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Sample records for african case studies

  1. African-American Women and Doctoral Study: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Susan E.

    Case studies are presented of three African-American women who earned doctoral degrees in physical education and sport disciplines between 1971 and 1990. Personal interviews were conducted with the informants on issues related to the campus environment as well as financial and academic factors. The case studies are analyzed in terms of the women's…

  2. Exploring Teachers' Reading Competences: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading competence of teachers who are enrolled in a distance education programme in a South African university. Many South African teachers upgrade their teaching diplomas by enrolling for a part-time, distance degree at a university. However, many are not prepared for academic study and its focus…

  3. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    history , dietary patterns, and nutrient levels will be compared between cases and controls to determine the fatty acid risk factors for prostate cancer...564 848 Table 17: History of Previous DRE among Study Participants Ethno-Cultural Group Previous DRE African- American African...Know 32(50.0) 2(100.0) 34 51.5 Total 64 2 66 Table 20: History of Urinary Symptoms among Study Participants Ethno

  4. When Mathematics Works in Black: A Case Study of Effective Mathematics Instruction for African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Khalel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the 5th grade mathematics teaching practice of an African American female teacher in a predominantly African American classroom that consistently meets and/or exceeds Michigan's mathematics proficiency standards. Using multiple emancipatory lenses, and a single case study method that employed…

  5. A Case Study of a Southeastern African American Male Mentoring Community College Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senegal, Pamela Gibson

    2011-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…

  6. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  7. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  8. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  9. Social Citizenship Formation at University: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Loots, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers citizenship formation at universities, drawing on the example of a student leadership project at the University of the Free State, a formerly White South African university, in a higher education context and society where racialised difference continues to influence peer relationships. The paper proposes a multi-dimensional…

  10. The Delivery of Business Courses via the African Virtual University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Mark; Bolt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this case study the delivery of business courses as a result of the partnership between the African Virtual University (AVU) and Curtin University in Western Australia is described. From 2004 to 2008, degree and diploma business courses were delivered using WebCT in the four AVU partner locations: Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), Kigali…

  11. Hybrid Discursive Practices in a South African Multilingual Primary Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper is drawn from research conducted in a multilingual urban primary school in Johannesburg, South Africa, where the official language of instruction is English and the majority of learners are African language speakers, frequently with very limited English proficiency. The paper presents a case study of one child who…

  12. Data Networks and Sustainability Education in African Universities: A Case Study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothun, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study report of the development of data networks and initial connectivity in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region and how that development evolved into the formation of research and education (R&E) networks that enable new collaborations and curriculum potential.…

  13. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  14. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  15. Genetics of stroke in a UK African ancestry case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes; Curtis, Charles; Patel, Hamel; Breen, Gerome; Newhouse, Stephen; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite epidemiologic data showing an increased stroke incidence in African ancestry populations, genetic studies in this group have so far been limited, and there has been little characterization of the genetic contribution to stroke liability in this population, particularly for stroke subtypes. Methods: We evaluated the evidence that genetic factors contribute to stroke and stroke subtypes in a population of 917 African and African Caribbean stroke cases and 868 matched controls from London, United Kingdom. We (1) estimated the heritability of stroke in this population using genomic-relatedness matrix-restricted maximum likelihood approaches, (2) assessed loci associated with stroke in Europeans in our population, and (3) evaluated the influence of genetic factors underlying cardiovascular risk factors on stroke using polygenic risk scoring. Results: Our results indicate a substantial genetic contribution to stroke risk in African ancestry populations (h2 = 0.35 [SE = 0.19], p = 0.043). Polygenic risk scores indicate that cardiovascular risk scores contribute to the genetic liability (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.17], p = 0.029) and point to a strong influence of type 2 diabetes in large vessel stroke (OR 1.62 [95% CI 1.19–2.22], p = 0.0024). Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in Europeans shared direction of effect in SLESS (p = 0.031), suggesting that disease mechanisms are shared across ancestries. Conclusions: Stroke in African ancestry populations is highly heritable and influenced by genetic determinants underlying cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, stroke loci identified in Europeans share direction of effect in African populations. Future genome-wide association studies must focus on incorporating African ancestry individuals. PMID:28349126

  16. How African-American Elementary Students in High-Poverty Schools Experience Creative Expression: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Belinda F.

    2016-01-01

    Literature that addresses how the arts enhance student learning through creative expression is minimal. This is especially true for African-American elementary students from high-poverty backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to employ a case study design to explore how African-American elementary students in high-poverty schools experience…

  17. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions about their Own and their Schools' Readiness for Computer Implementation: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…

  19. Leadership Practices that Enhance Reading Achievement for African American Males: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…

  20. The Experience of First-Year African American Male College Students Who Did Not Achieve Academic Success: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the experience of African American males who did not achieve academic success in their first year of college at a predominately White institution (PWI) in Southwestern Georgia. This study used a qualitative case study design to investigate the experience held by this target group. The qualitative case study…

  1. Home-School Partnerships: A Case Study of Teachers and African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Cynthia S.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized a mixed methods design to analyze the ways in which teachers and African American families establish home-school partnerships, and to identify the beliefs, practices, and traditions of teachers and African American families that underlie such partnerships, the factors that motivate their development, and the ways these vary by…

  2. Barriers to a Backyard National Park: Case Study of African American Communities in Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Yen; Holmes, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of the recreational behaviors, preferences, and opinions of African Americans in the Columbia, South Carolina area and identify potential barriers to visiting Congaree National Park. Focus groups with African American residents of the Columbia South Carolina area revealed that inadequate information, detachment from…

  3. The Continuum of "Troubling" to "Troubled" Behavior: Exploratory Case Studies of African American Students in Programs for Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.; Cramer, Elizabeth D.; Harry, Beth; Klingner, Janette K.; Sturges, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the construction of the "emotional disturbance" (ED) category in the cases of four African American elementary students. These cases represent a sub-set of data from a three-year ethnographic study of the special education process in a large, culturally/linguistically diverse school district. Based on interviews,…

  4. African Virtual University: The Case of Kenyatta University, Kenya. Commonwealth Case Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juma, Magdallen N.

    This booklet describes the African Virtual University (AVU), an interactive instructional telecommunications network established to provide distance education to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The AVU was piloted in 1997-1998, and in the 1998-1999 academic year, 27 institutions were slated to offer AVU courses. Supported by the World Bank,…

  5. A Case Study of an African American English Teacher's Cultural Comprehensive Knowledge and Self-reflective Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard

    2003-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the nature of an African-American teacher's decision-making as she planned and enacted lessons. Findings suggest the teacher's cultural comprehensive knowledge was central in her thinking and decision-making. Future studies are encouraged. (Contains 2 figures and 25 footnotes.) (AUTHOR)

  6. Internationalization of an African University in the Post-Colonial Era: A Case Study of the University of Nairobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Iddah Aoko

    2012-01-01

    This case study uses post-colonial and dependency theoretical lenses to investigate the forces influencing policy, procedures, and participation in international activity in the post-colonial African university environment of Kenya's first national public university-the University of Nairobi (UoN). The research addresses (1) the approaches and…

  7. Evaluation of Strategies for Building a Research Culture--An Empirical Case Study at an African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studman, Cliff; Tsheko, G. Nnunu

    2007-01-01

    The impact of change strategies for developing research at an African primarily undergraduate institution is considered using a case study of the University of Botswana. After an analysis of the existing situation, a short research policy, written in understandable terms, was developed. The policy was structured so that it could be used for…

  8. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  9. Case Study Analysis of the Effect of Contextual Supports and Barriers on African American Students' Persistence in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Using case study methodology (Stake, 2006), this research examined the environmental influences, or contextual supports and barriers, that were most influential in contributing to African American students' persistence in an engineering major. Social cognitive career theory provides the framework for understanding the role of contextual supports…

  10. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lyn

    2007-12-01

    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  11. A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

    2003-01-01

    Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

  12. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  13. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  14. Military Intervention in Intrastate Conflicts in West Africa: Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group as a Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group as a Case Study Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Bruce W. Menning...also goes to my committee chairman, Dr. Bruce W. Menning, who gave me the needed encouragement from the very start and continued to the end. Despite...Mutual Assistance on Defence MODEL Movement for Democracy in Liberia MPCI Patriotic Movement of Côte d’ Iviore NATO North Atlantic Treaty

  15. Chronology of the extant African elephant species and case study of the species identification of the small African elephant with the molecular phylogenetic method.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yumie; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Kihara, Ichiro; Kashiwamura, Toshihide; Sugihara, Yuji; Nikaido, Masato; Okada, Norihiro; Endo, Hideki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2009-07-15

    Despite vigorous genetic studies of African elephants (Loxodonta africana and L. cyclotis) during the last decade, their evolutionary history is still obscure. Phylogenetic studies and coalescence time estimation using longer nucleotide sequence data from denser samplings are necessary to better understand the natural history of African elephants. Further, species identification among African elephants is sometimes very difficult using only the external morphological characteristics. This is a serious problem for making an adequate breeding plan in zoological gardens. In this paper, we investigated the continent-wide phylogeographical pattern of the African elephants and estimated the coalescence times among them. From these molecular data and geological evidence, we proposed an evolutionary scenario for the African elephants. We further demonstrated the effectiveness of molecular phylogenetic methods in species identification.

  16. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  17. Biomass and productivity of fishes in estuaries: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A K

    2016-10-01

    Estuaries are well known for their role as nutrient and detrital sinks that stimulate high levels of both primary and secondary production which, in turn, support a large biomass of fishes per unit area. This study reviews available information on coastal fish biomasses (g m(-2) wet mass) and productivity (g m(-2) wet mass year(-1) ) in order to place South African data on these topics into a global perspective. Using biogeographic fish productivity estimates, together with estuarine water area, the approximate annual teleost production in South African estuaries was calculated at 585, 1706 and 13 904 t in the cool temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. Total annual fish production in estuaries on the subcontinent is conservatively estimated at 16 195 t, but this figure is likely to fluctuate widely, depending on recruitment success and annual environmental conditions pertaining to these systems. Approximately 2000 t of fish are estimated to be harvested by fishing activities in South African estuaries each year, which represents c. 12% of annual fish production. Although this figure may appear sustainable, the reality is that there are a few heavily targeted estuary-associated marine species at the top of the food chain that are being overexploited by both anglers and subsistence fishermen. Natural mortalities due to piscivorous fish and bird predation has been estimated at c. 3% of total fish biomass per month in the East Kleinemonde Estuary, but this figure will vary considerably depending on bird abundance and foraging patterns along the coast. In contrast to catches made by the fishermen, piscivorous fishes and birds are targeting mainly juvenile marine fish and small estuarine resident species that are very abundant and generally low down in the food web.

  18. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.

    2011-01-01

    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  19. Disenfranchised grief following African American Homicide loss: an inductive case study.

    PubMed

    Piazza-Bonin, Elizabeth; Neimeyer, Robert A; Burke, Laurie A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Young, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Disenfranchised grief is experienced when a mourner's grief response is socially invalidated, unacknowledged, or discouraged. When the circumstances of death or the emotional reactions of the griever violate social norms, empathic failures can occur within the bereaved individual's support systems. This study used conventional content analysis, an intensive and inductive qualitative research method, to analyze the experience of one African American woman who lost her only son to homicide, a particularly distressing and marginalized form of loss. Results elucidate both the empathic failings and resiliencies within the social systems of this griever and emerged from the perspectives offered by the bereaved mother and her primary supporter. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. The Place of Subject Matter Knowledge in Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of South African Teachers Teaching the Amount of Substance and Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…

  1. Gauging Students' Untutored Ability in Argumentation about Experimental Data: A South African case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubben, Fred; Sadeck, Melanie; Scholtz, Zena; Braund, Martin

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a study into the untutored ability of Grade 10 students to engage in argumentation about the interpretation of experimental data, and the effect of unsupported small group discussions on this ability. In this study, argumentation intends to promote critical thinking. The sample includes 266 students from five South African schools across the resource spectrum, forming 70 friendship groups. Students are required to provide written interpretations of experimental data, and justify these interpretations based on the evidence and concepts of measurement. Individual responses form the basis of small group discussions after which students again provide written justified interpretations of the readings. The data show an initial low level of argumentation, with significant variation according to school resource levels. Considerable improvement in the level of argumentation occurs merely through small group discussions unsupported by the teacher. The findings suggest several factors influencing argumentation ability such as experience with practical work, perceptions of the purpose of small group discussions, the language ability to articulate ideas and cultural influences. Methodological issues arising from the study and implications for teaching and assessment are discussed.

  2. ITS2 secondary structure for species circumscription: case study in southern African Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae).

    PubMed

    Adebowale, Adekunle; Lamb, Jennifer; Nicholas, Ashley; Naidoo, Yougasphree

    2016-12-01

    Recently developed computational tools in ITS2 sequence-structure phylogenetics are improving tree robustness by exploitation of the added information content of the secondary structure. Despite this strength, however, their adoption for species-level clarifications in angiosperms has been slow. We investigate the utility of combining ITS2 sequence and secondary structure to separate species of southern African Strychnos, and assess correlation between compensatory base changes (CBCs) and currently recognised species boundaries. Combined phylogenetic analysis of sequence and secondary structure datasets performed better, in terms of robustness and species resolution, than analysis involving primary sequences only, achieving 100 and 88.2 % taxa discriminations respectively. Further, the Strychnos madagascariensis complex is well-resolved by sequence-structure phylogenetic analysis. The 17 Strychnos species corresponded to 14 ITS2 CBC clades. Four of the five taxa in section Densiflorae belong to a single CBC clade, whose members tend to form natural hybrids. Our finding supports the application of ITS2 as a complementary barcoding marker for species identification. It also highlights the potential of comparative studies of ITS2 CBC features among prospective parental pairs in breeding experiments as a rapid proxy for cross compatibility assessment. This could save valuable time in crop improvement. Patterns of CBC evolution and species boundaries in Strychnos suggests a positive correlation. We conclude that the CBC pattern coupled with observed ITS2 sequence paraphyly in section Densiflorae points to a speciation work-in-progress.

  3. A case study in collaborating with Atlanta-based African-American churches: a promising means for reaching inner-city substance users with rapid HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Whiters, David L; Santibanez, Scott; Dennison, David; Clark, H Westley

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined programmatic data from a federally funded faith-based rapid HIV testing initiative. In 2004, Recovery Consultants of Atlanta, Inc. (RCA, Inc.) began providing rapid HIV testing in collaboration with six Atlanta-based African-American churches. Of the 1,947 persons tested from January 2004 to July 2005, 1,872 (96.1%) were African-American, 1,247 (64%) were male, and 1,612 (82.8%) were between the age of 26 and 56. A total of 85 HIV-infected individuals were identified and 72 were identified as previously undiagnosed cases (positivity rate of 3.7%). This case study highlights and promotes rapid HIV testing offered in partnership with African American churches as a strategy for raising HIV awareness among inner-city substance users.

  4. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  5. Case Studies of African American Families: Self-Reports of Ethnically Diverse Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Wimberly, Cynthia; Berg, Rachelle; Rouson, Leon; Wilkins, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with African American families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…

  6. Can Authoritarian Separatism Give Way to Linguistic Rights? A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a background to recent developments in language planning in South Africa. Following a historical review, it focuses on a Bill of Rights in the new constitution which has, since 1993, demanded a shift towards rights-based language policy within a liberal framework. Debates within the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB)…

  7. Apartheid No More: Case Studies of Southern African Universities in the Process of Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng, Ed.; King, Kimberly Lenease, Ed.

    The case studies in this collection show the changes in higher education in South Africa that are taking place in response to the revolutionary political changes that have come with the end of apartheid. The chapters are: (1) "Transformation through Negotiation: The University of Port Elizabeth's Experiences, Challenges, and Progress"…

  8. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  9. Psychological Factors in Deliberate Self-Harm as Seen in an Urban African Population in Uganda: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Musisi, Seggane

    2005-01-01

    Psychological factors associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) as seen in an African population in Uganda are described. A case-control study design was employed in which a Luganda version (predominant language in the study area) of the modified European Parasuicide Interview Schedule I (EPSIS I) was used to collect data. The controls were…

  10. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  11. Exploring Faculty Diversity in the South: A Case Study on Campus Climate and Leadership Commitment to the Recruitment and Retention of African American Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Angie Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore faculty diversity in the South by examining the campus climate and leadership commitment to the recruitment and retention of African American faculty. The Critical Race Theory (CRT) concept of storytelling captured the participants' personal experiences and perceptions. Three higher…

  12. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65-27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15-4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18-3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36-3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04-13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39-48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56-11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57-16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03-39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39-4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24-5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46-24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39-20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19-0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07-0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09-0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14-0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation exposure, charcuterie, fresh fish

  13. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A Case Study of the South African Wood Products Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Ian S.; Bullen, Mark; Kozak, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture) manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating…

  14. Case-control study of silicosis, silica exposure, and lung cancer in white South African gold miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.; Hnizdo, E.

    1986-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to assess the association between lung cancer and silicosis or silica dust exposure in white South African gold miners. Cases and controls were identified from deaths reported to the Gold Miners Provident Fund for the period January, 1979-October, 1983. Two controls were matched to each case by year of birth (+/- 2 years) and by smoking (+/- 5 cigarettes or equivalents per day) assessed 10 years (+/- 2 years) prior to death. One hundred thirty-three matched triplets were identified. The results showed no overall association between lung cancer and radiological silicosis (OR = 1.08, p = 0.92). Autopsy data indicated no overall associations between lung cancer and silicosis of the lung parenchyma (OR = 1.49, p = 0.11), the pleura (OR = 0.72, p = 0.30), or the hilar glands (OR = 0.85, p = 0.72). A trend toward increased severity of silicosis of the parenchyma was evident; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Odds ratios for lung cancer and silicosis were higher at lower levels of cumulative silica dust exposure (ORs = 2.43, 1.72, 1.35 and 0.62 for lung cancer and autopsy silicosis of the parenchyma for the lowest, second, third, and highest quartiles of dust exposure, respectively; all p greater than 0.05). Cases did not differ from controls for total silica dust exposure, length of exposure, weighted average intensity of exposure, or number of shifts at high dust (all p greater than 0.20). The data do not support the hypothesis of a carcinogenic role for silica dust and no statistically sigificant associations were found between lung cancer and silicosis.

  15. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  16. Using Poetry as a Communication Multimodality to Encourage Reading Engagement of Selected African-American Learners: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cherie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the use of poetry as a multimodal communicative text to encourage reading engagement in selected African-American learners with mild intellectual disabilities. Framed by critical discourse theory, genre theory, and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this investigation presented poetry as an alternative text…

  17. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  18. Antipoaching standards in onshore hydrocarbon concessions drawn from a Central African case study.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien P A; Tobi, Elie; Todd, Angelique F; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2016-10-12

    Unsustainable hunting outside protected areas is threatening tropical biodiversity worldwide and requires conservationists to engage increasingly in antipoaching activities. Following the example of ecocertified logging companies, we argue that other extractive industries managing large concessions should engage in antipoaching activities as part of their environmental management plans. Onshore hydrocarbon concessions should also adopt antipoaching protocols as a standard because they represent a biodiversity threat comparable to logging. We examined the spatiotemporal patterns of small- and large-mammal poaching in an onshore oil concession in Gabon, Central Africa, with a Bayesian occupancy model based on signs of poaching collected from 2010 to 2015 on antipoaching patrols. Patrol locations were initially determined based on local intelligence and past patrol successes (adaptive management) and subsequently with a systematic sampling of the concession. We generated maps of poaching probability in the concession and determined the temporal trends of this threat over 5 years. The spatiotemporal patterns of large- and small-mammal poaching differed throughout the concession, and likely these groups will need different management strategies. By elucidating the relationship between site-specific sampling effort and detection probability, the Bayesian method allowed us to set goals for future antipoaching patrols. Our results indicate that a combination of systematic sampling and adaptive management data is necessary to infer spatiotemporal patterns with the statistical method we used. On the basis of our case study, we recommend hydrocarbon companies interested in implementing efficient antipoaching activities in their onshore concessions to lay the foundation of long-needed industry standards by: adequately measuring antipoaching effort; mixing adaptive management and balanced sampling; setting goals for antipoaching effort; pairing patrols with large

  19. Becoming Academically Literate: A Case Study of an African Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jie Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although immigrant youth make up more than 20 percent of school-age children in the U.S., little is known about how they manage school assignments and texts. In this paper the author presents Tara (pseudonym) as a telling case of a first-generation immigrant youth who is encountering and grappling with academic literacy--defined as not only the…

  20. What Is Taking Place in Science Classrooms?: A Case Study Analysis of Teaching and Learning in Seventh-Grade Science of One Alabama School and Its Impact on African American Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Lashaunda Renea

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the teaching strategies that improve science learning of African American students. This research study further sought the extent the identified teaching strategies that are used to improve African American science learning reflect culturally responsive teaching. Best teaching strategies and culturally…

  1. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65–27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15–4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18–3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36–3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04–13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39–48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56–11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57–16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03–39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39–4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24–5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46–24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39–20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19–0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07–0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02–0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09–0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35–0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14–0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation

  2. Measuring Service Quality in Higher Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to report on the SERVQUAL gap which causes unsuccessful service delivery at a University of Technology in South Africa. Using a quantitative research design, the study adopts a SERVQUAL model adapted to a tertiary environment containing five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and…

  3. The Role of Media in Promoting African Indigenous Languages (Case Study of Nigeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Olatunji Isola

    This report assesses the threat posed to Nigerian national culture by foreign cultural values through manipulation of the local media, stressing that the Nigerian media is not people-oriented, but rather government dominated. This study sought to prove through content-analysis the level of commitment of media in promoting and integrating…

  4. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  5. Recovery in Naturally Dynamic Environments: A Case Study from the Sperrgebiet, Southern African Arid Succulent Karoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Antje

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the process of vegetation recovery and associated time frames in the Succulent Karoo Biome of southern Africa. This study investigated the recovery of vegetation on sites impacted by mining (different types of dumps and mined areas) in the arid succulent karoo. The main aim of this study was to determine the state of recovery, time frames, successional stages, and the influence of environmental factors on recovery of coastal dune and sand plain plant communities. For this purpose, vegetation was recorded on some 121 sites throughout a coastal strip of approximately 100 × 3 km in Namibia’s restricted diamond area (Sperrgebiet). Using the species pool concept to derive vegetation reference sites and dominance-diversity curves, recovery of vegetation (measured in terms of species richness and cover) in these altered landscapes reached about 46% on the oldest, 51-year-old mine dumps. However, based on species richness, richness levels similar to the undisturbed reference sites were recorded after 30 years, following a logarithmic trend. Successional stages of natural recovery were indicated in this dynamic coastal environment and Cladoraphis cyperoides and Galenia fruticosa appear to be early successional species. Scaling up of studies to landscape level and developing a target community using the species pool concept are discussed as means to measure recovery in dynamic biological communities. On these altered, man-made landforms, the availability of seed may be the bottleneck to achieve vegetation cover comparable to undisturbed vegetation in the surrounding. Hence, restoration efforts should focus on this aspect.

  6. Biology, literacy, and the African American voice: A case study of meaningful learning in the biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Keturah

    Under the direction of Sharon Murphy Augustine, Ph.D./Ph.D Curriculum and Instruction There was a substantial performance gap among African Americans and other ethnic groups. Additionally, African American students in a Title I school were at a significantly high risk of not meeting or exceeding on performance tests in science. Past reports have shown average gains in some subject areas, and declines in others (NCES, 2011; GADOE, 2012). Current instructional strategies and the lack of literacy within the biology classroom created a problem for African American high school students on national and state assessments. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American students and teachers in the context of literacy and biology through the incorporation of an interactive notebook and other literacy strategies. The data was collected three ways: field notes for a two week observation period within the biology classroom, student and teacher interviews, and student work samples. During the observations, student work collection, and interviews, I looked for the following codes: active learning, constructive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, and intentional learning. In the process of coding for the pre-determined codes, three more codes emerged. The three codes that emerged were organization, studying/student ownership, and student teacher relationships. Students and teachers both solidified the notion that literacy and biology worked well together. The implemented literacy strategies were something that both teachers and students appreciated in their learning of biology. Overall students and teachers perceived that the interactive notebook along Cornell notes, Thinking maps, close reads, writing, lab experiments, and group work created meaningful learning experiences within the biology classroom.

