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Sample records for african chimpanzees pan

  1. A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) analogue of cross-national generalization of personality structure: zoological parks and an African sanctuary.

    PubMed

    King, James E; Weiss, Alexander; Farmer, Kay H

    2005-04-01

    Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats.

  2. A Survey of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the selectively logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Thurston C; Fouts, Roger S; Fouts, Deborah H

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of Grima with food, medicine, housing material, and other commodities. Over a 7-month period, the research team conducted a line-transect survey of the great ape population in the forests to the south of Grima to document their distribution. For comparison purposes, the team also surveyed a section of adjacent forest that had already been logged. Ape nests were significantly rarer in the logged forest than in the unlogged forest, and ape nests were most common in the more pristine forests to the south. This report further discusses the effects of logging and other human activities.

  3. Twinning and heteropaternity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Frels, William I; Howell, Sue; Izard, M Kay; Keeling, Michale E; Lee, D Rick

    2006-05-01

    Unlike monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins develop from separate ova. The resulting twins can have different sires if the fertilizing sperm comes from different males. Routine paternity testing of a pair of same-sexed chimpanzee twins born to a female housed with two males indicated that the twins were sired by two different males. DNA typing of 22 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci demonstrated that these twins were not MZ twins but heteropaternal DZ twins. Reproductive data from 1926-2002 at five domestic chimpanzee colonies, including 52 twins and two triplets in 1,865 maternities, were used to estimate total twinning rates and the MZ and DZ components. The average chimpanzee MZ twinning rate (0.43%) equaled the average human MZ rate (0.48%). However, the chimpanzee DZ twinning rate (2.36%) was over twice the human average, and higher than all but the fertility-enhanced human populations of Nigeria. Similarly high twinning rates among African chimpanzees indicated that these estimates were not artifacts of captivity. Log-linear analyses of maternal and paternal effects on recurrent twinning indicated that females who twinned previously had recurrence risks five times greater than average, while evidence for a paternal twinning effect was weak. Chimpanzee twinning rates appear to be elevated relative to corresponding estimated human rates, making twinning and possibly heteropaternity more important features of chimpanzee reproductive biology than previously recognized. PMID:16353220

  4. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2006-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the captive chimpanzee population, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of heart disease in this species. We reviewed the physical exam records of 265 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for electrocardiogram abnormalities. During the 24-mo period reviewed (August 2003 through August 2005), 34 animals were diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias consisting of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, mixed arrhythmias, and bradycardia. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was significantly higher in male animals, chimpanzees 20 to 39 y old, and those with structural heart disease. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was not significantly higher in animals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic viral infections. During the retrospective period, 7 animals with cardiac arrhythmias died or were euthanized. Mortality was significantly higher in animals with ventricular arrhythmias compared with those without ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that in the common chimpanzee, age, male gender, and structural heart disease are risk factors for developing cardiac arrhythmias and that ventricular arrhythmias are risk factors for mortality. PMID:17219782

  5. A case of maxillary sarcoma in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, M; Udono, T; Nogami, E; Hirosawa, M; Morimura, N; Saito, A; Seres, M; Teramoto, M; Nagano, K; Mori, Y; Uesaka, H; Nasu, K; Tomonaga, M; Idani, G; Hirata, S; Tsuruyama, T; Matsubayashi, K

    2014-04-01

    Oral malignancy is rare in chimpanzees. A 34-year-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) at Kumamoto Sanctuary, Japan, had developed it. Treatment is technically difficult for chimpanzees while malignant neoplasm is seemingly rising in captive populations. Widespread expert discussion, guidelines for treatment, especially for great apes in terminal stages is urgently needed.

  6. The chimpanzee-specific pericentric inversions that distinguish humans and chimpanzees have identical breakpoints in Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Szamalek, Justyna M; Goidts, Violaine; Searle, Jeremy B; Cooper, David N; Hameister, Horst; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2006-01-01

    Seven of nine pericentric inversions that distinguish human (HSA) and chimpanzee karyotypes are chimpanzee-specific. In this study we investigated whether the two extant chimpanzee species, Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) and Pan paniscus (bonobo), share exactly the same pericentric inversions. The methods applied were FISH with breakpoint-spanning BAC/PAC clones and PCR analyses of the breakpoint junction sequences. Our findings for the homologues to HSA 4, 5, 9, 12, 16, and 17 confirm for the first time at the sequence level that these pericentric inversions have identical breakpoints in the common chimpanzee and the bonobo. Therefore, these inversions predate the separation of the two chimpanzee species 0.86-2 Mya. Further, the inversions distinguishing human and chimpanzee karyotypes may be regarded as early acquisitions, such that they are likely to have been present at the time of human/chimpanzee divergence. According to the chromosomal speciation theory the inversions themselves could have promoted human speciation.

  7. Chimpanzees' constructional praxis (Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated chimpanzees' spontaneous spatial constructions with objects and especially their ability to repeat inter-object spatial relations, which is basic to understanding spatial relations at a higher level than perception or recognition. Subjects were six chimpanzees-four chimpanzees and two bonobos-aged 6-21 years, all raised in a human environment from an early age. Only minor species differences, but considerable individual differences were found. The effect of different object samples was assessed through a comparison with a previous study. A common overall chimpanzee pattern was also found. Chimpanzees repeated different types of inter-object spatial relations such as insertion (I), or vertical (V), or next-to (H) relations. However chimpanzees repeated I or V relations with more advanced procedures than when repeating H relations. Moreover, chimpanzees never repeated combined HV relations. Compared with children, chimpanzees showed a specific difficulty in repeating H relations. Repeating H relations is crucial for representing and understanding multiple reciprocal spatial relations between detached elements and for coordinating independent positions in space. Therefore, the chimpanzees' difficulty indicates a fundamental difference in constructive space in comparison to humans. The findings are discussed in relation to issues of spatial cognition and tool use. PMID:15378424

  8. Chimpanzees' constructional praxis (Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated chimpanzees' spontaneous spatial constructions with objects and especially their ability to repeat inter-object spatial relations, which is basic to understanding spatial relations at a higher level than perception or recognition. Subjects were six chimpanzees-four chimpanzees and two bonobos-aged 6-21 years, all raised in a human environment from an early age. Only minor species differences, but considerable individual differences were found. The effect of different object samples was assessed through a comparison with a previous study. A common overall chimpanzee pattern was also found. Chimpanzees repeated different types of inter-object spatial relations such as insertion (I), or vertical (V), or next-to (H) relations. However chimpanzees repeated I or V relations with more advanced procedures than when repeating H relations. Moreover, chimpanzees never repeated combined HV relations. Compared with children, chimpanzees showed a specific difficulty in repeating H relations. Repeating H relations is crucial for representing and understanding multiple reciprocal spatial relations between detached elements and for coordinating independent positions in space. Therefore, the chimpanzees' difficulty indicates a fundamental difference in constructive space in comparison to humans. The findings are discussed in relation to issues of spatial cognition and tool use.

  9. Scale-model comprehension by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kuhlmeier, V A; Boysen, S T; Mukobi, K L

    1999-12-01

    The ability of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to recognize the correspondence between a scale model and its real-world referent was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, an adult female and a young adult male watched as an experimenter hid a miniature model food in 1 of 4 sites in a scale model. Then, the chimpanzees were given the opportunity to find the real food item that had been hidden in the analogous location in the real room. The female performed significantly above chance, whereas the male performed at chance level. Experiments 3 and 4 tested 5 adult and 2 adolescent chimpanzees in a similar paradigm, using a scale model of the chimpanzees' outdoor area. Results indicate that some adult chimpanzees were able to reliably demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between a scale model and the larger space it represented, whereas other subjects were constrained by inefficient and unsuccessful search patterns.

  10. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  11. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  12. Balantidiosis in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Abee, C R; Wolf, R H

    1978-10-01

    A young adult chimpanzee died after a brief gastrointestinal illness characterized by profuse soft stool, vomiting and dyspnoea. Necropsy examination revealed a severe typhlitis and colitis with pseudomembrane formation, and acute aspiration pneumonia. Balantidium coli, a common intestinal parasite, was found in large numbers in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the colon and caecum. The inflammation and degree of invasion associated with Balantidium coli indicates that it was a primary pathogen. PMID:732267

  13. Social behavior shapes the chimpanzee pan-microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Andrew H; Foerster, Steffen; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Animal sociality facilitates the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms among hosts, but the extent to which sociality enables animals' beneficial microbial associations is poorly understood. The question is critical because microbial communities, particularly those in the gut, are key regulators of host health. We show evidence that chimpanzee social interactions propagate microbial diversity in the gut microbiome both within and between host generations. Frequent social interaction promotes species richness within individual microbiomes as well as homogeneity among the gut community memberships of different chimpanzees. Sampling successive generations across multiple chimpanzee families suggests that infants inherited gut microorganisms primarily through social transmission. These results indicate that social behavior generates a pan-microbiome, preserving microbial diversity across evolutionary time scales and contributing to the evolution of host species-specific gut microbial communities.

  14. Chimpanzees Prefer African and Indian Music Over Silence

    PubMed Central

    Mingle, Morgan E.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2015-01-01

    All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. PMID:25546107

  15. Trading behavior between conspecifics in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bartering of commodities between individuals is a hallmark of human behavior that is not commonly seen in other species. This is difficult to explain because barter is mutually beneficial and appears to be within the cognitive capabilities of many species. It may be that other species do not recognize the gains of trade, or that they do not experience conditions (e.g., low risk) in which barter is most beneficial. To answer these questions, the authors instituted a systematic study of chimpanzees' ability to barter with each other when doing so materially benefited them. Using tokens derived from symbols they had used since infancy, pairs of adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could trade between themselves to obtain tokens needed to get foods. Chimpanzees flexibly used the tokens to obtain foods from an experimenter; however, they did not spontaneously trade with their partner. After extensive training, chimpanzees engaged in accurate trade behavior as long as an experimenter enforced the structure of the interaction; however, trade between partners disappeared when this enforcement was removed. The authors discuss possible reasons for these findings as well as implications for the evolution of barter across the primate lineage. PMID:19450025

  16. Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Michiko; Hockings, Kimberley J; Soumah, Aly Gaspard; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Despite intensive observation of nonhuman great apes during long-term field studies, observations of great ape births in the wild are rare. Research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea has been ongoing for 35 years, yet chimpanzee parturitions have been observed on only two occasions. Here we provide information regarding both chimpanzee births, with detailed information from the close observation of one. During this birth, the mother built a day nest in a tree before parturition. After giving birth, the mother consumed the placenta, and the other chimpanzees in her party gathered near her and her neonate. However, she did not share the placenta, and consumed it all herself. In the second observation, the mother also built a nest in a tree and subsequently gave birth. Thereafter, she shared the placenta with some individuals and consumed part of the placenta herself. Although maternal placentophagy is a ubiquitous behavior among the majority of non-human primates, observations of placenta sharing by wild primates are infrequent, and the proximate and ultimate explanations for the behavior remain unclear.

  17. Volumetric and lateralized differences in selected brain regions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Lyn, Heidi; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    The two species of Pan, bonobos and common chimpanzees, have been reported to have different social organization, cognitive and linguistic abilities and motor skill, despite their close biological relationship. Here, we examined whether bonobos and chimpanzee differ in selected brain regions that may map to these different social and cognitive abilities. Eight chimpanzees and eight bonobos matched on age, sex and rearing experiences were magnetic resonance images scanned and volumetric measures were obtained for the whole brain, cerebellum, striatum, motor-hand area, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus and planum temporale. Chimpanzees had significantly larger cerebellum and borderline significantly larger hippocampus and putamen, after adjusting for brain size, compared with bonobos. Bonobos showed greater leftward asymmetries in the striatum and motor-hand area compared with chimpanzees. No significant differences in either the volume or lateralization for the so-called language homologs were found between species. The results suggest that the two species of Pan are quite similar neurologically, though some volumetric and lateralized differences may reflect inherent differences in social organization, cognition and motor skills.

  18. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  19. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  20. SUSPECTED LYME BORRELIOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Wack, Allison N; Holland, Cynthia J; Lopez, Job E; Schwan, Tom G; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    An 18-yr-old female captive-born chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with an intermittent history of inappetence, lethargy, and lower limb stiffness. No notable abnormalities were found on exam or complete blood cell count and serum biochemistry analysis. Serologic testing was strongly positive via indirect fluorescent antibody testing and Western blot for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with doxycycline was initiated, and a clinical response was seen within 1 wk. Convalescent serum exhibited an eightfold increase in titer. Serologic testing was performed on several conspecifics with banked serum; while some low positive titers were present and presumed indicative of past exposure, no titer was elevated to the extent of the affected chimpanzee during its course of disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of suspected Lyme borreliosis in a great ape species, and the case originates from an area of the United States with a high incidence of human borreliosis.

  1. Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; McGrew, W C

    2002-06-01

    A host of ecological, anatomical, and physiological selective pressures are hypothesized to have played a role in the evolution of hominid bipedalism. A referential model, based on the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), was used to test through experimental manipulation four hypotheses on the evolution of hominid bipedalism. The introduction of food piles (Carry hypothesis) increased locomotor bipedality in both species. Neither the introduction of branches (Display hypothesis) nor the construction of visual barriers (Vigilance hypothesis) altered bipedality in either species. Introduction of raised foraging structures (Forage hypothesis) increased postural bipedality in chimpanzees. These experimental manipulations provided support for carrying of portable objects and foraging on elevated food-items as plausible mechanisms that shaped bipedalism in hominids.

  2. Responses to a simple barter task in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2005-07-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) frequently participate in social exchange involving multiple goods and services of variable value, yet they have not been tested in a formalized situation to see whether they can barter using multiple tokens and rewards. We set up a simple barter economy with two tokens and two associated rewards and tested chimpanzees on their ability to obtain rewards by returning the matching token in situations in which their access to tokens was unlimited or limited. Chimpanzees easily learned to associate value with the tokens, as expected, and did barter, but followed a simple strategy of favoring the higher-value token, regardless of the reward proffered, instead of a more complex but more effective strategy of returning the token that matched the reward. This response is similar to that shown by capuchin monkeys in our previous study. We speculate that this response, while not ideal, may be sufficient to allow for stability of the social exchange system in these primates, and that the importance of social barter to both species may have led to this convergence of strategies.

  3. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    PubMed

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. . PMID:25546107

  4. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    PubMed

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. .

  5. Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Dye, Brent; Frels, William I; Fritz, Jo; Gagneux, Pascal; Khun, Henry H; Switzer, William M; Lee, D Rick

    2005-10-01

    Chimpanzees are presently classified into three subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus from west Africa, P.t. troglodytes from central Africa, and P.t. schweinfurthii from east Africa. A fourth subspecies (P.t. vellerosus), from Cameroon and northern Nigeria, has been proposed. These taxonomic designations are based on geographical origins and are reflected in sequence variation in the first hypervariable region (HVR-I) of the mtDNA D-loop. Although advances have been made in our understanding of chimpanzee phylogenetics, little has been known regarding the subspecies composition of captive chimpanzees. We sequenced part of the mtDNA HVR-I region in 218 African-born population founders and performed a phylogenetic analysis with previously characterized African sequences of known provenance to infer subspecies affiliations. Most founders were P.t. verus (95.0%), distantly followed by the troglodytes schweinfurthii clade (4.6%), and a single P.t. vellerosus (0.4%). Pedigree-based estimates of genomic representation in the descendant population revealed that troglodytes schweinfurthii founder representation was reduced in captivity, vellerosus representation increased due to prolific breeding by a single male, and reproductive variance resulted in uneven representation among male P.t.verus founders. No increase in mortality was evident from between-subspecies interbreeding, indicating a lack of outbreeding depression. Knowledge of subspecies and their genomic representation can form the basis for phylogenetically informed genetic management of extant chimpanzees to preserve rare genetic variation for research, conservation, or possible future breeding. PMID:16229023

  6. Is the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, an endangered species? It depends on what "endangered" means.

    PubMed

    Oates, John F

    2006-01-01

    I review information on the status in the wild of the robust chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and consider whether this evidence is consistent with the designation of P. troglodytes as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List, and with public statements to the effect that great apes as a whole will be extinct within a few decades. Chimpanzees remain widespread in tropical Africa, occurring in a variety of forested habitats. Estimates of total surviving numbers have increased from about 200,000 in the 1980s to a maximum of almost 300,000 in 2003. However, this apparent increase comes about from new survey data, rather than representing a measured increase in actual population numbers. Infectious disease decimated several chimpanzee populations during the 1990s, and data from parts of Gabon, extrapolated to that country as a whole, suggest a major decline in great ape populations caused by disease and hunting. However, accurate data on population numbers are absent for the majority of wild chimpanzee populations. I found reports of the presence of Pan troglodytes in at least 51 national parks in at least 19 countries; some of these parks have been established very recently. Chimpanzees also occur in many non-park conservation areas. A set of large, well-protected parks could safeguard chimpanzees for the foreseeable future. Although many African parks do not function well at present, mechanisms to improve their function are understood and available. By a strict application of IUCN threat criteria, P. troglodytes can be considered Endangered, based on estimated rates of past decline and on the species' long generation time. Relatively speaking, however, P. troglodytes is less endangered than are orangutans or gorillas, and the species is unlikely to go extinct by the year 2100, especially if existing conservation measures improve. The IUCN threat-rating system has become overly complex; the system can

  7. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    possibility was ruled out with 95% certainty. These results indicate that SIVcpz is unevenly distributed among P. t. schweinfurthii in east Africa, with foci or “hot spots” of SIVcpz endemicity in some communities and rare or absent infection in others. This situation contrasts with that for smaller monkey species, in which infection rates by related SIVs are generally much higher and more uniform among different groups and populations. The basis for the wide variability in SIVcpz infection rates in east African apes and the important question of SIVcpz prevalence in west central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) remain to be elucidated. PMID:12805455

  8. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates.

  9. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this “firstborn advantage” between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  10. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  11. Mirrors as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lambeth, S P; Bloomsmith, M A

    1992-06-01

    At many facilities, limitations of the physical environment have reduced the opportunity for captive chimpanzees to live in large, naturalistic social groups. Convex mirrors used to increase visual access of neighboring groups may improve the social environment. This was tested in a study of 28 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) group-housed in conventional indoor/outdoor runs. A total of 47.8 hours of behavioral observations were conducted and comparisons made across three conditions: no mirror present, a mirror present with visual access to neighboring conspecifics, or a mirror present with visual access to the neighbors' empty run. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals, facial expressions, sexual, and agonistic behaviors increased, whereas affiliative behavior decreased compared with when no mirror was present. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbors' empty run, facial expressions and sexual behavior increased compared with when no mirror was present. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbor's empty run, agonism decreased compared with when a mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals. When subjects had visual access to neighbors, they used the mirror 30% of the total data points; while they had visual access to the neighbors' empty run, they looked during 24% of the total data points. Juveniles' use of the mirror increased over time while adults' use remained stable. Adult males used the mirror less than did the other subjects. These findings indicate that a mirror allowing visual access to neighboring conspecifics has potential as an enrichment device that affects social behavior.

  12. Insectivory of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Pruetz, Jill D

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the behavior of chimpanzees living in savanna-woodlands, although they are of particular interest to anthropologists for the insight they can provide regarding the ecological pressures affecting early hominins living in similar habitats. Fongoli, Senegal, is the first site where savanna chimpanzees have been habituated for observational data collection and is the hottest and driest site where such observation of chimpanzees occurs today. Previously, indirect evidence suggested these chimpanzees consumed termites throughout the year, an unusual occurrence for western and eastern chimpanzees. Although meat eating by chimpanzees continues to receive much attention, their use of invertebrate prey has received less emphasis in scenarios of hominin evolution. Here, we further examine the invertebrate diet of Fongoli chimpanzees using direct observational methods and accounting for potential environmental influences. Termite feeding positively correlated with high temperatures. Fongoli chimpanzees spend more time obtaining termites than any other chimpanzee population studied, and this extensive insectivory contributes to the list of distinctive behaviors they display relative to chimpanzees living in more forested habitats. We suggest that savanna chimpanzees at Fongoli differ significantly from chimpanzees elsewhere as a result of the selective pressures characterizing their harsh environment, and this contrast provides an example of a viable referential model for better understanding human evolution. Specifically, our results support the hypotheses that invertebrate prey may have figured more prominently into the diet of early hominins in similar habitats, especially given that invertebrates are an important source of protein and other essential nutrients in a highly seasonal environment. PMID:21484757

  13. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina; Jin, Xin; Li, Yingrui; Skov, Laurits; Glemin, Sylvain; Munch, Kasper; Jiang, Tao; Qian, Yu; Hobolth, Asger; Wang, Jun; Mailund, Thomas; Siegismund, Hans R; Schierup, Mikkel H

    2015-03-30

    We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and indels were called and genotyped for greater than 50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35× per individual. Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are the most polymorphic (nucleotide diversity, θw = 0.0023 per site) followed by Eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0016) and Western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0008). A demographic scenario of divergence without gene flow fits the patterns of autosomal synonymous nucleotide diversity well except for a signal of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked versus autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection statistic exhibits a strong nonmonotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous versus nonsynonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on nonsynonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human populations.

  14. Cues to personality and health in the facial appearance of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Humans (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can extract socially-relevant information from the static, non-expressive faces of conspecifics. In humans, the face is a valid signal of both personality and health. Recent evidence shows that, like humans, chimpanzee faces also contain personality information, and that humans can accurately judge aspects of chimpanzee personality relating to extraversion from the face alone (Kramer, King, and Ward, 2011). These findings suggest the hypothesis that humans and chimpanzees share a system of personality and facial morphology for signaling socially-relevant traits from the face. We sought to test this hypothesis using a new group of chimpanzees. In two studies, we found that chimpanzee faces contained health information, as well as information of characteristics relating to extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness, using average judgments from pairs of individual photographs. In a third study, information relating to extraversion and health was also present in composite images of individual chimpanzees. We therefore replicate and extend previous findings using a new group of chimpanzees and demonstrate two methods for minimizing the variability associated with individual photographs. Our findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans share a personality signaling system. PMID:22947641

  15. Homologous whole blood transfusion during treatment of severe anemia in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John James; Atencia, Rebeca

    2014-09-01

    A 12-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was presented as severely emaciated and with generalized muscle weakness. Hematology and biochemistry revealed severe anemia and hypokalemia. The chimpanzee was treated supportively and symptomatically; although initially stable, the animal deteriorated rapidly on day 5, becoming depressed and jaundiced with further deterioration of anemia. To address the decline, a prompt transfusion of compatible and cross-matched fresh whole blood from a healthy adult male chimpanzee was administered over 120 min. During transfusion, an immediate reduction in the recipient's tachycardia was noted and substantial clinical improvement continued over 24 hr posttransfusion; no adverse transfusion reactions were observed.

