.04). Depressive symptoms were also higher in women with low oxytocin levels than in women with high oxytocin levels (F(2, 47) = 3.3, p = 0.05). In addition, women who had low oxytocin tended to have infants with lower birth weights (F(2, 47) = 2.9, p = 0.06). Neither prenatal depressive symptoms nor prenatal oxytocin levels were associated with premature birth. Pregnant multigravida African-American women with increased levels of anxiety and lacking the baby's father's support during the

  18. African American women in the workplace: relationships between job conditions, racial bias at work, and perceived job quality.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D; Dodge, M A

    1997-10-01

    Although studies have described work processes among employed African American women, few have examined the influence of these processes on job outcomes. This study examined relationships between African American women's exposure to a range of occupational stressors, including two types of racial bias--institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice--and their evaluations of job quality. Findings indicated that institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice were more important predictors of job quality among these women than were other occupational stressors such as low task variety and decision authority, heavy workloads, and poor supervision. Racial bias in the workplace was most likely to be reported by workers in predominantly white work settings. In addition, Black women who worked in service, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations reported significantly more institutional discrimination, but not more interpersonal prejudice, than did women in professional, managerial, and technical occupations or those in sales and clerical occupations. PMID:9485575

  19. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

  20. Structural and Sociocultural Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV-Infected African American Women in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women. PMID:25514125

  1. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  2. Increasing Tobacco Quitline Calls from Pregnant African American Women: The “One Tiny Reason to Quit” Social Marketing Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745

  3. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  4. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  5. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018

  6. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors. PMID:9574497

  7. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  8. Personalized Weight Management Interventions for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Viable Option for African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C; Arena, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major driving force behind racial/ethnic and gender disparities in risk. Due to a multitude of interrelating factors (i.e., personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental), African-American (AA) women are disproportionately obese and twice as likely to succumb to CVD, yet they are significantly underrepresented in behavioral weight management interventions. In this selective review we highlight components of the limited interventions shown to enhance weight loss outcomes in this population and make a case for leveraging Web-based technology and artificial intelligence techniques to deliver personalized programs aimed at obesity treatment and CVD risk reduction. Although many of the approaches discussed are generally applicable across populations burdened by disparate rates of obesity and CVD, we specifically focus on AA women due to the disproportionate impact of these non-communicable diseases and the general paucity of interventions targeted to this high-risk group. PMID:26908050

  9. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  10. "That feeling of not feeling": numbing the pain for substance-dependent African American women.

    PubMed

    Ehrmin, Joanne T

    2002-07-01

    Using ethnographic methodology, the author uncovered the meanings and expressions of recovery care for substance-dependent African American women residing in an inner-city transitional home for substance abuse. A convenience sample of 12 key and 18 general participants revealed emotional pain associated with negative life experiences, including overt and covert racism, primarily within society but also within their family networks; and physical, sexual, and emotional abuse from parents, siblings, and male relationships. The women described feelings of abandonment associated with the death of loved ones, particularly mothers. They had attempted to numb their emotional pain with alcohol and drugs. As they moved through treatment and recovery, they began to work through past and current painful life experiences without using alcohol and drugs. PMID:12109723

  11. Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women. Methods We evaluated body size during childhood and young adulthood and breast cancer risk among 1,751 cases [979 AA and 772 European American (EA)] and 1,673 controls (958 AA and 715 EA) in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models while adjusting for potential covariates. Results Among AA women, being shorter at 7–8 y compared to peers was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.74), and being heavier at menarche with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, although of borderline significance (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02). For EA women, being shorter from childhood through adolescence, particularly at menarche, was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.98). After excluding hormone replacement therapy users, an inverse association with postmenopausal breast cancer was found among EA women reporting to be heavier than their peers at menarche (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04–0.79). The inverse relationship between BMI at age 20 and breast cancer risk was stronger and only statistically significant in EA women. No clear association with weight gain since age 20 was found. Conclusions Findings suggest that the impact of childhood height on breast cancer risk may differ for EA and AA women and confirm the inverse association previously reported in EA populations with adolescent body fatness, in AA women. PMID:24113797