  7. Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, smoking and breast cancer in African Americans and whites: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, Leah E; Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon; de Cotret, Allan René; Winkel, Scott; Worley, Kendra; Heard, Kristin; Heard, Kimberley; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Temitope

    2006-07-01

    Polymorphisms exist in several genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), the principal pathway for removal of smoking-induced DNA damage. An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether these polymorphisms modify the association between smoking and breast cancer. DNA samples and exposure histories were analyzed as part of a large population-based case-control study of breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population included 2311 cases (894 African Americans, 1417 whites) and 2022 controls (788 African Americans, 1234 whites). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for breast cancer and smoking, and for breast cancer and nine non-synonymous coding polymorphisms in six NER genes (XPD codons 312 and 751, RAD23B codon 249, XPG codon 1104, XPC codon 939, XPF codons 415 and 662, and ERCC6 codons 1213 and 1230). Modification of ORs for smoking by single and combined NER genotypes was investigated. In this study population, smoking was more strongly associated with breast cancer in African American women compared with white women. Among African American women, the association of breast cancer and smoking was strongest among women with specific combinations of NER genotypes. Evidence for multiplicative interaction was found between combined NER genotypes and smoking dose (likelihood ratio test P = 0.06), duration (P = 0.09), time since cessation (P = 0.02), age at initiation (P = 0.04) and former smoking (P = 0.03). No interactions were observed in white women. Therefore, polymorphisms in NER genes may modify the relationship between breast cancer and smoking. These results are consistent with previous evidence of exposure-specific p53 mutations in breast tumors from current and former smokers, suggesting that smoking may play a role in breast cancer etiology.

  8. The influence of world view on African-American college students' decisions to study science: An interpretive investigation of four cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Bradford F.

    In the United States, African Americans are underrepresented among employed Ph.D. holding scientists; they comprise less than 2% of the scientific population and 12% of the United States population. Educational theorists, focusing on the career choices of African Americans as the cause of underrepresentation, have identified many factors that are associated with the underrepresentation of African Americans in science. Some of these factors are: lack of interest in science, poor academic preparation, high interest in social-oriented careers, poor educational and career planning, unfavorable images of scientists, impoverished family backgrounds, and lack of confidence in ability. This plethora of factors indicates that there is yet equivocation in literature as to the cause of underrepresentation. The objective of this study is to deepen current understanding, by providing explanations for the career decisions of African American students. Adopting a theoretical framework which maintains that human behavior is directed by world view and that world view is shaped by environment, the present study seeks to analyze the world view contents of three African American college students: two science majors and one non-science major. The aim of this study is to analyze the world view contents of the students to identify the salient world view images and assumptions that influence their career decisions. The research employs interpretive methodology and a case study design. Primary methods of data collection are interview and interview analysis. The dissertation reports the results of interviews, which include explanations for each respondent's career decisions; and the influence of three factors (expectation of monetary gain, the impact of role models, and respondents' level of self-confidence in ability) on the respondents' career decisions. Findings indicate that the science major has a greater capacity, than the non-science majors, to accommodate world view images and

  9. Methyl-Deficient Diets and Risks of Breast Cancer Among African-American Women: A Case-Control Study by Methylation Status of the ER Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Fort Detrick, MD 21702-5012. AUTHORITY USAMRMC, 5 Mar 2002 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD Award Number: DAMD17-97- 1 -7287 TITLE: Methyl-Deficient Diets and...RELATE TO THEM. LIMITED RIGHTS LEGEND 7 / Award Number: DAMD17-97- 1 -7287 Organization: Meharry Medical College Location of Limited Rights Data (Pages...Risks of Breast CanCer Among~ rAMD17-97- 1 -7287 African-American Women: A Case-Control Study by Methylation Status of thet ER Gone 6. AUTHOR(S) i

  10. Protective Factors and Resiliency: A Case Study of How African American Women Overcome Barriers en Route to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre

    2015-01-01

    An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…

  11. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  12. Multiple Case Studies of Literacy Practices Utilized by Intermediate Grade Teachers Which Enable African American Males to Become Literate Individuals--What's Going On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Cynthia Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate ways in which six teachers in the intermediate grades at one urban and one rural school enabled their African American male students to be successful in their literacy efforts. It was my assumption that successful teachers of African American males would also be teachers who integrated…

  13. A Case Study of the Historically Successful Roles of African American Teachers in Contemporary, Selected, Urban Charter Schools in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Shanelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine, to what degree, African American teachers in five selected, urban charter schools in New York performed the historical roles of counselor, advocate, disciplinarian, surrogate parent, and role model in, to determine how African American Teachers perceived the importance of performing the…

  14. First Year Master of Education (M.Ed.) Students' Experiences of Part-Time Study: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoko, V.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how a group of first year M.Ed. students in the Faculty of Education of the University of KwaZulu-Natal experienced part-time study. Literature suggests that each year, South Africa suffers significant student departures from universities without completing their studies. Apart from the cost and manpower…

  15. End of life issues in a palliative care framework for a critically ill adult African American with cystic fibrosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Gloria J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation, using case study methodology, was to explore the end of life issues and to give meaning to the biopsychosocial experiences of the study participant, an adult African American female patient diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis. Two theoretical frameworks were used to guide the investigation of the study: Kubler-Ross Model of the Stages of Dying and the Conceptual Framework for Palliative Care Practice. Data analysis included review of medical records and patient journals, interviews, observations and clinical assessment. The findings indicated that end of life issues can be articulated within the context of a palliative care framework and that the biopsychosocial experiences of the dying person acquire meaning when situated within life history, ethical values and metaphysical belief systems.

  16. Risk factors for uterine leiomyoma: a practice-based case-control study. I. African-American heritage, reproductive history, body size, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Faerstein, E; Szklo, M; Rosenshein, N

    2001-01-01

    The authors conducted a case-control study among premenopausal women in the Baltimore, Maryland, area to examine the associations of uterine leiomyoma with ethnicity and hormone-related characteristics. Cases of uterine leiomyoma (n = 318) were surgically or sonographically first confirmed between January 1990 and June 1993. A total of 394 controls were selected from women who were visiting their gynecologist for a routine checkup. Data were collected through telephone interviews and abstraction of medical records; 77.8% of eligible cases and 78.0% of eligible controls were interviewed. Positive adjusted associations were observed between risk of uterine leiomyoma and self-described African-American ethnicity (vs. Whites: odds ratio (OR) = 9.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7, 15.7), early menarche (<11 years vs. >13 years: OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.6), and high body mass index (upper quartile vs. lower quartile: OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8). Inverse associations were observed with use of oral contraceptives (current use vs. never use: OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) and duration of smoking (> or =19 years vs. never: OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.1). Younger ages at infertility diagnosis and at first and last childbirth were more common among cases; however, analyses of data on tumor location suggested that these associations represent predominantly consequences of uterine leiomyoma. These results suggest that development of uterine leiomyoma is associated with increased exposure to ovarian hormones. Possible reasons for the very elevated risk among African-American women need further investigation.

  17. Executive University Managers' Experiences of Strike and Protest Activity: A Qualitative Case Study of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Strike and protest activity at South African universities continues to be prevalent nearly two decades after the dismantling of apartheid, although there has been a shift away from directing strikes and protests against the government (during the apartheid era), to directing them against higher education institutions and management (since the…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Time Management Skills and the Academic Achievement of African Engineering Students--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Arthur James; Lombard, Kobus; de Jager, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Poor academic success by African engineering students is currently experienced in many higher educational institutions, contributing to lower financial subsidies by local governments. One of the contributing factors to this low academic success may be the poor time management skills of these students. This article endeavours to explore this…

  19. Transitioning from a Theological College to a Christian University in East African Context: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulatu, Semeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed and described transitions from a theological or Bible college to a Christian liberal arts college or university in East African context. The research was specially driven by the desire to find out the reasons for such transitions, the challenges of the transition process and how such transitions affect the mission of the…

  20. Pushing a Stone up a Hill: A Case Study of the Working Environment of South African Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education has been experiencing profound and vigorous transformations in the post-apartheid era. At the same time, global trends toward competition and employment equity contribute to the complexities of the country's higher education environment. These global and local developments combine to impact the working environment of…

  1. The South African Mathematics Olympiad: A Case Study of the Medallists from 1966 to 1983. Report O-181.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, R. G.; And Others

    Up to 10 persons a year are awarded medals for high performance in the South African Mathematics Olympiad, designed to stimulate the love for mathematics and to discover and reward youthful talent and aptitude. Questionnaires were sent to this group to ascertain their achievements, as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of the Olympiad. In the…

  2. Studying Conflict, Violence and Peace in African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this article are to present the case for the study of conflict, violence and peace in African universities and to discuss ways by which this might be organized. It begins with a discussion of the meanings of conflict, violence and peace, as used in the discipline of peace studies. The case for studying peace is then laid out, with…

  3. Creating alliances for disease management in industrial settings: a case study of HIV/AIDS in workers in South African gold mines.

    PubMed

    Williams, B; Campbell, C

    1998-01-01

    The epidemic of HIV/AIDS is at an advanced stage in many African countries, but little attention has been given to the impact that this will have in industrial settings. Using the Southern African mining industry as a case study, the authors consider the state of the HIV epidemic and discuss programs that have been undertaken to manage HIV. They critically analyze the reasons current interventions have had little impact on HIV among mine workers, tracing the lack of success to neglect of the social and community contexts within which HIV transmission takes place, as well as the lack of attention to the psychosocial processes and mechanisms underlying disease transmission. Finally, they present an intervention that aims to address the limitations of existing industrial programs and improve the management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, in a particular occupational setting through creating alliances between a wide range of community stakeholders. The intervention aims not only to reduce STDs, promote awareness of HIV risks, and distribute condoms, as existing programs have done, but also to address the broader social, cultural, and community contexts that facilitate HIV transmission.

  4. Managing Resource Dependence Difficulties in African Higher Education: The Case of Multiple Exchange Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The paper has a twofold structure and focus. The first part is an examination of the funding challenges facing African universities resulting mainly from public finance difficulties, and the second part is a case study of how some Kenyan and South African public universities have attempted to mitigate resource dependence difficulties through…

  5. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  6. What is taking place in science classrooms?: A case study analysis of teaching and learning in seventh-grade science of one Alabama school and its impact on African American student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Lashaunda Renea

    This qualitative case study investigated the teaching strategies that improve science learning of African American students. This research study further sought the extent the identified teaching strategies that are used to improve African American science learning reflect culturally responsive teaching. Best teaching strategies and culturally responsive teaching have been researched, but there has been minimal research on the impact that both have on science learning, with an emphasis on the African American population. Consequently, the Black-White achievement gap in science persists. The findings revealed the following teaching strategies have a positive impact on African American science learning: (a) lecture-discussion, (b) notetaking, (c) reading strategies, (d) graphic organizers, (e) hands-on activities, (f) laboratory experiences, and (g) cooperative learning. Culturally responsive teaching strategies were evident in the seventh-grade science classrooms observed. Seven themes emerged from this research data: (1) The participating teachers based their research-based teaching strategies used in the classroom on all of the students' learning styles, abilities, attitudes towards science, and motivational levels about learning science, with no emphasis on the African American student population; (2) The participating teachers taught the state content standards simultaneously using the same instructional model daily, incorporating other content areas when possible; (3) The participating African American students believed their seventh-grade science teachers used a variety of teaching strategies to ensure science learning took place, that science learning was fun, and that science learning was engaging; (4) The participating African American students genuinely liked their teacher; (5) The participating African American students revealed high self-efficacy; (6) The African American student participants' parents value education and moved to Success Middle School

  7. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis.

  8. The Process of Africanizing the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Tlou, Josiah

    1995-01-01

    Investigates social studies curriculum reform in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. Reports on each country contain a brief overview of the historical situation and current syllabus, and a discussion of the ongoing "Africanization" process. Concludes with a definition of "Africanization," its purpose, and…

  9. Transformation and Institutional Quality Management within a South African University: A Case Study of the University of the Orange Free State. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, A. H.; Holtzhausen, Somarie

    This case study evaluated the development, partial implementation, and review of an institutional and operational approach to quality management that was developed, during a decade of radical political change, at the University of the Orange Free State, resulting in the rapid transformation of higher education institutions in South African. Phase…

  10. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  11. Prostate-specific Antigen as a Risk Factor for Skeletal Metastasis in Native Ethnic African Men with Prostate Cancer: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ayman M.; Makhdomi, Khalid; Stones, William

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in males. Men of African origin are at a significantly higher risk as reflected in the higher incidence and mortality rates in this racial group. Metastases incidence increases parallel to serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Staging of the disease involves bone scans, which are sensitive in detecting skeletal metastases. Suggestions that these scans may be omitted in some situations in patients with low prostate specific antigen levels have drawn attention to the matter. In this case-control study, using radiology and pathology records, a registry of prostate cancer patients recorded as being of dark-skinned ethnicity was obtained. Images were presented to image reviewers blinded to the PSA level, to determine the presence of skeletal metastases. The risk factor for the outcome of interest (skeletal metastases) was PSA level above 20 ng/mL. The reliability of image reporting was also assessed. Of the 122 patients, skeletal metastases were present in 50 (41%) while these were absent in 72 (59%). The prevalence of metastases among the high PSA group was 55.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44.1–67.7%] and among the normal/low PSA group was 22.2% (95% CI 11.1–33.3%). The odds ratio (OR) for skeletal metastases in the exposed (high PSA) group was 4.4 (95% CI, 2.01–9.78.) Intraobserver agreement on image interpretation was 88.5% with a Kappa statistic of 0.76. A relatively higher prevalence of skeletal metastasis is seen in regional dark-skinned African males with prostate cancer at both low and high prostate specific antigen levels. Bone scanning in this population should therefore, be considered even at PSA levels below 20 ng/mL. PMID:28217016

  12. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  13. Variants in the vitamin D pathway, serum levels of vitamin D, and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer among African-American women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European Americans (EA) to have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is low in AAs, and was associated with ER-negative tumors in EAs. We hypothesized that racial differences in 25OHD levels, as well as in inherited genetic variations, may contribute, in part, to the differences in tumor characteristics. Methods In a case (n = 928)-control (n = 843) study of breast cancer in AA and EA women, we measured serum 25OHD levels in controls and tested associations between risk and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, particularly by ER status. Results More AAs had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml) than EAs (34.3% vs 5.9%), with lowest levels among those with the highest African ancestry. Associations for SNPs differed by race. Among AAs, VDR SNP rs2239186, associated with higher serum levels of 25OHD, decreased risk after correction for multiple testing (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31-0.79, p by permutation = 0.03), but had no effect in EAs. The majority of associations were for ER-negative breast cancer, with seven differential associations between AA and EA women for CYP24A1 (p for interaction < 0.10). SNP rs27622941 was associated with a > twofold increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer among AAs (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.98), but had no effect in EAs. rs2209314 decreased risk among EAs (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.73), with no associations in AAs. The increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer in AAs compared to EAs was reduced and became non-significant (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80-1.79) after adjusting for these two CYP24A1 SNPs. Conclusions These data suggest that genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway may be related to the higher prevalence of ER-negative breast cancer in AA women. PMID:22480149

  14. Effective Defense Support for Public Diplomacy (DSPD) with a Sub-Saharan Africa Target Audience: A Case Study of the African Crisis Response Force Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    as a regional and continental power its position likely influenced opens decisions. The thesis then concludes with a summary of findings, and a...America: Foreign Policy, Cooperation and Conflict (M.A. Thesis , University of Kansas, International Studies, 2004). 32 assistance, and in the face of...Oxford: Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2003), 27. 40 The South African Defense Forces (SADF

  15. Oral maxillofacial neoplasms in an East African population a 10 year retrospective study of 1863 cases using histopathological reports

    PubMed Central

    Kamulegeya, Adriane; Kalyanyama, Boniphace M

    2008-01-01

    Background Neoplasms of the oral maxillofacial area are an interesting entity characterized by differences in nomenclature and classification at different centers. We report neoplastic histopathological diagnoses seen at the departments of oral maxillofacial surgery of Muhimbili and Mulago referral hospitals in Tanzania and Uganda respectively over a 10-year period. Methods We retrieved histopathological reports archived at the departments of oral maxillofacial surgery of Muhimbili and Mulago referral hospitals in Tanzania and Uganda respectively over a 10-year period from June 1989–July 1999. Results In the period between June 1989 and July 1999, 565 and 1298 neoplastic oro-facial cases were retrieved of which 284 (50.53%) and 967 (74.54%) were malignant neoplasms at Muhimbili and Mulago hospitals respectively. Overall 67.28% of the diagnoses recorded were malignant with Kaposi's sarcoma (21.98%), Burkiits lymphoma (20.45%), and squamous cell carcinoma (15.22%) dominating that group while ameloblastoma (9.23%), fibromas (7.3%) and pleomorphic adenoma (4.95%) dominated the benign group. The high frequency of malignancies could be due to inclusion criteria and the clinical practice of selective histopathology investigation. However, it may also be due to higher chances of referrals in case of malignancies. Conclusion There is need to reexamine the slides in these two centers in order to bring them in line with the most recent WHO classification so as to allow for comparison with reports from else where. PMID:18651958

  16. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    PubMed

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C; Bell, Douglas A; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C), M3 (CYP1A1*3), and M4 (CYP1A1*4). The study population consisted of 612 patients (242 African American, 370 white) and 599 controls (242 African American, 357 white). Results There was no evidence of strong joint effects between CYP1A1 M1-containing genotypes and total PCBs in African American or white women. Statistically significant multiplicative interactions were observed between CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes and elevated plasma total PCBs among white women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.02). Multiplicative interactions were also observed between CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes and elevated total PCBs among African American women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.10). Conclusions Our results confirm previous reports that CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes modify the association between PCB exposure and risk of breast cancer. We present additional evidence suggesting that CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes modify the effects of PCB exposure among African American women. Additional studies are warranted, and meta-analyses combining results across studies will be needed to generate more precise estimates of the joint effects of PCBs and CYP1A1 genotypes. PMID:15642161

  18. Transformational Issues and Challenges in South African Educational Reform: A Case Study of Two Schools in QwaQwa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook; Napier, John D.; Lebeta, Vincent T.

    Policies for creating a nonracial, democratic education system in South Africa are spawning implementation issues that reflect change and resistance to change in schools. This paper reports on a multiple-year ethnographic study in two contrasting schools in QwaQwa, South Africa. Faculty, administrators, and students were observed and interviewed…

  19. Using Manipulatives to Support an Embodied Approach to Learning Trigonometry in a South African School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlall, D.; Niranjan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Intelligence Theory suggests that individuals perceive knowledge in eight different ways. This article reports on a study that explored the role of manipulatives in the teaching and learning of trigonometric ratios in grade 10. The approach attempts in addressing three domains of the Multiple Intelligence Theory (linguistic/verbal…

  20. FIRST AFRICAN CASE OF SPOROTRICHOSIS BEURMANI: TRANSMISSION OF SPOROTRICHOSIS FROM MULE TO MAN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    indefinite; its animal victims die of exhaustion. However, the classic iodine-iodide treatment for human sporotrichosis was found to be effective. This...particular sporotrichosis is of interest in human clinical study, since it can be transmitted from the animal to a healthy human. In fact, this first African case of human sporotrichosis was a case of mule-to-man infection.

  1. The Black Cultural Ethos and science teachers' practices: A case study exploring how four high school science teachers meet their African American students' needs in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    The underachievement of African American students in science has been a persistent problem in science education. The achievement patterns of African American students indicate that researchers must take a closer look at the types of practices that are being used to meet these students' needs in science classrooms. Determining why science teachers decide to employ certain practices in their classrooms begins with a careful examination of teachers' beliefs as well as their instructional approaches. The purpose of this study was to explore four urban high school science teachers' beliefs about their African American students' learning needs and to investigate how these teachers go about addressing students' needs in science classrooms. This research study also explored the extent to which teachers' practices aligned with the nine dimensions of an established cultural instructional theory, namely the Black Cultural Ethos. Qualitative research methods were employed to gather data from the four teachers. Artifact data were collected from the teachers and they were interviewed and observed. Believing that their students had academic-related needs as well as needs tied to their learning preferences, the four science teachers employed a variety of instructional strategies to meet their students where they were in learning. Overall, the instructional strategies that the teachers employed to meet their students' needs aligned with five of the nine tenets of the Black Cultural Ethos theory.

  2. Teacher- or Learner-Centred? Science Teacher Beliefs Related to Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A South African Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth; Rollnick, Marissa

    2016-12-01

    In science education, learner-centred classroom practices are widely accepted as desirable and are associated with responsive and reformed kinds of teacher beliefs. They are further associated with high-quality Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK), a version of PCK defined at topic level, is known to enable the transformation of topic content into a form accessible to learners. However, little is known about teacher science beliefs in relation to TSPCK and therefore the nature of likely associated classroom practices. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TSPCK and underlying science teacher beliefs following an intervention targeting the improvement of TSPCK in the topic chemical equilibrium. Sixteen final year pre-service chemistry teachers were exposed to an intervention that explicitly focussed on knowledge for transforming the content of chemical equilibrium using the five knowledge components of TSPCK. A specially designed TSPCK instrument in chemical equilibrium and the Teacher Belief Instrument (TBI) were used to capture written responses in pre- and post-tests. Additional qualitative data was collected from audio-recorded discussions and written responses from an open-ended question asked before and after the intervention. Two key findings emerged from the study. Firstly, the development of TSPCK was linked to shifts in underlying science teacher beliefs in the direction of learner-centred teaching for the majority of pre-service teachers. Secondly, this shift was not evident for all, as for some there was development of TSPCK without a shift from teacher-centred beliefs about science teaching.

  3. Germline mutations in PALB2 in African-American breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Chu, Li-Hao; Kelley, Karen; Davis, Helen; John, Esther M; Tomlinson, Gail E; Neuhausen, Susan L

    2011-02-01

    Breast cancer incidence is lower in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial/ethnic variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis. Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of early-onset and/or familial breast cancer cases. To date, PALB2 mutation testing has not been performed in African-American breast cancer cases. We screened for germline mutations in PALB2 in 139 African-American breast cases by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Twelve variants were identified in these cases and none caused truncation of the protein. Three missense variants, including two rare variants (P8L and T300I) and one common variant (P210L), were predicted to be pathogenic, and were located in a coiled-coil domain of PALB2 required for RAD51- and BRCA1-binding. We investigated and found no significant association between the P210L variant and breast cancer risk in a small case-control study of African-American women. This study adds to the literature that PALB2 mutations, although rare, appear to play a role in breast cancer in all populations investigated to date.

  4. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas: mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome and HTLV-I-associated adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in Mali, West Africa: a clinical, pathological and immunovirological study of 14 cases and a review of the African ATL cases.