  16. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  17. Spontaneous triadic engagement in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    MacLean, Evan; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Humans are believed to have evolved a unique motivation to participate in joint activities that first develops during infancy and supports the development of shared intentionality. We conducted five experiments with bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (Total n = 119) to assess their motivation to spontaneously participate in joint activities with a conspecific or a human. We found that even the youngest subjects preferred to interact together with a human and a toy rather than engaging in an identical game alone. In addition, we found that subjects could spontaneously interact with a human in a turn-taking game involving passing a ball back and forth and used behaviors to elicit additional interaction when the game was disrupted. However, when paired with a conspecific, subjects preferred to interact with an object individually rather than together. Our results indicate that nonhuman apes are motivated to engage in triadic activities if they occur spontaneously with humans and require a minimum amount of coordination. These findings leave open the question of whether these activities are coordinated through shared intentions.

  18. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) quantify split solid objects.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Trix; Hrubesch, Christine; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that gorillas' and orangutans' object representations survive cohesion violations (e.g., a split of a solid object into two halves), but that their processing of quantities may be affected by them. We assessed chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) reactions to various fission events in the same series of action tasks modelled after infant studies previously run on gorillas and orangutans (Cacchione and Call in Cognition 116:193-203, 2010b). Results showed that all four non-human great ape species managed to quantify split objects but that their performance varied as a function of the non-cohesiveness produced in the splitting event. Spatial ambiguity and shape invariance had the greatest impact on apes' ability to represent and quantify objects. Further, we observed species differences with gorillas performing lower than other species. Finally, we detected a substantial age effect, with ape infants below 6 years of age being outperformed by both juvenile/adolescent and adult apes.

  19. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  20. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  1. Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  2. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  3. Use of gesture sequences in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) play.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maureen S; Jensvold, Mary Lee Abshire; Fouts, Deborah H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the use of sensory modalities relative to a partner's behavior in gesture sequences during captive chimpanzee play at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. We hypothesized that chimpanzees would use visual gestures toward attentive recipients and auditory/tactile gestures toward inattentive recipients. We also hypothesized that gesture sequences would be more prevalent toward unresponsive rather than responsive recipients. The chimpanzees used significantly more auditory/tactile rather than visual gestures first in sequences with both attentive and inattentive recipients. They rarely used visual gestures toward inattentive recipients. Auditory/tactile gestures were effective with and used with both attentive and inattentive recipients. Recipients responded significantly more to single gestures than to first gestures in sequences. Sequences often indicated that recipients did not respond to initial gestures, whereas effective single gestures made more gestures unnecessary. The chimpanzees thus gestured appropriately relative to a recipient's behavior and modified their interactions according to contextual social cues.

  4. The default mode network in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is similar to that of humans.

    PubMed

    Barks, Sarah K; Parr, Lisa A; Rilling, James K

    2015-02-01

    The human default mode network (DMN), comprising medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, lateral parietal cortex, and medial temporal cortex, is highly metabolically active at rest but deactivates during most focused cognitive tasks. The DMN and social cognitive networks overlap significantly in humans. We previously demonstrated that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show highest resting metabolic brain activity in the cortical midline areas of the human DMN. Human DMN is defined by task-induced deactivations, not absolute resting metabolic levels; ergo, resting activity is insufficient to define a DMN in chimpanzees. Here, we assessed the chimpanzee DMN's deactivations relative to rest during cognitive tasks and the effect of social content on these areas' activity. Chimpanzees performed a match-to-sample task with conspecific behavioral stimuli of varying sociality. Using [(18)F]-FDG PET, brain activity during these tasks was compared with activity during a nonsocial task and at rest. Cortical midline areas in chimpanzees deactivated in these tasks relative to rest, suggesting a chimpanzee DMN anatomically and functionally similar to humans. Furthermore, when chimpanzees make social discriminations, these same areas (particularly precuneus) are highly active relative to nonsocial tasks, suggesting that, as in humans, the chimpanzee DMN may play a role in social cognition.

  5. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading—of grooming for mating—by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism–egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees’ willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness. PMID:26279605

  6. The perception of self-agency in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    The ability to distinguish actions and effects caused by oneself from events occurring in the external environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Underlying such distinctions, self-monitoring processes are often assumed, in which predicted events accompanied by one's own volitional action are compared with actual events observed in the external environment. Although many studies have examined the absence or presence of a certain type of self-recognition (i.e. mirror self-recognition) in non-human animals, the underlying cognitive mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first behavioural evidence that chimpanzees can perform self/other distinction for external events on the basis of self-monitoring processes. Three chimpanzees were presented with two cursors on a computer display. One cursor was manipulated by a chimpanzee using a trackball, while the other displayed motion that had been produced previously by the same chimpanzee. Chimpanzees successfully identified which cursor they were able to control. A follow-up experiment revealed that their performance could not be explained by simple associative responses. A further experiment with one chimpanzee showed that the monitoring process occurred in both temporal and spatial dimensions. These findings indicate that chimpanzees and humans share the fundamental cognitive processes underlying the sense of being an independent agent. PMID:21543355

  7. A group-specific arbitrary tradition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-11-01

    Social learning in chimpanzees has been studied extensively and it is now widely accepted that chimpanzees have the capacity to learn from conspecifics through a multitude of mechanisms. Very few studies, however, have documented the existence of spontaneously emerged traditions in chimpanzee communities. While the rigour of experimental studies is helpful to investigate social learning mechanisms, documentation of naturally occurring traditions is necessary to understand the relevance of social learning in the real lives of animals. In this study, we report on chimpanzees spontaneously copying a seemingly non-adaptive behaviour ("grass-in-ear behaviour"). The behaviour entailed chimpanzees selecting a stiff, straw-like blade of grass, inserting the grass into one of their own ears, adjusting the position, and then leaving it in their ear during subsequent activities. Using a daily focal follow procedure, over the course of 1 year, we observed 8 (out of 12) group members engaging in this peculiar behaviour. Importantly, in the three neighbouring groups of chimpanzees (n = 82), this behaviour was only observed once, indicating that ecological factors were not determiners of the prevalence of this behaviour. These observations show that chimpanzees have a tendency to copy each other's behaviour, even when the adaptive value of the behaviour is presumably absent.

  8. The perception of self-agency in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2011-12-22

    The ability to distinguish actions and effects caused by oneself from events occurring in the external environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Underlying such distinctions, self-monitoring processes are often assumed, in which predicted events accompanied by one's own volitional action are compared with actual events observed in the external environment. Although many studies have examined the absence or presence of a certain type of self-recognition (i.e. mirror self-recognition) in non-human animals, the underlying cognitive mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first behavioural evidence that chimpanzees can perform self/other distinction for external events on the basis of self-monitoring processes. Three chimpanzees were presented with two cursors on a computer display. One cursor was manipulated by a chimpanzee using a trackball, while the other displayed motion that had been produced previously by the same chimpanzee. Chimpanzees successfully identified which cursor they were able to control. A follow-up experiment revealed that their performance could not be explained by simple associative responses. A further experiment with one chimpanzee showed that the monitoring process occurred in both temporal and spatial dimensions. These findings indicate that chimpanzees and humans share the fundamental cognitive processes underlying the sense of being an independent agent. PMID:21543355

  9. Dental eruption in East African wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Machanda, Zarin; Brazeau, Nick F; Bernard, Andrew B; Donovan, Ronan M; Papakyrikos, Amanda M; Wrangham, Richard; Smith, Tanya M

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of chimpanzee development has played an essential role in our understanding of the evolution of human ontogeny. However, recent studies of wild ape dentitions have cast doubt on the use of developmental standards derived from captive individuals. Others have called into question the use of deceased wild individuals to infer normative development. We conducted a high resolution photographic study of living known-age subadults in the Kanyawara community (Kibale National Park, Uganda) to generate a comprehensive three year record of dental eruption (including tooth emergence ages). These non-invasive data allow comparisons of captive and wild chimpanzees, establish accurate developmental standards for relatively healthy wild individuals, and facilitate direct assessments of primate-wide associations between dental development and life history. Emergence ages in the Kanyawara chimpanzees are very similar to living Gombe chimpanzees, and are broadly comparable to deceased Taï Forest chimpanzees. Early-emerging teeth such as the deciduous dentition and first molar (M1) appear during a time of maternal dependence, and are almost indistinguishable from captive chimpanzee emergence ages, while later forming teeth in the Kanyawara population emerge in the latter half of captive age ranges or beyond. Five juveniles whose lower M1s emerged by or before 3.3 years of age continued to nurse for a year or more beyond M1 emergence, and their mothers showed considerable variation in reproductive rates. The third molars of two adolescent females emerged several months to several years prior to the birth of their first offspring. Given that broad primate-wide relationships between molar emergence and life history do not necessarily hold within this population of chimpanzees, particularly for variables that are reported to be coincident with molar emergence, we suggest that further study is required in order to predict life history variables in hominins or hominoids.

  10. Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2009-10-01

    chimpanzee cultural data are not only comparable to a series of modern human cultural data sets in terms of how tree-like they are, but are also comparable to a series of genetic, anatomical, and behavioural data sets that can be assumed to have been produced by a branching process. Again, this is what would be expected if vertical inter-group transmission has been the dominant process in chimpanzee cultural evolution. Human culture has long been considered to be adaptive, but recent studies have suggested that this needs to be demonstrated rather than assumed. With this in mind, in the third set of analyses we investigated whether chimpanzee culture is adaptive. We found the hypothesis that chimpanzee culture is adaptive was supported by an analysis of data from the Eastern African subspecies, but not by an analysis of data from the eastern and western subspecies. The results of our analyses have implications for the number of subspecies in Pan troglodytes, the relationship between hominin taxa and Palaeolithic industries, and the evolution of hominin cognition and behaviour.

  11. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) know what can be seen from where.

    PubMed

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep

    2009-03-01

    Visual perspective taking research has established that chimpanzees recognize what others can or cannot see in the presence of occluding barriers. Less is known about chimpanzees' appreciation of what they themselves can or cannot see in similar situations. Additionally, it is unclear whether chimpanzees must rely on others' gaze cues to solve such tasks or whether they have a more general appreciation of what can be seen from where. Hence, we investigated chimpanzees' ability to anticipate what they would or would not be able to see from different visual perspectives. Food was hidden among arrays of open containers, with different containers providing visual access from unique viewing perspectives. Chimpanzees immediately adopted the correct perspective for each container type. Follow-up experiments showed that they were not simply moving to align themselves with visible openings. Our study thus suggests that chimpanzees have good visual perspective taking abilities with regard to themselves as well as others, and that both likely reflect a more general knowledge, at least implicit, of what can be seen from where.

  12. Object-based attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2010-03-17

    We conducted three experiments to investigate how object-based components contribute to the attentional processes of chimpanzees and to examine how such processes operate with regard to perceptually structured objects. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees responded to a spatial cueing task that required them to touch a target appearing at either end of two parallel rectangles. We compared the time involved in shifting attention (cost of attentional shift) when the locations of targets were cued and non cued. Results showed that the cost of the attentional shift within one rectangle was smaller than that beyond the object's boundary, demonstrating object-based attention in chimpanzees. The results of Experiment 2, conducted with different stimulus configurations, replicated the results of Experiment 1, supporting that object-based attention operates in chimpanzees. In Experiment 3, the cost of attentional shift within a cued but partly occluded rectangle was shorter than that within a rectangle that was cued but divided in the middle. The results suggest that the attention of chimpanzees is activated not only by an explicit object but also by fragmented patches represented as an object at a higher-order perceptual level. Chimpanzees' object-based attention may be similar to that of humans.

  13. Videotapes as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, M.A.; Lambeth, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of showing videotapes to captive chimpanzees as an environmental enrichment was quantitatively tested. The responses of 10 subjects (3 adult males and 7 adult females) to videotapes of chimpanzees engaging in a variety of behaviors, to videotapes of other animals and humans, and to television programs were compared. Data collection consisted of 20-minute, continuous sampling tests while various videotapes were shown. A total of 400 tests were conducted. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to measure differences in the duration of eight categories of behavior across videotapes of varying content. No general behavioral differences in response to the tapes based on sex or housing were revealed. However, with the behavior of monitor-watching analyzed alone, we found that individually housed subjects watched the videotapes more than socially housed subjects. When viewing time was averaged across all videotapes, the chimpanzees watched the monitor a mean of 38.4% of the time available. The chimpanzees' behavior varied significantly only when they were watching the videotapes of various human and chimpanzee activities and not when watching a blank screen. A Pearson's correlation indicated that subjects habituated to repeated presentations of the videotapes, although the effect was small numerically. Although this type of enrichment did not extensively alter behavior, it did occupy a significant portion of the subjects' activity budget; thus, the amount of time spent watching the video stimuli indicated that videotapes may be a useful enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biol 19:541-551, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana…

  15. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  16. A Longitudinal Assessment of Vocabulary Retention in Symbol-Competent Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Heimbauer, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition. PMID:25706561

  17. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Washburn, D A; Hyatt, C W

    1996-04-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  18. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Are Predominantly Right-Handed: Replication in Three Populations of Apes

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Wesley, Michael J.; Izard, M. Kay; Hook, Michelle; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Population-level right-handedness has historically been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Even though recent studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have demonstrated population-level right-handedness for certain behaviors, some have questioned the validity and consistency of these findings by arguing that reported laterality effects are specific to certain colonies of apes and to those chimpanzees reared by humans. The authors report evidence of population-level right-handedness in 3 separate colonies of chimpanzees. Moreover, handedness in the 3 colonies was unrelated to the proportion of subjects that were raised by humans. This is the strongest evidence to date that population-level handedness is evident in chimpanzees and is not an artifact of human rearing. PMID:15174946

  19. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  20. Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Christina T; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-02-01

    Similarity in oldest parturitions in humans and great apes suggests that we maintain ancestral rates of ovarian aging. Consistent with that hypothesis, previous counts of primordial follicles in postmortem ovarian sections from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed follicle stock decline at the same rate that human stocks decline across the same ages. Here, we correct that finding with a chimpanzee sample more than three times larger than the previous one, which also allows comparison into older ages. Analyses show depletion rates similar until about age 35, but after 35, the human counts continue to fall with age, while the change is much less steep in chimpanzees. This difference implicates likely effects on ovarian dynamics from other physiological systems that are senescing at different rates, and, potentially, different perimenopausal experience for chimpanzees and humans.

  1. Spatial construction skills of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young human children (Homo sapiens sapiens).

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-07-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children belonging to five age groups (24, 30, 36, 42, 48 months). Subjects were given three model constructions to reproduce: Line, Cross-Stack and Arch, which differed in type and number of spatial relations and dimensions, but required comparable configurational understanding. Subjects' constructions were rated for accuracy. Our results show that: (1) chimpanzees are relatively advanced in constructing in the vertical dimension; (2) Among chimpanzees only adults make accurate copies of constructions; (3) Chimpanzees do not develop in the direction of constructing in two dimensions as human children do starting from age 30 months. The pattern of development of construction skills in chimpanzees partially diverges from that of human children and indicates that spatial analysis and spatial representation are partially different in the two species. PMID:19635081

  2. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Potts, Kevin B; Krupenye, Christopher; Byrne, Maisie-Rose; Mackworth-Young, Constance; McGrew, William C; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned.

  3. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155), 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009), a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009), a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg) and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13) and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1). Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp), were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0), intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that SIVcpz

  4. Numerical judgments by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Hoyle, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    We presented four chimpanzees with a series of tasks that involved comparing two token sets or comparing a token set to a quantity of food. Selected tokens could be exchanged for food items on a one-to-one basis. Chimpanzees successfully selected the larger numerical set for comparisons of 1 to 5 items when both sets were visible and when sets were presented through one-by-one addition of tokens into two opaque containers. Two of four chimpanzees used the number of tokens and food items to guide responding in all conditions, rather than relying on token color, size, total amount, or duration of set presentation. These results demonstrate that judgments of simultaneous and sequential sets of stimuli are made by some chimpanzees on the basis of the numerousness of sets rather than other non-numerical dimensions. The tokens were treated as equivalent to food items on the basis of their numerousness, and the chimpanzees maximized reward by choosing the larger number of items in all situations. PMID:21319916

  5. Numerical judgments by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Hoyle, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    We presented four chimpanzees with a series of tasks that involved comparing two token sets or comparing a token set to a quantity of food. Selected tokens could be exchanged for food items on a one-to-one basis. Chimpanzees successfully selected the larger numerical set for comparisons of 1 to 5 items when both sets were visible and when sets were presented through one-by-one addition of tokens into two opaque containers. Two of four chimpanzees used the number of tokens and food items to guide responding in all conditions, rather than relying on token color, size, total amount, or duration of set presentation. These results demonstrate that judgments of simultaneous and sequential sets of stimuli are made by some chimpanzees on the basis of the numerousness of sets rather than other non-numerical dimensions. The tokens were treated as equivalent to food items on the basis of their numerousness, and the chimpanzees maximized reward by choosing the larger number of items in all situations.

  6. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  7. Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Schwandt, Melanie L; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items--the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability--more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.

  8. Social play in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for natural social systems and interindividual relationships.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2006-03-01

    This study compares adult play behavior in the two Pan species in order to test the effects of phylogenetic closeness and the nature of social systems on play distribution. The social play (both with fertile and immature subjects) performed by adults did not differ between the two species. In contrast, in bonobos, play levels among fertile subjects were higher than in chimpanzees. Findings regarding levels of undecided conflicts (more frequent in bonobos) and formal submission displays (lacking in bonobos) confirm, in the two colonies under study, that bonobos exhibit "egalitarianism" more than chimpanzees. Some authors emphasized the importance of play-fighting for social assessment when relationships among individuals are not codified and structured according to rank-rules. Indeed, adult bonobos played more roughly than chimpanzees. Moreover, adult bonobos displayed the full play-face at a high frequency especially during rough play sessions, whereas in chimpanzees, the frequency of play signals was not affected by roughness of play. The frequency of social play among bonobo females was higher than in any other sex combinations, whereas no difference was found for chimpanzees. As a matter of fact, social play can be viewed as a balance between cooperation and competition. Among bonobo females, characterized by social competence and affiliation, social play might enhance their behavioral flexibility and increase their socially symmetrical relationships which, after all, are the basis for their egalitarian society.

  9. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) understand single invisible displacement?

    PubMed

    Collier-Baker, Emma; Davis, Joanne M; Nielsen, Mark; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that chimpanzees understand single invisible displacement. However, this Piagetian task may be solvable through the use of simple search strategies rather than through mentally representing the past trajectory of an object. Four control conditions were thus administered to two chimpanzees in order to separate associative search strategies from performance based on mental representation. Strategies involving experimenter cue-use, search at the last or first box visited by the displacement device, and search at boxes adjacent to the displacement device were systematically controlled for. Chimpanzees showed no indications of utilizing these simple strategies, suggesting that their capacity to mentally represent single invisible displacements is comparable to that of 18-24-month-old children.

  10. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed

    Leavens, David A; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally.

  11. Deictic gesturing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)? Some possible cases.

    PubMed

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Leavens, David A; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Referential pointing is important in the development of language comprehension in the child and is often considered a uniquely human capacity. Nonhuman great apes do point in captivity, usually for a human audience, but this has been interpreted as an interaction pattern learned from human caretakers, not indicative of natural deictic ability. In contrast, spontaneous pointing for other apes is almost unknown among wild ape populations, supporting doubts as to whether apes naturally have any capacity to point referentially. Here the authors describe and illustrate 4 cases of gestures by juvenile chimpanzees in the Sonso chimpanzee community in Budongo, Uganda, that, at some level, may appear to be deictic and referential. The authors discuss the possible reasons why chimpanzees, if they possess a capacity for referential pointing, do not use it more frequently.

  12. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces-but not monkey faces-efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  13. Hypertension increases with aging and obesity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in captive chimpanzees. Four years of blood pressure (BP) data were analyzed from a captive former laboratory population of 201 healthy adult chimpanzees with assessment of age and obesity on elevated BP. Five different measures of obesity were compared: abdominal girth, basal metabolic rate, body-mass index (BMI), body weight, and surface area. Systolic BP varied by sex. Obesity did not influence male BP. For females, obesity was a significant determinant of BP. The best measure of female obesity was basal metabolic rate and the worst was BMI. Median systolic BP of healthy weight females (<54.5 kg) was significantly lower (128 mmHg) than overweight or obese females (140 mmHg), but both were lower than all males (147 mmHg). For diastolic BP, neither sex nor any of the five obesity measures was significant. But age was highly significant, with geriatric chimpanzees (>30 years) having higher median diastolic BP (74 mmHg) than young adults of 10-29 years of age (65 mmHg). By these criteria, 80% of this population is normotensive, 7% prehypertensive, and 13% hypertensive. In summary, systolic BP intervals required adjustment for obesity among females but not males. Diastolic BP required adjustment for advanced age (≥30 years). Use of these reference intervals can facilitate timely clinical care of captive chimpanzees. PMID:22968757

  14. Hypertension increases with Aging and Obesity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J.; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in captive chimpanzees. Four years of blood pressure data was analyzed from a captive former laboratory population of 201 healthy adult chimpanzees with assessment of age and obesity on elevated blood pressure. Five different measures of obesity were compared: abdominal girth, basal metabolic rate, body-mass index (BMI), body weight and surface area. Systolic BP varied by sex. Obesity did not influence male BP. For females, obesity was a significant determinant of BP. The best measure of female obesity was basal metabolic rate and the worst was BMI. Median systolic BP of healthy weight females (<54.5 Kg) was significantly lower (128 mmHg) than overweight or obese females (140 mmHg), but both were lower than all males (147 mmHg). For diastolic BP, neither sex nor any of the 5 obesity measures was significant. But age was highly significant, with geriatric chimpanzees (> 30 years) having higher median diastolic blood pressure (74 mmHg) than young adults of 10–29 years old (65 mmHg). By these criteria, 80% of this population is normotensive, 7% pre-hypertensive and 13% hypertensive. In summary, systolic BP intervals required adjustment for obesity among females but not males. Diastolic BP required adjustment for advanced age (≥30 years). Use of these reference intervals can facilitate timely clinical care of captive chimpanzees. PMID:22968757

  15. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  16. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-07-16

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model.