  12. Contraceptive Use and Uptake of HIV-Testing among Sub-Saharan African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Asaolu, Ibitola O.; Gibson, Steven J.; Ehiri, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved availability of simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS, the disease remains a major public health challenge for women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Given the numerous barriers in access to care for women in this region, every health issue that brings them into contact with the health system should be optimized as an opportunity to integrate HIV/AIDS prevention. Because most non-condom forms of modern contraception require a clinical appointment for use, contraception appointments could provide a confidential opportunity for access to HIV counseling, testing, and referral to care. This study sought to investigate the relationship between contraceptive methods and HIV testing among women in SSA. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey from four African countries—Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda—was used to examine whether modern (e.g., pills, condom) or traditional (e.g., periodic abstinence, withdrawal) forms of contraception were associated with uptake of HIV testing. Data for the current analyses were restricted to 35,748 women with complete information on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between uptake of HIV testing and respondents' baseline characteristics and contraceptive methods. In the total sample and in Mozambique, women who used modern forms of contraception were more likely to be tested for HIV compared to those who did not use contraception. This positive association was not demonstrated in Congo, Nigeria, or Uganda. That many women who access modern contraception are not tested for HIV in high HIV burden areas highlights a missed opportunity to deliver an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Given the increasing popularity of hormonal contraception methods in low-income countries, there is an urgent need to integrate HIV counseling, testing, and treatment into family

  13. Effect of trichomoniasis therapy on genital HIV viral burden among African women

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, Brenna L.; FIRNHABER, Cynthia; LIU, Tao; SWARTS, Avril; SIMINYA, Maureen; INGERSOLL, Jessica; CALIENDO, Angela M.; CU-UVIN, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment for trichomoniasis among HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals in South Africa would be associated with decreased HIV genital shedding. Methods HIV-infected women presenting for routine HIV care were screened for trichomoniasis using self-collected vaginal swabs with a rapid point-of-care immunochromatographic antigen test. Women testing positive were offered enrollment into a prospective cohort study if they had documented HIV infection, were ages 18–50, and not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Recent use of post-exposure prophylaxis or antibiotic therapy, active genital ulcers, or systemic illness were exclusion criteria. Cervical swabs were collected for gonococcal and chlamydial testing and those testing positive were excluded. Women were treated with directly-observed oral therapy with 2 grams of oral metronidazole. A follow-up visit was scheduled one month after therapy and partner letters were provided. Paired cervical wicks and plasma were collected for viral load measurement. Results 557 women were screened. 60 tested positive for trichomoniasis, 10 subsequently met exclusion criteria, 4 were lost to follow-up. Of 46 women evaluated at follow-up, 37 were cured, 80.4%. Plasma viral load was not significantly different after therapy, p=0.93. Genital tract viral load decreased by 0.5 log10, p<0.01. The mean genital tract viral load (log10) decreased from 4.66 (<3.52 – 6.46) to 4.18 (<3.52 – 6.48), p<0.01 following therapy. Conclusions Screening and treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis decreases genital shedding of HIV among South African women not receiving antiretrovirals at one month following therapy. PMID:22797689

  14. Race-Related Stress, Racial Identity Attitudes, and Mental Health among Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…

  15. An Empiric HIV Risk Scoring Tool to Predict HIV-1 Acquisition in African Women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth; Palanee, Thesla; Nair, Gonasagrie; Gafoor, Zakir; Zhang, Jingyang; Richardson, Barbra A.; Chirenje, Zvavahera M.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Baeten, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an HIV risk assessment tool to predict HIV acquisition among African women. Design: Data were analyzed from 3 randomized trials of biomedical HIV prevention interventions among African women (VOICE, HPTN 035, and FEM-PrEP). Methods: We implemented standard methods for the development of clinical prediction rules to generate a risk-scoring tool to predict HIV acquisition over the course of 1 year. Performance of the score was assessed through internal and external validations. Results: The final risk score resulting from multivariable modeling included age, married/living with a partner, partner provides financial or material support, partner has other partners, alcohol use, detection of a curable sexually transmitted infection, and herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus. Point values for each factor ranged from 0 to 2, with a maximum possible total score of 11. Scores ≥5 were associated with HIV incidence >5 per 100 person-years and identified 91% of incident HIV infections from among only 64% of women. The area under the curve (AUC) for predictive ability of the score was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.74), indicating good predictive ability. Risk score performance was generally similar with internal cross-validation (AUC = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.73) and external validation in HPTN 035 (AUC = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.75) and FEM-PrEP (AUC = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.65). Conclusions: A discrete set of characteristics that can be easily assessed in clinical and research settings was predictive of HIV acquisition over 1 year. The use of a validated risk score could improve efficiency of recruitment into HIV prevention research and inform scale-up of HIV prevention strategies in women at highest risk. PMID:26918545

  16. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  17. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  18. The Underrepresentation of African American Women Faculty: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Experiences of McKnight Doctoral Fellow Alumna Serving in the Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dionne J.

    2013-01-01

    While African American women have been participating in higher education for more than a century, they remain significantly underrepresented among college and university professors in America. This study was pursued in an attempt to address the underrepresentation of African American women faculty at public and private universities within the…

  19. Aiming for More Relevant HIV Risk Reduction: A Black Feminist Perspective for Enhancing HIV Intervention for Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at…

  20. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266