    PubMed

    Fouchard, N; Mahe, A; Huerre, M; Fraitag, S; Valensi, F; Macintyre, E; Sanou, F; de The, G; Gessain, A

    1998-04-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) are rare lymphoproliferative diseases, which are frequently suspected to be of viral origin. As very few data were available concerning cutaneous T cell lymphomas in tropical Africa, we undertook a clinical, histopathological, immunological and viro-molecular study of patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma, in Bamako, Mali. While prior to this study, no case of CTCL had been reported in this country, 14 patients (five women, nine men; mean age 58 years) with a diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma were seen over a period of 30 months (1992-1994) in the only dermatological department in Mali. Clinically, the most frequent pattern was an infiltrated erythrodermia similar to Sezary syndrome. Nodular lesions and/or plaques were rarely observed. All these cutaneous tumors were T cell lymphoproliferations, only one expressing the CD8+ antigen. A comprehensive analysis of all the available data permitted characterization of three cases of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) associated with HTLV-I (one definitive case, of leukemic type, with demonstration of clonal integration of HTLV-I proviral genome and two probable ATL cases), three cases of Sezary syndrome (SS), two cases of mycosis fungoides (MF) and five cases of pleomorphic cutaneous lymphoma. In one case, the differentiation between MF and pleomorphic cutaneous lymphoma could not be established. HTLV-I serological and/or molecular markers were restricted to the three ATL cases. From the unique definitive ATL case, a T cell line was established from culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sequence analysis of the env gene and the U3-LTR region demonstrated that the virus present in this patient belonged to the cosmopolitan subtype A. Thus, we report here the first evidence of HTLV-I infection and associated ATL in Mali. This is the second ATL case described for the whole Sahelian region (one ATL of the lymphoma type was reported previously in a Mauritanian

  5. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and teachers'…

  6. Shooting for the Stars: A Case Study of the Mathematics Achievement and Career Attainment of an African American Male High School Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha R.; Lewis, Bradford F.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematics success of African American male adolescents has been given limited attention. Most often, African American males are viewed in terms of their failure as opposed to their success. This tendency to focus almost exclusively on African American failure is a debilitating feature of extant literature and it constrains our understanding…

  7. Polysomnography as a diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up tool in human African trypanosomiasis: a case study in an infant.

    PubMed

    Mpandzou, Ghislain; Cespuglio, Raymond; Ngampo, Stéphane; Bandzouzi, Bébène; Bouteille, Bernard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Buguet, Alain

    2011-06-15

    Gambian (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) evolves from the hemolymphatic stage 1, treated with pentamidine, to the meningoencephalitic stage 2, often treated with melarsoprol. This arseniate may provoke a deadly reactive encephalopathy. It is therefore crucial to diagnose precisely the stages of HAT, especially when clinical and biological examinations are doubtful. We present here the case of a 30-month old girl (E20 KOLNG) diagnosed with stage 1 HAT during a field survey in June 2007 in Congo. She was followed-up every six months for 18 months in a village dispensary facility at Mpouya. Her health status deteriorated in December 2008, although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell (WBC) count was normal. The child was hospitalized at Brazzaville and a daytime polysomnographic recording (electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, and electromyogram) was performed (Temec Vitaport 3® portable recorder) to avoid a new lumbar puncture. The child presented a complete polysomnographic syndrome of HAT with a major disturbance of the distribution of sleep and wake episodes and the occurrence of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs). The relapse at stage 2 was confirmed by a new CSF examination that showed an elevated WBC count (23cells·μL(-1)) with the presence of B lymphocytes. Melarsoprol treatment was undertaken. A post-treatment recording was immediately performed, showing the resolution of sleepwake pattern abnormalities. Another polysomnography, taken four months later, confirmed the normalization of sleep-wake patterns indicating healing. We therefore propose that polysomnography, being a non-invasive technique, should be used in children to alleviate burden caused by HAT staging procedures, especially regarding lumbar punctures in remote African villages.

  8. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  9. Social Studies in African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed.

    This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial…

  10. A Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Mortality Among African Americans and Non-African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439

  11. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

    2013-01-15

    The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.

  12. Mythology to reality: case report on a giant cutaneous horn of the scalp in an African American female.

    PubMed

    Leppard, William; Loungani, Rahul; Saylors, Bradley; Delaney, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study of a patient with a rare and disfiguring dermatologic condition known as cornu cutaneum, or giant cutaneous horn (GCH). While this condition has been well described in people of European and Asian ancestry, its presence in African populations is perceived to be rare and has not been reported in the literature until recently. We present the case of cornu cutaneum in a woman of African descent, contributing to the recent evidence that this condition may not be as rare in African populations as believed. Etiologic factors, epidemiology and management are also reviewed.

  13. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  14. Ethical issues in a study of bipolar disorder and HIV risk among African-American men who have sex with men: case study in the ethics of mental health research.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana

    2012-03-01

    African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV infection, as are individuals with severe mental illness. This study was conducted at the behest of members of the African-American MSM community in Cleveland, Ohio, to assess the co-occurrence of HIV risk and bipolar disorder among African-American MSM. A sample of 125 participants was recruited via flyers and word of mouth at venues used by members of this community. Individuals were assessed for HIV risk and severe mental illness. Various ethical issues were presented, including participant capacity and voluntariness and the risk-benefit ratio. Divergent perspectives of the local institutional review board and the community advisory group with respect to the risks and benefits of participation required reconciliation before the study could proceed. Solutions for the resolution of such conflicts are discussed.

  15. Flame retardants at the top of a simulated baltic marine food web--a case study concerning African penguins from the Gdansk Zoo.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Andrzej R; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2015-02-01

    The present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from Gdansk Zoo and in their sole food, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), from Gdansk Bay. The average concentration of HBCD in whole herring was 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/g lw, whereas TBBPA was approximately 10-fold lower (2.3 ± 1.3 ng/g lw). Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also found in muscle and liver of herring. The estimated daily dietary exposure of the penguins to HBCD was 252.9 ± 113.7 ng, whereas for TBBPA it was 26.3 ± 14.9 ng. The ability of BFRs to accumulate in the liver, muscles, fatty tissue, and brain of penguin was confirmed. The highest concentrations of HBCD (326.9 ng·g(-1) lw) and TBBPA (14.8 ng·g(-1) lw) were found in the brain of an adult penguin. The strongest accumulation factor for BFRs was also established for brain tissue, but it showed stronger magnification in muscle than in liver. HBCD and TBBPA were found in penguin guano and eggs, thus showing effective removal from the birds' systems. BFRs content in yolk was approximately ten times greater than in albumen indicating the lipophilic character of these compounds.

  16. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species.

  17. African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)

    PubMed Central

    Girkin, Christopher A.; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Jain, Sonia; Bowd, Christopher; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Racette, Lyne; Dirkes, Keri A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To define differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure between healthy participants of African (AD) and European descent (ED) using quantitative imaging techniques in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Methods Reliable images were obtained using stereoscopic photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography [HRT]), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for 648 healthy subjects in ADAGES. Findings were compared and adjusted for age, optic disc area, and reference plane height where appropriate. Results The AD participants had significantly greater optic disc area on HRT (2.06 mm2; P<.001) and OCT (2.47 mm2; P<.001) and a deeper HRT cup depth than the ED group (P<.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was greater in the AD group except within the temporal region, where it was significantly thinner. Central macular thickness and volume were less in the AD group. Conclusions Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area. However, differences remain in HRT cup depth, OCT macular thickness and volume, and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness independent of these variables. These differences should be considered in the determination of disease status. PMID:20457974

  18. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  19. Factors Influencing Generation Y African Americans in Their Choice for College Education: An Empirical Case Study of Fort Valley State University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyapong, Samuel K.; Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to assist a newly appointed Public Relations Officer to determine the most effective way to promote the institution to college-bound Generation Y African-Americans we offered to conduct a survey research of our current students. The results were very revealing and have been used successfully to increase enrollment to historically high…

  20. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Case Study of the Perceptions of African American Women Administrators of Community at William Paterson University of New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe-Barksdale, Sydney

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and privatization have begun to destabilize the patterns of university professional work and campus community. African American Women Administrators battle the unique challenges of racial and gender discrimination as well as the intersection of these issues. AAWAs face feelings of isolation and lack of trust, and struggles over power…

  1. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

  2. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  3. Results from a prostate cancer admixture mapping study in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bock, Cathryn Hufford; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Levin, Albert M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I; Powell, Isaac J; Kittles, Rick A; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2009-11-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African-American (AA) men compared with European-American (EA) men, and a 2.4-fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (P = 0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis P = 0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis P = 0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control P = 0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

  4. Potential of space-borne GNSS reflectometry to constrain simulations of the ocean circulation. A case study for the South African current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saynisch, Jan; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens; Thomas, Maik

    2015-11-01

    The Agulhas current system transports warm and salty water masses from the Indian Ocean into the Southern Ocean and into the Atlantic. The transports impact past, present, and future climate on local and global scales. The size and variability, however, of the respective transports are still much debated. In this study, an idealized model based twin experiment is used to study whether sea surface height (SSH) anomalies estimated from reflected signals of the Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R) can be used to determine the internal water mass properties and transports of the Agulhas region. A space-borne GNSS-R detector on the International Space Station (ISS) is assumed and simulated. The detector is able to observe daily SSH fields with a spatial resolution of 1-5∘. Depending on reflection geometry, the precision of a single SSH observation is estimated to reach 3 cm (20 cm) when the carrier phase (code delay) information of the reflected GNSS signal is used. The average precision over the Agulhas region is 7 cm (42 cm). The proposed GNSS-R measurements surpass the radar-based satellite altimetry missions in temporal and spatial resolution but are less precise. Using the estimated GNSS-R characteristics, measurements of SSH are generated by sampling a regional nested general circulation model of the South African oceans. The artificial observations are subsequently assimilated with a 4DVAR adjoint data assimilation method into the same ocean model but with a different initial state and forcing. The assimilated and the original, i.e., the sampled model state, are compared to systematically identify improvements and degradations in the model variables that arise due to the assimilation of GNSS-R based SSH observations. We show that SSH and the independent, i.e., not assimilated model variables velocity, temperature, and salinity improve by the assimilation of GNSS-R based SSH observations. After the assimilation of 90 days of SSH observations

  5. An Evaluation of iPad as a Learning Tool in Higher Education within a Rural Catchment: A Case Study at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wario, Ruth Diko; Ireri, Bonface Ngari; De Wet, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Since Apple released the iPad in 2010, it has been widely adopted for teaching and learning. Its graphical user interface combined with touch screen features engages users by attracting their attention. However, the level of engagement that would influence learning is not well understood. This case study investigated the use of iPads when engaging…

  6. On the "Africanization" of English Studies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    The article is an exploration of current trends within, and the desired destiny of, the humanities discipline of English Studies in the context of calls for the "Africanization" of South African universities. The essay advocates the embrace of a non-universalist, emancipationist humanism. (Contains 8 notes.)

  7. The Role of Teachers Advisory Centres in the Education of Teachers in Kenya. A Case Study of Nandi District. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masagara, Elizaphan Mokua

    Teachers Advisory Centres (TACs) were established in Kenya to provide inservice courses to help teachers improve professionally and to offer aid in developing curriculum and using new instructional materials. A study evaluated the performance and effectiveness of the TACs in the district of Nandi. Questionnaires were submitted to TAC tutors,…

  8. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  9. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  10. A phenomenological case study concerning science teacher educators' beliefs and teaching practices about culturally relevant pedagogy and preparing K-12 science teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Janice Bell

    Due to the rising diversity in today's schools, science teacher educators (STEs) suggest that K-12 teachers must be uniquely prepared to engage these students in science classrooms. Yet, in light of the increasing white-black science achievement gap, it is unclear how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage diverse students, and African Americans in particular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out how STEs prepare preservice teachers to engage African American students in K-12 science. Thus, using the culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework, this phenomenological case study explored beliefs about culturally relevant science teaching and the influence of reported beliefs and experiences related to race on STEs' teaching practices. In the first phase, STE's in a mid-Atlantic state were invited to participate in an electronic survey. In the second phase, four participants, who were identified as exemplars, were selected from the survey to participate in three semi-structured interviews. The data revealed that STEs were more familiar with culturally responsive pedagogy (CResP) in the context of their post-secondary classrooms as opposed to CRP. Further, most of the participants in part one and two described modeling conventional ways they prepare their preservice teachers to engage K-12 students, who represent all types of diversity, without singling out any specific race. Lastly, many of the STEs' in this study reported formative experiences related to race and beliefs in various manifestations of racism have impacted their teaching beliefs and practices. The findings of this study suggest STEs do not have a genuine understanding of the differences between CRP and CResP and by in large embrace CResP principles. Secondly, in regards to preparing preservice teachers to engage African American students in science, the participants in this study seemed to articulate the need for ideological change, but were unable to demonstrate pedagogical changes

  11. Trials and tribulations of an African-led research and capacity development programme: the case for EDCTP investments.

    PubMed

    Zumla, A; Huggett, J; Dheda, K; Green, C; Kapata, N; Mwaba, P

    2010-04-01

    We describe the initiation and establishment of The University of Zambia - University College London Medical School (UNZA-UCLMS) Research and Training Project, an entirely African scientist-led, south-north partnership. In its 16 year existence, the project, by successfully obtaining competitive grant funding, has transformed itself into one of Africa's most productive African-led R&D programmes with training and visible research outputs. The project serves as a role model and now networks R&D and training activities with six southern African (10 institutions) and six European countries. This project case study illustrates that deep commitment is essential for success and that the factors which facilitate success in R&D in Africa need to be evaluated. The long-term prospects for sustaining the UNZA-UCLMS Project appear bright and are dependent on several factors: the ability to retain trained African scientists; obtaining continued competitive or donor grant funding support; and serious investment by the African governments involved. The recent 255 million Euros EDCTP investment in sub-Saharan Africa through south-north partnerships is expected to enhance existing African-led R&D programmes. African governments and scientists must rise to the challenge.

  12. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J; Moré, Jayaji M; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L; Beecham, Ashley H; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A C; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Hauser, Stephen L; Sawcer, Stephen; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10(-4)), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk.

  13. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J.; Moré, Jayaji M.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L.; Beecham, Ashley H.; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Sawcer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10−4), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10−5). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. PMID:25818868

  14. Exploring the interaction of activity limitations with context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services: A presentation of South African case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vergunst, Richard; Kritzinger, Janis; Visagie, Surona

    2017-01-01

    Background There are many factors that influence access to public health services, such as the context people live in, the existing health services, and personal, cultural and community factors. People with disabilities (activity limitations), through their experience of health services, may offer a particular understanding of the performance of the health services, thus exposing health system limitations more clearly than perhaps any other health service user. Aim This article explores how activity limitations interact with factors related to context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services in South Africa. Setting We present four case studies of people with disabilities from four low-resource diverse contexts in South Africa (rural, semi-rural, farming community and peri-urban) to highlight challenges of access to health services experienced by people with activity limitations in a variety of contexts. Methods One case study of a person with disabilities was chosen from each study setting to build evidence using an intensive qualitative case study methodology to elucidate individual and household experiences of challenges experienced by people with activity limitations when attempting to access public health services. In-depth interviews were used to collect data, using an interview guide. The analysis was conducted in the form of a thematic analysis using the interview topics as a starting point. Results First, these four case studies demonstrate that equitable access to health services for people with activity limitations is influenced by a complex interplay of a variety of factors for a single individual in a particular context. Secondly, that while problems with access to public health services are experienced by everyone, people with activity limitations are affected in particular ways making them particularly vulnerable in using public health services. Conclusion The revitalisation of primary health care and the

  15. Study of African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Volume 1. Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AD-A139 365 STUDS OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS(U) f/f ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNITKENYA Apo NEW YORK 09675 M J REARDON ET AL DEC 83...STUDY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS FINAL REPORT CID LTC M.J. Reardon, VC I.E. Muriithi LTC J.D. Chulay, MC LTC L.D. Hendricks, MSC ym 4...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED STUDY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND FINAL--October 1982- LEISHMAIASIS 14

  16. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0

  17. The nurse in the university: a history of university education for South african nurses: a case study of the university of the witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Simonne

    2011-01-01

    This paper charts the history and debates surrounding the introduction of academic, university-based training of nurses in South Africa. This was a process that was drawn out over five decades, beginning in the late 1930s. For nurses, university training was an important part of a process of professionalization; however, for other members of the medical community, nursing was seen as being linked to women's service work. Using the case-study of the University of the Witwatersrand, one of South Africa's premier universities and the place in the country to offer a university-based nursing program, we argue that an historical understanding of the ways in which nursing education was integrated into the university system tells us a great deal about the professionalization of nursing. This paper also recognises, for the first time, the pioneers of this important process.

  18. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  19. Variants within the COMP and THBS2 genes are not associated with Achilles tendinopathy in a case-control study of South African and Australian populations.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Van Der Merwe, Lize; Cook, Jill; Handley, Christopher J; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix, while thrombospondin-2 is a matricellular protein involved in cell-matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that genetic variation is a significant risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy, and the genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) were identified as good candidate genes for association with Achilles tendinopathy. This study aimed to test the association of sequence variants within these candidate genes with the risk of Achilles tendinopathy in participants from South Africa (SA) and Australia (AUS). Three-hundred and forty (133 SA; 207 AUS) control participants with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and 178 (94 SA; 84 AUS) participants clinically diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COMP and THBS2 genes in this case-control study. There was no difference in genotype distributions between control and tendinopathy groups for either the THBS2 variants rs9505888, rs6422747 and rs9283850, or the COMP variants rs730079 and rs28494505 in the SA and AUS populations. As the selection of COMP and THBS2 as candidate genes was hypothesis driven, based on biological function, the possibility that other variants within these genes are associated with Achilles tendinopathy cannot be excluded.

  20. Convergence characteristics between a rodent, the South American lowland paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain: An exemplary case study.

    PubMed

    Dubost, Gérard

    2017-03-03

    The level of convergence between a rodent, the South American lowland paca Cuniculus paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus, is analysed using 231 characteristics belonging to different biological sectors. A convergence index is established based on the degree of rarity of each characteristic in each species compared to other members of its zoological group. Although the divergent characteristics are as numerous as the convergent ones, the two species are globally similar. Convergent characteristics occur in all biological categories, but their rate varies a great deal among them. From internal anatomy and osteology, through behaviour and ecology to the external appearance of the body, convergent characteristics are all the more frequent since the biological category is directly implicated in the adaptation of animals to their external environment (lowland rainforest). However, only the individuals' characteristics are concerned and not those of their population or social organisation. This could be due to differences between the communities of terrestrial mammals to which they belong.

  1. Grounding evidence-based approaches to cancer prevention in the community: a case study of mammography barriers in underserved African American women.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda; Bartholomew, L Kay; Hartman, Marieke A; Ford, M Molly; Balihe, Philomene

    2014-11-01

    When community health planners select an evidence-based intervention that has been developed and tested in one situation and adapt it for use in a different situation or community, best practice suggests needs assessment and formative research in the new setting. Cancer prevention planners who are interested in adopting and adapting evidence-based approaches need to base their choices on a sound understanding of the health or behavioral risk problem in which they mean to intervene. This requires a balancing act of weighing community information against a broader perspective from the scientific literature and using the combination to identify and adapt an evidence-based intervention program that is likely to be effective in the new setting. This report is a case study of a community and organizational assessment conducted as a foundation for selecting and recommending adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for improving mammography appointment attendance. We used an inductive sequential exploratory mixed-methods design to inform this process. The process provides a model for formative research grounding evidence-based practice for cancer control planners. Future studies that incorporate findings from needs assessment into the adaptation of the selected intervention program may promote the effective dissemination of evidence-based programs.

  2. A population-based case-control study of stillbirth: the relationship of significant life events to the racial disparity for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Carol J R; Parker, Corette B; Willinger, Marian; Temple, Jeff R; Bann, Carla M; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Koch, Matthew A; Coustan, Donald R; Stoll, Barbara J; Reddy, Uma M; Varner, Michael W; Saade, George R; Conway, Deborah; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2013-04-15

    Stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring at ≥20 weeks' gestation) are approximately equal in number to infant deaths in the United States and are twice as likely among non-Hispanic black births as among non-Hispanic white births. The causes of racial disparity in stillbirth remain poorly understood. A population-based case-control study conducted by the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network in 5 US catchment areas from March 2006 to September 2008 identified characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparity and interpersonal and environmental stressors, including a list of 13 significant life events (SLEs). The adjusted odds ratio for stillbirth among women reporting all 4 SLE factors (financial, emotional, traumatic, and partner-related) was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 3.46). This association was robust after additional control for the correlated variables of family income, marital status, and health insurance type. There was no interaction between race/ethnicity and other variables. Effective ameliorative interventions could have a substantial public health impact, since there is at least a 50% increased risk of stillbirth for the approximately 21% of all women and 32% of non-Hispanic black women who experience 3 or more SLE factors during the year prior to delivery.

  3. A Population-based Case-Control Study of Stillbirth: The Relationship of Significant Life Events to the Racial Disparity for African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Carol J. R.; Parker, Corette B.; Willinger, Marian; Temple, Jeff R.; Bann, Carla M.; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Koch, Matthew A.; Coustan, Donald R.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Reddy, Uma M.; Varner, Michael W.; Saade, George R.; Conway, Deborah; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring at ≥20 weeks' gestation) are approximately equal in number to infant deaths in the United States and are twice as likely among non-Hispanic black births as among non-Hispanic white births. The causes of racial disparity in stillbirth remain poorly understood. A population-based case-control study conducted by the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network in 5 US catchment areas from March 2006 to September 2008 identified characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparity and interpersonal and environmental stressors, including a list of 13 significant life events (SLEs). The adjusted odds ratio for stillbirth among women reporting all 4 SLE factors (financial, emotional, traumatic, and partner-related) was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 3.46). This association was robust after additional control for the correlated variables of family income, marital status, and health insurance type. There was no interaction between race/ethnicity and other variables. Effective ameliorative interventions could have a substantial public health impact, since there is at least a 50% increased risk of stillbirth for the approximately 21% of all women and 32% of non-Hispanic black women who experience 3 or more SLE factors during the year prior to delivery. PMID:23531847

  4. Submarine allochthonous salt sheets: Gravity-driven deformation of North African Cretaceous passive margin in Tunisia - Bled Dogra case study and nearby salt structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Bellier, Olivier; Ben Youssef, Mohamed; Koyi, Hemin

    2014-09-01

    We used structural, stratigraphic and sedimentologic data, together with a comparison of nearby structures and a Bouguer gravity map, to evaluate the evolution of the Bled Dogra salt structure (northern Tunisia) during the Cretaceous. Triassic salt sheets are recognized in the northwestern region of the Tunisian Atlas. These salt sheets are the result of Cretaceous thick and/or thin-skinned extension along the south Tethyan margin. The Bled Dogra salt structure is one of these submarine allochthonous salt sheets, which was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous. The geologic framework, during this period, produces conditions for a predominantly gravity-driven deformation: extension has produced space for the salt to rise; vigorous differential sedimentation created differential loading that resulted in the emplacement and extrusion of a large volume of Triassic salt and formation of large submarine salt sheets. Geologic field data suggest an interlayered Triassic salt sheet within Albian sequences. Salt was extruded at the sea floor during the Early-Middle Albian and was initially buried by Middle-Late Albian strata. The Coniacian corresponds to a second transgressive cover onto the salt sheet after the gliding of the first salt cover (Late Albian-Turonian). In addition, this northwest Tunisian area exposes evidences for salt flow and abundant slump features at the base of a northward facing submarine slope, which was probably dominant from the Early Cretaceous to Santonian. Two gravity deformation processes are recognized: gravity gliding and gravity spreading. Acting concurrently, these two processes appear indistinguishable in this geologic context. Like the present-day salt-involved passive margins - such as the northern Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic margin of Morocco, the Brazilian Santos basin, the Angola margin, Cadiz in western Iberia, and the Red Sea - the North African Cretaceous passive margin in Tunisia provides evidences that deformation in a passive

  5. Training for health services and systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa - a case study at four East and Southern African Universities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to develop capacity for health services and systems research (HSSR) in low and middle income countries has been highlighted in a number of international forums. However, little is known about the level of HSSR training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We conducted an assessment at four major East and Southern African universities to describe: a) the numbers of HSSR PhD trainees at these institutions, b) existing HSSR curricula and mode of delivery, and c) motivating and challenging factors for PhD training, from the trainees’ experience. Methods PhD training program managers completed a pre-designed form about trainees enrolled since 2006. A desk review of existing health curricula was also conducted to identify HSSR modules being offered; and PhD trainees completed a self-administered questionnaire on motivating and challenging factors they may have experienced during their PhD training. Results Of the 640 PhD trainees enrolled in the health sciences since 2006, only 24 (3.8%) were in an HSSR field. None of the universities had a PhD training program focusing on HSSR. The 24 HSSR PhD trainees had trained in partnership with a university outside Africa. Top motivating factors for PhD training were: commitment of supervisors (67%), availability of scholarships (63%), and training attached to a research grant (25%). Top challenging factors were: procurement delays (44%), family commitments (38%), and poor Internet connection (35%). Conclusion The number of HSSR PhD trainees is at the moment too small to enable a rapid accumulation of the required critical mass of locally trained HSSR professionals to drive the much needed health systems strengthening and innovations in this region. Curricula for advanced HSSR training are absent, exposing a serious training gap for HSSR in this region. PMID:24365482

  6. Educational Development in Africa: II -- Costing and Financing. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains three monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. This book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  7. Ebola impact on African health systems entails a quest for more international and local resilience: the case of African Portuguese speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epidemics on African health systems, with a special focus on the definition of impact mitigation guidelines and the role of resilience. The example of Portuguese speaking countries is presented. Methods A combination of literature review and case study methods are used. A literature review on Ebola outbreak impact on health systems will provide information to define a set of guidelines for healthcare services response to Ebola. The role of cooperation in providing additional resilience is described. Finally a case study focusing on the Portuguese collaboration and intervention in African Portuguese Speaking Countries (PALOP) is presented, as an example how the international community can provide additional resilience. Results The existing knowledge is very helpful to guide both the preparation and the coordination of Ebola preparedness interventions. Additional resilience can be provided by international cooperation. Conclusion In addition to international concrete support in times of crisis, to have a regional strategy of creating (multi-national) teams to rapidly implement an intervention while establishing better regional capacity to have sufficient resources to support the “resilience” required of the health system. PMID:26740843

  8. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10−8). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  9. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  10. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption. PMID:26131261

  11. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption.