  17. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075515

  19. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  20. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  1. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Timothy M; Kennedy, Erica Hoy

    2011-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been known to exhibit rudimentary abilities in analogical reasoning (Flemming, Beran, Thompson, Kleider, & Washburn, 2008; Gillian, Premack, & Woodruff, 1981; Haun & Call, 2009; Thompson & Oden, 2000; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). With a wide array of individual differences, little can be concluded about the species' capacity for analogies, much less their strategies employed for solving such problems. In this study, we examined analogical strategies in 3 chimpanzees using a 3-dimensional search task (e.g., Kennedy & Fragaszy, 2008). Food items were hidden under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of varying sizes. Subsequently, chimpanzees searched for food under the cup of the same relative size in their own set of cups--reasoning by analogy. Two chimpanzees initially appeared to fail the first relational phase of the task. Meta-analyses revealed, however, that they were instead using a secondary strategy not rewarded by the contingencies of the task--choosing on the basis of the same relative position in the sample. Although this was not the intended strategy of the task, it was nonetheless analogical. In subsequent phases of the task, chimpanzees eventually learned to shift their analogical reasoning strategy to match the reward contingencies of the task and successfully choose on the basis of relative size. This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee. PMID:21604854

  2. Genome Sequence of a Central Chimpanzee-Associated Polyomavirus Related to BK and JC Polyomaviruses, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Polyomavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Madinda, Nadège F; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-09-03

    We amplified and sequenced the genome of a polyomavirus infecting a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). This virus, which is closely related to BK and JC polyomaviruses, may help shed a new light on these human pathogens' evolutionary history.

  3. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) remember the location of a hidden food item after altering their orientation to a spatial array.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Megan L; Beran, Michael J

    2006-11-01

    Two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had a direct view of an experimenter placing a food item beneath one of several cups within a horizontal spatial array. The chimpanzees then were required to move around the spatial array, shifting their orientation to the array by 180 degrees . Both chimpanzees remembered the location of the food item. In the next experiment, a visual barrier was placed between the chimpanzees and the spatial array after the food item had been hidden to prevent visual tracking of the location of the object during the chimpanzees' movement. One chimpanzee remembered the location of the hidden item in this variation. These results demonstrate another capacity for spatial memory in this species that complements data indicating chimpanzee spatial memory for invisible displacements, array rotations, and array transpositions.

  4. Spontaneous classification in action by a human-enculturated and language-reared bonobo (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, G; Langer, J

    1999-09-01

    The authors investigated the formal features of spontaneous manipulations used by 1 bonobo (Pan paniscus) and 2 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to classify objects in action. Chimpanzees' manipulations were evenly split between serial, one-at-a-time acts on 1 object and parallel, two-at-a-time acts on 2 or 3 objects. Chimpanzees systematically combined their manipulations into routines to generate class-consistent categories of objects. Their routines featured much reproduction of the same manipulations, planful acts that anticipated follow-up manipulations, and manipulations that were reciprocal to each other to accomplish an end. In all these respects, chimpanzees' manipulations were similar to those of 2-year-old human infants. In others they differed. Chimpanzees' routines were mainly based on a linear integration of manipulations. Classifying in action was only infrequently produced by hierarchically integrated routines.

  5. Subgenual cingulate cortex and personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Blatchley, Barbara J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Animals vary in their dispositions, abilities, and moods and demonstrate characteristic behavior patterns that remain consistent across situation and time. This study describes the relationship between measures of personality in the chimpanzee and the structure of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SGCC). Measures of individual traits and personality factors (dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) and assessments of percentage of SGCC gray matter (PGM) and asymmetry taken from MRI scans were obtained for 74 chimpanzees housed at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. PGM in the SGCC was significantly higher for females than for males and was significantly correlated with two personality factors (dominance and conscientiousness) in male apes. There was also a population-level leftward asymmetry in the SGCC. These results are discussed in terms of current models of SGCC function, which suggest that this area may play a role in the biological foundation of personality. PMID:20805542

  6. Intracranial arachnoid cysts in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Takaaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Maeda, Norihiko; Kumazaki, Kiyonori; Suzuki, Juri; Fujiwara, Reina; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mikami, Akichika

    2014-01-01

    An intracranial arachnoid cyst was detected in a 32-year-old, 44.6-kg, female chimpanzee at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed and the cognitive studies in which she participated were reviewed. MRI revealed that the cyst was present in the chimpanzee's right occipital convexity, and was located in close proximity to the posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle without ventriculomegaly. CT confirmed the presence of the cyst and no apparent signs indicating previous skull fractures were found. The thickness of the mandible was asymmetrical, whereas the temporomandibular joints and dentition were symmetrical. She showed no abnormalities in various cognitive studies since she was 3 years old, except a different behavioural pattern during a recent study, indicating a possible visual field defect. Detailed cognitive studies, long-term observation of her physical condition and follow-up MRI will be continued.

  7. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    House, Bailey R.; Silk, Joan B.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more “complex” experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm. PMID:25191860

  8. Interstitial Myocardial Fibrosis in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Population

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Baskin, Gary B; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and necropsy records of 36 (25 male and 11 female) chimpanzees age 10 to 40 y old that died over a 6-y period (2001 to 2006) were reviewed. All animals had annual physical exams that included electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Nine of the 36 animals had a complete cardiac evaluation by a board certified veterinary cardiologist, and 7 of the 36 animals (19%) were diagnosed with some form of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in 3 cases. Cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular ectopy) were seen in 15 (12 male and 3 female) of the 36 animals (42%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 13 (11 male and 2 female) chimps (36%) and was the leading cause of death (n = 13), followed by renal failure (n = 9) and septicemia (n = 3). Histologic examination of the hearts revealed interstitial myocardial fibrosis (IMF) in 29 chimpanzees (81%), and all of the animals that died suddenly due to cardiac causes had IMF to varying degrees. More data will be needed to identify the possible causes of IMF in captive chimpanzees, and IMF may be associated with arrhythmias and SCD in these animals. PMID:18724782

  9. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-02-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), presumed secondary to fatal arrhythmias, is a common cause of mortality in captive chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility. Over the 6-year period at the Alamogordo Primate Facility between 2001 and 2006, 13 animals were defined as sudden cardiac death (11 male and 2 female) on the basis of clinical presentation which was 38% of all deaths. All animals had annual physical exams, including electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Six of the 13 animals underwent a complete cardiac evaluation by a veterinary cardiologist and all six of these animals were diagnosed with various degrees of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in two of the 13 cases and antemortem cardiac arrhythmias were seen in all 13 animals. Histological examination of the hearts revealed myocardial fibrosis in 12 chimpanzees. Most of the animals (10/13) that died of sudden cardiac death had cardiomegaly (increased heart weight/body weight ratio) and some degree of myocardial fibrosis noted. Additional data as well as serial diagnostic evaluations will be needed to identify the possible causes of sudden cardiac death in captive chimpanzees. PMID:18269527

  10. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Baskin, Gary B; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-08-01

    The clinical and necropsy records of 36 (25 male and 11 female) chimpanzees age 10 to 40 y old that died over a 6-y period (2001 to 2006) were reviewed. All animals had annual physical exams that included electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Nine of the 36 animals had a complete cardiac evaluation by a board certified veterinary cardiologist, and 7 of the 36 animals (19%) were diagnosed with some form of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in 3 cases. Cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular ectopy) were seen in 15 (12 male and 3 female) of the 36 animals (42%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 13 (11 male and 2 female) chimps (36%) and was the leading cause of death (n = 13), followed by renal failure (n = 9) and septicemia (n = 3). Histologic examination of the hearts revealed interstitial myocardial fibrosis (IMF) in 29 chimpanzees (81%), and all of the animals that died suddenly due to cardiac causes had IMF to varying degrees. More data will be needed to identify the possible causes of IMF in captive chimpanzees, and IMF may be associated with arrhythmias and SCD in these animals. PMID:18724782

  11. Brain temperature asymmetries and emotional perception in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Parr, L A; Hopkins, W D

    The lateralization of emotion has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades, resulting in two main theories. The Right Hemisphere Theory states that the right hemisphere is primarily responsible for emotional processes, while the Valence Theory suggests that the right hemisphere regulates negative emotion and the left hemisphere regulates positive emotion. Despite the important implications of these theories for the evolution of emotion processes, few studies have attempted to assess the lateralization of emotion in non-human primates. This study uses the novel technique of measuring tympanic membrane temperature (Tty) to assess asymmetries in the perception of emotional stimuli in chimpanzees. The tympanic membrane is an indirect, but reliable, site from which to measure brain temperature, and is strongly influenced by autonomic and behavioral activity. Six chimpanzees were shown positive, neutral, and negative emotional videos depicting scenes of play, scenery, and severe aggression, respectively. During the negative emotion condition, right Tty was significantly higher than the baseline temperature. This effect was relatively stable, long lasting, and consistent across subjects. Temperatures did not change significantly from baseline in the neutral or positive emotion condition, although a significant number of measurements showed increased left Tty during the neutral emotion condition. These data suggest that viewing emotional stimuli results in asymmetrical changes in brain temperature, in particular increased right Tty during the negative emotion condition, evidence of emotional arousal in chimpanzees, and in providing partial support of both the Right Hemisphere and Valence Theories of emotional lateralization in our closest living ancestor.

  12. Spatial memory and monitoring of hidden items through spatial displacements by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Beran, Mary M; Menzel, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    This study examined chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) short-term memory for food location in near space. In Experiments 1 and 2, either 1 or 2 items (chocolate pieces) were hidden in an array of 3 or 5 containers that either remained stationary or were rotated 180 degrees or 360 degrees. When the array remained stationary, the chimpanzees remembered both item locations. When arrays were rotated, however, chimpanzees found only 1 item. In Experiment 3, 2 items were hidden in an array of 7 cups. Both items were found at levels significantly better than chance. Ninety percent of errors were made after the 1st item was found, and errors reflected memory failure rather than a failure of inhibitory control.

  13. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 2-year-old children (Homo sapiens) understand double invisible displacement?

    PubMed

    Collier-Baker, Emma; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens) have difficulty with double invisible displacements in which an object is hidden in two nonadjacent boxes in a linear array. Experiment 1 eliminated the possibility that chimpanzees' previous poor performance was due to the hiding direction of the displacement device. As in Call (2001), subjects failed double nonadjacent displacements, showing a tendency to select adjacent boxes. In Experiments 2 and 3, chimpanzees and 24-month-old children were tested on a new adaptation of the task in which four hiding boxes were presented in a diamond-shaped array on a vertical plane. Both species performed above chance on double invisible displacements using this format, suggesting that previous poor performance was due to a response bias or inhibition problem rather than a fundamental limitation in representational capacity.

  14. Fatal arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in 2 related subadult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tong, L J; Flach, E J; Sheppard, M N; Pocknell, A; Banerjee, A A; Boswood, A; Bouts, T; Routh, A; Feltrer, Y

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This report records 2 cases of sudden cardiac death in closely related subadult captive chimpanzees with marked replacement fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration of the myocardium, which resemble specific atypical forms of the familial human disease arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Changes were consistent with left-dominant and biventricular subtypes, which are both phenotypic variants found within human families with familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Previously reported fibrosing cardiomyopathies in chimpanzees were characterized by nonspecific interstitial fibrosis, in contrast to the replacement fibrofatty infiltration with predilection for the outer myocardium seen in these 2 cases. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to describe cardiomyopathy resembling arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in nonhuman primates and the first to describe left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy-type lesions in an animal.

  15. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  16. Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Langergraber, Kevin; Mitani, John; Vigilant, Linda

    2009-10-01

    A large body of theoretical and empirical research suggests that kinship influences the development and maintenance of social bonds among group-living female mammals, and that human females may be unusual in the extent to which individuals form differentiated social relationships with nonrelatives. Here we combine behavioral observations of party association, spatial proximity, grooming, and space use with extensive molecular genetic analyses to determine whether female chimpanzees form strong social bonds with unrelated individuals of the same sex. We compare our results with those obtained from male chimpanzees who live in the same community and have been shown to form strong social bonds with each other. We demonstrate that party association is as good a predictor of spatial proximity and grooming in females as it is in males, that the highest party association indices are consistently found between female dyads, that the sexes do not differ in the long-term stability of their party association patterns, and that these results cannot be explained as a by-product of the tendency of females to selectively range in particular areas of the territory. We also show that close kin (i.e. mother-daughter and sibling dyads) are very rare, indicating that the vast majority of female dyads that form strong social bonds are not closely related. Additional analyses reveal that "subgroups" of females, consisting of individuals who frequently associate with one another in similar areas of the territory, do not consist of relatives. This suggests that a passive form of kin-biased dispersal, involving the differential migration of females from neighboring communities into subgroups, was also unlikely to be occurring. These results show that, as in males, kinship plays a limited role in structuring the intrasexual social relationships of female chimpanzees.

  17. Variation and Context of Yawns in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Sarah-Jane; Paukner, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Primate yawns are usually categorised according to context (e.g. as a threat, anxious or rest yawn) but there has been little consideration of whether these yawns are best regarded as a unitary behaviour that only differs with respect to the context in which it is observed. This study examined the context and precise morphology of yawns in a group of 11 captive chimpanzees. Focal video sampling was used to describe the morphology and intensity of 124 yawns using ChimpFACS, a system for coding facial movements. Two distinct forms of yawn were identified, a full yawn and a yawn which is modified by additional actions which reduce the mouth aperture. These modified yawns may indicate some degree of voluntary control over facial movement in chimpanzees and consequently multiple functions of yawning according to context. To assess context effects, mean activity levels (resting, locomotion and grooming) and scratching rates were compared one minute before and after each yawn. Locomotion was significantly increased following both types of yawn, while scratching rates significantly increased following modified yawns but decreased following full yawns. In terms of individual differences, males did not yawn more than females although male yawns were of higher intensity, both in the degree of mouth opening and in the amount of associated head movement. These data indicate that yawning is associated with a change in activity levels in chimpanzees but only modified yawns may be related to increased arousal. Different types of yawn can therefore be differentiated at the morphological level as well as context level. PMID:20014109

  18. Permanent tooth mineralization in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Boughner, Julia C; Dean, M Christopher; Wilgenbusch, Chelsea S

    2012-12-01

    The timing of tooth mineralization in bonobos (Pan paniscus) is virtually uncharacterized. Analysis of these developmental features in bonobos and the possible differences with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), is important to properly quantify the normal ranges of dental growth variation in closely related primate species. Understanding this variation among bonobo, chimpanzee and modern human dental development is necessary to better contextualize the life histories of extinct hominins. This study tests whether bonobos and chimpanzees are distinguished from each other by covariance among the relative timing and sequences of tooth crown initiation, mineralization, root extension, and completion. Using multivariate statistical analyses, we compared the relative timing of permanent tooth crypt formation, crown mineralization, and root extension between 34 P. paniscus and 80 P. troglodytes mandibles radiographed in lateral and occlusal views. Covariance among our 12 assigned dental scores failed to statistically distinguish between bonobos and chimpanzees. Rather than clustering by species, individuals clustered by age group (infant, younger or older juvenile, and adult). Dental scores covaried similarly between the incisors, as well as between both premolars. Conversely, covariance among dental scores distinguished the canine and each of the three molars not only from each other, but also from the rest of the anterior teeth. Our study showed no significant differences in the relative timing of permanent tooth crown and root formation between bonobos and chimpanzees.

  19. Leaf-tool use for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): acquisition patterns and handedness.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cláudia; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to make and use a variety of tools, activities which require them to employ their hands in a skilful manner. The learning process underlying the acquisition of tool-using skills, and the degree of laterality evident in both immature and mature performers are investigated here focusing on the use of leaves for drinking water by members of the Bossou chimpanzee community in Guinea, West Africa. In addition, comparisons are drawn between the present findings and our previous data on the cracking of oil-palm nuts (Elaeis guineensis) using stone tools by members of the same community. The use of leaves for drinking water emerges approximately 2 years earlier than nut cracking, at around the age of 1.5 years, although the manufacture of leaf tools begins only at 3.5 years of age. In addition, in clear contrast with nut cracking, the majority of chimpanzees are ambidextrous in their use of leaves, with only certain individuals showing a bias for one hand. We discuss possible explanations for the earlier emergence and increased ambidextrousness that characterises leaf-tool use in comparison with other forms of tool use by wild chimpanzees. In summary, our results provide the first detailed description of the acquisition process underlying leaf-tool use along with the accompanying patterns of handedness, while also being the first to provide comparisons of the development of different forms of tool use within the same wild chimpanzee population.

  20. A pan-African Flood Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

    2014-05-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 where important floods were observed. Results were verified with ground measurements of 36 subcatchments as well as with reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70% of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (>1 week) and large affected areas (>10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for "Save flooding" illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

  1. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature

    PubMed Central

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle–tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion–dorsiflexion (PF–DF) and eversion–inversion (EV–IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF–DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  2. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature.

    PubMed

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle-tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion (PF-DF) and eversion-inversion (EV-IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF-DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  3. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-09-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies.

  4. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies. PMID:22912400

  5. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Bonar, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Facial expressions are a critical mode of non-vocal communication for many mammals, particularly non-human primates. Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have an elaborate repertoire of facial signals, little is known about the facial expression (i.e. mimetic) musculature underlying these movements, especially when compared with some other catarrhines. Here we present a detailed description of the facial muscles of the chimpanzee, framed in comparative and phylogenetic contexts, through the dissection of preserved faces using a novel approach. The arrangement and appearance of muscles were noted and compared with previous studies of chimpanzees and with prosimians, cercopithecoids and humans. The results showed 23 mimetic muscles in P. troglodytes, including a thin sphincter colli muscle, reported previously only in adult prosimians, a bi-layered zygomaticus major muscle and a distinct risorius muscle. The presence of these muscles in such definition supports previous studies that describe an elaborate and highly graded facial communication system in this species that remains qualitatively different from that reported for other non-human primate species. In addition, there are minimal anatomical differences between chimpanzees and humans, contrary to conclusions from previous studies. These results amplify the importance of understanding facial musculature in primate taxa, which may hold great taxonomic value. PMID:16441560

  6. Environmental management procedures following fatal melioidosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Kasantikul, Tanit; Somsa, Wachirawit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Sermswan, Rasana W; Kongmakee, Piyaporn; Thomas, Warissara; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bush, Mitchell; Banlunara, Wijit

    2013-06-01

    A 40-yr-old male captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with depression and anorexia for 7 days. The tentative diagnosis, following a physical examination under anesthesia, was pneumonia with sepsis. Despite antibiotic treatment and supportive care the chimpanzee died a week following presentation. Gross pathology confirmed severe purulent pneumonia and diffuse hepatosplenic abscesses. Detected in serum at the time of the initial examination, the melioidosis serum antibody titer was elevated (> 1:512). Soil samples were collected from three sites in the exhibit at three depths of 5, 15, and 30 cm. By direct and enrichment culture, positive cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei were found at 5 and 15 cm in one site. The other two sites were positive by enrichment culture at the depth of 5 cm. To prevent disease in the remaining seven troop members, they were relocated to permit a soil treatment with calcium oxide. The exhibit remained empty for approximately 1 yr before the chimpanzees were returned. During that period, the soil in the exhibit area was again cultured as before and all samples were negative for B. pseudomallei. Following the soil treatment in the exhibit, all chimpanzees have remained free of clinical signs consistent with melioidosis.

  7. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted to receive more immediately. That food was scattered in an outdoor yard where she could forage for it. Also outdoors were lexigram tokens, one of which represented the food item that remained indoors throughout a 30 minute period, and that could be obtained if Panzee brought in the token that matched that food item. After foraging for the selected food item, Panzee consistently remembered to retrieve and return the correct token when food was available indoors, whereas on control trials involving no indoor food she rarely returned a token. This indicated that Panzee encoded information relevant to the future action of token retrieval after extended delays for one type of food, even when a more immediately preferred food was available. PMID:23139433

  8. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Bramlett, Jessica L; Menzel, Charles R; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-11-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted to receive more immediately. That food was scattered in an outdoor yard where she could forage for it. Also outdoors were lexigram tokens, one of which represented the food item that remained indoors throughout a 30 minute period, and that could be obtained if Panzee brought in the token that matched that food item. After foraging for the selected food item, Panzee consistently remembered to retrieve and return the correct token when food was available indoors, whereas on control trials involving no indoor food she rarely returned a token. This indicated that Panzee encoded information relevant to the future action of token retrieval after extended delays for one type of food, even when a more immediately preferred food was available. PMID:23139433

  9. [Conditional discrimination using 3-dimensional objects by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): tests for derived stimulus relations].

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Fushimi, Takao

    2002-06-01

    A female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained on the conditional-discrimination task using 3-dimensional objects under a face-to-face experimental setting. In Experiment 1, the subject was required to pick up the correct comparison object, take it to the sample object, and construct a new paired-object with a specific action. After acquisition of the task, derived stimulus relations (associative symmetry) were tested. The subject showed a significant emergence of symmetry only when the spatial arrangements of stimuli were changed between the baseline and test trials. In Experiment 2, the subject was tested under the condition where the action to constructed paired-object was common to all stimuli. The subject showed significant above-chance performance in the transitivity test, but not in the symmetry tests. The present results are generally consistent with previous studies in chimpanzees that show weak evidence for the emergence of symmetry.

  10. Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-01

    As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees. PMID:16229006

  11. Fetal and infant growth patterns of the mandibular symphysis in modern humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Coquerelle, Michael; Bookstein, Fred L; Braga, José; Halazonetis, Demetrios J; Weber, Gerhard W

    2010-11-01

    Comparison of the early development of the mandibular symphysis between primates and modern humans is of particular interest in human palaeontology. Using geometric morphometric methods, we explored and compared the ontogenetic shape changes of 14 chimpanzee mandibles (Pan troglodytes) against 66 human CT-scanned mandibles over the age range from fetal life to the complete emergence of the deciduous dentition in a visualization incorporating the deciduous tooth arrangement. The results reveal that the symphysis is anteriorly inclined in the youngest chimpanzee fetuses but develops an increasingly vertical orientation up until birth. At the same time, the anterior teeth reorient before a vertical emergence, and a symphyseal tuber appears on the labial side. When the deciduous canine emerges, the symphysis inclines anteriorly again, exhibiting the adult characteristic slope. These two phases are characterized by a repositioning of the simian shelf. Unlike chimpanzees, the human symphysis remains vertical throughout fetal development. However, the combination of morphological changes observed in chimpanzee fetuses is similar to that of modern humans after birth, as the mental region projects forward. By elongating the alveolar process, the inclination of the chimpanzee symphysis could be a key event for emergence of the deciduous canine, as space is lacking at the alveolar ridge in a vertical symphysis once the deciduous incisors and molars have emerged. The repositioning of the simian shelf suggests that the suprahyoid muscles have a significant influence on the anterior growth of the symphysis. The anteroposterior positioning of the basal symphysis in both species may be related to hyoid bone position during ontogeny.

  12. Fetal and infant growth patterns of the mandibular symphysis in modern humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Bookstein, Fred L; Braga, José; Halazonetis, Demetrios J; Weber, Gerhard W

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of the early development of the mandibular symphysis between primates and modern humans is of particular interest in human palaeontology. Using geometric morphometric methods, we explored and compared the ontogenetic shape changes of 14 chimpanzee mandibles (Pan troglodytes) against 66 human CT-scanned mandibles over the age range from fetal life to the complete emergence of the deciduous dentition in a visualization incorporating the deciduous tooth arrangement. The results reveal that the symphysis is anteriorly inclined in the youngest chimpanzee fetuses but develops an increasingly vertical orientation up until birth. At the same time, the anterior teeth reorient before a vertical emergence, and a symphyseal tuber appears on the labial side. When the deciduous canine emerges, the symphysis inclines anteriorly again, exhibiting the adult characteristic slope. These two phases are characterized by a repositioning of the simian shelf. Unlike chimpanzees, the human symphysis remains vertical throughout fetal development. However, the combination of morphological changes observed in chimpanzee fetuses is similar to that of modern humans after birth, as the mental region projects forward. By elongating the alveolar process, the inclination of the chimpanzee symphysis could be a key event for emergence of the deciduous canine, as space is lacking at the alveolar ridge in a vertical symphysis once the deciduous incisors and molars have emerged. The repositioning of the simian shelf suggests that the suprahyoid muscles have a significant influence on the anterior growth of the symphysis. The anteroposterior positioning of the basal symphysis in both species may be related to hyoid bone position during ontogeny. PMID:20807267

  13. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  14. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  15. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use markers to monitor the movement of a hidden item.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Beran, Mary M; Menzel, Charles R

    2005-10-01

    Four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) monitored the movement of hidden items in arrays of opaque cups. A chocolate candy was hidden in an array of four cups and temporarily presented paper markers indicated the location of the candy (which otherwise was not visible). These markers were either non-symbolic or symbolic (lexigram) stimuli that in other contexts acted as a label for the hidden candy, and the array was either rotated 180 degrees after the marker was removed or the array remained in the same location. For three of four chimpanzees, performance was better than chance in all conditions and there was no effect of the type of marker. These experiments indicate that chimpanzees can track the movement of a hidden item in an array of identical cups even when they never see the item itself, but only see a temporarily presented marker for the location of that item. However, there was no benefit to the use of symbolic as opposed to non-symbolic stimuli in this performance.

  16. Effects of Cognitive Challenge on Self-Directed Behaviors by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Aureli, Filippo; Hopkins, William D.; Hyatt, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    In primates, including humans, scratching and other self-directed behaviors (SDBs) have recently been reported to be differentially displayed as a function of social interactions, anxiety-related drugs, and response outcomes during learning tasks. Yet few studies have focused on the factors influencing SDBs in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Furthermore, no previous experimental study has examined handedness of SDBs as a function of changes in task difficulty. Using matching-to-sample tasks of varying difficulty, the present study examines the effect of manipulations of task difficulty on rates, handedness, and type of SDBs in an experimental study of eight chimpanzees. SDBs were categorized as rubs, gentle scratches, and rough scratches. SDBs increased during difficult discriminations, but only for subjects who started the experiment on an easy discrimination; subjects who started on a difficult discrimination exhibited no differential rates of SDBs as a function of task difficulty. There was a tendency to exhibit relatively more SDBs with the right hand in the more difficult task. Rates of SDBs decreased after auditory feedback signals, suggesting a link between SDBs and uncertainty. Rubs were directed more to the face (trigeminal), and gentle and rough scratches more to the body (spinothalamic), suggesting that face-directed SDBs may index a different motivational basis than scratches. Taken together, these results extend previous research on SDBs to the domain of cognitive stress in nonsocial contexts, demonstrating that SDBs are sensitive to manipulations of task difficulty in chimpanzees. PMID:11536312

  17. Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Susan P; Hau, Jann; Perlman, Jaine E; Martino, Michele; Schapiro, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.

  18. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-12-20

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  19. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  20. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  1. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution.

  2. When less is more: like humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) misperceive food amounts based on plate size.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) misperceived food portion sizes depending upon the context in which they were presented, something that often affects how much humans serve themselves and subsequently consume. Chimpanzees judged same-sized and smaller food portions to be larger in amount when presented on a small plate compared to an equal or larger food portion presented on a large plate and did so despite clearly being able to tell the difference in portions when plate size was identical. These results are consistent with data from the human literature in which people misperceive food portion sizes as a function of plate size. This misperception is attributed to the Delboeuf illusion which occurs when the size of a central item is misperceived on the basis of its surrounding context. These results demonstrate a cross-species shared visual misperception of portion size that affects choice behavior, here in a nonhuman species for which there is little experience with tests that involve choosing between food amounts on dinnerware. The biases resulting in this form of misperception of food portions appear to have a deep-rooted evolutionary history which we share with, at minimum, our closest living nonhuman relative, the chimpanzee.

  3. Extensive vascular mineralization in the brain of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Connor-Stroud, Fawn R; Hopkins, William D; Preuss, Todd M; Johnson, Zachary; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous vascular mineralization (deposition of iron or calcium salts) has been observed in marble brain syndrome, mineralizing microangiopathy, hypothyroidism, Fahr syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and calciphylaxis in humans and as an aging or idiopathic lesion in the brains of horses, cats, nonhuman primates, mice, rats, cattle, white-tailed deer, and dogs. Here we present a 27-y-old, adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with spontaneous, extensive vascular mineralization localized solely to the brain. The chimpanzee exhibited tremors and weakness of the limbs, which progressed to paralysis before euthanasia. Magnetic resonance brain imaging in 2002 and 2010 (immediately before euthanasia) revealed multiple hypointense foci, suggestive of iron- and calcium-rich deposits. At necropsy, the brain parenchyma had occasional petechial hemorrhage, and microscopically, the cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem, gray and white matter had moderate to severe mural aggregates of a granular, basophilic material (mineral) in the blood vessels. In addition, these regions often had moderate to severe medial to transmural deposition of mature collagen in the blood vessels. We ruled out common causes of brain mineralization in humans and animals, but an etiology for the mineralization could not be determined. To our knowledge, mineralization in brain has been reported only once to occur in a chimpanzee, but its chronicity in our case makes it particularly interesting.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti (Primates: Hominidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Yin-Hua; Tang, Ming-Gui; Chai, Hai-Xia; Xuan, Xing-Wei; Guo, Wei-Yan; Yang, Mu; Pu, Jian-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees are especially suited to teach us about ourselves, both in terms of their similarities and differences with human, and such important similarities and differences have also been noted for the incidence and severity of several major human diseases. In the present work, we report the entire mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) for the first time. Results shows that this mitogenome is 16,559 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 putative non-coding region (D-loop region). The genomic organization and gene order are the same as other Chimpanzees. The whole nucleotide base composition is 31.1% of A, 30.7% of C, 12.9% G, and 25.3% T, with a slight A+T bias of 56.4%. Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here provides useful genetic information for P. t. ellioti, and will further contribute to the comparative genomics studies in primates.

  5. Mural Dissections of Brain-Supplying Arteries in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baze, Wallace B; Storts, Ralph W; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Buchl, Stephanie J; Magden, Elizabeth R; Chaffee, Beth K

    2015-12-01

    We describe the pathologic features of mural arterial dissection involving brain-supplying arteries in a 31-y-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Several hours after examination for a possible respiratory tract infection, the chimpanzee became unresponsive, developed seizures, and died within 18 h. At necropsy, the occipital cortex of the brain had a small area of congestion, and the cerebellar cortex contained a small necrotic area. Histologic evaluation confirmed the cortical lesions and revealed an additional necrotic area in the medulla oblongata characterized by mural dissection of the brain-supplying vertebral and basilar arteries and subsequent branches. Lesions in the cortices and medulla were within areas supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. Dissection of brain-supplying arteries has been described in humans but not previously in chimpanzees (or any other NHP), suggesting that these species might be useful in understanding this condition in humans. In addition, the lesion should be added to the NHP clinician's and pathologist's differential diagnosis list for similar presentations in this species.

  6. Extensive Vascular Mineralization in the Brain of a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Connor-Stroud, Fawn R; Hopkins, William D; Preuss, Todd M; Johnson, Zachary; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous vascular mineralization (deposition of iron or calcium salts) has been observed in marble brain syndrome, mineralizing microangiopathy, hypothyroidism, Fahr syndrome, Sturge–Weber syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and calciphylaxis in humans and as an aging or idiopathic lesion in the brains of horses, cats, nonhuman primates, mice, rats, cattle, white-tailed deer, and dogs. Here we present a 27-y-old, adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with spontaneous, extensive vascular mineralization localized solely to the brain. The chimpanzee exhibited tremors and weakness of the limbs, which progressed to paralysis before euthanasia. Magnetic resonance brain imaging in 2002 and 2010 (immediately before euthanasia) revealed multiple hypointense foci, suggestive of iron- and calcium-rich deposits. At necropsy, the brain parenchyma had occasional petechial hemorrhage, and microscopically, the cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem, gray and white matter had moderate to severe mural aggregates of a granular, basophilic material (mineral) in the blood vessels. In addition, these regions often had moderate to severe medial to transmural deposition of mature collagen in the blood vessels. We ruled out common causes of brain mineralization in humans and animals, but an etiology for the mineralization could not be determined. To our knowledge, mineralization in brain has been reported only once to occur in a chimpanzee, but its chronicity in our case makes it particularly interesting. PMID:24956215

  7. Factors affecting wounding aggression in a colony of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert C; Nash, Leanne T; Scarry, Clara JoAnn; Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) display higher levels of aggression in captivity than in the wild. One of the challenges of captive management, therefore, is to balance the chimpanzees' need for social interaction with managements' desire to minimize wounding and aggression. Various captive studies have examined the effects of individual and social variables on the frequency of wounding aggression, but none have examined these variables simultaneously. We collected retrospective wounding data for severe wounds from 83 captive chimpanzees (36 males, 47 females) from January 1993 to December 2003. The context of the wounding event, including individual age and sex, group age and sex composition, group duration, and portion of the week (weekday vs. weekend) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables had a significant effect on the probability of a severe wounding event. The sex and age composition of the group, group duration, and portion of the week had a statistically significant association with wounding. All-male groups (Odds Ratio (OR)=6.738) had the highest risk of wounding aggression, with uni-male groups (OR=3.311) having the next largest. Compared to individuals in all sub-adult groups, individuals in either all-adult (OR=4.516) or mixed-age (OR=3.587) groups had a higher risk of wounding. There was an inverse association between group duration and wounding (OR=0.821). Finally, there was an increased risk of wounding during the work week (OR=1.653). These results suggest that captive management should pay close attention to group composition, as well as levels of human activity, when devising strategies to reduce captive chimpanzee aggression. PMID:19688864

  8. Genome Sequences of Polyomaviruses from the Wild-Living Red Colobus (Piliocolobus badius) and Western Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus)

    PubMed Central

    Ben Salem, Nicole; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    We identified with PCR and sequencing the full genomes of the recently discovered Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 8 and Piliocolobus badius polyomavirus 2 in a western chimpanzee and a western red colobus free-ranging in Taï National Park of Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:27738028

  9. Evidence of cave use by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: implications for thermoregulatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D

    2007-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to how humans both adapt and acclimate to heat stress, primarily due to the relevance of these issues to hominid evolution in open Plio-Pleistocene environments. However, little is known about the responses of human's closest living relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), to similar environmental stressors. In southeastern Senegal, one of the hottest and driest habitats that chimpanzees (P. t. verus) live in today, apes rely on behavioral mechanisms of dealing with thermal stress. Chimpanzees' use of caves was based primarily on indirect evidence (feeding traces, feces, and hairs) gathered from one cave from January to December 2004, but data from observational records collected from May 2001 through March 2006 supplement these data. The hypothesis that chimpanzees' use of caves is a response to heat was tested by collecting data on temperatures within the largest cave and in different habitats used by chimpanzees, such as gallery forest and woodland. Results indicate that chimpanzees primarily use caves as shelters during the hottest times of year and that caves are consistently and significantly cooler than open habitats. Insight into the way that chimpanzees in Senegal cope with extreme temperatures may help us to better understand the behavior of early hominids in such an environment.

  10. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.

  11. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Richards, Michael P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Deschner, Tobias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Offspring provisioning is one of the most energetically demanding aspects of reproduction for female mammals. Variation in lactation length and weaning strategies between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relative, and modern human societies have been reported. When and why these changes occurred is frequently debated. Our study used stable nitrogen isotope data of tooth root dentine from wild Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to quantify weaning in these chimpanzees and explore if infant sex plays a role in maternal investment. We analyzed serial sections of deciduous lateral incisor root dentine from four Taï chimpanzees to establish the δ(15) N signal of nursing infants; we then analyzed serial sections of first permanent mandibular molar root dentine from 12 Taï chimpanzees to provide quantitative δ(15) N data on weaning in this population. Up to 2 years of age both sexes exhibited dentine δ(15) N values ≈2-3‰ higher than adult female Taï chimpanzees, consistent with a nursing signal. Thereafter a steady decrease in δ(15) N values consistent with the onset, and progression, of weaning, was visible. Sex differences were also evident, where male δ(15) N values decreased at a significantly slower rate compared to females. Confirmation of sex differences in maternal investment among Taï chimpanzees, demonstrates the viability of using isotope analysis to investigate weaning in non-human primates. Additionally, assuming that behaviors observed in the Taï chimpanzees are illustrative of the ancestral pattern, our results provide a platform to enable the trajectory of weaning in human evolution to be further explored.

  12. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism. PMID:20648996

  13. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    This study first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. The genome was a total of 16 556 bp in length and had a base composition of A (31.05%), G (12.95%), C (30.84%), and T (25.16%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (56.21%) is higher than G + C (43.79%). Similar to other primates, it possessed a typically conserved structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of these genes were found to locate on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the P. t. troglodytes mitochondrial genome formed a cluster with the other three Pan troglodytes genomes and that the genus Pan is closely related to the genus Homo. This mitochondrial genome sequence would supply useful genetic resources to help the conservation management of primate germplasm and uncover hominoid evolution.

  15. Diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, 1. Diet composition and diversity.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P; Potts, Kevin B; Lwanga, Jeremiah S; Mitani, John C

    2012-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are ecologically flexible omnivores with broad diets comprising many plant and animal foods, although they mostly eat fruit (including figs). Like other ecologically flexible nonhuman primates (e.g., baboons, Papio spp.) with broad diets, their diets vary across habitats. Much data on diets come from short studies that may not capture the range of variation, however, and data are scant on variation within habitats and populations. We present data on diet composition and diversity for chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, collected over a 15-year period, with a focus on the plant components of the diet. We compare Ngogo data to those on chimpanzees at the nearby Kibale site of Kanyawara, on other chimpanzee populations, and on some other frugivorous-omnivorous primates. Results support the argument that chimpanzees are ripe fruit specialists: Ngogo chimpanzees ate a broad, mostly fruit-based diet, feeding time devoted to fruit varied positively with fruit availability, and diet diversity varied inversely with fruit availability. Comparison of Ngogo and Kanyawara shows much similarity, but also pronounced within-population dietary variation. Chimpanzees fed much more on leaves, and much less on pith and stems, at Ngogo. Figs accounted for somewhat less feeding time at Ngogo, but those of Ficus mucuso were quantitatively the most important food. This species is essentially absent at Kanayawara; its abundance and high productivity at Ngogo, along with much higher abundance of several other important food species, help explain why chimpanzee community size and population density are over three times higher at Ngogo. High inter-annual variation at Ngogo highlights the value of long-term data for documenting the extent of ecological variation among chimpanzee populations and understanding how such variation might affect population biology and social dynamics.

  16. How chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perform in a modified emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emotional Stroop task is an experimental paradigm developed to study the relationship between emotion and cognition. Human participants required to identify the color of words typically respond more slowly to negative than to neutral words (emotional Stroop effect). Here we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would show a comparable effect. Using a touch screen, eight chimpanzees were trained to choose between two simultaneously presented stimuli based on color (two identical images with differently colored frames). In Experiment 1, the images within the color frames were shapes that were either of the same color as the surrounding frame or of the alternative color. Subjects made fewer errors and responded faster when shapes were of the same color as the frame surrounding them than when they were not, evidencing that embedded images affected target selection. Experiment 2, a modified version of the emotional Stroop task, presented subjects with four different categories of novel images: three categories of pictures of humans (veterinarian, caretaker, and stranger), and control stimuli showing a white square. Because visits by the veterinarian that include anaesthetization can be stressful for subjects, we expected impaired performance in trials presenting images of the veterinarian. For the first session, we found correct responses to be indeed slower in trials of this category. This effect was more pronounced for subjects whose last anaesthetization experience was more recent, indicating that emotional valence caused the slowdown. We propose our modified emotional Stroop task as a simple method to explore which emotional stimuli affect cognitive performance in nonhuman primates. PMID:26613593

  17. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  18. How chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perform in a modified emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emotional Stroop task is an experimental paradigm developed to study the relationship between emotion and cognition. Human participants required to identify the color of words typically respond more slowly to negative than to neutral words (emotional Stroop effect). Here we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would show a comparable effect. Using a touch screen, eight chimpanzees were trained to choose between two simultaneously presented stimuli based on color (two identical images with differently colored frames). In Experiment 1, the images within the color frames were shapes that were either of the same color as the surrounding frame or of the alternative color. Subjects made fewer errors and responded faster when shapes were of the same color as the frame surrounding them than when they were not, evidencing that embedded images affected target selection. Experiment 2, a modified version of the emotional Stroop task, presented subjects with four different categories of novel images: three categories of pictures of humans (veterinarian, caretaker, and stranger), and control stimuli showing a white square. Because visits by the veterinarian that include anaesthetization can be stressful for subjects, we expected impaired performance in trials presenting images of the veterinarian. For the first session, we found correct responses to be indeed slower in trials of this category. This effect was more pronounced for subjects whose last anaesthetization experience was more recent, indicating that emotional valence caused the slowdown. We propose our modified emotional Stroop task as a simple method to explore which emotional stimuli affect cognitive performance in nonhuman primates.

  19. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  20. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  1. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  2. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  3. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  4. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  5. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  6. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical. PMID:25800459

  7. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical.

  8. Obstructive uropathy secondary to uterine leiomyoma in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Satterfield, William C; McArthur, Mark J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2012-12-01

    Complications due to uterine leiomyomata in chimpanzees have rarely been documented. Here we describe a female chimpanzee that developed severe hydronephrosis in the right kidney due to leiomyoma. Because hysterectomy did not alleviate the hydronephrosis, nephrectomy was elected. After these procedures, the chimpanzee is doing well. Leiomyomata screening programs with treatment algorithms are a useful component of a comprehensive chimpanzee program.

  9. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of 'Laugh Faces' when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent.

    PubMed

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates' open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  10. Social environment elicits lateralized behaviors in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Quaresmini, Caterina; Forrester, Gillian S; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the social environment on lateralized behaviors has now been investigated across a wide variety of animal species. New evidence suggests that the social environment can modulate behavior. Currently, there is a paucity of data relating to how primates navigate their environmental space, and investigations that consider the naturalistic context of the individual are few and fragmented. Moreover, there are competing theories about whether only the right or rather both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the processing of social stimuli, especially in emotion processing. Here we provide the first report of lateralized social behaviors elicited by great apes. We employed a continuous focal animal sampling method to record the spontaneous interactions of a captive zoo-living colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a biological family group of peer-reared western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We specifically focused on which side of the body (i.e., front, rear, left, right) the focal individual preferred to keep conspecifics. Utilizing a newly developed quantitative corpus-coding scheme, analysis revealed both chimpanzees and gorillas demonstrated a significant group-level preference for focal individuals to keep conspecifics positioned to the front of them compared with behind them. More interestingly, both groups also manifested a population-level bias to keep conspecifics on their left side compared with their right side. Our findings suggest a social processing dominance of the right hemisphere for context-specific social environments. Results are discussed in light of the evolutionary adaptive value of social stimulus as a triggering factor for the manifestation of group-level lateralized behaviors.