  12. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  13. Pilot study of INSIGHT therapy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Wicks, Mona; Bolden, Lois

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if treatment with INSIGHT therapy, designed specifically for women, could reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and loneliness in African American women. Prevalence of mental illness differs in African Americans and Caucasians. The nonexperimental one-group pretest posttest design study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week INSIGHT group intervention. Due to the stigma of mental illness, groups met at an African American church. Reliability and validity of instruments were effectively demonstrated. Statistically significant difference was found in the level of depression but the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness. Clinically significant improvement occurred for some participants in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness.

  14. The adequacy of policy responses to the treatment needs of South Africans living with HIV (1999-2008): a case study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic of any country in the world. Case description National antiretroviral therapy (ART) policy is examined over the period of 1999 to 2008, which coincided with the government of President Thabo Mbeki and his Minister of Health, Dr Manto Tshabalala-Msimang. The movement towards a national ART programme in South Africa was an ambitious undertaking, the likes of which had not been contemplated before in public health in Africa. Discussion and evaluation One million AIDS-ill individuals were targeted to be enrolled in the ART programme by 2007/08. Fewer than 50% of eligible individuals were enrolled. This failure resulted from lack of political commitment and inadequate public health system capacity. The human and economic costs of this failure are large and sobering. Conclusions The total lost benefits of ART not reaching the people who need it are estimated at 3.8 million life years for the period, 2000 to 2005. The economic cost of those lost life years over this period has been estimated at more than US$15 billion. PMID:20015346

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  16. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  17. Integration of HIV/AIDS services into African primary health care: lessons learned for health system strengthening in Mozambique - a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, Mozambique, supported by large increases in international disease-specific funding, initiated a national rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and HIV care through a vertical "Day Hospital" approach. Though this model showed substantial increases in people receiving treatment, it diverted scarce resources away from the primary health care (PHC) system. In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MOH) began an effort to use HIV/AIDS treatment and care resources as a means to strengthen their PHC system. The MOH worked closely with a number of NGOs to integrate HIV programs more effectively into existing public-sector PHC services. Case Description In 2005, the Ministry of Health and Health Alliance International initiated an effort in two provinces to integrate ART into the existing primary health care system through health units distributed across 23 districts. Integration included: a) placing ART services in existing units; b) retraining existing workers; c) strengthening laboratories, testing, and referral linkages; e) expanding testing in TB wards; f) integrating HIV and antenatal services; and g) improving district-level management. Discussion: By 2008, treatment was available in nearly 67 health facilities in 23 districts. Nearly 30,000 adults were on ART. Over 80,000 enrolled in the HIV/AIDS program. Loss to follow-up from antenatal and TB testing to ART services has declined from 70% to less than 10% in many integrated sites. Average time from HIV testing to ART initiation is significantly faster and adherence to ART is better in smaller peripheral clinics than in vertical day hospitals. Integration has also improved other non-HIV aspects of primary health care. Conclusion The integration approach enables the public sector PHC system to test more patients for HIV, place more patients on ART more quickly and efficiently, reduce loss-to-follow-up, and achieve greater geographic HIV care coverage compared to the vertical model. Through the

  18. Progress and Challenges in Astronomical Research in Developing Countries of Sub-Saharan African: Nigeria as a Case Study by Prof. F.E. Opara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Fidelix

    ABSTRCT: The Centre for Basic Space Science and Astronomy (CBSS) is an activity Centre for Space Research and development in Nigeria mandated to pursue capacity building (manpower and infrastructural development) that can sufficiently address the developmental needs of the country in several areas through studies, research and development in Basic Space Science such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, Cosmology and origin of life, Atmospheric Science, Geomagnetism, Rocketry and Satellite Science and Technology. In this study, we highlight the progress made by the centre in the area of capacity and infrastructural building. The challenges faced by the Centre were also highlighted while successful researches on Near Earth Objects that fell in Nigeria and their impact craters have been simulated.

  19. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans’ increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  20. Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot

  1. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in South African subtropical humid forest and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches < 1 km2). The utilization of timber and non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.

  2. Are the Standards Adequate for Organizing African American Studies Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Dorothy Ann

    Standards of bibliographic organization often are inadequate for those libraries with extensive African American studies collections or those with active user groups. This essay identifies areas where the standards are least effective. The experiences of the staff at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library,…

  3. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  4. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  5. The Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study: Baseline Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Sankar, Prithvi S.; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Regina, Meredith; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Salowe, Rebecca J.; Rhodes, Allison L.; Merritt, William T.; Chua, Michael; Trachtman, Benjamin T.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Collins, David W.; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Nichols, Charles; Henderer, Jeffrey; Ying, Gui-shuang; Varma, Rohit; Jorgenson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study cohort, the largest African-American primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) population recruited at a single institution (University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute) to date. Design Population-based, cross-sectional, case-control study. Participants 2,520 African-American subjects 35 years and older, recruited from the greater Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. Methods Each subject underwent a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview assessed demographic, behavioral, medical, and ocular risk factors. Current zip codes surrounding the University of Pennsylvania were recorded and United States census data were queried to infer socioeconomic status. The eye exam included measurement of visual acuity and intraocular pressure, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination including gonioscopy, dilated fundus and optic disc examination, visual fields, stereo disc photography, optical coherence tomography imaging, and measurement of central corneal thickness. Main Outcome Measures The baseline characteristics of gender, age, and glaucoma diagnosis were collected. Body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol and tobacco use, as well as ocular conditions including blindness, cataract, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and use of ocular medication and surgery, were examined. Median population density, income, education level, and other socioeconomic measures were determined for the study cohort. Results Of the 2,520 African-Americans recruited to the POAAGG study to date, 2,067 (82.0%) including 807 controls and 1,260 POAG cases met all inclusion criteria and completed the detailed clinical ocular exam. Cases were more likely to have a lower BMI (p<0.01) and report a history of blindness (visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, p<0.001), while controls

  6. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Aimé; Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Koffi Owusu, Isaac; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla AM; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Priori, Silvia G; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300 000 to 400 000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. Methods The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as ‘witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms’ or ‘unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms’. After appro val from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. Conclusion This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world. PMID:25192301

  7. Public Participation Guide: Skorpion Zinc Project Case Study - Namibia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This case study describes the efforts of an independent professional team working with South African and Namibian specialists to identify and address environmental and public health and safety concerns related to a zinc mine and refinery.

  8. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Daniel O.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; DeMichele, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guoliang; Long, Jirong; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Cox, Nancy J.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Simon, Michael S.; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Young, Alicia; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Rhie, Suhn K.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10−6 and 10−5 in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3×10−6; rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5×10−5). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample. PMID:22923054

  9. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Daniel O; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R; Hu, Jennifer J; Rebbeck, Tim R; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Demichele, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guoliang; Long, Jirong; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Simon, Michael S; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Hutter, Carolyn M; Young, Alicia; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Rhie, Suhn K; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Van Den Berg, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of >1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10(-6) and 10(-5) in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3 × 10(-6); rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5 × 10(-5)). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.

  10. Innovative tephra studies in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Heiken, Grant

    Geosciences investigations form the foundation for paleoanthropological research in the East African Rift System. However, innovative applications of tephra studies for constraining spatial and temporal relations of diverse geological processes, biostratigraphic records, and paleoenvironmental conditions within the East African Rift System were fueled by paleoanthropological investigations into the origin and evolution of hominids and material culture. Tephra is a collective, size-independent term used for any material ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption.The East African Rift System has become a magnet for paleoanthropological research ever since the discovery of the first hominids at Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, in the 1950s [Leakey et al., 1961]. Currently, numerous multidisciplinary scientific teams from academic institutions in the United States and Western Europe make annual pilgrimages for a couple of months to conduct paleoanthropological field research in the fossil-rich sedimentary deposits of the East African Rift System in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. The field expedition consists of geological, paleontological, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental investigations.

  11. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  12. African Studies as a Part of Philologists' Professional Training in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikonnikova, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    It has been concluded that until recently debates on what is understood as African Studies have involved American scholars or have been mainly located within the African Studies Association (ASA) in the USA. Lately, European scholars have begun to occupy more discursive space and challenged Afrocentric orientations as well. African Studies…

  13. A Phenomenological Study: African-American Males in the Educational Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristopher

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…

  14. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  15. Experiences of HIV-Positive African-American and African Caribbean Childbearing Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Njie-Carr, Veronica; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experiences of HIV-positive African-American and African Caribbean childbearing women related to decisions about HIV testing, status disclosure, adhering to treatment, decisions about childbearing, and experiences in violent intimate relationships. Twenty-three women completed a 60-minute in-depth interview. Six themes emerged: perceived vulnerability to HIV infection; feelings about getting tested for HIV; knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors after HIV diagnosis; disclosure of HIV status; living with HIV (positivity, strength, and prayer); and, experiences with physical and sexual violence. Three women (13%) reported perinatal abuse and 10 women (n = 23, 43.4%) reported lifetime abuse. Positive experiences and resilience were gained from faith and prayer. Most important to the women were the perceived benefits of protecting the health of their baby. Findings suggest that policies supporting early identification of HIV-positive childbearing women are critical in order to provide counseling and education in forming their decisions for safety precautions in violent intimate partner relationships. PMID:23061166

  16. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  17. A Phenomenological Study Exploring Shortages of African American Male Teachers in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimbush, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…

  18. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  19. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  20. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  1. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N F; Austin, H; Dilley, A; Whitsett, C; Evatt, B L; Hooper, W C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, comprehensively, medical and genetic attributes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a multiracial American population. The Genetic Attributes and Thrombosis Epidemiology (GATE) study is an ongoing case-control study in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to examine racial differences in VTE etiology and pathogenesis. Between 1998 and 2001, 370 inpatients with confirmed VTE, and 250 control subjects were enrolled. Data collected included blood specimens for DNA and plasma analysis and a medical lifestyle history questionnaire. Comparing VTE cases, cancer, recent surgery, and immobilization were more common in caucasian cases, while hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease were more prevalent in African-American cases. Family history of VTE was reported with equal frequency by cases of both races (28-29%). Race-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were 3.1 (1.5, 6.7) and 1.9 (0.8, 4.4), respectively. Using a larger external comparison group, the odds ratio for the prothrombin mutation among Caucasians was a statistically significant 2.5 (1.4, 4.3). A case-only analysis revealed a near significant interaction between the two mutations among Caucasians. We found that clinical characteristics of VTE patients differed across race groups. Family history of VTE was common in white and black patients, yet known genetic risk factors for VTE are rare in African-American populations. Our findings underscore the need to determine gene polymorphisms associated with VTE in African-Americans.

  2. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Nonshaved cranial surgery in black Africans: technical report and a medium-term prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Amos O

    2016-07-01

    Nonshaved neurosurgery, cranial or spinal, is well reported among Caucasians but hardly among native Africans. The ungroomed scalp hairs of black Africans have unique anthropological characteristics needing special attention for shaveless cranial surgery. A technical report of the execution of this surgical procedure among an indigenous patient population in a sub-Sahara African country is presented, as well as an outcome analysis in a prospective cohort over a 7-year period. A total of 303 patients (211 males, 70 %) fulfilled the criteria for this study. The surgical procedure was primary in 278 (92 %) and redo in 8 %. It was emergency surgery in 153 (51 %). They were trauma craniotomies or decompressive craniectomies in 95 cases (31 %), craniotomies for tumour resections in 86 (28 %), and the surgical dissections for other conditions in 122 (41 %). The duration of surgery ranged from 30 min to 8.5 h, mean 2.5 (SD, 1.6), median 2. In-hospital clinical outcome was good (normal status or moderate deficit on dichotomized Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)) in 273 (90.1 %) cases while surgical site infections occurred in only 10 cases (3.3 %). The type of surgery, redo or primary, did not have any significant association with the in-hospital outcome (p = 0.5), nor with the presence of surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.7). The length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean, 7) with no untoward complications reported so far. Medium-term outcome of nonshaved neurosurgery in this indigenous black Africans remains favourable with no attendant significant adverse after-effects.

  4. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  5. A Study of Teachers, Students, and Parents' Perceptions of How School Climate Affects African-American and Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally, educational disparities have resulted in a significant achievement gap among African American and Latino students compared to European American students. Cognitive theorists including Piaget, Bruner, and Vygotsky believe that one's environment has an effect on learning. This qualitative case study examined teacher, student, and parent…

  6. Tobago Prostate Survey: Prostate Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Study of Men of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    control studies suggest that sex hormone related polymorphisms and surrogate hormone measures are related to prostate cancer. This Tobago population...our hypothesis that, as observed in African American men, Afro-Caribbean men experience a high risk for prostate cancer. Results from the pilot case

  7. Review of studies on metabolic genes and cancer in populations of African descent

    PubMed Central

    Ragin, Camille C.; Langevin, Scott; Rubin, Scott; Taioli, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms described for a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and alcohol have been linked to increase cancer risk. Racial disparities in cancer between Whites and populations of African descent are well documented. In addition to differences in access to health care, both environment and genetic factors and their interaction may contribute to the increased cancer risk in minority populations. We reviewed the literature to identify case-control studies that included subjects of African descent. Meta analyses investigating the association of genetic polymorphisms in tobacco metabolic genes and cancer were performed. While several genes and cancers have been studied, only one or two studies per gene for each cancer site have been published, with the exception of breast (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1), lung (GSTM1, CYP1A1, and NQO1) and prostate (CYP3A4 A293G and CYP17). Marginal statistically significant associations were observed for CYP3A4 A293G and CYP17 5'UTR polymorphisms and prostate cancer. Our findings support the need for additional genetic association studies of breast, prostate and lung cancers that include a larger number of minority participants. Since incidence and mortality rates for these cancers rank highest among populations of African descent concentrated research in these areas are warranted. PMID:20027111

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery.

    PubMed

    Legodi, M A; de Waal, D

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  10. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (b) Casings from... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  11. Beliefs about racism and health among African American women with diabetes: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Mendenhall, Emily A; Budris, Lisa M; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American women's beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult African American women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events, including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. African American women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes.

  12. Conditions for the Success of Online Mentoring a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nchindila, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings about a mentoring project that failed. It is based on a case study in which the writer participated as a mentor of the staff members of the South African Department of Labour. In 2002, the South African Department of Labour (DoL) published a tender ref: Services/ta/cst/p1/wp3 for Communications Skills Training…

  13. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  14. The Female Voice and Traditional Discourse Biases: The Case of Francophone African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Beverly; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a computerized statistical study of discourse bias and the specificity of female writing against male writing. Examines the characters in 20 novels written by male and female Francophone African authors. Finds a number of significant differences that characterize the make-up of novels by the two sexes. (CFR)

  15. Witchcraft in Transkei Region of South African: case report.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2009-03-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunt have been practiced widely almost all over the world. It is known as magic in Europe, maleficium (wrong-doing) in Latin America, and superpower in Asia. In Africa those accused of being witches often face execution. A range of accusations are leveled against witches such as causing impotence, turning milk sour, causing disease and death.Three cases are presented here to highlight the issues related to witch craft in Transkei area. The information was given by the next of kin at the time of autopsy. All were elderly women over 50 years of age. The first was related to tuberculosis of the brother of the perpetrator the second, death of the culprit's relative and third the death of culprits brother in Johannesburg. The first and third victims were brutally chopped by axe and in the second it was a firearm injury. The case history, the type of wounds, and medico-legal aspects of death are discussed in these reports. There law related to witchcraft and their implementations to prevent such deaths are discussed.

  16. Studies of African wave disturbances with the GISS GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Hall, Timothy M.

    1994-01-01

    Simulations made with the general circulation model of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS GCM) run at 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude horizontal resolution are analyzed to determine the model's representation of African wave disturbances. Waves detected in the model's lower troposphere over northern Africa during the summer monsoon season exhibit realistic wavelengths of about 2200 km. However, power spectra of the meridional wind show that the waves propagate westward too slowly, with periods of 5-10 days, about twice the observed values. This sluggishness is most pronounced during August, consistent with simulated 600-mb zonal winds that are only about half the observed speeds of the midtropospheric jet. The modeled wave amplitudes are strongest over West Africa during the first half of the summer but decrease dramatically by September, contrary to observational evidence. Maximum amplitudes occur at realistic latitudes, 12 deg - 20 deg N, but not as observed near the Atlantic coast. Spectral analyses suggest some wave modulation of precipitation in the 5-8 day band, and compositing shows that precipitation is slightly enhanced east of the wave trough, coincident with southerly winds. Extrema of low-level convergence west of the wave troughs, coinciding with northerly winds, were not preferred areas for simulated precipitation, probably because of the drying effect of this advection, as waves were generally north of the humid zone. The documentation of African wave disturbances in the GISS GCM is a first step toward considering wave influences in future GCM studies of Sahel drought.

  17. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  18. New-onset diabetic ketoacidosis in a 13-months old african toddler: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Katte, Jean-Claude; Djoumessi, Romance; Njindam, Gisele; Fetse, Gerard Tama; Dehayem, Mesmin; Kengne, Andre-Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is very rare in infants and toddlers and is usually associated with high mortality when complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Toddlers in DKA are often missed in our typical African setting where there is low index of suspicion. Usually, the classical symptoms are not usually at the forefront and many infants and toddlers who develop DKA are mistreated for infections. The case of a 13-months old toddler with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, complicated with DKA at diagnosis is reported in view of its rarity and elevated mortality even when diagnosed in our African setting. She was subsequently treated with intravenous insulin and was passed over to subcutaneous insulin after the eradication of ketones in urine. She continues follow-up at the out-patient children diabetes clinic at the Bafoussam Regional Hospital. PMID:26966489

  19. The first case of intersexuality in an African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis).

    PubMed

    Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Widmer, Dimitri; Mutschmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To the authors knowledge this is the first case of intersexuality in an African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). An adult African dwarf crocodile with a male-typical phenotype lived at Zoo Duisburg in Germany for 10 years. It died in October 2012 despite intensive treatment as a result of terminal septicemia. After a detailed pathological examination the gonads were histologically confirmed as ovotestes. Half of the 22 extant species of crocodilians have been examined for occurrence of temperature dependent sex determination (TSD). In TSD reptiles, masculinizing temperatures yield 100% or a majority of males, whereas feminizing temperatures yield 100% or a majority of females. In the transition range of temperature (TRT), a mix of males, females and sometimes intersexes are obtained. However, the molecular mechanisms behind TSD and an explanation for the occurrence of intersexuality remain elusive.

  20. Treatment of hypertension among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Harman, Jane; Walker, Evelyn R; Charbonneau, Vicki; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Nelson, Cheryl; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension treatment regimens used by African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study were evaluated at the first two clinical examinations (2415 treated hypertensive persons at examination I [exam I], 2000-2004; 2577 at examination II [exam II], 2005-2008). Blood pressure (BP) was below 140/90 mm Hg for 66% and 70% of treated participants at exam I and exam II, respectively. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure treatment targets were met for 56% and 61% at exam I and exam II, respectively. Persons with diabetes or chronic kidney disease were less likely to have BP at target, as were men compared with women. Thiazide diuretics were the most commonly used antihypertensive medication, and persons taking a thiazide were more likely to have their BP controlled than persons not taking them; thiazides were used significantly less among men than women. Although calcium channel blockers are often considered to be effective monotherapy for African Americans, persons using calcium channel blocker monotherapy were significantly less likely to be at target BP than persons using thiazide monotherapy.

  1. Case study research.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  2. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  3. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  4. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  5. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  6. Recruiting African American men for cancer screening studies: applying a culturally based model.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Magat, Maricar M; Houston, Tina R; Arnold, Harold L; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L

    2005-08-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model). To conduct cancer prevention research in the African American community, to engage in health promotion in collaboration with churches, and to recruit African American men, a culturally competent approach that incorporates the values of the community is essential. Implications for addressing specific barriers to recruitment and building partnerships in health promotion research are discussed.

  7. A Phenomenological Study of African-American Community College Students in the Baltimore County Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Taneisha L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to examine the factors that influence African American community college students' decisions to pursue a higher education. Studies have also examined the causes of the achievement gap between African-Americans and European American community college students. However, there is limited research about…

  8. A Phenomenologicial Narrative Study of African American Male Community College Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the lived experiences of African American male community college instructors using interviews, classroom observations, and personal testimonies conducted at a Southeast Texas community college. Brown (2009) previously conducted a study on African American male…

  9. African Literature in Afro-American Studies Programs or: Too Many Indispensables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, David F., Jr.

    Within the Afro-American studies program, the study of African literature is invaluable in demonstrating the relationship between black Americans and Africa; it contributes to the sketchy glimpse of what black culture is and reflects the affective experience of colonialism and neocolonialism. This paper explores the values of an African-literature…

  10. Heritability of Lipid Phenotypes among African-Americans: Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinants of serum lipid levels include both genetic and non-genetic components. More research is needed to determine the role each plays in serum lipid levels of African-Americans. The Jackson Heart Study Family Sub-Study (JHS, FSS) represents a cohort of African-American adults for which both ...

  11. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  12. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  13. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  14. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  15. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  16. Discovering the Possibilities: A Study of African American Youth Resistance and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Williams, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a study of African American youth resistance and activism. The data revealed that African American youth have a large capacity for activism and ability to resist. Early engagement on issues of social justice, equality and freedom by family, teachers, pastors and community leaders can help to shape political character and…

  17. A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of African American Leadership in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…

  18. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora.

  19. [Case and studies].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  20. Individual interviews with African-American women regarding condom use: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Teressa Sanders

    2010-07-01

    African-American women between 25 and 34 years of age are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Current prevention techniques, including education, have not had a significant influence on decreasing the rates of HIV and increasing safer sexual practices among some African-American women. This pilot study is one step towards increasing the understanding of this serious problem and developing effective interventions to stem the tide of HIV infection in African-American women. A grounded theory approach was used to address the process that unmarried, heterosexual, African-American women used to negotiate condom use with their sexual partner. Major concepts, connections between the categories, and theoretical codes are identified in this study and can be used to predict, speculate, explain, and understand the reported behavior of African-American women in negotiating condom use with their sexual partner.

  1. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  2. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through…

  3. Case Study: Challenging Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  5. The Impact of Ethnic Identity Stage Development on the Intercultural Sensitivity of African-American Students during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinani, Thandiwe T.

    2016-01-01

    African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…

  6. The African Experience. After Nairobi: New Horizons for Social Studies. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Asserts that problems facing U.S. social studies, such as multiculturalism and individual rights, are not as important as development issues for African nations. (CFR)

  7. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  8. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  9. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  10. Septic Systems Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  11. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  12. Pedagogies of Experience: A Case of the African American Male Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…

  13. Symptomatic infantile Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection in indigenous African infants: a case series.