  11. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly

  12. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly

  13. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  14. Behavioural Development in Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Human Newborns across the First Month of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Martha B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports comparisons of behaviors of nine chimpanzee and nine human newborns on a standardized human neonatal assessment scale at the ages of three days and one month. Human infants scored higher than chimpanzee infants on the orientation cluster at both ages, but were lower than chimpanzee infants in motoric maturity. (RJC)

  15. Maternal Behavior and Physiological Stress Levels in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Heintz, Matthew R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After accounting for temporal variation in FGM concentrations, we found that mothers interacted socially (groomed and played) with and nursed their infants more on days when FGM concentrations were elevated compared to days when FGM concentrations were within the range expected given the time of year. However, the proportion of time mothers and infants spent in contact did not differ based on FGM concentrations. These results generally agree with the suggestion that elevated GC concentrations are related to maternal motivation and responsivity to infant cues and are the first evidence of a hormonal correlate of maternal behavior in a wild great ape. PMID:26213430

  16. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Call, J

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile and adult orangutans (n = 5; Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (n = 7; Pan troglodytes), and 19- and 26-month-old children (n = 24; Homo sapiens) received visible and invisible displacements. Three containers were presented forming a straight line, and a small box was used to displace a reward under them. Subjects received 3 types of displacement: single (the box visited 1 container), double adjacent (the box visited 2 contiguous containers), and double nonadjacent (the box visited 2 noncontiguous containers). All species performed at comparable levels, solving all problems except the invisible nonadjacent displacements. Visible displacements were easier than invisible, and single were easier than double displacements. In a 2nd experiment, subjects saw the baiting of either 2 adjacent or 2 nonadjacent containers with no displacements. All species selected the empty container more often when the baited containers were nonadjacent than when they were adjacent. It is hypothesized that a response bias and inhibition problem were responsible for the poor performance in nonadjacent displacements.

  17. Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov., isolated from a foot abscess of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Yan, Lifang; Zhu, Guan; Holifield, Michael; Todd, Donna; Zhang, Shuping

    2013-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive-staining, coccus-shaped bacterium was isolated from an abscess on the right foot of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The colonies were β-haemolytic. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The Lancefield group B antigen was expressed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 96.7 %, 96.4 %, 96.1 %, 95.8 % and 95.7 % sequence similarities with Streptococcus gordonii, S. cristatus, S. intermedius, S. anginosus and S. constellatus, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes encoding D-alanine : D-alanine ligase (ddl), the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) revealed that the bacterium represented a novel species closely related to, albeit different from, S. gordonii, S. cristatus and the anginosus streptococci. The name Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M09-11185(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2337(T) = KCTC 33006(T)).

  18. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  19. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed Central

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future

  20. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  1. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  2. Problem solving in the presence of others: how rank and relationship quality impact resource acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; Pieper, Bridget A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.

  3. Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Howell, Sue; Murphy, James

    2007-01-01

    Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (<0.5%) throughout the study and was unaffected by music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.

  4. How young children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perceive objects in a 2D display: putting an assumption to the test.

    PubMed

    Leighty, Katherine A; Menzel, Charles R; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-09-01

    Object recognition research is typically conducted using 2D stimuli in lieu of 3D objects. This study investigated the amount and complexity of knowledge gained from 2D stimuli in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (aged 3 and 4 years) using a titrated series of cross-dimensional search tasks. Results indicate that 3-year-old children utilize a response rule guided by local features to solve cross-dimensional tasks. Four-year-old toddlers and adult chimpanzees use information about object form and compositional structure from a 2D image to guide their search in three dimensions. Findings have specific implications to research conducted in object recognition/perception and broad relevance to all areas of research and daily living that incorporate 2D displays.

  5. Use of an implantable loop recorder in the investigation of arrhythmias in adult captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Jackson, Raven; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general, and cardiac arrhythmias specifically, is common in great apes. However, the clinical significance of arrhythmias detected on short-duration electrocardiograms is often unclear. Here we describe the use of an implantable loop recorder to evaluate cardiac rhythms in 4 unanesthetized adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 1 with a history of possible syncope and 3 with the diagnosis of multiform ventricular ectopy (ventricular premature complexes) and cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of ventricular ectopy was defined further by using the implantable loop recorder. Arrhythmia was ruled out as a cause of collapse in the chimpanzee that presented with possible syncope because the implantable loop recorder demonstrated normal sinus rhythm during a so-called syncopal event. This description is the first report of the use of an implantable loop recorder to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in an unanesthetized great ape species. PMID:21819684

  6. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in the Investigation of Arrhythmias in Adult Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Jackson, Raven; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general, and cardiac arrhythmias specifically, is common in great apes. However, the clinical significance of arrhythmias detected on short-duration electrocardiograms is often unclear. Here we describe the use of an implantable loop recorder to evaluate cardiac rhythms in 4 unanesthetized adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 1 with a history of possible syncope and 3 with the diagnosis of multiform ventricular ectopy (ventricular premature complexes) and cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of ventricular ectopy was defined further by using the implantable loop recorder. Arrhythmia was ruled out as a cause of collapse in the chimpanzee that presented with possible syncope because the implantable loop recorder demonstrated normal sinus rhythm during a so-called syncopal event. This description is the first report of the use of an implantable loop recorder to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in an unanesthetized great ape species. PMID:21819684

  7. Comparative Assessment of Handedness for a Coordinated Bimanual Task in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Stoinski, Tara S.; Lukas, Kristen E.; Ross, Stephen R.; Wesley, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in a sample of 31 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and 19 captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and were compared with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hand preferences in subjects that were matched on the basis of age, sex, and rearing history. The task required that the apes remove food from the inside edges of a symmetrical polyvinyl chloride pipe presented to them in their home cages. The results indicate significant species differences with chimpanzees showing population-level right-handedness and orangutans showing population-level left-handedness. The gorillas showed a nonsignificant trend toward right-handedness. The results are discussed in terms of possible ecological or biomechanical factors that may influence hand preferences in different ape species. PMID:14498806

  8. Validation of a field technique and characterization of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Heintz, Matthew R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Parr, Lisa A; Santymire, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring adrenocortical activity in wild primate populations is critical, given the well-documented relationship between stress, health, and reproduction. Although many primate studies have quantified fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, it is imperative that researchers validate their method for each species. Here, we describe and validate a technique for field extraction and storage of FGMs in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our method circumvents many of the logistical challenges associated with field studies while yielding similar results to a commonly used laboratory method. We further validate that our method accurately reflects stress physiology using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in a captive chimpanzee and an FGM peak at parturition in a wild subject. Finally, we quantify circadian patterns for FGMs for the first time in this species. Understanding these patterns may allow researchers to directly link specific events with the stress response. PMID:22968979

  9. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals' face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos' and chimpanzees' spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time. PMID:26075710

  10. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals' face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos' and chimpanzees' spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time.

  11. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Edward J D; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D; Lanford, Robert E; Murthy, Krishna K; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2015-09-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in 'natural host' species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections.

  12. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L.; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Lanford, Robert E.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in ‘natural host’ species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections. PMID:26360709

  13. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium.

  14. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals’ face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos’ and chimpanzees’ spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time. PMID:26075710

  15. Natural Choice in Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"): Perceptual and Temporal Effects on Selective Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Ratliff, Chasity L.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, four chimpanzees made choices between two visible food options to assess the validity of the "selective value effect" (the assignment of value to only the most preferred type of food presented in a comparison). In Experiment 1, we established that all chimpanzees preferred single banana pieces to single apple pieces before…

  16. Diagnosis and prevalence of uterine leiomyomata in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, E N; Satterfield, W C; Buchl, S; Lammey, M L

    2011-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are common, affecting 70-80% of women between 30 and 50 years of age. Leiomyomata have been reported for a variety of primate species, although prevalence rates and treatments have not been widely reported. The prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine leiomyomata in the Alamogordo Primate Facility and the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were examined. Uterine leiomyomata were diagnosed in 28.4% of chimpanzees with an average age at diagnosis of 30.4 ± 8.0 years. Advanced age (>30 years) was related to an increase in leiomyomata and use of hormonal contraception was related to a decrease in leiomyomata. As the captive chimpanzee population ages, the incidence of leiomyomata among female chimpanzees will likely increase. The introduction of progesterone-based contraception for nonbreeding research and zoological chimpanzees may reduce the development of leiomyomata. Finally, all chimpanzee facilities should institute aggressive screening programs and carefully consider treatment plans. PMID:21442632

  17. Diagnosis and Prevalence of Uterine Leiomyomata in Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, EN; Satterfield, WC; Buchal, S; Lammey, ML

    2011-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are common, affecting 70–80% of women between 30 and 50 years of age. Leiomyomata have been reported for a variety of primate species, although prevalence rates and treatments have not been widely reported. The prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine leiomyomata in the Alamogordo Primate Facility and the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were examined. Uterine leiomyomata were diagnosed in 28.4% of chimpanzees with an average age at diagnosis of 30.4±8.0 years. Advanced age (>30 years) was related to an increase in leiomyomata and use of hormonal contraception was related to a decrease in leiomyomata. As the captive chimpanzee population ages, the incidence of leiomyomata among female chimpanzees will likely increase. The introduction of progesterone-based contraception for non-breeding research and zoological chimpanzees may reduce the development of leiomyomata. Finally, all chimpanzee facilities should institute aggressive screening programs and carefully consider treatment plans. PMID:21442632

  18. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  19. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine.

  20. Comparison of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, Elaine N; Heward, Christopher B; Chowdhury, Kajal; Plummer, John; Su, Yali; Cutler, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    In the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, the aging process is the result of cumulative damage by reactive oxygen species. Humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar; but humans live twice as long as chimpanzees and therefore are believed to age at a slower rate. The purpose of this study was to compare biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress, and aging between male chimpanzees and humans. Compared with men, male chimpanzees were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease because of their significantly higher levels of fibrinogen, IGF1, insulin, lipoprotein a, and large high-density lipoproteins. Chimpanzees showed increased oxidative stress, measured as significantly higher levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, a higher peroxidizability index, and higher levels of the prooxidants ceruloplasmin and copper. In addition, chimpanzees had decreased levels of antioxidants, including α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and tocopherols, as well as decreased levels of the cardiovascular protection factors albumin and bilirubin. As predicted by the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, male chimpanzees exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress and a much higher risk for cardiovascular disease, particularly cardiomyopathy, compared with men of equivalent age. Given these results, we hypothesize that the longer lifespan of humans is at least in part the result of greater antioxidant capacity and lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with lower oxidative stress. PMID:19619420

  1. Comparison of biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Heward, Christopher B; Chowdhury, Kajal; Plummer, John; Su, Yali; Cutler, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    In the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, the aging process is the result of cumulative damage by reactive oxygen species. Humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar; but humans live twice as long as chimpanzees and therefore are believed to age at a slower rate. The purpose of this study was to compare biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress, and aging between male chimpanzees and humans. Compared with men, male chimpanzees were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease because of their significantly higher levels of fibrinogen, IGF1, insulin, lipoprotein a, and large high-density lipoproteins. Chimpanzees showed increased oxidative stress, measured as significantly higher levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), a higher peroxidizability index, and higher levels of the prooxidants ceruloplasmin and copper. In addition, chimpanzees had decreased levels of antioxidants, including alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and tocopherols, as well as decreased levels of the cardiovascular protection factors albumin and bilirubin. As predicted by the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, male chimpanzees exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress and a much higher risk for cardiovascular disease, particularly cardiomyopathy, compared with men of equivalent age. Given these results, we hypothesize that the longer lifespan of humans is at least in part the result of greater antioxidant capacity and lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with lower oxidative stress. PMID:19619420

  2. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees.

  3. Neurochemical organization of the vestibular brainstem in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baizer, Joan S; Paolone, Nicholas A; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-11-01

    Chimpanzees are one of the closest living relatives of humans. However, the cognitive and motor abilities of chimpanzees and humans are quite different. The fact that humans are habitually bipedal and chimpanzees are not implies different uses of vestibular information in the control of posture and balance. Furthermore, bipedal locomotion permits the development of fine motor skills of the hand and tool use in humans, suggesting differences between species in the structures and circuitry for manual control. Much motor behavior is mediated via cerebro-cerebellar circuits that depend on brainstem relays. In this study, we investigated the organization of the vestibular brainstem in chimpanzees to gain insight into whether these structures differ in their anatomy from humans. We identified the four nuclei of vestibular nuclear complex in the chimpanzee and also looked at several other precerebellar structures. The size and arrangement of some of these nuclei differed between chimpanzees and humans, and also displayed considerable inter-individual variation. We identified regions within the cytoarchitectonically defined medial vestibular nucleus visualized by immunoreactivity to the calcium-binding proteins calretinin and calbindin as previously shown in other species including human. We have found that the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis, which is identified in the human but not in macaque monkeys, is present in the chimpanzee brainstem. However, the arcuate nucleus, which is present in humans, was not found in chimpanzees. The present study reveals major differences in the organization of the vestibular brainstem among Old World anthropoid primate species. Furthermore, in chimpanzees, as well as humans, there is individual variability in the organization of brainstem nuclei.

  4. Color classification by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a matching-to-sample task.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    We investigated chimpanzees' color classification using a matching-to-sample procedure. One of the two subjects had learned symbolic color names through long-term training, while the other had received less training and had a limited understanding of color names. The results showed similar distributions of classified colors in a color space, irrespective of the subjects' differential color-naming experience. However, the chimpanzee with little color-naming experience showed less stable classifications. These results suggest common features of color classification in chimpanzees, as well as the influence of color experience and/or the learning of color names on the stability of classification of colors.

  5. Navigating two-dimensional mazes: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and capuchins (Cebus apella sp.) profit from experience differently

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, Dorothy; Kennedy, Erica; Murnane, Aeneas; Menzel, Charles; Brewer, Gene; Johnson-Pynn, Julie; Hopkins, William

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether navigation is impacted by experience in two species of nonhuman primates. Five chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and seven capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) navigated a cursor, using a joystick, through two-dimensional mazes presented on a computer monitor. Subjects completed 192 mazes, each one time. Each maze contained one to five choices, and in up to three of these choices, the correct path required moving the cursor away from the Euclidean direction toward the goal. Some subjects completed these mazes in a random order (Random group); others in a fixed order by ascending number of choices and ascending number of turns away from goal (Ordered group). Chimpanzees in both groups performed equivalently, demonstrated fewer errors and a higher rate of self-correcting errors with increasing experience at solving the mazes, and made significantly fewer errors than capuchin monkeys. Capuchins were more sensitive to the mode of presentation than chimpanzees: Monkeys in the Ordered group made fewer errors than monkeys in the Random group. However, capuchins’ performance across testing changed little, and they remained particularly susceptible to making errors when the correct path required moving away from the goal. Thus, these two species responded differently to the same spatial challenges and same learning contexts. The findings indicate that chimpanzees have a strong advantage in this task compared to capuchins, no matter how the task is presented. We suggest that differences between the species in the dynamic organization of attention and motor processes contribute to their differences in performance on this task, and predict similar differences in other tasks requiring, as this one does, sustained attention to a dynamic visual display and self-produced movements variably towards and away from a goal. PMID:19148688

  6. Demographic and Ecological Effects on Patterns of Parasitism in Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Canfield, Elizabeth P.; Meyer, Derek J.; Nadler, Yvonne; Raphael, Jane; Pusey, Anne E.; Pond, Joel; Pauley, John; Mlengeya, Titus; Travis, Dominic A.

    2014-01-01

    From January 2006 to January 2008, we collected 1,045 fecal samples from 90 individually-recognized, free-ranging, eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting Gombe National Park, Tanzania to determine how patterns of parasitism are affected by demographic and ecological covariates. Seventeen parasite species were recovered, including eight nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Necator sp., Probstmayria gombensis, Strongyloides fulleborni, Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Abbreviata caucasica, and an unidentified strongyle), 1 cestode (Bertiella sp.), 1 trematode (Dicrocoeliidae), and 7 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Balantidium coli, and an unidentified protozoa). Significant differences were observed in interannual infection prevalence and parasite richness between 2006 and 2007. Intercommunity comparisons demonstrated higher prevalence of parasites for the Mitumba compared with Kasekela chimpanzee community. Prevalence of several parasites was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall patterns for both 2006 and 2007. Subadult chimpanzees had lower prevalence for most parasite species compared with adults in both years and also yielded a lower average parasite species richness. No significant differences were observed between males and females in prevalence in 2006. However, in 2007 the prevalence of S. fulleborni and I. bütschlii were higher in males than in females. Parasite prevalence and richness were substantially higher in this multiyear study compared with previous short-term studies of the gastrointestinal parasites of Gombe chimpanzees. This coupled with the significant interannual and interseasonal variation, demonstrated in this study, emphasizes the importance of multiyear monitoring with adequate sample size to effectively determine patterns of parasitism in wild primate populations. PMID:20623606

  7. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  8. Demographic and ecological effects on patterns of parasitism in eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Thomas R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Canfield, Elizabeth P; Meyer, Derek J; Nadler, Yvonne; Raphael, Jane; Pusey, Anne E; Pond, Joel; Pauley, John; Mlengeya, Titus; Travis, Dominic A

    2010-12-01

    From January 2006 to January 2008, we collected 1,045 fecal samples from 90 individually-recognized, free-ranging, eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting Gombe National Park, Tanzania to determine how patterns of parasitism are affected by demographic and ecological covariates. Seventeen parasite species were recovered, including eight nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Necator sp., Probstmayria gombensis, Strongyloides fulleborni, Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Abbreviata caucasica, and an unidentified strongyle), 1 cestode (Bertiella sp.), 1 trematode (Dicrocoeliidae), and 7 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Balantidium coli, and an unidentified protozoa). Significant differences were observed in interannual infection prevalence and parasite richness between 2006 and 2007. Intercommunity comparisons demonstrated higher prevalence of parasites for the Mitumba compared with Kasekela chimpanzee community. Prevalence of several parasites was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall patterns for both 2006 and 2007. Subadult chimpanzees had lower prevalence for most parasite species compared with adults in both years and also yielded a lower average parasite species richness. No significant differences were observed between males and females in prevalence in 2006. However, in 2007 the prevalence of S. fulleborni and I. bütschlii were higher in males than in females. Parasite prevalence and richness were substantially higher in this multiyear study compared with previous short-term studies of the gastrointestinal parasites of Gombe chimpanzees. This coupled with the significant interannual and interseasonal variation, demonstrated in this study, emphasizes the importance of multiyear monitoring with adequate sample size to effectively determine patterns of parasitism in wild primate populations. PMID:20623606

  9. Challenge of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) immunized with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, L O; Bess, J W; Waters, D J; Pyle, S W; Kelliher, J C; Nara, P L; Krohn, K; Robey, W G; Langlois, A J; Gallo, R C

    1989-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, infects humans and chimpanzees. To determine the efficacy of immunization for preventing infection, chimpanzees were immunized with gp120 purified from human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB)-infected cell membranes and challenged with the homologous virus, HTLV-IIIB. A challenge stock of HTLV-IIIB was prepared by using unconcentrated HTLV-IIIB produced in H9 cells. The titer of the virus from this stock on human and chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in human lymphoid cell lines was determined; a cell culture infectivity of 10(4) was assigned. All chimpanzees inoculated intravenously with 40 cell culture infectious units or more became infected, as demonstrated by virus isolation and seroconversion. One of two chimpanzees inoculated with 4 cell culture infectious units became infected. Chimpanzees immunized with gp120 formulated in alum developed antibodies which precipitated gp120 and neutralized HTLV-IIIB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from gp120-vaccinated and HIV-infected animals showed a significantly greater response in proliferation assays with HIV proteins than did peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonvaccinated and non-HIV-infected chimpanzees. Two of the gp120-alum-immunized chimpanzees were challenged with virus from the HTLV-IIIB stock. One animal received 400 cell culture infectious units, and one received 40 infectious units. Both animals became infected with HIV, indicating that the immune response elicited by immunization with gp120 formulated in alum was not effective in preventing infection with HIV-1. PMID:2555541

  10. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  11. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  12. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  13. New tools suggest local variation in tool use by a montane community of the rare Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Regional variations in tool use among chimpanzee subspecies and between populations within the same subspecies can often be explained by ecological constraints, although cultural variation also occurs. In this study we provide data on tool use by a small, recently isolated population of the endangered Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti, thus demonstrating regional variation in tool use in this rarely studied subspecies. We found that the Ngel Nyaki chimpanzee community has its own unique tool kit consisting of five different tool types. We describe a tool type that has rarely been observed (ant-digging stick) and a tool type that has never been recorded for this chimpanzee subspecies or in West Central Africa (food pound/grate stone). Our results suggest that there is fine- scale variation in tool use among geographically close communities of P. t. ellioti, and that these variations likely reflect both ecological constraints and cultural variation.

  14. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment.

  15. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show the isolation effect during serial list recognition memory tests.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    The isolation effect (or von Restorff effect) occurs when one item in a to-be-remembered list is distinctive from all remaining items, and memory for that item is enhanced. Four chimpanzees were presented with a serial list of four photographs. In the homogeneous condition, all list items were from the same semantic category (e.g., four fruits). In the isolate condition, three items were from the same category, but the fourth item (the isolate) was from a different category (e.g., three fruits and one toy). Then, two photographs were presented, and the chimpanzees had to select the one that was from the list. Two of four chimpanzees were significantly more likely to select a correct isolate item than an item from the same list position in the homogeneous condition for at least some list positions. This facilitation in performance was for isolate items only, as presenting an isolate item in a list did not facilitate greater recognition of other list items compared to the homogeneous condition. These results indicated that some chimpanzees perceived the semantic categories of the photographs, and categorization of photographs led to the isolation effect. Thus, chimpanzees may share with humans some aspects of memory organization that involve spontaneously categorizing visual stimuli and recognizing categorically unique stimuli.