    PubMed

    Malande, Oliver Ombeva

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection rate increases with age. Higher rates have however been reported among young people in the developing countries of the world. The infection however has rarely been reported in infants, especially in Africa. This case series describes three cases of Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection as diagnosed in three infants. The goal is to raise the suspicion index of medical practitioners about the possibility of this this infection among infants who present with suggestive symptoms. On three separate occasions in 2012 and 2013, three ill, indigenous, black African female infants aged 4, 6 and 7 months, were brought to hospital with symptoms ranging from fever, refusal to feed, diarrhoea, restlessness, vomiting and irritability. In each case, systemic examination findings were unremarkable. After several laboratory investigations, each infant was found to have Helicobacter pylori infection following positive blood antibody (using Tell Me Fast H. Pylori antibody serum and Plasma test manufactured by Biocan Diagnostics Canada) and fecal HpSA ImmunoCardSTAT antigen tests. Repeat stool antigen test was negative in each case after completion of the recommended triple therapy. Helicobacter pylori infection has been rarely reported among infants. This case series highlights the need for health care providers to have a high index of suspicion so that infants with suggestive symptoms, especially in settings with high Helicobacter pylori colonization prevalence can be evaluated for Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection.

  14. Conceptual Tutoring Software for Promoting Deep Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…

  15. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy in an African-indigenous patient from the Amazon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Thiago Pastor da Silva; Carneiro, José Thiers; de Melo Alves, Sérgio; de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, João; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita

    2013-11-25

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare condition that occurs normally in the anterior maxilla of infants aged <1 year. The use of clinical and imaging tools for MNTI is extremely important to prevent problems with function as well as the aesthetic features in a breastfeeding child. Brazil is a multiethnic country with a poor epidemiological policy and little data to track the incidence of certain diseases, including MNTI. It is important to study this pathology with ethnicity as a factor to improve the current epidemiological programs and establish better post-treatment management. This paper describes a case of a 2-month-old male of African-indigenous descent and Brazilian Amazon residency, who presented to our unit in 2009 with a history of an expanding mass involving the anterior maxilla. Clinical and computerized tomography scans were used to diagnose the mass as MNTI, which was removed by total excision. A biopsy later confirmed the MNTI diagnosis.

  16. Why aren't there more African-American physicians? A qualitative study and exploratory inquiry of African-American students' perspectives on careers in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijaya; Flores, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: African Americans comprise 13% of Americans but only 4% of U.S. physicians. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify African-American high-school student perspectives on barriers to African Americans pursuing careers in medicine. METHOD: Focus group interviews (consisting of 15 questions) were conducted of African-American high-school juniors attending a Milwaukee public high school in which 89% of students are African Americans. The two focus groups were conducted in 2006, transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: The 12 students interviewed in two focus groups had a mean age of 17 years; 41% of students' parents were high-school graduates. Major barriers to becoming a physician cited by students included financial constraints, lack of knowledge about medicine, little/no encouragement at home or in school, negative peer views on excelling academically, lack of African-American role models in the community and on TV, racism in medicine, and easier and more appealing alternatives for making money. Students stated that increasing the number of African-American physicians would enhance patient-physician communication and relationships, and more African Americans would become physicians if there were greater exposure to medicine in schools, more guidance at a younger age and more role models. CONCLUSION: Financial constraints, insufficient exposure to medicine as a career, little encouragement at home and in schools, lack of role models, and negative peer pressure may contribute to racial disparities in the physician workforce for African Americans. Exposure at a young age to role models and to medicine as a profession might increase the number of African American physicians. PMID:17913107

  17. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed.

  18. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Keith Wayne

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  19. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  20. [Coronary disease with normal coronarography in the black Africans: epidemiological and clinical data in 31 cases. Role of abnormal hemoglobins].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Renambot, J; Chauvet, J; Seka, R; Ticolat, R; Odi Assamoi, M; Ndori, R; Ekra, A

    1993-04-01

    The authors studied 31 cases of coronary artery disease with normal or minimally diseases coronary arteries in black Africans, 29.8% of 104 coronary patients undergoing coronary angiography in this series. These 31 cases comprised 16 cases of infarction, 10 cases of angina, 3 ventricular aneurysms and 2 cases of silent ischemia in diabetic patients. Twenty-five patients were men (80.6%). There were 6 women (19.3%) two of whom presented in the post-partum period. The average age of these patients was 45 years (males: 47.7 years; females: 41.8 years). The following risk factors were noted: smoking (60%), hypertension (25.8%), obesity (29%), diabetes (12.9%), serum cholesterol (average 2.15 g/l), serum triglycerides (average 1.25 g/l). The risk index per patient was 1.29. In comparison with coronary patients with angiographic coronary lesions (n = 73), the patients with normal angiography were significantly younger, comprised more females and had fewer risk factors (especially hypertension and diabetes), though this was not statistically significant. The prevalence of inaugural infarction was 81.2% in the cases of infarction with normal coronary arteries. These infarcts may be complicated by ventricular aneurysm formation. Spontaneous spasm was observed in 3 out of 31 patients (9.6%) at coronary angiography. A provocative test was performed in only 2 cases and 1 was positive. This deserves further study and may have therapeutic implications. The authors emphasise the high incidence of hemoglobin S or C traits (57.1%). These heterozygotic hemoglobinopathies could be a risk factor in these coronary patients with normal coronary angiography.

  1. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  2. Distance Learning Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…

  3. African American single mothers and children in context: a review of studies on risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Murry, V M; Bynum, M S; Brody, G H; Willert, A; Stephens, D

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of research linking single-parent family structure to parenting processes, maternal well-being, and child developmental outcomes among African Americans. The approaches used to study these families, related methodological and conceptual concerns, and the factors linked to maternal well-being, effective parenting processes, family functioning, and child outcomes are addressed. Much work remains to be done on conceptualizing and assessing parenting processes among African Americans in general and single African American mothers in particular. Researchers must examine more carefully the circumstances that foster or impede successful parenting among these mothers. Studies also are needed to disentangle the interactions between economic stress and parenting behavior and to determine the extent to which the findings can be applied to middle-income single African American parents.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  5. The Potential for Enhancing the Power of Genetic Association Studies in African Americans through the Reuse of Existing Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003), applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study. PMID:20824062

  6. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  7. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  8. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in African Americans Provides Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Li, Jiang; Chen, Wei-Min; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Jiankang; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Nalls, Michael A.; Comeau, Mary E.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Sun, Yan V.; An, Ping; Patel, Sanjay R.; Lu, Yingchang; Long, Jirong; Armstrong, Loren L.; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Yang, Lingyao; Snively, Beverly M.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D.; Keene, Keith L.; Freedman, Barry I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nayak, Uma; Raffel, Leslie J.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Herman A.; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Couper, David; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Doumatey, Ayo; Chen, Guanjie; Mathias, Rasika A.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Singleton, Andrew B.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Igo, Robert P.; Sedor, John R.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Siscovick, David S.; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Liu, Yongmei; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Zhao, Wei; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Gottesman, Omri; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.; Lowe, William L.; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Crawford, Dana C.; Grundberg, Elin; Rich, Stephen S.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Fornage, Myriam; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Diane M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Wilson, James G.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sale, Michèle M.; Liu, Simin; Rotimi, Charles N.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15×10−94African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies. PMID:25102180

  10. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H; Li, Jiang; Chen, Wei-Min; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Jiankang; Bielinski, Suzette J; Yanek, Lisa R; Nalls, Michael A; Comeau, Mary E; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Jensen, Richard A; Evans, Daniel S; Sun, Yan V; An, Ping; Patel, Sanjay R; Lu, Yingchang; Long, Jirong; Armstrong, Loren L; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Yang, Lingyao; Snively, Beverly M; Palmer, Nicholette D; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D; Keene, Keith L; Freedman, Barry I; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Raffel, Leslie J; Goodarzi, Mark O; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Herman A; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Couper, David; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Doumatey, Ayo; Chen, Guanjie; Mathias, Rasika A; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Singleton, Andrew B; Zonderman, Alan B; Igo, Robert P; Sedor, John R; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Siscovick, David S; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Liu, Yongmei; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Zhao, Wei; Bielak, Lawrence F; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A; Bottinger, Erwin P; Gottesman, Omri; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J; Lowe, William L; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Crawford, Dana C; Grundberg, Elin; Rich, Stephen S; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Loos, Ruth J F; Borecki, Ingrid B; Peyser, Patricia A; Cummings, Steven R; Psaty, Bruce M; Fornage, Myriam; Iyengar, Sudha K; Evans, Michele K; Becker, Diane M; Kao, W H Linda; Wilson, James G; Rotter, Jerome I; Sale, Michèle M; Liu, Simin; Rotimi, Charles N; Bowden, Donald W

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94)African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies.

  11. Understanding the benefits and challenges of community engagement in the development of community mental health services for common mental disorders: lessons from a case study in a rural South African subdistrict site.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Baillie, Kim; Bhana, Arvin

    2012-07-01

    Against the backdrop of a large treatment gap for mental disorders in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), the 2007 Lancet series on global mental health calls for a scaling up of mental health services. Community participation is largely harnessed as one strategy to facilitate this call. Using a participatory implementation framework for the development of mental health services for common mental disorders (CMDs) in a rural subdistrict in South Africa as a case study, this study sought to understand the benefits and challenges of community participation beyond that of scaling up. Qualitative process evaluation involving interviews with service providers and users was employed. The results suggest that in addition to promoting mobilization of resources and actions for scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially contribute to more culturally competent services and personal empowerment of recipients of care. In addition, community participation holds promise for engendering community-led public health actions to ameliorate some of the social determinants of mental ill health. Challenges include that community members involved in these activities are mainly marginalized women, who have limited power to achieve structural change, including cultural practices that may be harmful to the mental health of women and children. We conclude that in addition to contributing to scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially promote the development of culturally competent mental health services and greater community control of mental health.

  12. Mathematical modeling approaches in the study of glaucoma disparities among people of African and European descents

    PubMed Central

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Arciero, Julia C.; Siesky, Brent A.; Amireskandari, Annahita; Gerber, Austin L.; Huck, Andrew H.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Cassani, Simone; Carichino, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a severe ocular disease characterized by progressive and irreversible vision loss. While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-established risk factor for OAG, the progression of OAG in many cases, despite IOP treatment, suggests that other risk factors must play significant roles in the development of the disease. For example, various structural properties of the eye, ocular blood flow properties, and systemic conditions have been identified as risk factors for OAG. Ethnicity has also been indicated as a relevant factor that affects the incidence and prevalence of OAG; in fact, OAG is the leading cause of blindness among people of African descent. Numerous clinical studies have been designed to examine the possible correlation and causation between OAG and these factors; however, these studies are met with the challenge of isolating the individual role of multiple interconnected factors. Over the last decade, various mathematical modeling approaches have been implemented in combination with clinical studies in order to provide a mechanical and hemodynamical description of the eye in relation to the entire human body and to assess the contribution of single risk factors to the development of OAG. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence of ocular structural differences, ocular vascular differences and systemic vascular differences among people of African and European descent, describes the mathematical approaches that have been proposed to study ocular mechanics and hemodynamics while discussing how they could be used to investigate the relevance to OAG of racial disparities, and outlines possible new directions of research. PMID:24501718

  13. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  14. First reported case of fatal tuberculosis in a wild African elephant with past human-wildlife contact.

    PubMed

    Obanda, V; Poghon, J; Yongo, M; Mulei, I; Ngotho, M; Waititu, K; Makumi, J; Gakuya, F; Omondi, P; Soriguer, R C; Alasaad, S

    2013-07-01

    Tuberculosis is emerging/re-emerging in captive elephant populations, where it causes morbidity and deaths, although no case of TB in wild African elephants has been reported. In this paper we report the first case of fatal TB in an African elephant in the wild. The infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by post-mortem and histological examinations of a female sub-adult elephant aged >12 years that died in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya, while under treatment. This case is unique in that during its lifetime the elephant had contact with both humans and wild elephants. The source of the infection was unclear because the elephant could have acquired the infection in the orphanage or in the wild. However, our results show that wild elephants can maintain human TB in the wild and that the infection can be fatal.

  15. A qualitative study of relationships among parenting strategies, social capital, the juvenile justice system, and mental health care for at-risk African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph B; Brakle, Mischelle Van

    2011-10-01

    For many poor, African American families living in the inner city, the juvenile justice system has become a de facto mental health service provider. In this article, longitudinal, ethnographic study methods were used to examine how resource-deprived, inner-city parents in a New York City community relied on the juvenile justice system to provide their African American male children with mental health care resources. The results of three case studies indicate that this strategy actually contributed to an escalation in delinquency among the youth.

  16. An Exploratory Study of Responses to Low-Dose Lithium in African Americans and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Salcedo, Stephanie; Ketter, Terrence A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Rabideau, Dustin J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Bazan, Melissa; Leon, Andrew C.; Friedman, Edward S.; Iosifescu, Dan; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Ostacher, Michael; Thase, Michael; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Bowden, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Few prospective studies examine the impact of ethnicity or race on outcomes with lithium for bipolar disorder. This exploratory study examines differences in lithium response and treatment outcomes in Hispanics, African Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites with bipolar disorder in the Lithium Treatment Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS). Methods LiTMUS was a six-site randomized controlled trial of low-dose lithium added to optimized treatment (OPT; personalized, evidence-based pharmacotherapy) versus OPT alone in outpatients with bipolar disorder. Of 283 participants, 47 African Americans, 39 Hispanics, and 175 non-Hispanic whites were examined. We predicted minority groups would have more negative medication attitudes and higher attrition rates, but better clinical outcomes. Results African Americans in the lithium group improved more on depression and life functioning compared to whites over the 6 month study. African Americans in the OPT only group had marginal improvement on depression symptoms. For Hispanics, satisfaction with life did not significantly improve in the OPT only group, in contrast to whites and African Americans who improved over time on all measures. Attitudes toward medications did not differ across ethnic/racial groups. Conclusions African Americans show some greater improvements with lithium than non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics showed more consistent improvements in the lithium group. The impact of low-dose lithium should be studied in a larger sample as there may be particular benefit for African Americans and Hispanics. Given that the control group (regardless of ethnicity/race) had significant improvements, optimized treatment may be beneficial for any ethnic group. PMID:25827507

  17. A study on African animal trypanosomosis in four areas of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Sophie; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bossard, Geraldine; Desquesnes, Marc; Cuny, Gerard; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-08-18

    In Senegal, several areas provide great potential for agriculture and animal production, but African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is one of the major constraints to the development of more effective livestock production systems. A study was conducted to assess the current situation of AAT in this country. Surveys were carried out between June 2011 and September 2012 in four different areas: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou region and Basse Casamance in several animal species: dogs (152), donkeys (23), horses (63), sheep (43), goats (52) and cattle (104), distributed in the four sites. Molecular tools (PCR) indicated 3.4% positive animals including dogs, donkeys, a goat and cattle. The savannah type of Trypanosoma congolense Broden, 1904 (53% of positive cases) and the forest type of T. congolense (subgenus Nannomonas Hoare, 1964) were predominant. Trypanosoma vivax Ziemann, 1905 (subgenus Duttonella Chalmers, 1918) was only present in one animal and no trypanosome of the subgenus Trypanozoon Lühe, 1906 was found. Half of the positive cases were detected in Sine Saloum, where T. congolense savannah-type was predominant, and the other half in Basse Casamance, where T. congolense forest-type was predominant; no cases were found in Dakar or in the Kedougou region. A high risk of infection in dogs with T. congolense savannah-type was shown in Sine Saloum, requiring prevention and control of dogs in this area. The involvement of tsetse flies in the transmission of T. congolense in Sine Saloum and Basse Casamance is discussed.

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of ACT for the community case management of malaria in urban settings in five African sites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm) is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD) in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in < 5-year olds with ACT. Household surveys, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to evaluate impact. Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99%) were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40%) of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82%) had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6%) were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1%) children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7%) were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of

  19. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study

  20. Remediation case studies: Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide case studies of site cleanup projects utilizing bioremediation. This volume contains reports on nine projects that include bioventing and land treatment technologies, as well as a unique, large-scale slurry-phase project. In these projects, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants of concern. Two land treatment projects in this volume represent completed cleanups at creosote sites.

  1. Perceptions of teaching African American students who succeed during science testing: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Tevis Tramaine

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological research was to explore the perceptions of teachers as they instruct African American students who are successful on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Science test. The study identified thoughts, feelings, emotions, and challenges that teachers faced when instructing successful African American students from Title I schools in rural community classrooms. The research study analysis utilized NVivo10RTM software and identified common themes in the data. Five themes emerged from interviews with five fifth- and eighth-grade science teachers. Based on the teachers' perceptions, the findings revealed: (a) teachers experience an emotional journey in high poverty schools; (b) investments encompass sacrificing whatever is needed to help students become successful; (c) relationships should be developed between the teacher and student; (d) intentionality is a part of teachers' daily interaction with students; and (e) teachers encounter a challenging opportunity instructing African American students in science. This study provides valuable data in understanding the experiences of teachers as they instruct successful African American students and the challenges, obstacles, and triumphs teachers face when working with this population of students. The implications of the study suggest that educational leaders provide emotional support to help teachers manage the plethora of emotions experienced on a daily basis. Future study of successful teachers of African American students may further inform the dearth of literature surrounding the experience of successful teachers of minority students.

  2. Exploration case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Jimmy M.

    1989-04-01

    NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken four case studies for prospective expansion of manned space activities beyond earth orbit. The subjects of these studies are (1) an expedition to the Martian moon Phobos; (2) a three-mission expedition to Mars; (3) the construction of a man-tended lunar observatory; and (4) the construction of a lunar outpost to serve as the basis for construction of a Martian outpost. The fourth alternative would follow the recommendation of the National Commission on Space for the creation of a 'bridge between worlds' in which explorers would develop ways in which to 'live off the land' in a space environment.

  3. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  5. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Krossa, Cheryl Delemos

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Racial Discrimination and Risk for Death Ideation in African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda; Francis, David; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick

    2017-02-01

    Although multiple studies have found that African Americans commonly experience racial discrimination, available studies have yet to examine how perceived racism might be related to suicide vulnerability in African American youth. The purpose of this study was to examine a framework for how perceived racial discrimination contributes to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as subsequent suicide ideation and morbid ideation. Data were obtained from 722 African American youth at mean age 10.56 years (SD = 0.64); a second wave of data was obtained 2 years later. Results revealed both a direct effect and mediated effects of perceived racism on later suicide and morbid ideation. For boys and girls, the effect of perceived racism was mediated by symptoms of depression. However, the association was mediated by anxiety for girls, but not for boys in the current sample. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  7. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  8. Genome-wide association studies in Africans and African Americans: Expanding the Framework of the Genomics of Human Traits and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance, and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago, and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent-African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions. PMID:25427668

  9. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  10. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  11. A study on ten short tandem repeat systems: African immigrant and Spanish population data.

    PubMed

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Gonzalez, J L; Arufe, M I; Cuesta, M I; Corte-Real, F; Carvalho, M; Anjos, M J; Vieira, D N; Vide, M C

    2000-06-05

    This work presents the results obtained from a genetic-population study for the D1S1656 system in the population of Southwest Spain (Huelva, Cádiz and Sevilla), Spaniards of Caucasian origin from North Africa (Ceuta), as well as in the black Central West African and Moroccan immigrant populations in Spain. The results of a study of the autochtonous population of the Canary Islands (n=138), and immigrant Central West African populations in Spain (n=132), obtained for nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820), as well as the amelogenin locus, all contained in Profiler Plus (Perkin-Elmer) PCR amplification kits, are also presented. Except for the FGA and VWA data on immigrant Central West African populations in Spain, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  12. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  13. Diagnosis of fragile X syndrome: a qualitative study of African American families.

    PubMed

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Charen, Krista; Rohr, Julia; Allen, Emily; Sherman, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences to the proband and family members at all levels in the generations. Although evidence demonstrates that the rates of diagnosis for FXS are the same in all racial groups, age of diagnosis in African American children has been reported to occur later than in Caucasian children. Additionally, African American families are seriously under-represented in existing FXS research studies. As such, it is important to understand the possible disparities in the underlying factors to receiving a diagnosis in African American families with FXS. Herein, a qualitative approach was adopted to describe the overall FXS diagnosis experiences (pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, and post-diagnosis stages) of a convenience sample of 10 African American mothers. We identified three major findings among our participants: (1) FXS testing is not ordered immediately once a parent expresses concerns of developmental delays to the pediatricians, (2) the diagnosis is sometimes delivered in an insensitive manner with information often being outdated and unbalanced towards negative aspects, (3) communication issues among family members exists once the diagnosis is discovered. Although these qualitative data may not be representative of the whole group, these findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and our understanding in providing support and advocacy for African American families with FXS.

  14. An HIV Testing Intervention in African American Churches: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria

    2016-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712

  15. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  16. Sheep pox: experimental studies with a west african isolate.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Bundza, A; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Thomas, F C

    1986-08-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection.The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle.

  17. Conceptions of Parenting in Different Cultural Communities: The Case of West African Nso and Northern German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; Voelker, Susanne; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2005-01-01

    The present study compares conceptions about parenting in two cultural communities that may be expected to hold different views on parent-child relationships. Sociodemographically diverse samples of 46 Northern German and 39 West African Nso women evaluated parenting behavior observed in 10 Nso and 10 German videotaped mother-infant interaction…

  18. First-Year Students' Perceptions of Extended National Diploma Programmes: The Case of a Comprehensive South African University (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavunga, George; Cachalia, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    This study compared how the cohort of extended diploma students enrolled at a comprehensive South African university in 2012 perceived the programmes for which they were enrolled at the beginning of their first year and towards the end of the year. Data were gathered using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews involving students enrolled…

  19. Constructing Membership Identity through Language and Social Interaction: The Case of African American Children at Faith Missionary Baptist Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele-Eady, Tryphenia B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how African American children in a Black church Sunday school community in northern California developed positive membership identity. Focal participants were Sunday school children ages 9 to 12 and their Sunday school teachers. Drawn from a two-year ethnographic study, data showed that adults prepared children…

  20. Urban Debate and High School Educational Outcomes for African American Males: The Case of the Chicago Debate League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezuk, Briana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…

  1. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  2. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  3. Teaching About/Learning from: Africa. A Series. African Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Henry H.; And Others

    This document suggests methods and materials for introducing students in junior and senior high school social studies courses to African culture and history. The document is presented in five parts. Part I proposes objectives for studying about Africa, including that Africa is an important part of the world, provides insight into other cultures,…

  4. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  5. A Study of African American Student Trust and Engagement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the significance of African American students' trust of teachers and its impact on student engagement in school. It also focused on the potential impact of teachers' race on student-teacher trust relationships. Research for this study used a cross-sectional approach. Interviews were conducted with 22 students of…

  6. The Psychosocial Factors Contributing to the Underrepresentation of African American Males in Advanced High School Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Joel Everett

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the beliefs of African American males on the psychosocial and pedagogical factors contributing to the underrepresentation of African American males in advanced high school math courses. Six 11th grade African American male juniors from a large, comprehensive, Southeastern high school served as individual cases. Within- and…

  7. Incidence, Carriage and Case-Carrier Ratios for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koutangni, Thibaut; Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To facilitate the interpretation of meningococcal meningitis epidemiology in the “African meningitis belt”, we aimed at obtaining serogroup-specific pooled estimates of incidence, carriage and case-carrier ratios for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt and describe their variations across the endemic, hyperendemic and epidemic context. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis monthly incidence and carriage in the same population and time period. Epidemiological contexts were defined as endemic (wet season, no epidemic), hyperendemic (dry season, no epidemic), and epidemic (dry season, epidemic). Findings Eight studies reporting a total of eighty pairs of serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis incidence and carriage estimates were included in this review. For serogroup A, changes associated with the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence and from hyperendemic to epidemic incidence were 15-fold and 120-fold respectively. Changes in carriage prevalence associated with both transitions were 1-fold and 30-fold respectively. 
For serogroup W and X, the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence involved a 4-fold and 1•1-fold increase respectively. Increases in carriage prevalence for the later transition were 7-fold and 1•7-fold respectively. No data were available for the hyperendemic-epidemic transition for these serogroups. Our findings suggested that the regular seasonal variation in serogroup A meningococcal meningitis incidence between the rainy and the dry season could be mainly driven by seasonal change in the ratio of clinical cases to subclinical infections. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in transmission and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio. Conclusion Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  9. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  10. Algebra Matters: An Ethnographic Study of Successful African American Male Algebra 1 Students in a Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…

  11. The Balance of Two Worlds: A Study of the Perceptions of African American Female Principals and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caprica

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the power of story and narrative through examining the perceptions of African American female principals who are passionate about social justice leadership and making a real difference in the lives of students. The study also shared the perceptions of African American female principals regarding the challenges…

  12. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  13. PREDICT : A CASE STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy in an African-indigenous patient from the Amazon: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare condition that occurs normally in the anterior maxilla of infants aged <1 year. The use of clinical and imaging tools for MNTI is extremely important to prevent problems with function as well as the aesthetic features in a breastfeeding child. Brazil is a multiethnic country with a poor epidemiological policy and little data to track the incidence of certain diseases, including MNTI. It is important to study this pathology with ethnicity as a factor to improve the current epidemiological programs and establish better post-treatment management. This paper describes a case of a 2-month-old male of African-indigenous descent and Brazilian Amazon residency, who presented to our unit in 2009 with a history of an expanding mass involving the anterior maxilla. Clinical and computerized tomography scans were used to diagnose the mass as MNTI, which was removed by total excision. A biopsy later confirmed the MNTI diagnosis. PMID:24274360

  15. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred.