  16. Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) delay gratification by choosing token exchange over immediate reward consumption.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Token exchange inherently introduces an element of delay between behavior and reward and so token studies may help us better understand delay of gratification and self-control. To examine this possibility, we presented three language-trained chimpanzees with repeated choices involving different foods that could be eaten immediately or lexigram (graphic symbol) tokens that represented (and could be traded for) foods later. When both options were foods, chimpanzees always chose more preferred foods over less preferred foods. When both options were lexigram tokens representing those same foods, performance remained the same as chimpanzees selected the higher value token and then traded it for food. Then, when faced with choosing a token that could be traded later or choosing a food item that could be eaten immediately, most chimpanzees learned to make whatever response led to the more preferred food. They did this even when that meant selecting a high value lexigram token that could be traded only 2 to 3 min later instead of a medium value, but immediately available, food item. Thus, chimpanzees flexibly selected tokens even though such selections necessarily delayed gratification and required forgoing immediately available food. This finding illustrates the utility of symbolic token exchange for assessing self-control in nonhuman animals. PMID:22674686

  17. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah Frances; Silk, Joan B; Henrich, Joseph; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2009-07-01

    Chimpanzees provide help to unrelated individuals in a broad range of situations. The pattern of helping within pairs suggests that contingent reciprocity may have been an important mechanism in the evolution of altruism in chimpanzees. However, correlational analyses of the cumulative pattern of interactions over time do not demonstrate that helping is contingent upon previous acts of altruism, as required by the theory of reciprocal altruism. Experimental studies provide a controlled approach to examine the importance of contingency in helping interactions. In this study, we evaluated whether chimpanzees would be more likely to provide food to a social partner from their home group if their partner had previously provided food for them. The chimpanzees manipulated a barpull apparatus in which actors could deliver rewards either to themselves and their partners or only to themselves. Our findings indicate that the chimpanzees' responses were not consistently influenced by the behavior of their partners in previous rounds. Only one of the 11 dyads that we tested demonstrated positive reciprocity. We conclude that contingent reciprocity does not spontaneously arise in experimental settings, despite the fact that patterns of behavior in the field indicate that individuals cooperate preferentially with reciprocating partners.

  18. Genetic basis in motor skill and hand preference for tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Reamer, Lisa; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees are well known for their tool using abilities. Numerous studies have documented variability in tool use among chimpanzees and the role that social learning and other factors play in their development. There are also findings on hand use in both captive and wild chimpanzees; however, less understood are the potential roles of genetic and non-genetic mechanisms in determining individual differences in tool use skill and laterality. Here, we examined heritability in tool use skill and handedness for a probing task in a sample of 243 captive chimpanzees. Quantitative genetic analysis, based on the extant pedigrees, showed that overall both tool use skill and handedness were significantly heritable. Significant heritability in motor skill was evident in two genetically distinct populations of apes, and between two cohorts that received different early social rearing experiences. We further found that motor skill decreased with age and that males were more commonly left-handed than females. Collectively, these data suggest that though non-genetic factors do influence tool use performance and handedness in chimpanzees, genetic factors also play a significant role, as has been reported in humans.

  19. Perception of emergent configurations in humans (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazuhiro; Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-04-01

    We examined the perceptions of emergent configurations in humans and chimpanzees using a target-localization task. The stimulus display consisted of a target placed among multiple identical distractors. The target and distractors were presented either solely, within congruent contexts in which salient configurations emerge, or within incongruent contexts in which salient configurations do not emerge. We found that congruent contexts had similar facilitative effects on target localization by humans and chimpanzees, whereas similar disruptive effects emerged when the stimuli were presented within incongruent contexts. When display size was manipulated, targets under the congruent-context condition were localized in a parallel manner, but those under the no-context and incongruent-context conditions were localized in a serial manner by both species. These results suggest that both humans and chimpanzees perceive emergent configurations when targets and distractors are presented within certain congruent contexts and that they process such emergent configurations preattentively.

  20. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) recognize spatial and object correspondences between a scale model and its referent.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A; Boysen, Sarah T

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the contributions of spatial and object features to chimpanzees' comprehension of scale models were examined. Seven chimpanzees that previously demonstrated the ability to use a scale model as an information source for the location of a hidden item were tested under conditions manipulating the feature correspondence and spatial-relational correspondence between objects in the model and an outdoor enclosure. In Experiment 1, subjects solved the task under two conditions in which one object cue (color or shape) was unavailable, but positional cues remained. Additionally, performance was above chance under a third condition in which both types of object cues, but not position cues, were available. In Experiment 2, 2 subjects solved the task under a condition in which shape and color object cues were simultaneously unavailable. The results suggest that, much like young children, chimpanzees are sensitive to both object and spatial-relational correspondences between a model and its referent.

  1. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  2. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the gastroesophageal junction in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Stovall, Melissa I; Breding, Eileen; Crane, Maria M

    2014-06-01

    A 49-y-old, female chimpanzee presented with a history of cardiac failure. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with congestive heart failure and 2 incidental, round, firm, pale-tan intramural nodules (diameter, 2 cm) in the stomach at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Histologically, the GEJ nodules were diagnosed as benign spindle-cell tumors. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed neoplastic cells diffusely labeled with α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, multifocally labeled for desmin, and were negative for c-kit (CD117). Electron microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic bundles of myofilaments with dense bodies, basal lamina, and few pinocytic vesicles in the neoplastic cells. According to these findings, leiomyomas of the GEJ were diagnosed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been documented to occur in chimpanzees, but there are no reports of GEJ leiomyomas. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous leiomyomas of the GEJ in a chimpanzee.

  3. Factors Affecting Initial Training Success of Blood Glucose Testing in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Reamer, Lisa A.; Haller, Rachel L.; Thiele, Erica J.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor “openness” were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for “present-for-injection” (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation in an Adult Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Doane, Cynthia J; Gigliotti, Andrew; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in an adult male captive chimpanzee. Although cardiovascular disease in general is common in human and great apes, diagnosis and treatment of PAH in nonhuman primates are uncommon. In the case we present, the adult chimpanzee was diagnosed with an arrhythmia during an annual physical examination and later with PAH during a scheduled cardiovascular evaluation. PAH can either be primary or secondary and can lead to right ventricular overload and heart failure. This description is the first case study of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a great ape species. PMID:18947173

  5. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  6. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-04-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  7. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Increased Investment by First-Time Mothers.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Margaret A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M

    2014-08-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this "firstborn advantage" between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  8. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience.

  9. Displacement behaviors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A neurogenomics investigation of the RDoC Negative Valence Systems domain.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Young, Larry J; Hopkins, William D

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to systematically investigate genetic and neuroanatomical correlates of individual variation in scratching behaviors, a well-validated animal-behavioral indicator of negative emotional states with clear links to the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) response to potential harm ("anxiety") construct within the Negative Valence Systems domain. Utilizing data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we (a) examined the association between scratching and presence or absence of the RS3-containing DupB element in the AVPR1A 5' flanking region, (b) utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify gray matter (GM) voxel clusters that differentiated AVPR1A genotype, and (c) conducted a VBM-guided voxel-of-interest analysis to examine the association between GM intensity and scratching. AVPR1A evidenced sexually dimorphic associations with scratching. VBM analyses revealed significant differences in GM by genotype across twelve clusters largely in the frontal cortex. Regions differentiating AVPR1A genotype showed sex-specific associations with scratching. Results suggest that sexually dimorphic associations between AVPR1A and scratching may be explained by genotype-specific neuroanatomical variation. The current study provides an example of the way in which chimpanzee research is uniquely poised for multilevel, systematic investigations of psychopathology-relevant constructs within the context of the RDoC framework.

  10. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  11. Brief communication: Cineradiographic analysis of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nathan E; Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Larson, Susan G

    2014-08-01

    During terrestrial locomotion, chimpanzees exhibit dorsiflexion of the midfoot between midstance and toe-off of stance phase, a phenomenon that has been called the "midtarsal break." This motion is generally absent during human bipedalism, and in chimpanzees is associated with more mobile foot joints than in humans. However, the contribution of individual foot joints to overall foot mobility in chimpanzees is poorly understood, particularly on the medial side of the foot. The talonavicular (TN) and calcaneocuboid (CC) joints have both been suggested to contribute significantly to midfoot mobility and to the midtarsal break in chimpanzees. To evaluate the relative magnitude of motion that can occur at these joints, we tracked skeletal motion of the hindfoot and midfoot during passive plantarflexion and dorsiflexion manipulations using cineradiography. The sagittal plane range of motion was 38 ± 10° at the TN joint and 14 ± 8° at the CC joint. This finding indicates that the TN joint is more mobile than the CC joint during ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. We suggest that the larger range of motion at the TN joint during dorsiflexion is associated with a rotation (inversion-eversion) across the transverse tarsal joint, which may occur in addition to sagittal plane motion.

  12. Acupuncture as an Adjunct Therapy for Osteoarthritis in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees. PMID:23849446

  13. Acupuncture as an adjunct therapy for osteoarthritis in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-07-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees.

  14. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, Ivan; Kalousová, Barbora; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, Fiona; Levecke, Bruno; Modrý, David; Piel, Alex K; Petrželková, Klára J

    2016-05-01

    To address the molecular diversity and occurrence of pathogenic species of the genus Entamoeba spp. in wild non-human primates (NHP) we conducted molecular-phylogenetic analyses on Entamoeba from wild chimpanzees living in the Issa Valley, Tanzania. We compared the sensitivity of molecular [using a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and coproscopic detection (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration) of Entamoeba spp. We identified Entamoeba spp. in 72 chimpanzee fecal samples (79%) subjected to species-specific PCRs for six Entamoeba species/groups (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba polecki ST2). We recorded three Entamoeba species: E. coli (47%), E. dispar (16%), Entamoeba hartmanni (51%). Coproscopically, we could only distinguish the cysts of complex E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii/nuttalli and E. coli. Molecular prevalence of entamoebas was higher than the prevalence based on the coproscopic examination. Our molecular phylogenies showed that sequences of E. dispar and E. coli from Issa chimpanzees are closely related to sequences from humans and other NHP from GenBank. The results showed that wild chimpanzees harbour Entamoeba species similar to those occurring in humans; however, no pathogenic species were detected. Molecular-phylogenetic methods are critical to improve diagnostics of entamoebas in wild NHP and for determining an accurate prevalence of Entamoeba species. PMID:26935395

  15. How to crack nuts: acquisition process in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) observing a model.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Morimura, Naruki; Houki, Chiharu

    2009-10-01

    Stone tool use for nut cracking consists of placing a hard-shelled nut onto a stone anvil and then cracking the shell open by pounding it with a stone hammer to get to the kernel. We investigated the acquisition of tool use for nut cracking in a group of captive chimpanzees to clarify what kind of understanding of the tools and actions will lead to the acquisition of this type of tool use in the presence of a skilled model. A human experimenter trained a male chimpanzee until he mastered the use of a hammer and anvil stone to crack open macadamia nuts. He was then put in a nut-cracking situation together with his group mates, who were naïve to this tool use; we did not have a control group without a model. The results showed that the process of acquisition could be broken down into several steps, including recognition of applying pressure to the nut,emergence of the use of a combination of three objects, emergence of the hitting action, using a tool for hitting, and hitting the nut. The chimpanzees recognized these different components separately and practiced them one after another. They gradually united these factors in their behavior leading to their first success. Their behavior did not clearly improve immediately after observing successful nut cracking by a peer, but observation of a skilled group member seemed to have a gradual, long-term influence on the acquisition of nut cracking by naïve chimpanzees.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of degenerative joint disease in a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-03-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. Progression from minimal to moderate to severe osteoarthritis occurred in this animal over the course of 1 y. Treatment with chondroprotective supplements (that is, glucosamine chondroitin, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) and intraarticular corticosteroid injections (that is, methylprednisolone, ketorolac), together with pain management (that is, celecoxib, tramadol, carprofen), resulted in increased activity levels and decreased clinical signs of disease. DJD has a considerable negative effect on quality of life among the human geriatric population and therefore is likely to be one of the most significant diseases that will affect the increasingly aged captive chimpanzee population. As this case study demonstrates, appropriate treatment can improve and extend quality of life dramatically in these animals. However, in cases of severe osteoarthritis cases, medication alone may be insufficient to increase stability, and surgical options should be explored. PMID:21439223

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in a Captive Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. Progression from minimal to moderate to severe osteoarthritis occurred in this animal over the course of 1 y. Treatment with chondroprotective supplements (that is, glucosamine chondroitin, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) and intraarticular corticosteroid injections (that is, methylprednisolone, ketorolac), together with pain management (that is, celecoxib, tramadol, carprofen), resulted in increased activity levels and decreased clinical signs of disease. DJD has a considerable negative effect on quality of life among the human geriatric population and therefore is likely to be one of the most significant diseases that will affect the increasingly aged captive chimpanzee population. As this case study demonstrates, appropriate treatment can improve and extend quality of life dramatically in these animals. However, in cases of severe osteoarthritis cases, medication alone may be insufficient to increase stability, and surgical options should be explored. PMID:21439223

  18. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions. PMID:26409891

  19. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, Ivan; Kalousová, Barbora; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, Fiona; Levecke, Bruno; Modrý, David; Piel, Alex K; Petrželková, Klára J

    2016-05-01

    To address the molecular diversity and occurrence of pathogenic species of the genus Entamoeba spp. in wild non-human primates (NHP) we conducted molecular-phylogenetic analyses on Entamoeba from wild chimpanzees living in the Issa Valley, Tanzania. We compared the sensitivity of molecular [using a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and coproscopic detection (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration) of Entamoeba spp. We identified Entamoeba spp. in 72 chimpanzee fecal samples (79%) subjected to species-specific PCRs for six Entamoeba species/groups (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba polecki ST2). We recorded three Entamoeba species: E. coli (47%), E. dispar (16%), Entamoeba hartmanni (51%). Coproscopically, we could only distinguish the cysts of complex E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii/nuttalli and E. coli. Molecular prevalence of entamoebas was higher than the prevalence based on the coproscopic examination. Our molecular phylogenies showed that sequences of E. dispar and E. coli from Issa chimpanzees are closely related to sequences from humans and other NHP from GenBank. The results showed that wild chimpanzees harbour Entamoeba species similar to those occurring in humans; however, no pathogenic species were detected. Molecular-phylogenetic methods are critical to improve diagnostics of entamoebas in wild NHP and for determining an accurate prevalence of Entamoeba species.

  20. Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Associations between personality and frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Hecht, Lisa K; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-12-01

    Converging empirical data suggests that a set of largely consistent personality traits exist in both human and nonhuman primates; despite these similarities, almost nothing is known concerning the neurobiological basis of these traits in nonhuman primates. The current study examined associations between chimpanzee personality traits and the grey matter volume and asymmetry of various frontal cortex regions in 107 captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzees rated as higher on Openness and Extraversion had greater bilateral grey matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Further, chimpanzee rated as higher on Dominance had larger grey volumes in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Finally, apes rated higher on Reactivity/Unpredictability had higher grey matter volumes in the right mesial PFC. All associations survived after applying False Discovery Rate (FDR) thresholds. Results are discussed in terms of current neuroscientific models of personality which suggest that the frontal cortex, and asymmetries in this region, play an important role in the neurobiological foundation of broad dispositional traits.

  1. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions.

  2. Environmental variables across Pan troglodytes study sites correspond with the carbon, but not the nitrogen, stable isotope ratios of chimpanzee hair.

    PubMed

    Schoeninger, Margaret J; Most, Corinna A; Moore, Jim J; Somerville, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Diet influences the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13) C and δ(15) N values) in animal tissue; but here we explore the influences of particular aspects of the local environment on those values in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this article we present new δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in Gombe chimpanzees using hairs collected from night nests in 1989. Then, we explore the influence of environmental factors by comparing our Gombe data to those from eight additional Pan study sites with previously published stable isotope data. We compare chimpanzee δ(13) Chair and δ(15) Nhar values to specific characteristics of local site ecology (biome and ecoregion) and to local Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) to test hypotheses based on known effects of these variables on the δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in plant tissues. The comparison shows that hair from chimpanzees living in savanna sites with lower MAP have higher δ(13) Chair values than do chimpanzees living in woodland and forested sites with higher MAP. These results demonstrate the potential of using δ(13) C values in primate tissue to indicate aspects of their local ecology in cases where the ecology is uncertain, such as samples collected early in the last century and in fossil hominins. In contrast to expectations, however, chimpanzee δ(15) Nhair values from some savanna sites with lower MAP are lower, not higher, than those living in more forested areas with higher MAP. It is likely that diet selectivity by chimpanzees affects δ(15) Nhair values to a greater extent than does the influence of precipitation on plants. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1055-1069, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion. PMID:24006347

  4. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion.

  5. The effectiveness of using carbonate isotope measurements of body tissues to infer diet in human evolution: Evidence from wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Boesch, Christophe; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Changes in diet throughout hominin evolution have been linked with important evolutionary changes. Stable carbon isotope analysis of inorganic apatite carbonate is the main isotopic method used to reconstruct fossil hominin diets; to test its effectiveness as a paleodietary indicator we present bone and enamel carbonate carbon isotope data from a well-studied population of modern wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known sex and age from Taï, Cote d'Ivoire. We found a significant effect of age class on bone carbonate values, with adult chimpanzees being more (13)C- and (18)O-depleted compared to juveniles. Further, to investigate habitat effects, we compared our data to existing apatite data on eastern chimpanzees (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii) and found that the Taï chimpanzees are significantly more depleted in enamel δ(13)Cap and δ(18)Oap compared to their eastern counterparts. Our data are the first to present a range of tissue-specific isotope data from the same group of wild western chimpanzees and, as such, add new data to the growing number of modern non-human primate comparative isotope datasets providing valuable information for the interpretation of diet throughout hominin evolution. By comparing our data to published isotope data on fossil hominins we found that our modern chimpanzee bone and enamel data support hypotheses that the trend towards increased consumption of C4 foods after 4 Ma (millions of years ago) is unique to hominins.

  6. Genetic analysis of putative familial relationships in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Renato; Lorenz, Joseph; Beck, Jeanne; Else, James; Bender, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Twelve autosomal dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed in chimpanzees genomes by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. The markers span the entire length of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Nine markers were polymorphic in chimpanzee as well, with a somewhat comparable level of polymorphism and allele size range. Even in the presence of very limited information and in spite of missing samples, it was possible to reconstruct a complex pedigree and to provide molecular data that corroborate family relationships that were deduced from cage history and behavioral data. The conclusions were further supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis. The data presented in this report show that the extremely abundant source of human markers may be exploited to validate, with molecular evidence, hypotheses on individual relationship or alleged pedigrees, based upon behavioral observations.

  7. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired.

  8. "Missing perikymata"--fact or fiction? A study on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) canines.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Uwe; Skinner, Matthew M; Skinner, Mark F

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a lower than expected number of perikymata between repetitive furrow-type hypoplastic defects has been reported in chimpanzee canines from the Fongoli site, Senegal (Skinner and Pruetz: Am J Phys Anthropol 149 (2012) 468-482). Based on an observation in a localized enamel fracture surface of a canine of a chimpanzee from the Taï Forest (Ivory Coast), these authors inferred that a nonemergence of striae of Retzius could be the cause for the "missing perikymata" phenomenon in the Fongoli chimpanzees. To check this inference, we analyzed the structure of outer enamel in three chimpanzee canines. The teeth were studied using light-microscopic and scanning-electron microscopic techniques. Our analysis of the specimen upon which Skinner and Pruetz (Am J Phys Anthropol 149 (2012) 468-482) had made their original observation does not support their hypothesis. We demonstrate that the enamel morphology described by them is not caused by a nonemergence of striae of Retzius but can be attributed to structural variations in outer enamel that result in a differential fracture behavior. Although rejecting the presumed existence of nonemergent striae of Retzius, our study provided evidence that, in furrow-type hypoplastic defects, a pronounced tapering of Retzius increments can occur, with the striae of Retzius forming acute angles with the outer enamel surface. We suggest that in such cases the outcrop of some striae of Retzius is essentially unobservable at the enamel surface, causing too low perikymata counts. The pronounced tapering of Retzius increments in outer enamel presumably reflects a mild to moderate disturbance of the function of late secretory ameloblasts.

  9. How to crack nuts: acquisition process in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) observing a model.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Morimura, Naruki; Houki, Chiharu

    2009-10-01

    Stone tool use for nut cracking consists of placing a hard-shelled nut onto a stone anvil and then cracking the shell open by pounding it with a stone hammer to get to the kernel. We investigated the acquisition of tool use for nut cracking in a group of captive chimpanzees to clarify what kind of understanding of the tools and actions will lead to the acquisition of this type of tool use in the presence of a skilled model. A human experimenter trained a male chimpanzee until he mastered the use of a hammer and anvil stone to crack open macadamia nuts. He was then put in a nut-cracking situation together with his group mates, who were naïve to this tool use; we did not have a control group without a model. The results showed that the process of acquisition could be broken down into several steps, including recognition of applying pressure to the nut,emergence of the use of a combination of three objects, emergence of the hitting action, using a tool for hitting, and hitting the nut. The chimpanzees recognized these different components separately and practiced them one after another. They gradually united these factors in their behavior leading to their first success. Their behavior did not clearly improve immediately after observing successful nut cracking by a peer, but observation of a skilled group member seemed to have a gradual, long-term influence on the acquisition of nut cracking by naïve chimpanzees. PMID:19727866

  10. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  11. Robust Retention and Transfer of Tool Construction Techniques in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Pender, Lydia; Price, Elizabeth; Whiten, Andrew; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory can be critical to a species’ survival in environments with seasonal and even longer-term cycles of resource availability. The present, longitudinal study investigated whether complex tool behaviors used to gain an out-of-reach reward, following a hiatus of about 3 years and 7 months since initial experiences with a tool use task, were retained and subsequently executed more quickly by experienced than by naïve chimpanzees. Ten of the 11 retested chimpanzees displayed impressive long-term procedural memory, creating elongated tools using the same methods employed years previously, either combining 2 tools or extending a single tool. The complex tool behaviors were also transferred to a different task context, showing behavioral flexibility. This represents some of the first evidence for appreciable long-term procedural memory, and improvements in the utility of complex tool manufacture in chimpanzees. Such long-term procedural memory and behavioral flexibility have important implications for the longevity and transmission of behavioral traditions. PMID:26881941

  12. Robust retention and transfer of tool construction techniques in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Pender, Lydia; Price, Elizabeth; Whiten, Andrew; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

    2016-02-01

    Long-term memory can be critical to a species' survival in environments with seasonal and even longer-term cycles of resource availability. The present, longitudinal study investigated whether complex tool behaviors used to gain an out-of-reach reward, following a hiatus of about 3 years and 7 months since initial experiences with a tool use task, were retained and subsequently executed more quickly by experienced than by naïve chimpanzees. Ten of the 11 retested chimpanzees displayed impressive long-term procedural memory, creating elongated tools using the same methods employed years previously, either combining 2 tools or extending a single tool. The complex tool behaviors were also transferred to a different task context, showing behavioral flexibility. This represents some of the first evidence for appreciable long-term procedural memory, and improvements in the utility of complex tool manufacture in chimpanzees. Such long-term procedural memory and behavioral flexibility have important implications for the longevity and transmission of behavioral traditions. PMID:26881941

  13. Focusing and shifting attention in human children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Humans often must coordinate co-occurring activities, and their flexible skills for doing so would seem to be uniquely powerful. In 2 studies, we compared 4- and 5-year-old children and one of humans' nearest relatives, chimpanzees, in their ability to focus and shift their attention when necessary. The results of Study 1 showed that 4-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their ability to monitor two identical devices and to sequentially switch between the two to collect a reward, and that they were less successful at doing so than 5-year-old children. In Study 2, which required subjects to alternate between two different tasks, one of which had rewards continuously available whereas the other one only occasionally released rewards, no species differences were found. These results suggest that chimpanzees and human children share some fundamental attentional control skills, but that such abilities continue to develop during human ontogeny, resulting in the uniquely human capacity to succeed at complex multitasking.

  14. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  15. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Carlitz, Esther H. D.; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  16. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie; Beran, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task) or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates. PMID:25372809

  17. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R; Mullikin, James C; Meader, Stephen J; Ponting, Chris P; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-06-28

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other.

  18. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Pruetz, J. D.; Bertolani, P.; Ontl, K. Boyer; Lindshield, S.; Shelley, M.; Wessling, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins. PMID:26064638

  19. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Bertolani, P; Ontl, K Boyer; Lindshield, S; Shelley, M; Wessling, E G

    2015-04-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins.

  20. Leaf swallowing behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): biased learning and the emergence of group level cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Michael A; Spiezio, Caterina; Sgaravatti, Andrea; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-11-01

    Demonstrating the ability to 'copy' the behavior of others is an important aspect in determining whether social learning occurs and whether group level differences in a given behavior represent cultural differences or not. Understanding the occurrence of this process in its natural context is essential, but can be a daunting task in the wild. In order to test the social learning hypothesis for the acquisition of leaf swallowing (LS), a self-medicative behavior associated with the expulsion of parasites, we conducted semi-naturalistic experiments on two captive groups of parasite-free, naïve chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals in the group were systematically provided appropriate stimuli (rough hispid leaves) identical to those used by chimpanzees in the wild. Individuals initially responded in a variety of ways, ranging from total aversion to normal chewing and swallowing. Over time, however, the two groups adopted different variants for inserting and folding the leaves in the mouth prior to swallowing them (complete and partial LS), following the specific method spontaneously displayed by the first and primary LS models in their respective groups. These variants were similar to LS displayed by chimpanzees in the wild. Using the option-bias method, we found evidence for social learning leading to group-level biased transmission and group-level stabilization of these two variants. This is the first report on two distinct cultural variants innovated in response to the introduction of natural stimuli that emerged and spread spontaneously and concurrently within two adjacent groups of socially housed primates. These observations support the assertion that LS may reflect a generalized propensity for ingesting rough hispid leaves, which can be socially induced and transmitted within a group. Ingesting an adequate number of these leaves induces increased gut motility, which is responsible for the subsequent expulsion of particular parasite species in the wild

  1. Aquifers productivity in the Pan-African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Aretouyap; Robert, Nouayou; Philippe, Njandjocknouck; Jamal, Asfahani

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 50 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out in the region, including 14 near existing boreholes for comparison. Aquifer parameters of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity were obtained by analyzing pumping test data from existing boreholes. An empirical relationship between hydraulic conductivity (K) obtained from pumping test and both resistivity and thickness of the Pan-African aquifer has been established for these boreholes in order to calculate the geophysical hydraulic conductivity. The geoelectrical interpretation shows that almost all aquifers are made of the fractured portion of the granitic bedrock located at a depth ranging between 7 and 84 m. The hydraulic conductivity varies between 0.012 and 1.677 m/day, the resistivity between 3 and 825 Ωm, the thickness between 1 and 101 m, the transmissivity between 0.46 and 46.02 m2/day, the product K σ between 2.1 × 10 -4 and 4.2 × 10 -4.

  2. Color preferences in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Wells, Deborah L; McDonald, Claire L; Ringland, Janice E

    2008-05-01

    Color plays an important biological role in the lives of many animals, with some species exhibiting preferences for certain colors over others. This study explored the color preferences of two species of ape, which, like humans, possess trichromatic color vision. Six western lowland gorillas, and six chimpanzees, housed in Belfast Zoological Gardens, were exposed to three stimuli (cloths, boxes, sheets of acetate) in red, blue, and green. Six stimuli of the same nature, in each of the three colors, were provided to both species for 5 days per stimulus. The amount of interest that the animals showed toward each stimulus of each color was recorded for 1 hr. Results showed that the apes, both when analyzed as two separate groups, and when assessed collectively, showed significant color preferences, paying significantly less attention to the red-, than to the blue- or green-colored stimuli. The animals' interest in the blue- and green-colored stimuli did not differ significantly. Overall, the findings suggest that gorillas and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, may harbor color preferences comparable to those of humans and other species. PMID:18489237

  3. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals.

  4. Characterization of a Cardiorenal-like Syndrome in Aged Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Chilton, J; Wilcox, A; Lammey, M; Meyer, D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome involves disease and dysfunction of the heart that leads to progressive renal dysfunction. This study investigated the relationship between cardiac and renal disease in 91 aged chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility by evaluation of the medical histories, metabolic parameters, functional measurements of the cardiovascular system, clinical pathology, and histopathology focused on the heart and kidney. Cardiac fibrosis was the most frequent microscopic finding in 82 of 91 animals (90%), followed by glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 63 of 91 (69%). Cardiac fibrosis with attendant glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was observed in 58 of 91 animals (63%); there was a statistically significant association between the 2 conditions. As the severity of cardiac fibrosis increased, there was corresponding increase in severity of glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Altered metabolic, cardiovascular, and clinical pathology parameters indicative of heart and kidney failure were commonly associated with the moderate to severe microscopic changes, and concurrent heart and kidney failure were considered the cause of death. The constellation of findings in the chimpanzees were similar to cardiorenal syndrome in humans. PMID:26792841

  5. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills. PMID:24903598

  6. Characterization of a Cardiorenal-like Syndrome in Aged Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Chilton, J; Wilcox, A; Lammey, M; Meyer, D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome involves disease and dysfunction of the heart that leads to progressive renal dysfunction. This study investigated the relationship between cardiac and renal disease in 91 aged chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility by evaluation of the medical histories, metabolic parameters, functional measurements of the cardiovascular system, clinical pathology, and histopathology focused on the heart and kidney. Cardiac fibrosis was the most frequent microscopic finding in 82 of 91 animals (90%), followed by glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 63 of 91 (69%). Cardiac fibrosis with attendant glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was observed in 58 of 91 animals (63%); there was a statistically significant association between the 2 conditions. As the severity of cardiac fibrosis increased, there was corresponding increase in severity of glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Altered metabolic, cardiovascular, and clinical pathology parameters indicative of heart and kidney failure were commonly associated with the moderate to severe microscopic changes, and concurrent heart and kidney failure were considered the cause of death. The constellation of findings in the chimpanzees were similar to cardiorenal syndrome in humans.

  7. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.

  8. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spatial problem solving with the use of mirrors and televised equivalents of mirrors.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E W; Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Lawson, J

    1985-06-01

    Two adult male chimpanzees reached through a hole in the wall of their home cage and, by tracking the images of their hands and of an otherwise hidden target object in a mirror or closed-circuit television picture, moved their hands in whichever direction was necessary to make contact with the target object. They discriminated between live video images and tapes and performed effectively when the target objects were presented in novel locations and when the video picture was presented at random in different orientations. There was thus no consistent relation between the location of images on the monitor and the location of their real-world counterparts. Comparable performances in monkeys and nonprimates seem unlikely.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Expression of Handedness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Adams, Mark James; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most humans are right-handed and, like many behavioral traits, there is good evidence that genetic factors play a role in handedness. Many researchers have argued that nonhuman animal limb or hand preferences are not under genetic control but instead are determined by random, non-genetic factors. We used quantitative genetic analyses to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to three measures of chimpanzee handedness. Results revealed significant population-level handedness for two of the three measures --- the tube task and manual gestures. Furthermore, significant additive genetic effects for the direction and strength of handedness were found for all three measures, with some modulation due to early social rearing experiences. These findings challenge historical and contemporary views of the mechanisms underlying handedness in nonhuman animals. PMID:23615127

  10. Age-related alterations of plasma glutathione and oxidation of redox potentials in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jamespaul; Jones, Dean P; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2014-04-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens) share physiological and genetic characteristics, but have remarkably different life spans, with chimpanzees living 50-60 % and the rhesus living 35-40 % of maximum human survival. Since oxidative processes are associated with aging and longevity, we might expect to see species differences in age-related oxidative processes. Blood and extracellular fluid contain two major thiol redox nodes, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione-disulfide (GSSG) and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS), which are subject to reversible oxidation-reduction reactions and are maintained in a dynamic non-equilibrium state. Disruption of these thiol redox nodes leads to oxidation of their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) which affects cellular physiology and is associated with aging and the development of chronic diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure age-related changes in these redox thiols and their corresponding redox potentials (Eh) in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Our results show similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH as well as oxidation of the EhGSSG in male and female chimpanzees. Female chimpanzees and female rhesus monkeys also were similar in several outcome measures. For example, similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH, as well as age-related oxidation of the EhGSSG were observed. The data collected from chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys corroborates previous reports on oxidative changes in humans and confirms their value as a comparative reference for primate aging.

  11. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  12. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Can Wait, When They Choose To: A Study with the Hybrid Delay Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Paglieri, Fabio; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control has been studied in nonhuman animals using a variety of tasks. The inter-temporal choice (ITC) task presents choices between smaller-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) options. Using food amounts as rewards, this presents two problems: (i) choices of the LL option could either reflect self-control or instead result from animals’ difficulty with pointing to smaller amounts of food; (ii) there is no way to verify whether the subjects would not revert their choice for the LL option, if given the opportunity to do so during the ensuing delay. To address these problems, we have recently introduced a new protocol, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial ITC with a subsequent accumulation phase in which selection of the SS option leads to its immediate delivery, but choice of the LL option then leads to one-by-one presentation of those items that continues only as long as the subject does not eat any of the accumulated items (delay maintenance). The choice of the LL option therefore only reflects self-control when the number of items obtained from LL choices during the accumulation phase is higher than what could be received in the SS option. Previous research with capuchin monkeys demonstrated that their apparent self-control responses in the ITC task may have over-estimated their general self-control abilities, given their poor performance in the hybrid delay task. Here, chimpanzees instead demonstrated that their choices for the LL option in the ITC phase of the hybrid delay task were confirmed by their ability to sustain long delays during accumulation of LL rewards. PMID:23774954

  13. A Reconsideration of Pan African Orogenic Cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Soulaimani, A.; Samson, S. D.; Admou, H.; Inglis, J.; Saquaque, A.; Heywood, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'Pan African' orogeny was first proposed in 1964 for a tectonothermal event in Africa ~ 500+/- 50 Ma. Over the past 50 years, the Pan African orogeny has been extended to as much as ~1050-450 Ma and recognized in other Gondwanan continents where regional names such as Brasiliano (South America), Adelaidean (Australian) and Bearmore (Antarctica) have been applied. The Pan African time span of ~500 million years is much longer than any Phanerozoic orogeny. However, it does correlate with time ranges of well defined Phanerozoic orogenic cycles such as the Appalachian cycle, extending from ~1,100 to 250 Ma, and the Cordilleran cycle of ~350 Ma to the present. A significant difference of course is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Until recently, the absence of precise geochronology in West Africa has prevented a more refined analysis of individual orogenic events within the Pan-African orogenic cycle. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating by various researchers in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided critical data by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three separate orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (750-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (660-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-580 Ma). Generalized tectonic map of the Anti-Atlas Mountain inliers (Adapted from Ennih and Liégeois, 2008). Geodynamic model of the Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Modified from Walsh et al. (2012) and incorporating ideas from Thomas et al. (2002) and El Hadi et al. (2012).

  14. Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options.

  15. Chimpanzee Autarky

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Sarah F.; Grady, Mark F.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Beran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth—and even much of our human culture—yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter. Methodology/Principle Findings Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse). However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small. Conclusions/Significance Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains. PMID:18231604

  16. Discovering Africa through Internet-Based Geographic Information Systems: A Pan-African Summit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…

  17. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to Monitor Cardiac Arrhythmias and Assess the Effects of Acupuncture and Laser Therapy.

    PubMed

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Sleeper, Meg M; Buchl, Stephanie J; Jones, Rebekah A; Thiele, Erica J; Wilkerson, Gregory K

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued. After reviewing other potential therapies for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, we elected to try acupuncture and laser therapy in view of the positive results and the lack of adverse side effects reported in humans. We used 2 well-known cardiac acupuncture sites on the wrist, PC6 (pericardium 6) and HT7 (heart 7), and evaluated the results of the therapy by using the ECG recordings from the implantable loop recorder. Although periodic increases in the animal's excitement level introduced confounding variables that caused some variation in the data, acupuncture and laser therapy appeared to decrease the mean number of VPC/min in this chimpanzee.

  18. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to Monitor Cardiac Arrhythmias and Assess the Effects of Acupuncture and Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Sleeper, Meg M; Buchl, Stephanie J; Jones, Rebekah A; Thiele, Erica J; Wilkerson, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued. After reviewing other potential therapies for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, we elected to try acupuncture and laser therapy in view of the positive results and the lack of adverse side effects reported in humans. We used 2 well-known cardiac acupuncture sites on the wrist, PC6 (pericardium 6) and HT7 (heart 7), and evaluated the results of the therapy by using the ECG recordings from the implantable loop recorder. Although periodic increases in the animal's excitement level introduced confounding variables that caused some variation in the data, acupuncture and laser therapy appeared to decrease the mean number of VPC/min in this chimpanzee. PMID:26884410

  19. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) flexibly adjust their behaviour in order to maximize payoffs, not to conform to majorities.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Schütte, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzees have been shown to be adept learners, both individually and socially. Yet, sometimes their conservative nature seems to hamper the flexible adoption of superior alternatives, even to the extent that they persist in using entirely ineffective strategies. In this study, we investigated chimpanzees' behavioural flexibility in two different conditions under which social animals have been predicted to abandon personal preferences and adopt alternative strategies: i) under influence of majority demonstrations (i.e. conformity), and ii) in the presence of superior reward contingencies (i.e. maximizing payoffs). Unlike previous nonhuman primate studies, this study disentangled the concept of conformity from the tendency to maintain one's first-learned strategy. Studying captive (n=16) and semi-wild (n=12) chimpanzees in two complementary exchange paradigms, we found that chimpanzees did not abandon their behaviour in order to match the majority, but instead remained faithful to their first-learned strategy (Study 1a and 1b). However, the chimpanzees' fidelity to their first-learned strategy was overridden by an experimental upgrade of the profitability of the alternative strategy (Study 2). We interpret our observations in terms of chimpanzees' relative weighing of behavioural options as a function of situation-specific trade-offs. More specifically, contrary to previous findings, chimpanzees in our study abandoned their familiar behaviour to maximize payoffs, but not to conform to a majority. PMID:24312252

  20. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  1. A thermodynamic comparison of arboreal and terrestrial sleeping sites for dry-habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2012-09-01

    The nightly construction of an arboreal sleeping platform (SP) has been observed among every chimpanzee's population studied to date. Here, we report on bioclimatic aspects of SP site choice among dry-habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We placed a portable weather monitor within 1 m of chimpanzee SPs and compared the microenvironment of this site with terrestrial monitors placed 10 cm above the ground directly underneath the simultaneously studied SP. We calculated physical "comfort levels" of monitored sites using the RayMan thermophysiological model that we modified to take ape body proportions into account. The RayMan tool gauges energy balance using wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and heat index in conjunction with the study subject's mass and stature to determine whether the individual is in energy balance or homeostasis. We found that (1) terrestrial microclimates have greater homeostatic potential than arboreal microclimates, and (2) there is a significant positive linear relationship between wind speed and height of SP in the forest canopy. Advantages of terrestrial sites are that they require lesser energetic expenditure to stabilize the body when the SP is under construction and perhaps during use as well. We found that terrestrial sites also had better homeostatic potentials. This combination of advantages explains why SPs are so often sited terrestrially in habitats where predation risk is low. Early hominins must have had technological or social measures to avoid or deter predators that were significantly advanced over those found among chimpanzees before they began sleeping on the ground.

  2. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (<1 km) for 63% of the observation time, (b) remained out of visual range (≥100 m) for 46% of observation time, and (c) remained within auditory range for 70% of the time when they were in different parties. We compared the observed distribution of IIDs with a random distribution obtained from permutations of the individuals' travel paths using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Observation IID values were significantly smaller than those generated by the permutation procedure. We conclude that these male chimpanzees actively maintain cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  3. Executive function in young children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence from a nonverbal dimensional change card sort task.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors compared chimpanzees' executive function with that of children. They developed a nonverbal dimensional change card sorting task, which indexed the development of executive function. Three pairs of mother and offspring chimpanzees and 30 typically developed 5-year-old children were presented with 2 target stimuli and a test stimulus comprising 2 dimensions (size and shape) on a display; they were required to sort the test stimulus according to 1 dimension (e.g., shape). After 5 consecutive correct trials, the participants had to sort the test stimulus according to the other dimension (e.g., size). The results showed that the chimpanzees often failed to sort the test stimuli according to the first and reversed dimensions. On the other hand, the children were correctly able to use both dimensions. These results indicate that chimpanzees may have less developed executive skills than children. PMID:21902004

  4. Individual and setting differences in the hand preferences of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A critical analysis and some alternative explanations

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Several recent papers have been critical at a theoretical and empirical level of the evidence of population-level right-handedness in chimpanzees and other great apes. For example, Palmer (2002) has recently argued that the evidence of population-level handedness in chimpanzees is weak because there are sampling biases in the data. McGrew and Marchant (1997) argue that all the evidence of right-handedness in apes is from captive animals and therefore the observed phenomenon has little ecological validity. In this paper, we address recent issues regarding the presentation and interpretation of other hand preference data and argue that chimpanzees are right-handed for some measures. We further argue that purported differences in hand use between wild and captive chimpanzees due to rearing environments are unfounded and we emphasise that more cooperative work between researchers working in captive and feral populations is needed to facilitate collection of data on common measures of hand preference. PMID:15841824

  5. The effects of linear perspective on relative size discrimination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Yagi, Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we tested the corridor illusion in three chimpanzees and five humans, applying a relative size discrimination task to assess pictorial depth perception using linear perspective. The subjects were required to choose the physically larger cylinder of two on a background containing drawn linear perspective cues. We manipulated both background and cylinder size in each trial. Our findings suggest that chimpanzees, like humans, exhibit the corridor illusion.