  16. Genotyping and Resolution of a Case of Osteomyelitis in a 16-Month-Old Boy of Hispanic/African American Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Eunice; Tran, Kayla; Taylor, Sara; Hoger, Sally; Dunn, James

    2016-02-01

    Most cases of osteomyelitis in children are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, although Kingella kingae, various streptococci, and Salmonella species also underlie this condition. Organisms such as Mycobacterium, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are much less commonly identified as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis. This case report describes a 16-month-old boy of Hispanic/African American ethnicity who had extensive inflammation of and discharge from his right ankle. Imaging studies supported a diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and routine wound cultures were ordered on the wound discharge. The AFB culture yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium bovis, and molecular diagnostic testing further genotyped the microorganism as Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Herein, we report a rare case of osteomyelitis that we believe resulted from a BCG vaccine that the patient had received outside the United States.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study in African-Americans with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Americans with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Harley, M.D., Ph.D...September 2012 – 31 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genome-Wide Association Study in African-Americans with Systemic Lupus ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus ( lupus ) is a potentially deadly systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately

  18. Influences on Labor Market Outcomes of African American College Graduates: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an expanded econometric model, this study sought to estimate more precisely the net effect of independent variables (i.e., attending an HBCU) on three measures of labor market outcomes for African American college graduates. Findings reveal a statistically significant, albeit moderate, relationship between measures of background, human and…

  19. Stories of Six Successful African American Males High School Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…

  20. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Johnnye

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

  2. Narratives of Identity: Perceptions on Persistence a Qualitative Study of Successful African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millane, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Persistence by minority students is recognized as critical in increasing the number of college graduates. Little research has been conducted on the select, but not elite, universities where the majority of students matriculate. This study provided the voices of 25 urban low SES African American college students who have successfully persisted at a…

  3. RECRUITING AND RETAINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  4. EPEC-O Self-Study - Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  5. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  6. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  7. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  8. Career Choice and Unemployment Length: A Study of Graduates from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncayi, Precious; Dunga, Steven Henry

    2016-01-01

    Graduate unemployment is especially problematic in a country where much emphasis is placed on furthering academic studies for economic and personal rewards. This article investigates the relationship between career choice and unemployment length among graduates from a South African university. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire…

  9. A Study of Urban African American Students' Conceptions of School and Media Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell

    2012-01-01

    In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…

  10. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  11. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  12. Attrition biases in a study of Euro-American and African-American marriages.

    PubMed

    Oggins, Jean

    2004-06-01

    Based on survey data from 174 Euro-American and 199 African-American newlywed couples, this study analyzed attrition biases by comparing first-year responses of couples who stayed in the study into its third year (133 Euro-American and 115 African-American couples) with responses from the initial sample. Stayers--who were more likely than leavers to be better educated, wealthier, and Euro-American--tended to report happier, more affirming, more communicative marriages. For stayers, compared to a random subsample of the original sample, first-year marital happiness also correlated significantly less strongly with first-year reports of receiving affirmation from a spouse, having an unsupportive spouse, and engaging in marital conflict. Further, race differences in predictors of happiness for the initial sample were not evident among stayers, perhaps due to smaller variances in reported marital happiness and frequency of conflict for African-American stayers compared to African Americans in the original sample. Methodological implications for cross-cultural longitudinal studies are discussed.

  13. African American Female Community College Graduates: A Phenomenological Study of Motivation and Success Strategies for Persistence in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Tamara D.

    2013-01-01

    African American females at the community level have low persistence rates and the literature regarding motivation and success strategies for those who persist to graduation is limited. This study was designed to identify the motivation and success strategies used by African American females to graduate from community colleges in Minnesota.…

  14. The History and Future of the Southern Bible Institute: A Post-Secondary School of Biblical Studies for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…

  15. The Experience of African Students Studying Nursing in the United States in Relation to Their Use of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Donald Lee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the critical thinking experiences of African nursing students enrolled in several universities in the U.S. Using a semi-structured interview approach, twelve African students discussed their experiences using and learning a western critical thinking approach, as well as described their educational experiences in…

  16. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carthron, Dana; Bailey, Donald E.; Anderson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands); and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers’ lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work. PMID:27064619

  17. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Muntner, Paul . E-mail: pmuntner@tulane.edu; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi; Rabito, Felicia A.; He Jiang; Todd, Andrew C.

    2007-07-15

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via {sup 109}Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 {mu}g/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 {mu}g/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead {>=}25 {mu}g/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 {mu}g/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral ({mu}g/g) and 13 {mu}g/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 {mu}g/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 {mu}g/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead {>=}20 {mu}g/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 {mu}g/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression.

  18. The Contribution of Psychosocial Stressors to Sleep among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Lewis, Tené T.; Sims, Mario; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Studies have shown that psychosocial stressors are related to poor sleep. However, studies of African Americans, who may be more vulnerable to the impact of psychosocial stressors, are lacking. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) baseline data, we examined associations of psychosocial stressors with sleep in 4,863 African Americans. Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between psychosocial stressors and sleep duration and quality in a large population sample of African Americans. Three measures of psychosocial stress were investigated: the Global Perceived Stress Scale (GPSS); Major Life Events (MLE); and the Weekly Stress Inventory (WSI). Sleep was assessed using self-reported hours of sleep and sleep quality rating (1 = poor; 5 = excellent). Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the association of each stress measure (in quartiles) with continuous and categorical sleep duration (< 5 (“very short”), 5–6 h (“short”) and > 9 h (“long”) versus 7 or 8 h (“normal”); and with sleep quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity). Results: Mean age of the sample was 54.6 years and 64% were female. Mean sleep duration was 6.4 + 1.5 hours, 54% had a short sleep duration, 5% had a long sleep duration, and 34% reported a “poor” or “fair” sleep quality. Persons in the highest GPSS quartile had higher odds of very short sleep (odds ratio: 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02, 4.08), higher odds of short sleep (1.72, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.12), shorter average sleep duration (Δ = −33.6 min (95% CI: −41.8, −25.4), and reported poorer sleep quality (Δ = −0.73 (95% CI: −0.83, −0.63) compared to those in the lowest quartile of GPSS after adjustment for covariates. Similar patterns were observed for WSI and MLE. Psychosocial stressors were not associated with long sleep. For WSI, effects of stress on sleep

  19. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  20. The Paradox of Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the paradox of case studies' abilities to understand the complexity in particular contexts while not being generalizable. Argues that the pressure for quantification and multisite case study design in policy research has weakened the original utility of the case study method for understanding complex educational phenomena. (DSK)

  1. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  2. Dioxin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  3. Self-estimates of intelligence: a study in two African countries.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo

    2004-05-01

    Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference.

  4. Clinical presentation of human African trypanosomiasis in Zambia is linked to the existence of strains of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense with varied virulence: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense typically causes acute and severe human African trypanosomiasis in Zambia and other countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Although a few atypical cases of chronic and mild forms of this disease were reported in Zambia more than 40 years ago, no such cases have been diagnosed over the last four decades. Case presentations For the first case, a 19-year-old Black African woman from the Eastern Province of Zambia presented with symptoms and signs of an atypical chronic and mild form of the disease for a period of 2 years. For the second case, a 16-year-old Black African boy from the Northern Province presented with symptoms and signs of a typical acute and severe form of the disease for 3 weeks. Conclusion Two strains of T. b. rhodesiense with varying degrees of virulence still do exist in Zambia. This has implications for control strategies at the national level. PMID:24529084

  5. End-organ damage in urbanized Africans with low plasma renin levels: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Johannes M; Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Fourie, Carla M T; Malan, Nicolaas T; Malan, Leoné

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether active renin concentration is associated with markers of end-organ damage in urbanized Africans. This study forms part of the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. For this study, 81 men and 74 women were divided into low- and high-renin groups. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements were conducted. A resting 12-lead ECG was determined in order to determine the gender-specific Cornell voltage. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded with the Finometer. Carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse wave velocity was obtained with the Complior acquisition system. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was obtained with the SonoSite MicroMaxx. Blood samples were collected; serum and plasma were stored at -80 °C for analysis. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard methods. A general health questionnaire was also completed. The urinary creatinine was determined with a calorimetric method and albumin with a turbidimetric method. The serum sodium and potassium were determined by making use of the Konelab TM 20i Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer (SMAC). The concentration of active renin in the plasma was analyzed by making use of a high-sensitivity radio-immunometric assay. A negative association (r=-0.29, p<0.01) exists between renal function (ACR) and plasma renin in the low-renin group (<6.18 pg/mL), which was not observed in Africans with high-renin levels. It seems evident that low renin in black South Africans may result in sub-clinical renal damage and impaired vascular function in a group of urbanized black South Africans.

  6. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  7. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  8. Differentiation of African Components of Ancestry to Stratify Groups in a Case–Control Study of a Brazilian Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Mario H.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Genvigir, Fabiana D.V.; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Willrich, Maria A.V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Bernik, Marcia M.S.; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. Methods: We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case–control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. Results: One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. Conclusions: The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers. PMID:22288895

  9. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  10. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  11. Early North African Campaigns 1940-1942: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    to 4500 meters.s Their 48 inch quick focusing telescopic site gave these weapons sniper-like accuracy. 6’ The Germans used these weapons very...Speed of reaction decides the battle. Commanders of motorised forces must therefore operate as near as possible to their troops, and must have the

  12. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…

  13. The Abusive School Principal: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…

  14. Youth and Well-Being: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiwane, Monde; Kwizera, Stella

    2009-01-01

    This paper was a result of an analysis from various data sources with a purpose to develop a better understanding of the level of socio-economic well being of young people in South Africa. Such understanding is aimed at enabling government to plan and implement well-structured and integrated development programmes that are relevant to the…

  15. A GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY GENES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Caitrin W.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; An, S. Sandy; Cooke, Jessica N.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Blevins, Rebecca A.; Lu, Lingyi; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD. PMID:21150874

  16. Leading and Managing in Complexity: The Case of South African Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…

  17. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  18. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  19. Piquing the Interest of African American Students in Foreign Languages: The Case of Spelman College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Anthony G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses growing enrollments in foreign languages at Spelman College, a small language arts college for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia. Attributes the growing enrollments to the willingness of faculty to attend to student needs, interests, and specific black heritage. Suggests strategies for attracting students of color to languages…

  20. Concurrent validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI): a study of African American precollege students.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Lamont A; Bridges, Brian K; Moore III, James L

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent validation procedures were employed, using a sample of African American precollege students, to determine the extent to which scale scores obtained from the first edition of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) were appropriate for diagnostic purposes. Data analysis revealed that 2 of the 10 LASSI scales (i.e., Anxiety and Test Strategies) significantly correlated with a measure of academic ability. These results suggested that scores obtained from these LASSI scales may provide valid assessments of African American precollege students’ academic aptitude. Implications for teachers, school counselors, and developmental studies professionals were discussed.

  1. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  2. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  3. Testing the Efficacy of Global Biodiversity Hotspots for Insect Conservation: The Case of South African Katydids

    PubMed Central

    Bazelet, Corinna S.; Thompson, Aileen C.; Naskrecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species’ natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms. PMID:27631131

  4. Relationship between Early Familial Influences and Personality Traits in Relation to Career Success Outcomes of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Keeba G.

    2010-01-01

    This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…

  5. Case study--leprosy.

    PubMed

    Wood, A M; Wood, C M; Bakker-Dyos, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 26 year old Indian base worker who attended the Role 2 enhanced hospital in Iraq with a case of leprosy. The patient presented four times over a 12 month period with non-specific pain in the right hand and forearm combined with a large lesion of dry skin and reduced sensation in the forearm. A clinical diagnosis of leprosy was made, which was subsequently confirmed as paucibacillary leprosy by skin smears sent to the UK. It was not possible to treat the patient locally and a recommendation made to the patient's employer that the patient return to India to commence treatment.

  6. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, John; Misra, Raghunath P; Langford, Marlyn P; Byrd, William A; Ditta, Lauren; Vekovius, Bryan; Texada, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a “starry sky” appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients. PMID:21573040

  7. Fibrosis and coronary perfusion - a cardiovascular disease risk in an African male cohort: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Vuren, Esmé; Malan, Leoné; Cockeran, Marike; Scheepers, Jacobus D; Oosthuizen, Woudri; Malan, Nicolaas T

    Low-grade inflammation has been correlated with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Whether the pro-inflammatory and thrombotic ratio (fibrosis) may contribute to CVD is not known. We therefore aimed to assess whether Cornell Product left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with fibrosis and coronary perfusion (silent ischemia) in a bi-ethnic male cohort from South Africa. A cross sectional study was conducted including 165 African and Caucasian men between the ages of 20-65. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Ambulatory blood pressure, ECG and 12 lead ECG measures were obtained to determine silent ischemic events (ST events) and LVH, respectively. Africans revealed more silent ischemia, higher 24 h blood pressure, inflammatory, coagulation as well as fibrosis levels than Caucasians. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP > 3 mg/l), Africans revealed higher fibrosis (p ≤ 0.01) values, but lower IL-6 and TNF-α values than Caucasians. Linear regression analyses in several models demonstrated positive associations between silent ischemia and fibrosis [Adj. R(2) 0.23; ß 0.35 (95% CI 0.13, 0.58), p ≤ 0.01]. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP>3mg/l), fibrinogen predicted AV-block in African men [OR 3.38 (95% CI 2.24, 4.53); p = 0.04]. Low-grade inflammation may induce AV-block through mechanisms involving fibrosis and ischemia to increase the burden on the heart in African men.

  8. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  9. Associations between trans fatty acid consumption and colon cancer among Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina colon cancer study I.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Satia, Jessie A; Schroeder, Jane C; Millikan, Robert C; Martin, Christopher F; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in incidence and mortality rates of colon cancer exist between Whites and African Americans. Prior studies examined the association between trans fatty acid consumption and colorectal cancer, but none assessed this possible relationship within a large study population of African Americans and Whites. Using data from a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina, we investigated this association with attention to possible racial differences. Cases and matched controls were queried on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and diet. Cases reported higher daily consumption (g/day) of trans fatty acids (mean = 5.9, SD = 2.9, median = 5.5, IQR = 3.8-7.5) compared to controls (mean = 5.2, SD = 2.4, median = 4.7, IQR = 3.5-6.4). Energy-adjusted trans fatty acid consumption was not associated with colon cancer. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of consumption, those in the highest quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.49) for Whites and 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.61, 1.62) for African Americans. No association was found between increased consumption of trans fatty acid and specific tumor location (proximal or distal colon). In conclusion, trans fatty acid consumption is not associated with colon cancer and does not contribute to disparities in colon cancer rates.

  10. HIV/AIDS support and African pentecostalism: the case of the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG).

    PubMed

    Adogame, Afe

    2007-05-01

    International and African discourses on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and intervention neglect the role of religion and religious organizations. Social science perspectives in tackling health and disease neglect religious doctrines and faith central to worldviews and praxis of religious groups. Both aspects are important for religious groups and individuals affected by HIV/AIDS. Informed by a religious studies paradigm and through the religious ethnography of the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG) in Nigeria and the Diaspora, this article demonstrates mechanisms employed by African Pentecostals to combat the epidemic and provide support for infected members. The RCCG conceptualization of disease and healing is central to understanding responses and measures in combating HIV/AIDS.

  11. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  12. Pox-like lesions and haemorrhagic fever in two concurrent cases in the Central African Republic: case investigation and management in difficult circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Froeschl, Guenter; Kayembe, Pitchou Kasongo

    2015-01-01

    Cases of monkeypox in humans are frequently reported from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The few reports from the Central African Republic have been limited to cases in the far South closely bordering the Congos. Team members of an international medical organisation have suspected clinically two human cases of MPX, associated with clinical signs of coagulopathy and haemorrhage in the North of the country. Key findings were history of a squirrel, fever and vesicular dermal eruptions. Subsequently patients developed profuse epistaxis and hematemesis, associated with clinical signs of shock. Both patients were isolated and treated symptomatically. Samples were sent to a regional reference laboratory, who initially issued a confirmation of the suspected diagnosis of MPX in both cases. The result was later revised, and additional analyses of samples could not confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26664524

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies African-ancestry specific variants for metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjami A.; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adebamowo, Clement; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified variants associated with individual traits comprising MetS, the genetic basis and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clustering of these traits remain unclear. We conducted GWAS of MetS in 1,427 Africans from Ghana and Nigeria followed by replication testing and meta-analysis in another continental African sample from Kenya. Further replication testing was performed in an African American sample from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We found two African-ancestry specific variants that were significantly associated with MetS: SNP rs73989312[A] near CA10 that conferred increased risk (P=3.86x10−8, OR=6.80) and SNP rs77244975[C] in CTNNA3 that conferred protection against MetS (P=1.63x10−8, OR=0.15). Given the exclusive expression of CA10 in the brain, our CA10 finding strengthens previously reported link between brain function and MetS. We also identified two variants that are not African specific: rs76822696[A] near RALYL associated with increased MetS risk (P=7.37x10−9, OR=1.59) and rs7964157[T] near KSR2 associated with reduced MetS risk (P=4.52x10−8, Pmeta=7.82x10−9, OR=0.53). The KSR2 locus displayed pleiotropic associations with triglyceride and measures of blood pressure. Rare KSR2 mutations have been reported to be associated with early onset obesity and insulin resistance. Finally, we replicated the LPL and CETP loci previously found to be associated with MetS in Europeans. These findings provide novel insights into the genetics of MetS in Africans and demonstrate the utility of conducting trans-ethnic disease gene mapping studies for testing the cosmopolitan significance of GWAS signals of cardio-metabolic traits. PMID:26507551

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies African-ancestry specific variants for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P; Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjami A; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adebamowo, Clement; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified variants associated with individual traits comprising MetS, the genetic basis and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clustering of these traits remain unclear. We conducted GWAS of MetS in 1427 Africans from Ghana and Nigeria followed by replication testing and meta-analysis in another continental African sample from Kenya. Further replication testing was performed in an African American sample from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We found two African-ancestry specific variants that were significantly associated with MetS: SNP rs73989312[A] near CA10 that conferred increased risk (P=3.86 × 10(-8), OR=6.80) and SNP rs77244975[C] in CTNNA3 that conferred protection against MetS (P=1.63 × 10(-8), OR=0.15). Given the exclusive expression of CA10 in the brain, our CA10 finding strengthens previously reported link between brain function and MetS. We also identified two variants that are not African specific: rs76822696[A] near RALYL associated with increased MetS risk (P=7.37 × 10(-9), OR=1.59) and rs7964157[T] near KSR2 associated with reduced MetS risk (P=4.52 × 10(-8), Pmeta=7.82 × 10(-9), OR=0.53). The KSR2 locus displayed pleiotropic associations with triglyceride and measures of blood pressure. Rare KSR2 mutations have been reported to be associated with early onset obesity and insulin resistance. Finally, we replicated the LPL and CETP loci previously found to be associated with MetS in Europeans. These findings provide novel insights into the genetics of MetS in Africans and demonstrate the utility of conducting trans-ethnic disease gene mapping studies for testing the cosmopolitan significance of GWAS signals of cardio-metabolic traits.

  15. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  16. An Exploratory Study of Staff Capture at the South African Inspectorate of Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Steven

    2012-01-01

    When prison inspectorates are co-opted or “captured” by those they are monitoring, their ability to bring transparency, accountability, and a human rights culture to prisons becomes harder. Using survey data from 102 staff at the South African Judicial Inspectorate of Prisons (JIOP), this exploratory study measured the severity of staff capture (i.e. they were not protecting the exclusive interests of prisoners) and potential correlates of capture. Overall, study participants exhibited significant levels of capture with Ordinary Least Squares regression indicating higher levels of capture among staff that were African, thought about someday working for the Department of Correctional Services, felt powerless when prison officials ignored them, and if prison officials respected their work (p’s < .05). Length of JIOP employment was not associated with capture. These findings suggest that the JIOP’s policy of not renewing many staffs’ three year contracts could ironically be putting them at risk for capture. PMID:22581999

  17. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    J. Afolayan, Anthony; O. Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  18. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  19. A Qualitative Study of African-American Female Administrators in the Academy: Identification of Characteristics That Contribute to Their Advancement to Senior Level Positions of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…

  20. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  1. A Description and Analysis of the Perspectives on Leadership Effectiveness of African-American Student Leaders at the University of New Mexico. A Qualitative Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustaa, Friedrich Freddy

    This report concerns a qualitative study on African-American leadership effectiveness as perceived and defined by African-American student leaders at the University of New Mexico (Albuquerque). Six African-American student leaders (three males and three females) participated in-depth interviews. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed.…

  2. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  3. Teaching African Geography from a Global Perspective. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    An interdisciplinary focus on the teaching of African geography is presented in this module, arranged by three major topics. Topic I stresses the African view that water is the sustainer of life, presents a case study of the Nile River, and discusses the significance of rivers as natural boundaries that delineate political units. Topic II gives…

  4. Intuitive eating practices among African-American women living with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Willig, Amanda L; Richardson, Brittany S; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Intuitive eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of our study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class during 2009-2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Verbatim group transcriptions were analyzed by two independent reviewers for themes using a combined inductive-deductive approach. Participants (n=35) had an average age 52±9 years, mean body mass index 39±7, and mean time with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis of 10±10 years. Participants' self-reported dietary practices were poorly aligned with intuitive eating concepts. The women reported a lack of self-control with food and regularly eating in the absence of hunger, yet stated that the determinant factor for when to stop eating was to recognize a feeling of fullness. Participants reported knowing they were full when they felt physically uncomfortable or actually became sick. Women frequently cited the belief that individuals with diabetes have to follow a different diet than that recommended for the general public. Many women also discussed diabetes-related stigma from family/friends, and often did not tell others about their diabetes diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that intuitive eating techniques are not currently applied by the women in this sample. Future studies should assess the influence of intuitive eating interventions on dietary habits among low-income African-American women with type 2 diabetes.

  5. University Student Agency, Representation, and Activism: A Case Study of Students Studying English at Universite Cheikh Anta Diop (Dakar, Senegal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores and interrogates dominant representations of African university students by examining how students conceptualize and act upon their own agency. Using a qualitative case-study approach, the author examines how students actively confront the ideological and material conditions presented by schooling. [The dissertation citations…

  6. A phenomenological study of obesity and physical activity in southern African American older women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Pamela G; Eaves, Yvonne D; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    African American women are more likely to be classified as overweight or obese than European American women and little is known about this phenomenon. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of overweight and obese African American older women living in the southern regions of the United States. Semistructured, audiotaped interviews were conducted to elicit narratives from nine participants. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and then coded and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis framework. Three major categories emerged: impact of health conditions, incongruent perceptions, and the desire for independence. The focus of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for this group should incorporate activities that will help them remain independent, because weight loss is not a primary motivator.

  7. Clinical and chemotherapeutic study of hepatocellular carcinoma in Malaysia: a comparison with African and American patients.

    PubMed

    Joishy, S K; Bennett, J M; Balasegaram, M; MacIntyre, J M; Falkson, G; Moertel, C; Carbone, P P

    1982-09-15

    Twenty Malaysian patients with unresectable primary liver cell cancer were prospectively studied at the General Hospital, Kuala Lampur, and were compared for clinical features with an equal number each of African and American patients being studied by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. The patients received intravenous 5-FU and oral MeCCNU which was used for the first time in an Asian country. Most of the Malaysian patients were Chinese, belonged to younger age groups, and presented with massive hepatomegaly, jaundice, and fever. Toxicity to MeCCNU invariably occurred in the form of leukopenia or thrombocytopenia, but none life threatening. Partial response was seen in 20% of Malaysians as compared to 16% in Americans and none in Africans. Malaysians achieved a median survival of 16 weeks compared to 28 weeks in Americans and only eight weeks in Africans. Malaysian Chinese patients were all HBc Ab + ve. Other factors which may have played an etiologic role in the induction of primary liver cancer included alcohol, Chinese herbal medicines, aflatoxin and habitual use of medicated rubbing oils.

  8. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study of African Americans and Latin Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gedalia, A.; Molina, J. F.; Molina, J.; Uribe, O.; Malagon, C.; Espinoza, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the clinical and serologic features in two different ethnic groups of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One hundred seventy-one SLE patients comprised the study population; 61 (55 girls and 6 boys) were African American with age at onset of 13 +/- 2.9 years, and 110 (97 girls and 13 boys) were Latin American (Colombian) with age at onset of 13 +/- 3.2 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were obtained by chart review using a standard data collection form. African-American patients more commonly manifested discoid skin lesions, malar rash, pulmonary fibrosis, and pleuritis, and less commonly manifested photosensitivity, livedo reticularis, and vascular thrombosis than did Latin Americans. In addition, there was a higher frequency of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, and anti-Ro positivity among African-Americans compared with Latin-American patients. These results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in the clinical expression of SLE. PMID:10517068

  9. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008–09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011–12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  10. Case Studies Reveal Camper Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Steve; Fullerton, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Case studies in the National Camp Evaluation Project and National Inclusive Camp Practices project used interviews with counselors and parents about camper's growth to yield qualitative data for camp program evaluation. The importance, methods, and benefits of case studies are described. Sidebars give examples of comments on perceived camper…

  11. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  12. Three Community College Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  13. Online Collaborative Case Study Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Case study learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Case studies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…

  14. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  15. Becoming Qualified to Teach Low-literate Refugees: A Case Study of One Volunteer Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a combination of…

  16. In Search of Permeable Boundaries: A Case Study of Teacher Background, Student Resistance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthethwa-Sommers, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an action research case study undertaken by an African-born faculty member who speaks English with a foreign accent. The study employed co-teaching as an intervention method to (a) test the hypothesis that co-teaching with an instructor born in the United States from the dominant racial and linguistic group might reduce…

  17. Understanding Masculinity in Undergraduate African American Men: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John

    2014-09-01

    This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed.

  18. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker.

  19. Partner Incarceration and African-American Women's Sexual Relationships and Risk: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L

    2015-06-01

    Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment.

  20. Advance care treatment plan (ACT-Plan) for African American family caregivers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gloria J; Wang, Edward; Wilkie, Diana J; Ferrans, Carol E; Dancy, Barbara; Watkins, Yashika

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited on end-of-life treatment decisions made by African American family caregivers. In a pilot study, we examined the feasibility of implementing an advance care treatment plan (ACT-Plan), a group-based education intervention, with African American dementia caregivers. Theoretically based, the ACT-Plan included strategies to enhance knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral skills to make end-of-life treatment plans in advance. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding were end-of-life treatments discussed in the ACT-Plan. In a four-week pre/posttest two-group design at urban adult day care centers, 68 caregivers were assigned to the ACT-Plan or attention-control health promotion conditions. Findings strongly suggest that the ACT-Plan intervention is feasible and appropriate for African American caregivers. Self-efficacy and knowledge about dementia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding increased for ACT-Plan participants but not for the attention-control. More ACT-Plan than attention-control participants developed advance care plans for demented relatives. Findings warrant a randomized efficacy trial.

  1. Geostatistical case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Matheron, G.; Armstrong, M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes.

  2. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  3. Football and doping: study of African amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Ama, P; Betnga, B; Ama, M; Kamga, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate use and awareness of lawful and unlawful substances by amateur footballers in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 1116 amateur footballers (1037 male and 79 female) out of 1500 contacted participated in this study. They were divided into three groups: elite players (n = 314); local players (n = 723); female players (n = 79). They answered a questionnaire of 30 items grouped under six main topics: identification of players; use of lawful substances subject to certain restrictions on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) list; use of IOC banned substances; doping behaviour; awareness of doping; food supplements. The results of the questionnaire were scrutinised using Microstat software, and the level of significance was p<0.05. Results: (a) Use by our footballers of a banned substance (cocaine) and substances subject to certain restrictions (alcoholic drinks, methylated spirits, and banga (marijuana)). (b) Doping behaviour: use by our footballers of substances with similar effects to some IOC banned substances but not listed as such: tobacco, liboga, wie-wie (narcotic), bilibili (locally made alcohol drink). (c) A large intake of vitamin C (food supplements) in all three groups. In contrast, the footballers' knowledge of doping was vague. Conclusion: Preventive actions and an epidemiological study of doping among footballers are urgently required. PMID:12893714

  4. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  5. Case study: a patient's survival.

    PubMed

    Nauer, K A; Kramer, L; Lockard, K L

    2000-05-01

    Presentation of a case study involving a female patient, in her 20s, undergoing routine surgery for removal of atrial myxoma leading to a heart transplant. This case study will show the progression from postcardiotomy failure, the emergent use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device, the insertion of the HeartMate device, and the final return to the operating room for a heart transplant. The case study will examine the physiologic demands on the patient, as well as the psychological effects from the various life-saving devices.

  6. A brief report on WAIS-R normative data collection in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.

  7. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  8. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  9. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  10. Genome Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated with the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Moore, Julian; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao, Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials A cohort of African American prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT was followed for development of ED using the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score ≤ 7) and 52 controls (post-treatment SHIM score ≥ 16). A genome-wide association study was performed using ∼909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. Results We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p-value = 5.46×10−8; Bonferroni p-value = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward significant association with unadjusted p-value < 10−06. Inference of population substructure revealed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry compared to controls (77% compared to 60%, p=0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to people of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a genome-wide approach to investigate

  11. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes on Brain Structure and Cognitive Function: African American–Diabetes Heart Study MIND

    PubMed Central

    Whitlow, C.T.; Sink, K.M.; Divers, J.; Smith, S.C.; Xu, J.; Palmer, N.D.; Hugenschmidt, C.E.; Williamson, J.D.; Bowden, D.W.; Freedman, B.I.; Maldjian, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Rates of type 2 diabetes are higher among African Americans compared with individuals of European ancestry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between MR imaging measures of brain structure (volume of GM, WM, WM lesions) and cognitive function in a population of African Americans with type 2 diabetes. These MR imaging measures of brain structure are affected by type 2 diabetes–associated macrovascular and microvascular disease and may be associated with performance on tasks of cognitive function in the understudied African American population. MATERIALS AND METHODS African Americans with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the African American–Diabetes Heart Study MIND study (n = 263) were evaluated across a broad range of cognitive domains and imaged with brain MR imaging. Associations between cognitive parameters and MR imaging measures of whole-brain GM, WM, and WM lesion volumes were assessed by using adjusted multivariate models. RESULTS Lower GM volume was associated with poorer performance on measures of general cognitive function, working memory, and executive function. Higher WM lesion volume was associated with poorer performance on a smaller subset of cognitive domains compared with GM volume but included aspects of working memory and executive function. There were no statistically significant associations with WM volume. CONCLUSIONS Markers of cortical atrophy and WM lesion volume are associated with cognitive function in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. These associations are described in an African American cohort with disease control similar to that of individuals of European ancestry, rather than underserved African Americans with poor access to health care. Interventions to reduce cortical atrophy and WM disease may improve cognitive outcomes in this understudied population. PMID:26206811

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  16. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  17. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  18. Examining Patient Conceptions: A Case of Metastatic Breast Cancer in an African American Male to Female Transgender Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dhand, Amar

    2009-01-01

    An African American male to female transgender patient treated with estrogen detected a breast lump that was confirmed by her primary care provider. The patient refused mammography and 14 months later she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer with spinal cord compression. We used ethnographic interviews and observations to elicit the patient’s conceptions of her illness and actions. The patient identified herself as biologically male and socially female; she thought that the former protected her against breast cancer; she had fears that excision would make a breast tumor spread; and she believed injectable estrogens were less likely than oral estrogens to cause cancer. Analysis suggests dissociation between the patient’s social and biological identities, fear and fatalism around cancer screening, and legitimization of injectable hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of eliciting and interpreting a patient’s conceptions of health and illness when discordant understandings develop between patient and physician. PMID:19898907

  19. A sub-national scale geospatial analysis of diamond deposit lootability: the case of the Central African Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR), a country with rich diamond deposits and a tumultuous political history, experienced a government takeover by the Seleka rebel coalition in 2013. It is within this context that we developed and implemented a geospatial approach for assessing the lootability of high value-to-weight resource deposits, using the case of diamonds in CAR as an example. According to current definitions of lootability, or the vulnerability of deposits to exploitation, CAR's two major diamond deposits are similarly lootable. However, using this geospatial approach, we demonstrate that the deposits experience differing political geographic, spatial location, and cultural geographic contexts, rendering the eastern deposits more lootable than the western deposits. The patterns identified through this detailed analysis highlight the geographic complexities surrounding the issue of conflict resources and lootability, and speak to the importance of examining these topics at the sub-national scale, rather than relying on national-scale statistics.

  20. [Integration of demographic variables in development planning: the case of Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Bm'niyat Bangamboulou-te-niya, D

    1989-06-01

    Development is a complex phenomenon that concerns all the structures and subsystems of a society, affecting its quantitative aspects through economic growth and its qualitative aspects through social and cultural change. Planning is needed, but it is effective only to the extent that it is applied to a known and controllable reality. The integration of population and development is still a poorly defined concept despite the fat the it has been a topic of interest for the past several decades. at least since the 1946 creation of the UN Population Commission. Development planning should begin with evaluation of the past and present economic, social, and demographic situation of the country and should include formulation of clear objectives. The Central African Republic is a hugh country with some significant resources but a fragile and underdeveloped economy. The population, estimated at nearly 3 million, is very unevenly distributed, with 1/2 million living in the capital of Bangui. Fertility and mortality are high. The Central African Republic has had multi year development plans since 1948, but they have largely consisted of collections of projects funded by external investment. In the absence of institutional mechanisms capable of defining priorities and strategies leading to concrete decisions, the plans remained excessively general and ambitious. Economic planning has improved somewhat over the years, but there is still a lack of basic economic and social data, a shortage of financial resources, and inadequate mechanisms for setting priorities and strategies for decision making. No mechanism has been developed for integrating population and development although some research and family planning activities have been undertaken. A 1980 national seminar on problems of development was attended by representatives of all sectors, and in 1981 a national team formulated guidelines for a new strategy of social development. Family planning services were added to the

  1. Applying the ASCA National Model to Elementary School Students Who Are Homeless: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Borkowski, Tammilyn

    2004-01-01

    This case study of an African American elementary school female who is homeless illustrates how ASCA's National Model meets the needs of students who are homeless. The needs of children who are homeless and the rationale for school counseling interventions--including assessment, classroom guidance, group play therapy, and consultation--are…

  2. A Case Study of School-Community Alliances that Rebuilt a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines how the leadership of a principal in the worst elementary school in her district, located in what William J. Wilson describes as a socially dislocated African American community, worked to change the nature of an entire community by transforming how she and her faculty communicated with parents. Drawing on data gathered…

  3. Political Change, Social Integration and Curriculum: A South Africa Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Volker; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a case study of the perceptions of principles of traditional South African schools on social change. The principal's essential conservatism suggests that meaningful curriculum change will not be easily achieved. Reveals a deep dichotomy between progressive educational rhetoric and actual school practices. (MJP)

  4. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  5. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  6. [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].

    PubMed

    Letourmy, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients. Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage. The impact of health insurance is, as yet, difficult to assess. If beneficiaries have a better access to health services, the financing of health sector is not significantly improved, and there is no change in professional behaviour, in particular, in public facilities. In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.

  7. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These

  8. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  9. Problematic situations associated with dating experiences and relationships among urban African American adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships.

  10. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  11. Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2013-08-15

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors.

  12. Associations Between Metabolomic Compounds and Incident Heart Failure Among African Americans: The ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A.; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987–2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45–64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:23788672

  13. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in West Africans: the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) Study.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, Charles N; Chen, Guanjie; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Furbert-Harris, Paulette; Parish-Gause, Debra; Zhou, Jie; Berg, Kate; Adegoke, Olufemi; Amoah, Albert; Owusu, Samuel; Acheampong, Joseph; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Eghan, Benjamin A; Oli, Johnnie; Okafor, Godfrey; Ofoegbu, Ester; Osotimehin, Babatunde; Abbiyesuku, Fayeofori; Johnson, Thomas; Rufus, Theresa; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Kittles, Rick; Daniel, Harold; Chen, Yuanxiu; Dunston, Georgia; Collins, Francis S; Guass, Debra

    2004-03-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes is growing rapidly, not only in developed countries but also worldwide. We chose to study type 2 diabetes in West Africa, where diabetes is less common than in the U.S., reasoning that in an environment where calories are less abundant, incident cases of type 2 diabetes might carry a proportionately greater genetic component. Through the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study, we carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis of type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 343 affected sibling pairs (691 individuals) enrolled from five West African centers in two countries (Ghana: Accra and Kumasi; Nigeria: Enugu, Ibadan, and Lagos). A total of 390 polymorphic markers were genotyped, and multipoint linkage analysis was conducted using the GENEHUNTER-PLUS and ASM programs. Suggestive evidence of linkage was observed in four regions on three chromosomes (12, 19, and 20). The two largest logarithm of odds scores of 2.63 and 1.92 for chromosomes 20q13.3 and 12q24, respectively, are particularly interesting because these regions have been reported to harbor diabetes susceptibility genes in several other populations and ethnic groups. Given the history of forced migration of West African populations during the slave trade, these results should have considerable relevance to the study of type 2 diabetes in African Americans.

  14. Case studies in working memory: a case for single cases?

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Marchetti, C; Wynn, V

    1991-06-01

    Patterns of cognitive deficit in single neuropsychological cases are common sources of evidence for theories of normal cognition. In particular, the working memory model has benefited from data obtained from a number of contrasting patients, in some cases resulting in modifications of the working memory model. In this paper, patterns of data from short-term memory patients and anarthric patients are compared with patterns of data from normal subjects. The patterns of patient data that were unlike those patterns typically found for groups of normal subjects, could be incorporated within a modified version of the articulatory loop component of the working memory model. However a small number of individual normal subjects also did not show the pattern that is reported on the basis of average performance of groups of normal subjects. This causes some difficulty in interpreting those data from such 'aberrant normal' patterns, and those data from single patients with functional cognitive deficits. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of neuropsychological data are discussed in the context of the working memory model, but with the intention of making a general point pertaining to the development of functional models of cognition. It is argued that single case studies should continue to provide a useful source of evidence, providing that care is exercised in considering the implications of such data for models of normal cognition.

  15. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in response to HIV antiretroviral therapy in two South African population groups.

    PubMed

    Parathyras, John; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann-Rebello, Renate; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Venter, Mauritz; Warnich, Louise

    2009-05-01

    South Africa, like many other Southern African countries, has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world and many individuals consequently receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, knowledge regarding (i) the prevalence of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pharmacologically relevant genes, and (ii) variance in pharmacotherapy both within and between different populations and ethnic groups is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether selected polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2B6 and CYP3A4) and the multidrug-resistance 1 (ABCB1) gene underlie altered antiretroviral (ARV) drug response in two South African populations. DNA samples from 182 HIV-positive individuals of Mixed-Ancestry and Xhosa ethnicity on ART were genotyped for the A-392G SNP in CYP3A4, the G516T and A785G SNPs in CYP2B6, and the T-129C, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T SNPs in ABCB1. Univariate two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing revealed no apparent effect of ethnicity on immune recovery (in terms of CD4-cell count) in response to ART. Univariate one-way ANOVA testing revealed a discernible effect of genotype on immune recovery in the cases of the T-129C (P=0.03) and G2677A (P<0.01) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene. This study serves as a basis for better understanding and possible prediction of pharmacogenetic risk profiles and drug response in individuals and ethnic groups in South Africa.

  16. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  17. Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; t’Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These

  18. [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015].

    PubMed

    Kalthan, E; Dondo-Fongbia, J P; Yambele, S; Dieu-Creer, L R; Zepio, R; Pamatika, C M

    2016-12-01

    An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections. All suspected cases were taken into account. The interview was done with patients or the parents of sick children. The blood and the contents of the lesions were collected and sent to the laboratory of the Institut Pasteur in Bangui for confirmation. Our data were analyzed with Epi info7. In total 12 patients had been registered including 9 secondary cases. Patients aged 31 to 40 years and less than 10 years were most affected. In addition, adults were most affected by the disease (8/12). The average age was 25 years with extremes at 15 months and 41 years. The sex male/female ratio was 1. The overall attack rate of disease and lethality were 0.2 per 1000 inhabitants and 25% respectively. The fatality was 67% among children less than 10 years. Fever and rash were the main symptoms of the disease. Lymphadenopathy was present in 54.5%. Ten of the 12 patients were hospitalized (83%). The average duration of hospitalization was 13 days with the extremes 6 and 28 days. The monkeypox like smallpox remains a serious and fatal disease in children. A survey of animal reservoirs complained to identify strains of the virus is essential. During an outbreak, good communication and isolation of patients may break the chain of transmission. Other measures to limit their contact with the forest or virus reservoirs are to be encouraged.

  19. African-American community attitudes and perceptions toward schizophrenia and medical research: an exploratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974

  20. A critical hermeneutic study: Third grade elementary African American students' views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Leon

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.

  1. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336

  2. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  3. Incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in African Americans with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Ayokanmi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Desvorieux, Moise; Pankow, James S.; Taylor, Herman

    2002-01-01

    To determine the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with conventional and less well-established risk factors in African Americans with diabetes, we studied 741 African Americans aged 45 to 64 years with diabetes, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Risk factors were measured from 1987 to 1989, and incident CVD (n = 143 coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke events) was ascertained through 1998. The crude incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of CVD was 22.5 (11.9 for CHD and 12.0 for stroke). After multivariate adjustments, total cholesterol, prevalent hypertension and current smoking were significantly and positively associated with incident CVD among these African Americans with diabetes. Among the non-conventional risk factors, serum creatinine, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and white blood cell count were positively and serum albumin negatively and independently associated with CVD incidence. Adjusted relative risks for highest versus lowest tertiles of these risk factors ranged from 1.77 to 2.13. This study confirms that the major risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking) are important determinants of CVD in African Americans with diabetes. In addition, several blood markers of hemostasis or inflammatory response and elevated serum creatinine also proved to be CVD risk factors in African Americans with diabetes. PMID:12510702

  4. Evaluation of Candidate Nephropathy Susceptibility Genes in a Genome-Wide Association Study of African American Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a complex disorder resulting from the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors. This study contains a comprehensive genetic analysis of putative nephropathy loci in 965 African American (AA) cases with T2D-ESKD and 1029 AA population-based controls extending prior findings. Analysis was based on 4,341 directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 nephropathy candidate genes. After admixture adjustment and correction for multiple comparisons, 37 SNPs across eight loci were significantly associated (1.6E-05African and European ancestry. PMID:24551085

  5. The Perception of Public Secondary Education through the Lens of African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandridge, Janae' K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perspective of public secondary education through the lived experiences and voices of 10 African American male students. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized an action research case study design. The researcher conducted semi structured interviews with a randomly selected group of African American male students…

  6. African American Male Elementary Teachers' Perceptions on Factors That Influence Their Retention and Attrition: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lemanski Chante'

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and explore American male elementary teachers' perceptions on factors that contribute to decisions to remain in or exit the teaching field, specifically elementary education. Ten African American male elementary teachers participated in the study. The theory from this study was the…

  7. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  8. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females.

  9. Attenuated NOx responses and myocardial ischemia, a possible risk for structural vascular disease in African men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Uys, A S; Malan, L; van Rooyen, J M; Steyn, H S; Reimann, M; Ziemssen, T

    2014-07-01

    Chronically elevated blood pressure has been associated with impaired NO-mediated vasodilation and structural vascular disease risk. This study aimed to determine whether significant associations exist regarding NO metabolite (NOx) responses, cardiovascular function and structural vascular disease in a cohort of African and Caucasian men. The study included 81 African and 94 Caucasian male teachers stratified via median splits into low and high NOx ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure, electrocardiogram monitoring and ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) images were obtained. Cardiovascular measurements and fasting blood for NOx responses were measured during rest and on challenging the cardiovascular system with the Stroop colour-word conflict test. African men displayed significantly higher resting NOx as well as higher number of 24 h silent ischemic events than their Caucasian counterparts. Low NOx African men displayed enhanced α-adrenergic and ECG ST segment depression acute mental stress responses as well as 24 h silent ischemic events associated with CIMT (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; β = 0.25; confidence interval (CI) = 0.13, 0.41). African men demonstrated a vulnerable cardiovascular profile. Novel findings revealed α-adrenergic-driven blood pressure responses and less NO bioavailability during acute stress. The association between myocardial ischemia and CIMT in this group emphasized their risk for future coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular events.

  10. [Elimination or control of the onchocerciasis in Africa? Case of Gami village in Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Yaya, G; Kobangué, L; Kémata, B; Gallé, D; Grésenguet, G

    2014-08-01

    The authors return the results of a transverse prospective survey whose goal was to value the impact of struggle against the onchocerciasis after 20 years of distribution of ivermectin in a village of the Central African Republic. A transverse prospective survey with a descriptive and analytic aim of a sample of 393 topics aged of more than 5 years residing in Gami Village since more of 2 years and having benefitted the ivermectine in the last distribution that took place 10 months before. The epidemiological, clinical and parasitologic data introverted have been compared to the results of the previous investigations in the village. The parameters improved distinctly during the 20 years (1990-2010) notably the microfilarian indication (88% in 1990 against 19% in 2010), the middle microfilarian density (54 against 0,7), the CMFL Indication (39 against 0,67), the Knuttgen indication moved of the trance of age of 5-9 years to the one of more than 45 years since 1998), the cystic indication (36% against 8%), the ocular lesions (31% against 4%) of which onchocercian (28% against 2%), serious ocular lesions (16% against 1,3%), rate of blindness (9% against 0,8%), rate of meadow-blindness (9% against 0,8), important loss of vision (3% against 0,0%), ocular lesions in children of 6-10 years old (6% against 0,3%). These data permit to speak of control but not of elimination of the onchocerciasis in the grouping villager of Gami because of the persistence of the microfilarian indications susceptible to maintain the transmission of where necessity to pursue the struggle.

  11. Case Study: Planning as Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that the objectives of strategic planning may be attained more effectively if implemented via a learning paradigm. In support of this claim, describes a case study detailing implementation of such an initiative plus post-implementation interviews. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. The Case Study of Frank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  13. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  14. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  15. Case Studies in Broadcast Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Howard W.

    This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…

  16. The Language Dilemma: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teboul, J. C. Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…

  17. Case Studies in Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.

    This collection of nine case studies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…

  18. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  19. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (<1000 km(2)) reserves. These lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies.

  20. Factors That Influence African American Male Retention and Graduation: The Case of Gateway University, a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Errick D.; Hope, Warren C.

    2015-01-01

    African American males face major challenges in retention and graduation from institutions of higher education. The 6-year graduation rate for African American males at 4-year public institutions and private nonprofit colleges is less than 40%. This figure suggests that persistence toward degree attainment is a problem. The purpose of this study…

  1. African Pentecostal Spirituality and Civic Engagement: The Case of the Redeemed Christian Church of God in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Richard

    2009-01-01

    African Pentecostal churches are becoming increasingly important in Britain where they are growing at a time when mainstream Christianity is in decline. Originally functioning as social and religious support networks for African migrants, their growth has been stimulated by a conscious missionary agenda. Recently, there has been a shift towards a…

  2. Back to Tanganyika: a case of recent trans-species-flock dispersal in East African haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta S; Indermaur, Adrian; Ehrensperger, Xenia; Egger, Bernd; Banyankimbona, Gaspard; Snoeks, Jos; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-03-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes are the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations in the world and illustrious textbook examples of convergent evolution between independent species assemblages. Although recent studies suggest some degrees of genetic exchange between riverine taxa and the lake faunas, not a single cichlid species is known from Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria that is derived from the radiation associated with another of these lakes. Here, we report the discovery of a haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika, which belongs genetically to the species flock of haplochromines of the Lake Victoria region. The new species colonized Lake Tanganyika only recently, suggesting that faunal exchange across watersheds and, hence, between isolated ichthyofaunas, is more common than previously thought.

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in African Children with Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Dioussé, Pauline; Diatta, Boubacar Ahy; Bammo, Mariama; Kourouma, Sarah; Diabate, Almamy; Gueye, Ndiaga; Dione, Haby; Diallo, Moussa; Diop, Bernard Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease predisposes patients to early-onset skin cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we report 3 pediatric cases, including 2 deaths. Observation The subjects included 2 boys and 1 girl with skin type VI. All subjects were from consanguineous marriages, and the average age was 7.6 years. The patients all had ulcerative budding tumor lesions in the cephalic region, and the mean disease duration was 18 months. In all 3 cases, the diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum was made before the poikilodermal appearance of sun-exposed areas and photophobia. Neurological-type mental retardation was noted in 1 case. Histology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in all 3 cases. The evolutions were marked by the death of 2 children (cases 1 and 3). In one case, the outcome was favorable following cancer excision and subsequent chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion Squamous cell carcinoma is a serious complication related to xeroderma pigmentosum in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention is based on the early diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum, black skin photoprotection, screening and early treatment of lesions, and genetic counseling. PMID:27920683

  4. Post-rift uplift, paleorelief and sedimentary fluxes: the case example of the African margin of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillocheau, F.; Dauteuil, O.

    2012-04-01

    Several attempts have been made to identify different paleosurfaces since the classical works of Lester King (1942, 1949) at the scale of Africa. Thermochronologists and river geomorphologists criticized this approach. This criticism mainly concerned the age of the surfaces, that were (1) poorly constraints and (2) a king of catechism on which all studies must refer. Nevertheless, those planation surfaces exist and are key features of the present-day morphology of Africa. In details, real planation surfaces are (1) no more than two or three and (2) can be deformed and then merged together. Those surfaces are incised by large smooth valleys, called pediments or glacis (with some semantic differences between English and French-speaking geomorphologists). Those pediments formed a pre-network of rivers, later re-incised by the present-day incised narrow valleys. Those different morphological structures can be dated using (1) their merge with sedimentary basins, (2) their relationship with the different types of dated weathering periods and (3) their relationships with volcanism. They also can be used as a proxy of the deformation based on the differences of elevation of the planations surfaces or on the shape of the pediments. From the Orange River to the Cameroon Volcanic Line, including the Congo Cuvette, two planations surfaces were identified (the Bauxitic or African surface, the intermediate surface), at least two generations of pediment valleys and the present-day incised valley network. The African surface is of Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene age with a climax during this last period and two major periods of uplift can be identified and mapped (1) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene and (2) Lower Miocene. Most of the relief is fossil since that period, excepted in the Angola Mountains were deformations are active during Plio-Pleistocene times. Those uplifts of smoother, most of the time weathered, relief than today, had important consequences on the petrology and the

  5. Internet and Mobile Technology Use Among Urban African American Parents: Survey Study of a Clinical Population

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. Objective The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). Methods A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. Results The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in

  6. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  7. Factors That Contribute to the Completion of Programs of Study at Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy

    2015-01-01

    The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…

  8. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  9. Texas Public School Counselors' Perceptions of Family Strengths in African American Hurricane Katrina Evacuee Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine Texas Public School counselors' perceptions of family strengths in Hurricane Katrina African American evacuee children and adolescents and in their families. An additional purpose of this study was to determine how these counselors may have called upon these perceived strengths to intervene in…

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  11. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  12. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for…

  13. Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Older African American Women Enrolled in an Exercise Study at a PACE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M.; Mangione, Kathleen K.; Ackerson, Theimann; Sidorov, Ingrid; Maislin, Greg; Volpe, Stella L.; Craik, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined employment of specific recruitment and retention strategies in a study evaluating outcomes of a moderate activity exercise program for older African American women with functional impairments attending a Program for All-Inclusive Care of Elders (PACE). Design and Methods: Recruitment and retention strategies focused on…

  14. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon…

  15. Psychometric Testing of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Sims, Mario; Ellison, Christopher G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Underwood, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study provided the first examination of the psychometric properties of the 6-item Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a large African American sample, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The JHS included measures of spiritual (DSES) and religious practices. Internal reliability, dimensionality, fit indices, and correlation were assessed. DSES scores reflected frequent daily spiritual experiences (12.84 ± 4.72) and reliability scores were high (α = 0.85; 95% CI 0.84–0.86). The DSES loaded on a single factor, with significant goodness-of-fit scores (RMSEA = 0.094, P < 0.01). Moderate significant correlations were noted among DSES items. Our findings confirm that the 6-item DSES had excellent psychometric properties in this sample. PMID:19693673

  16. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  17. Diabetes, gender, and left ventricular structure in African-Americans: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Murilo; Duncan, Bruce B; Arnett, Donna K; Benjamin, Emelia J; Liebson, Philip R; Manolio, Teri A; Skelton, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p < 0.001) and women (206.4 ± 61.5 g vs. 176.9 ± 50.1 g; p < 0.001), respectively. Prevalence of height-indexed left ventricular hypertrophy was higher in women while increased relative wall thickness was similar in men and women. Those with diabetes had higher prevalences of height-indexed left ventricular hypertrophy (52% vs. 32%; p < 0.001), and of increased relative wall thickness (73% vs. 64%; p = 0.002). Gender-adjusted associations of diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 2.29 95%CI:1.79–2.94) were attenuated after multiple adjustments in logistic regression (OR = 1.50 95%CI:1.12–2.00). Diabetes was associated with higher left ventricle diameter (OR = 2.13 95%CI:1.28–3.53) only in men and with higher wall thickness (OR = 1.89 95%CI:1.34–2.66) only in women. Attenuations in diabetes associations were frequently seen after adjustment for obesity indices. Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia. PMID

  18. A Collaborative Study of the Etiology of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: the AMBER Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with at least five intrinsic subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Tumors that express the estrogen receptor (ER+) have better outcomes than ER− tumors, due in part to the success of hormonal therapies that target ER+ tumors. The incidence of ER− breast cancer, and the subset of ER− cancers that are basal-like, is about twice as high among African American (AA) women as among U.S. women of European descent (EA). This disparity appears to explain, in part, the disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer that occurs in AA women. Epidemiologic research on breast cancer in AA women lags behind research in EA women. Here, we review differences in the etiology of breast cancer subtypes among AA women and describe a new consortium of ongoing studies of breast cancer in AA women. Methods We combined samples and data from four large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer in AA women, two cohort and two case-control, creating the AMBER consortium. Tumor tissue is obtained and stored in tissue microarrays, with assays of molecular markers carried out at a pathology core. Genotyping, carried out centrally, includes a whole exome SNP array and over 180,000 custom SNPs for fine-mapping of GWAS loci and candidate pathways. Results To date, questionnaire data from 5,739 breast cancer cases and 14,273 controls have been harmonized. Genotyping of the first 3,200 cases and 3,700 controls is underway, with a total of 6,000 each expected by the end of the study period. Conclusions The new consortium will likely have sufficient statistical power to assess potential risk factors, both genetic and non-genetic in relation to specific subtypes of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:24343304

  19. The Perceptions of African American Women Principals Who Have Been Influential in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta

    2009-01-01

    This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…

  20. Assessing Motivation of Collegiate African American Males in a Rural Area of East Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Calvin Earl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate achievement factors of African American males on a college campus in the state of Texas, primarily a private 4-year college that serves a predominantly African American student population. The researcher used a case study approach to determine factors that affect the persistence of these college-aged…

  1. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  2. Genome-wide association studies in women of African ancestry identified 3q26.21 as a novel susceptibility locus for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dezheng; Feng, Ye; Haddad, Stephen; Zheng, Yonglan; Yao, Song; Han, Yoo-Jeong; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Signorello, Lisa; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Bensen, Jeannette T; Simon, Michael S; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Leske, M Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Chen, Lin S; Qian, Frank; Gamazon, Eric R; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Cox, Nancy J; Chanock, Stephen J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A

    2016-09-04

    Multiple breast cancer loci have been identified in previous genome-wide association studies, but they were mainly conducted in populations of European ancestry. Women of African ancestry are more likely to have young-onset and oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer for reasons that are unknown and understudied. To identify genetic risk factors for breast cancer in women of African descent, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of breast cancer; one study consists of 1,657 cases and 2,029 controls genotyped with Illumina's HumanOmni2.5 BeadChip and the other study included 3,016 cases and 2,745 controls genotyped using Illumina Human1M-Duo BeadChip. The top 18,376 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the meta-analysis were replicated in the third study that consists of 1,984 African Americans cases and 2,939 controls. We found that SNP rs13074711, 26.5 Kb upstream of TNFSF10 at 3q26.21, was significantly associated with risk of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40; P = 1.8 × 10 (-)  (8)). Functional annotations suggest that the TNFSF10 gene may be involved in breast cancer aetiology, but further functional experiments are needed. In addition, we confirmed SNP rs10069690 was the best indicator for ER-negative breast cancer at 5p15.33 (OR = 1.30; P = 2.4 × 10 (-)  (10)) and identified rs12998806 as the best indicator for ER-positive breast cancer at 2q35 (OR = 1.34; P = 2.2 × 10 (-)  (8)) for women of African ancestry. These findings demonstrated additional susceptibility alleles for breast cancer can be revealed in diverse populations and have important public health implications in building race/ethnicity-specific risk prediction model for breast cancer.

  3. The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa - Evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, A.; Stern, R. J.; Dawoud, A. S.; Compston, W.; Reischmann, T.

    1987-09-01

    The evolution of the Pan-African ancient continental margin in northeastern Africa was investigated, using an Nd model age, ion-microprobe data on zircon ages, and Rb-Sr whole-rock dates on the high-grade gneiss terrain at Sabaloka, Sudan, a region which is formally considered to be part of the Archaean/early Proterozoic Nile craton. The analysis of these data indicates that the Sabaloka granulites and gneisses are not Archaen in age. Instead, they reflect Pan-African metamorphic events. The gneisses studied may represent the infrastructure of the ancient African continental margin onto which the juvenile arc assemblage of the Arabian-Nubian shield was accreted during intense horizontal shortening and crustal interstacking of a major collision event.

  4. A Qualitative Study Examining the Best Practices of Effective Teachers of African American Elementary School Students in a Midwestern Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Angelina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this research seeks to illuminate best practices of teachers who advance learning and achievement of African American students. Second, this study seeks to provide educators and administrators strategies they might utilize to increase the achievement of their African-American students in order to…

  5. Lessons in Success: A Multi-Campus Study of Factors Influencing Academic Accomplishment among High-Achieving African American Students at Private Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic experiences of highly successful African-American male graduates of small, private liberal arts colleges using a qualitative approach. Fourteen highly successful alumni from selective, private colleges were purposefully selected for the study, including seven African-American males and seven…

  6. Critical Race Theory: A Framework to Study the Early Reading Intervention Strategies for Primary Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Carlos L.

    2009-01-01

    This research study endeavors to examine successful pedagogical practices that may increase the literacy skills of African American male students. This study examines how urban setting teachers utilize specific reading strategies including reading circles, small and individual group tutoring, in an effort to increase African American males'…

  7. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  8. Case Study Research in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bryan P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…

  9. Geometric morphometric study of population variation in indigenous southern African crania.

    PubMed

    Franklin, D; Freedman, L; Milne, N; Oxnard, C E

    2007-01-01

    Much of our understanding of population variation in southern Africa is derived from traditional morphometric research. In the search for new perspectives, this paper reports on new geometric morphometric data examining cranial variation in 12 modern human populations from southern Africa. In total, 298 male Bantu-speaking individuals were studied. In addition, a small Khoisan (Khoikhoi and San) series was also examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate Khoisan-Bantu morphological similarities and differences, and to examine variation within both the Bantu-speaking and Khoisan populations. The three-dimensional coordinates of 96 landmarks were analyzed, using the shape-analysis software morphologika. Interpopulation variation was examined by calculating Procrustes distances between groups; a cluster analysis was then used to summarize phenetic relationships. A principal components analysis explored the relationships between populations; shape differences were visualized and explored using three-dimensional rendered models, and further interpreted using thin-plate splines. Morphological differences are present within and between the crania of Bantu-speaking and Khoisan individuals. The Khoisan demonstrate features (e.g., a pentagonoid vault, more rounded forehead contour, and a small and less prognathic face) that clearly distinguish them from Bantu-speaking populations. Although southern African Bantu-speaking populations are clearly closely related, they show population-specific features (e.g., the crania of more southerly populations (Xhosa, Southern Sotho, and Zulu) are characteristically more brachycephalic and less prognathic). This study suggests that differential admixture with adjacent Khoisan peoples has contributed to diversity within southern African Bantu-speaking populations.

  10. "Together, We Are Strong": A Qualitative Study of Happy, Enduring African American Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Loren D.; Hopkins, Katrina; Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela A.; Nesteruk, Olena; Sasser, Diane D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty African American married couples (N = 60 individuals) were interviewed regarding the challenges and benefits of their happy, enduring marriages. Qualitative coding and analysis revealed 4 key themes: (1) Challenges in African American Marriages, (2) Overcoming External Challenges to Marriage, (3) Resolving Intramarital Conflict, and (4)…

  11. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  12. Portraits by African-American Male University Students: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fissori, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    African-American male students are systematically forced to confine themselves to the social construct that European-American society has developed for them. Actions, behaviors, and words that communicate this message spread both interracially and intraracially within schools and affect African-American males tremendously in terms of their…

  13. Trio Student Support Services: A Comparative Study of African American Students at Three Texas Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Hattie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although access to postsecondary education for ethnic minorities has increased since desegregation in 1954, the college completion rates for these groups have not, particularly for African Americans. For this reason, it is important to continue to examine strategies that contribute to increases in completion rates for African Americans. The…

  14. Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

  15. A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

  16. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  17. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  18. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases.

  19. Association of ferroportin Q248H polymorphism with elevated levels of serum ferritin in African-Americans in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Charles A.; Barton, James C.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Acton, Ronald T.; Speechley, Mark R.; Snively, Beverly M.; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Press, Richard D.; Adams, Paul C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.; McLaren, Christine E.; Reboussin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (≥300 μg/L in men and ≥200 μg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P = 0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P = 0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P = 0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF. PMID:17276706

  20. A Comparison of African-American versus Caucasian Men Screened for an Alcohol Administration Laboratory Study: Recruitment and Representation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ogle, Richard L.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A.; Sims, Calvin M.

    2011-01-01

    African-Americans are under-represented in alcohol research, especially alcohol administration laboratory studies. Specific recruitment of African-Americans into laboratory studies, however, may also inadvertently affect the generalizability of the findings. In the current study, we compared all African-American young adult men (n = 53) who volunteered and met criteria for an alcohol administration study to a sample (n = 50) of Caucasian men recruited for the same study. Groups were compared on variables including demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and other substance use, consequences of use and psychopathology. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men reported less drinking frequency and quantity, less use of other substances and fewer negative consequences, but their alcohol and drug use was more likely to be associated with various measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that even when recruiting participants using criteria that should minimize differences (i.e. all participants were “social drinkers”), differences on key variables were evident. These differences may have important implications for alcohol research. PMID:21277094

  1. Ethological study of African carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).

    PubMed

    Anzenberger, G

    1977-08-01

    Over 200 bees of 4 African Xylocopa species were observed for 3 months on the island of Rubondo (L. Victoria, Tanzania). Some 40 burrows were investigated, 100 bees marked. Building techniques are minutely reported; burrow construction simplifies defence and allows re-use by succeeding generations. Food plants, collecting, provisioning and all aspects of ontogenesis are treated, insight given into pupal leg mobility and the much-debated emergence order after eclosion: the first-hatched bee, in the rearmost cell, prepares the way for siblings. Copulation and the copulatory hold are studied using tethered femalefemale, and illustrated. A few colonization experiments are described and s spectrogram of begging sounds given. Meeting of the generations, feeding of the young and nest-defence by young siblings throw light on the evolution of primitively eusocial communities. The known literature is reviewed in each chapter.

  2. Urban African American Parents’ Messages about Violence: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Finigan, Nadine; Bradshaw, Catherine; Haynie, Denise; Cheng, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Family socialization, which includes parental control and support, plays an important role in reducing the likelihood of adolescent involvement in conflict. This study examined the strategies that urban parents living in neighborhoods with high crime rates suggest to help their adolescent children avoid or deescalate conflict. Data come from 48 African American parent/adolescent dyads recruited through the youths’ middle school. Dyads responded to three video-taped scenarios depicting youth in potential conflict situations. Qualitative methods were used to identify 11 strategies parents suggested to help youth avoid or deescalate conflict. Although the majority of parents advocated for non-violent solutions, these same parents described situations in which their child may need to use violence. These findings have important implications for family-focused violence prevention programs. PMID:26726283

  3. AfricaArray seismological studies of the structure and evolution of the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Nyblade, Andrew; Brandt, Martin; Tugume, Fred; Mulibo, Gabriel; Kgaswane, Eldridge; Mangongolo, Azangi; Manzi, Musa; El Tahir, Nada; Loots, Letticia

    2014-05-01

    The AfricaArray programme was launched in 2005 to conduct research that promotes development in Africa by building human and infrastructural capacity in support of the mineral exploration, mining, geohazard and environmental sectors. The AfricaArray "backbone" network now consists of 51 geophysical observatories in 20 sub-Saharan countries. Most stations are equipped with broadband seismometers, while 25 stations have continuous GPS sensors and 22 stations have meteorological packs. In addition, several temporary seismic arrays have been deployed to investigate the seismotectonics of the East African Rift System, the extent of the Congo craton, and the rifting of Mozambique and Madagascar. In this paper we will present results pertinent to large-scale crustal and mantle geodynamic processes that have been obtained by AfricaArray researchers. Brandt and Mulibo elucidated the relationship between the African Superplume, Superswell and the East African Rift System by studying the seismic velocity structure of the mantle. Kgaswane jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) and surface waves, and found that the Kalahari Craton lower crust is largely mafic, except for a few terrains such as the Kimberley. Kgaswane also produced evidence that supports a link between the eastern and western lobes of the Bushveld Complex. Mangongolo used surface wave tomography to define the south-western boundary of the Congo Craton. El Tahir used PRFs to investigate the crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, while Tugume determined the Moho depths and Poisson's ratios of the Precambrian crust in East Africa. Manzi reprocessed 3D reflection seismic data covering part of the Witwatersrand goldfields using seismic attribute analysis methods, and has provided new constraints on the evolution of the Basin during the Neoarchean. Loots interpreted a 105 km 2D seismic reflection profile immediately to the north of the Cape Fold Belt, imaging the Karoo and Cape Supergroup rocks and the

  4. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  5. Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999-2001.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Nembhard, Wendy N; Collins, Rakale; Davis, Sharon K

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between stress related to job strain and hypertension. However little data exist on stress from racism and race-based discrimination at work (RBDW). The objective of this study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) outcomes are positively associated with stressful racism towards African-Americans from non-African-Americans as well as RBDW from other African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study was a population-based study which included 356 African-American men and women, aged >/=21 years, residing in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia during 1999-2001. Perceived stress was self-reported by 197 participants for racism from non-African-Americans and 95 for RBDW from other African-Americans. Sitting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were taken at a clinic visit and was the average of the last two of three BP measures. Hypertension was self-reported as physician-diagnosed high BP on 2 or more visits. Logistic and least-squares linear regression models were fit accordingly and separately for each type of stress, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and coping abilities. The likelihood of hypertension significantly increased with higher levels of perceived stress following racism from non-African-Americans, but not from RBDW from other African-Americans; adjusted odd ratios (95% CI) were 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) and 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) per unit increment of stress. The adjusted magnitude of SBP and DBP increase between low and very high level of stress, conversely, was greater when RBDW originated from African-Americans than racism from non-African-Americans. Stressful racism and RBDW encounters are associated with increased SBP and DBP and increased likelihood of hypertension in African-Americans. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to further explore these findings for mechanistic understanding and occupational policy consideration regarding stress risk reduction.

  6. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  7. The baseline characteristics of parents and African American girls in an online obesity prevention program: A feasibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent baseline characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs...

  8. African Americans. Grade Eight, Unit Three, 8.3 A & B. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachum, Locke; Horsky, Faith

    This eighth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus on Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. This unit focuses on the history of African-Americans. Specific student inquiry areas include the…

  9. Racial and Gender Differences in Kin Support: A Mixed-Methods Study of African American and Hispanic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Harknett, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    This article uses qualitative and quantitative data for a recent birth cohort from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study to compare kin support patterns between African Americans and Hispanics. It focuses on financial and housing support from grandparents and other kin during the transition to parenthood. Qualitative analysis (n = 122…

  10. Book Review Essay: A Note on Nathan Huggins' Report to the Ford Foundation on African-American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asante, Molefi K.

    1986-01-01

    Huggins' report lacks serious data collection on college Black Studies Departments, omits the strongest ones, fails to record their history accurately, and does not assess the research achievements of its scholars. Huggins overlooks the importance of applying an Afro-centric perspective to phenomena related to people of African descent. (PS)

  11. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the…

  12. A Phenomenological Study of African American Women College and University Presidents: Their Career Paths, Challenges and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tavis Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the career paths, challenges, and barriers of African American women college or university presidents. In addition, the expectation was to identify the "perceptions" of barriers to acquire the position of president. Using a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry, in-depth semi-structured personal…

  13. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  14. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  15. An Analysis of Children's Drawings of What They Think Is inside Their Bodies: A South African Regional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Edith; Stears, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out what a group of seven-year-old South African children understand of their internal anatomy. The research is based on the premise that young children obtain most of their science knowledge through personal experience. Drawings are used to determine the level of young children's knowledge of systems and…

  16. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  17. A Study of African American Male Students' Academic Achievement and School Attitude in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy

    2013-01-01

    With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…

  18. Individual Factors Influencing Effective Nonviolent Behavior and Fighting in Peer Situations: A Qualitative Study with Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Sullivan, Terri; Allison, Kevin W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Meyer, Aleta

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined individual-level factors that influence adolescents' responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants described factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for…

  19. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  20. Black Teachers Matter: Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing African American Candidates Success in a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkins, Elizabeth; Thomas, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perspectives and experiences of ten African American students at a predominantly White institution to understand why students persisted or discontinued in the teacher preparation program. Findings indicate three predominant factors influence Black candidates' decision to complete or leave the program: the role…