  6. Spontaneous Abortion and Preterm Labor and Delivery in Nonhuman Primates: Evidence from a Captive Colony of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica; Romero, Roberto; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Than, Nandor Gabor; Murphy, Jim; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Fritz, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality, yet the evolutionary history of this obstetrical syndrome is largely unknown in nonhuman primate species. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the length of gestation during pregnancies that occurred in a captive chimpanzee colony by inspecting veterinary and behavioral records spanning a total of thirty years. Upon examination of these records we were able to confidently estimate gestation length for 93 of the 97 (96%) pregnancies recorded at the colony. In total, 78 singleton gestations resulted in live birth, and from these pregnancies we estimated the mean gestation length of normal chimpanzee pregnancies to be 228 days, a finding consistent with other published reports. We also calculated that the range of gestation in normal chimpanzee pregnancies is approximately forty days. Of the remaining fifteen pregnancies, only one of the offspring survived, suggesting viability for chimpanzees requires a gestation of approximately 200 days. These fifteen pregnancies constitute spontaneous abortions and preterm deliveries, for which the upper gestational age limit was defined as 2 SD from the mean length of gestation (208 days). Conclusions/Significance The present study documents that preterm birth occurred within our study population of captive chimpanzees. As in humans, pregnancy loss is not uncommon in chimpanzees, In addition, our findings indicate that both humans and chimpanzees show a similar range of normal variation in gestation length, suggesting this was the case at the time of their last common ancestor (LCA). Nevertheless, our data suggest that whereas chimpanzees' normal gestation length is ∼20–30 days after reaching viability, humans' normal gestation length is approximately 50 days beyond the estimated date of viability without medical intervention. Future research using a comparative evolutionary framework should help to clarify the extent to which mechanisms at work in

  7. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  8. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  9. Association of brain-type natriuretic protein and cardiac troponin I with incipient cardiovascular disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Lee, D Rick

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in chimpanzees, but its etiology and clinical presentations remain poorly understood. The disease in chimpanzees differs sufficiently from that in humans that simple extrapolation from human findings are inadequate to guide clinical diagnoses. Nevertheless, the burden of disease posed by CVD made it important to attempt to identify specific chimpanzees at risk of developing CVD to allow clinical intervention prior to clinical presentation of advanced disease. We screened 4 CVD biomarkers used in human and veterinary medicine to identify markers with prognostic value in chimpanzees. Biomarkers included complete lipid panel, C-reactive protein, brain-type natriuretic protein, and cardiac troponin I. Serum levels of brain-type natriuretic protein differed between chimpanzees with CVD and heart-healthy controls. Cardiac troponin I gave mixed results. C-reactive protein and lipid panel values were not informative for cardiovascular disease, although total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly with decade of life. Values of braintype natriuretic protein exceeding 163 mg/mL had a specificity of 90.5% for CVD, whereas levels of cardiac troponin I above the threshold of detection (0.20 ng/mL) appeared to be clinically relevant. More extensive clinical studies are recommended to validate these specific values. We conclude that brain-type natriuretic protein and possibly cardiac troponin I are useful diagnostic biomarkers for incipient CVD processes in chimpanzees. PMID:21535928

  10. Association of Brain-Type Natriuretic Protein and Cardiac Troponin I with Incipient Cardiovascular Disease in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in chimpanzees, but its etiology and clinical presentations remain poorly understood. The disease in chimpanzees differs sufficiently from that in humans that simple extrapolation from human findings are inadequate to guide clinical diagnoses. Nevertheless, the burden of disease posed by CVD made it important to attempt to identify specific chimpanzees at risk of developing CVD to allow clinical intervention prior to clinical presentation of advanced disease. We screened 4 CVD biomarkers used in human and veterinary medicine to identify markers with prognostic value in chimpanzees. Biomarkers included complete lipid panel, C-reactive protein, brain-type natriuretic protein, and cardiac troponin I. Serum levels of brain-type natriuretic protein differed between chimpanzees with CVD and heart-healthy controls. Cardiac troponin I gave mixed results. C-reactive protein and lipid panel values were not informative for cardiovascular disease, although total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly with decade of life. Values of brain-type natriuretic protein exceeding 163 mg/mL had a specificity of 90.5% for CVD, whereas levels of cardiac troponin I above the threshold of detection (0.20 ng/mL) appeared to be clinically relevant. More extensive clinical studies are recommended to validate these specific values. We conclude that brain-type natriuretic protein and possibly cardiac troponin I are useful diagnostic biomarkers for incipient CVD processes in chimpanzees. PMID:21535928

  11. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario.

  12. On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The last common ancestor (LCA) shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) was an Early Pleistocene African ape, which, based on the behavior of modern chimpanzees, may be assumed to be a tool-using animal. However, the character of tool use in the Pan lineage prior to the 20th century is largely unknown. Here, I use available data on wild bonobo tool use and emerging molecular estimates of demography during Pan evolution to hypothesise the plausible tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee LCA (or "Pancestor") at the start of the Pleistocene, over 2 million years ago. This method indicates that the common ancestor of living Pan apes likely used plant tools for probing, sponging, and display, but it did not use stone tools. Instead, stone tool use appears to have been independently invented by Western African chimpanzees (P. t. verus) during the Middle Pleistocene in the region of modern Liberia-Ivory Coast-Guinea, possibly as recently as 200,000-150,000 years ago. If this is the case, then the LCA of humans and chimpanzees likely also did not use stone tools, and this trait probably first emerged among hominins in Pliocene East Africa. This review also suggests that the consistently higher population sizes of Central African chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) over the past million years may have contributed to the increased complexity of wild tool use seen in this sub-species today.

  13. Fossil hominin shoulders support an African ape-like last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nathan M.; Capellini, Terence D.; Roach, Neil T.; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the behavioral shifts that drove hominin evolution requires knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and direction of anatomical changes over the past ∼6–7 million years. These reconstructions depend on assumptions regarding the morphotype of the Homo–Pan last common ancestor (LCA). However, there is little consensus for the LCA, with proposed models ranging from African ape to orangutan or generalized Miocene ape-like. The ancestral state of the shoulder is of particular interest because it is functionally associated with important behavioral shifts in hominins, such as reduced arboreality, high-speed throwing, and tool use. However, previous morphometric analyses of both living and fossil taxa have yielded contradictory results. Here, we generated a 3D morphospace of ape and human scapular shape to plot evolutionary trajectories, predict ancestral morphologies, and directly test alternative evolutionary hypotheses using the hominin fossil evidence. We show that the most parsimonious model for the evolution of hominin shoulder shape starts with an African ape-like ancestral state. We propose that the shoulder evolved gradually along a single morphocline, achieving modern human-like configuration and function within the genus Homo. These data are consistent with a slow, progressive loss of arboreality and increased tool use throughout human evolution. PMID:26351685

  14. First GIS Analysis of Modern Stone Tools Used by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  15. Effects of Aging and Blood Contamination on the Urinary Protein–Creatinine Ratio in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  16. Neuroanatomical asymmetries and handedness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a case for continuity in the evolution of hemispheric specialization

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Many historical and contemporary theorists have proposed that population-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are unique to humans and evolved as a consequence of human-specific adaptations such as language, tool manufacture and use, and bipedalism. Recent studies in nonhuman animals, notably primates, have begun to challenge this view. Here, I summarize comparative data on neuroanatomical asymmetries in the planum temporale (PT) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans and chimpanzees, regions considered the morphological equivalents to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. I also review evidence of population-level handedness in captive and wild chimpanzees. When similar methods and landmarks are used to define the PT and IFG, humans and chimpanzees show similar patterns of asymmetry in both cortical regions, though humans show more pronounced directional biases. Similarly, there is good evidence that chimpanzees show population-level handedness, though, again, the expression of handedness is less robust compared to humans. These results stand in contrast to reported claims of significant differences in the distribution of handedness in humans and chimpanzees, and I discuss some possible explanations for the discrepancies in the neuroanatomical and behavioral data. PMID:23647534

  17. Effects of aging and blood contamination on the urinary protein-creatinine ratio in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-05-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  18. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  19. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

  20. Determination of hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose reference intervals in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    McTighe, Margaret S; Hansen, Barbara C; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick

    2011-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reaching epidemic proportions in humans, has emerged as a disease in aging captive populations of adult chimpanzees; however, little information is available regarding T2DM in chimpanzees. Our goals were to: (1) distinguish between normal, healthy chimpanzees and those with early (prediabetes) or advanced diabetes; (2) establish and compare the fasting (16 h) blood glucose reference range for chimpanzees at our facility with published reference ranges; and (3) establish hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reference intervals for healthy, nondiabetic chimpanzees and define threshold values for prediabetes and diabetes. If reliable, our reference ranges for FBG and HbA1c could become clinical tools for screening animals at risk and for monitoring therapeutic progress. The overall incidence of T2DM in our colony of 260 chimpanzees is 0.8% but is increased to 3.7% in animals older than 30 y (geriatric). For our defined reference intervals, chimpanzees with FBG or HbA1c levels up to the 85th percentile (glucose, less than or equal to 105 mg/dL; HbA1c, less than or equal to 5.0%) were considered healthy; those whose values lay between the 86th and 95th percentiles (glucose, 106 to 119 mg/dL; HbA1c, 5.1% to 5.2%) were possibly prediabetic, and animals whose values exceeded the 95th percentile (glucose, greater than or equal to 120 mg/dL; HbA1c, greater than 5.3%) were identified as potentially having diabetes. We found that our FBG range was comparable to other published results, with a positive correlation between HbA1c and glucose. Furthermore, the negligible HbA1c response to acute stress or recent food consumption suggests that HbA1c is highly useful for evaluating glycemic control during treatment of diabetic chimpanzees and is more informative concerning overall glucose control than are FBG levels alone. PMID:21439208

  1. Determination of Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Blood Glucose Reference Intervals in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    McTighe, Margaret S; Hansen, Barbara C; Ely, John J; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reaching epidemic proportions in humans, has emerged as a disease in aging captive populations of adult chimpanzees; however, little information is available regarding T2DM in chimpanzees. Our goals were to: (1) distinguish between normal, healthy chimpanzees and those with early (prediabetes) or advanced diabetes; (2) establish and compare the fasting (16 h) blood glucose reference range for chimpanzees at our facility with published reference ranges; and (3) establish hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reference intervals for healthy, nondiabetic chimpanzees and define threshold values for prediabetes and diabetes. If reliable, our reference ranges for FBG and HbA1c could become clinical tools for screening animals at risk and for monitoring therapeutic progress. The overall incidence of T2DM in our colony of 260 chimpanzees is 0.8% but is increased to 3.7% in animals older than 30 y (geriatric). For our defined reference intervals, chimpanzees with FBG or HbA1c levels up to the 85th percentile (glucose, less than or equal to 105 mg/dL; HbA1c, less than or equal to 5.0%) were considered healthy; those whose values lay between the 86th and 95th percentiles (glucose, 106 to 119 mg/dL; HbA1c, 5.1% to 5.2%) were possibly prediabetic, and animals whose values exceeded the 95th percentile (glucose, greater than or equal to 120 mg/dL; HbA1c, greater than 5.3%) were identified as potentially having diabetes. We found that our FBG range was comparable to other published results, with a positive correlation between HbA1c and glucose. Furthermore, the negligible HbA1c response to acute stress or recent food consumption suggests that HbA1c is highly useful for evaluating glycemic control during treatment of diabetic chimpanzees and is more informative concerning overall glucose control than are FBG levels alone. PMID:21439208

  2. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  3. Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katie; Oram, Mike W.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Byrne, Richard W.; de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a dyadic informed forager task, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to exploit the knowledge of informed subordinates; however, the behavioral mechanisms they employ are unknown. It is tempting to interpret outcome measures, such as which individual obtained the food, in a cognitively richer way than the outcomes may justify. We employed a different approach from prior research, asking how chimpanzees compete by maneuvering around each other, whether they use gaze cues to acquire information from others, and what information they use in moment-to-moment decision-making. We used cross correlations, which plot the correlation between two variables as a function of time, systematically to examine chimpanzee interactions in a series of dyadic informed forager contests. We used cross correlations as a “proof of concept” so as to determine whether the target actions were contingent on, or occurred in a time-locked pattern relative to, the referent actions. A subordinate individual was given privileged knowledge of food location. As expected, an ignorant dominant followed the informed subordinate’s movement in the enclosure. The dominant also followed the subordinate’s gaze direction: after she looked at the subordinate, she was more likely to gaze towards this same direction within one second. In contrast, the subordinate only occasionally followed the dominant’s movement and gaze. The dominant also changed her own direction of movement to converge on the location to which the subordinate directed her gaze and movement. Cross correlation proves an effective technique for charting contingencies in social interactions, an important step in understanding the use of cognition in natural situations. PMID:24710756

  4. Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Oram, Mike W; Campbell, Matthew W; Eppley, Timothy M; Byrne, Richard W; De Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    In a dyadic informed forager task, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to exploit the knowledge of informed subordinates; however, the behavioral mechanisms they employ are unknown. It is tempting to interpret outcome measures, such as which individual obtained the food, in a cognitively richer way than the outcomes may justify. We employed a different approach from prior research, asking how chimpanzees compete by maneuvering around each other, whether they use gaze cues to acquire information from others, and what information they use in moment-to-moment decision-making. We used cross correlations, which plot the correlation between two variables as a function of time, systematically to examine chimpanzee interactions in a series of dyadic informed forager contests. We used cross correlations as a "proof of concept" so as to determine whether the target actions were contingent on, or occurred in a time-locked pattern relative to, the referent actions. A subordinate individual was given privileged knowledge of food location. As expected, an ignorant dominant followed the informed subordinate's movement in the enclosure. The dominant also followed the subordinate's gaze direction: after she looked at the subordinate, she was more likely to gaze toward this same direction within one second. In contrast, the subordinate only occasionally followed the dominant's movement and gaze. The dominant also changed her own direction of movement to converge on the location to which the subordinate directed her gaze and movement. Cross correlation proves an effective technique for charting contingencies in social interactions, an important step in understanding the use of cognition in natural situations.

  5. Serologic responses of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra), wallaroos (Macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to an inactivated encephalomyocarditis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    McLelland, David J; Kirkland, Peter D; Rose, Karrie A; Dixon, Robert J; Smith, Narelle

    2005-03-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a picornavirus with a worldwide distribution, capable of infecting a wide range of species. Episodes of EMCV-associated mortality have been reported in zoos and national parks around the world, including sporadic cases at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. An inactivated EMCV vaccine was evaluated by inoculating Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra), Eastern wallaroos (Macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). A proportion of the vaccinated ungulates were administered a second vaccination 4 wk after the initial dose. Neutralizing antibody titers were monitored for a period of 12 mo. One month after vaccination, all vaccinated groups had developed significant antibody titers that persisted for at least 6 mo. Animals receiving two doses of vaccine had higher titers 3, 6, and 12 mo after the initial vaccination compared with animals receiving a single vaccine dose.

  6. Delay of gratification is associated with white matter connectivity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex: a diffusion tensor imaging study in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Taglialatela, Jared P; Hopkins, William D

    2015-06-22

    Individual variability in delay of gratification (DG) is associated with a number of important outcomes in both non-human and human primates. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), this study describes the relationship between probabilistic estimates of white matter tracts projecting from the caudate to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and DG abilities in a sample of 49 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After accounting for time between collection of DTI scans and DG measurement, age and sex, higher white matter connectivity between the caudate and right dorsal PFC was found to be significantly associated with the acquisition (i.e. training phase) but not the maintenance of DG abilities. No other associations were found to be significant. The integrity of white matter connectivity between regions of the striatum and the PFC appear to be associated with inhibitory control in chimpanzees, with perturbations on this circuit potentially leading to a variety of maladaptive outcomes. Additionally, results have potential translational implications for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric and clinical outcomes in humans.

  7. Delay of gratification is associated with white matter connectivity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex: a diffusion tensor imaging study in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Individual variability in delay of gratification (DG) is associated with a number of important outcomes in both non-human and human primates. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), this study describes the relationship between probabilistic estimates of white matter tracts projecting from the caudate to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and DG abilities in a sample of 49 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After accounting for time between collection of DTI scans and DG measurement, age and sex, higher white matter connectivity between the caudate and right dorsal PFC was found to be significantly associated with the acquisition (i.e. training phase) but not the maintenance of DG abilities. No other associations were found to be significant. The integrity of white matter connectivity between regions of the striatum and the PFC appear to be associated with inhibitory control in chimpanzees, with perturbations on this circuit potentially leading to a variety of maladaptive outcomes. Additionally, results have potential translational implications for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric and clinical outcomes in humans. PMID:26041344

  8. Gravity bias in young and adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): tests with a modified opaque-tubes task.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko; Mizuno, Yuu; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2007-05-01

    Young human children at around 2 years of age fail to predict the correct location of an object when it is dropped from the top of an S-shape opaque tube. They search in the location just below the releasing point (Hood, 1995). This type of error, called a 'gravity bias', has recently been reported in dogs and monkeys. In the present study, we investigated whether young and adult chimpanzees also show such a gravity bias in a modified version of the original opaque-tube task. The original task by Hood and colleagues required the subject to search in a location after the object had fallen, while in the task reported here, subjects were required to predict the location before the object was dropped. Thus the present procedure does not involve explicit invisible displacement operations, one of the important components of the original procedure. In Experiment 1 both young (1.5-2.5-year-old) and adult chimpanzees predicted the location of falling food items below the releasing point even when crossed tubes were used. These gravity errors remained after the extensive experience of using the tubes themselves. Experiment 2 further tested adult and 4-year-old chimpanzees under the set-up in which the straight and crossed tubes were simultaneously presented. The results were the same as those in the previous test, suggesting that developmental changes and learning effect do not affect the gravity bias in chimpanzees. PMID:17444980

  9. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  10. Gravity bias in young and adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): tests with a modified opaque-tubes task.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko; Mizuno, Yuu; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2007-05-01

    Young human children at around 2 years of age fail to predict the correct location of an object when it is dropped from the top of an S-shape opaque tube. They search in the location just below the releasing point (Hood, 1995). This type of error, called a 'gravity bias', has recently been reported in dogs and monkeys. In the present study, we investigated whether young and adult chimpanzees also show such a gravity bias in a modified version of the original opaque-tube task. The original task by Hood and colleagues required the subject to search in a location after the object had fallen, while in the task reported here, subjects were required to predict the location before the object was dropped. Thus the present procedure does not involve explicit invisible displacement operations, one of the important components of the original procedure. In Experiment 1 both young (1.5-2.5-year-old) and adult chimpanzees predicted the location of falling food items below the releasing point even when crossed tubes were used. These gravity errors remained after the extensive experience of using the tubes themselves. Experiment 2 further tested adult and 4-year-old chimpanzees under the set-up in which the straight and crossed tubes were simultaneously presented. The results were the same as those in the previous test, suggesting that developmental changes and learning effect do not affect the gravity bias in chimpanzees.

  11. Wernicke's area homologue in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and its relation to the appearance of modern human language.

    PubMed

    Spocter, Muhammad A; Hopkins, William D; Garrison, Amy R; Bauernfeind, Amy L; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2010-07-22

    Human language is distinctive compared with the communication systems of other species. Yet, several questions concerning its emergence and evolution remain unresolved. As a means of evaluating the neuroanatomical changes relevant to language that accompanied divergence from the last common ancestor of chimpanzees, bonobos and humans, we defined the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of area Tpt, a component of Wernicke's area, in 12 common chimpanzee brains and used design-based stereologic methods to estimate regional volumes, total neuron number and neuron density. In addition, we created a probabilistic map of the location of area Tpt in a template chimpanzee brain coordinate space. Our results show that chimpanzees display significant population-level leftward asymmetry of area Tpt in terms of neuron number, with volume asymmetry approaching significance. Furthermore, asymmetry in the number of neurons in area Tpt was positively correlated with asymmetry of neuron numbers in Brodmann's area 45, a component of Broca's frontal language region. Our findings support the conclusion that leftward asymmetry of Wernicke's area originated prior to the appearance of modern human language and before our divergence from the last common ancestor. Moreover, this study provides the first evidence of covariance between asymmetry of anterior and posterior cortical regions that in humans are important to language and other higher order cognitive functions.

  12. Foundations of cumulative culture in apes: improved foraging efficiency through relinquishing and combining witnessed behaviours in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sarah J.; Vale, Gillian L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Whiten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one. Only a single chimpanzee in control groups, who had not witnessed a knowledgeable model, discovered this. Individuals who switched were later able to combine components of their two learned techniques to produce a more efficient solution than their extensively used, original foraging method. These results suggest that, although chimpanzees show a considerable degree of conservatism, they also have an ability to combine independent behaviours to produce efficient compound action sequences; one of the foundational abilities (or candidate mechanisms) for human cumulative culture. PMID:27775061

  13. The thermoreculatory responses of the galago (Galago crassicaudatus), the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and the chimpanzee (Pan stayrus) to heat stress.

    PubMed Central

    Hiley, P G

    1976-01-01

    1. The thermoregulatory response of the galago, the baboon and the chimpanzee were studied on exposure to dry bulb temperatures of up to 40 degrees C in a temperature controlled room. 2. Heat exposure caused an elevation in the respiratory frequency of all three species. The increase in the galago was significantly greater than that in the baboon and the chimpanzee. 3. Heat exposure also caused an increase in the cutaneous moisture loss of the baboon and the chimpanzee but not in the galago. 4. Rectal temperatures always rose on heat exposure but the animals never become hypethermic. 5. Sweat gland activity in the baboon and the chimpanzee was stimulated by the administration of acetylcholine and was blocked by the administration of atropine. Sympathetic and parasympathetic drugs had no stimulatory effect on the sueat glands of the galago. 6. Local, infra-red heating of the skin of the galago and the baboon did not stimulate any sweat gland activity. 7. The sweat glands in the galago and the baboon were found to be epitrichial. 8. These findings are discussed in relation to the habitat of each species. They are also compared to thermoregulation in other primate species, especially in relation to the unique nature of thermoregulation in man. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:815544

  14. In vitro susceptibility of T lymphocytes from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6): a potential animal model to study the interaction between HHV-6 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Lusso, P; Markham, P D; DeRocco, S E; Gallo, R C

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of several nonhuman primate species to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated. Only peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were found permissive to productive infection by HHV-6, indicating that the host range of HHV-6, albeit limited, may not be restricted to Homo sapiens. However, natural HHV-6 infection in chimpanzees, as well as in the other species tested, could not be documented by serological analysis. As previously observed with human cells, HHV-6 infection of chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells was highly cytopathic and the infected cells exhibited phenotypic features of activated T lymphocytes. Although in humans the majority of HHV-6-infected lymphocytes displayed the CD4 antigen, in chimpanzees a mixed CD4+ and CD8+ phenotype was observed. HHV-6 was also shown to productively coinfect individual chimpanzee T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, resulting in an accelerated induction of cytopathicity. In light of these findings, we propose the utilization of chimpanzees as a potential animal model system to investigate the in vivo interaction between HHV-6 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its relevance to the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Images PMID:2159541

  15. Fecal bacterial diversity of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale Mountains National Park, Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Brian A; Singh, Jatinder; Marsh, Terence L; Hagedorn, Charles; Werre, Stephen R; Kaur, Taranjit

    2010-06-01

    Although the intestinal flora of chimpanzees has not been studied, insight into this dynamic environment can be obtained through studies on their feces. We analyzed fecal samples from human-habituated, wild chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, and compared microbial community profiles to determine if members of the same social group were similar. Between July and December 2007, we collected fresh fecal samples from 12 individuals: four juveniles, four adolescents, and four adults, including three parent-offspring pairs. Each sample was analyzed using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Twelve different profiles were generated, having between 1 and 15 Terminal-Restriction Fragments (T-RFs). Overall, a total of 23 different T-RFs were produced. Putative assignments of T-RFs corresponded to the phyla Firmicutes (Clostridia, Bacilli, and Lactobacilli), Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes Class), Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, as well as to uncultured or unidentified organisms. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and Mollicutes Class were the most commonly assigned in 11, 8, and 8 of the samples, respectively, with this being the first report of Mollicutes in wild chimpanzees. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed clustering of nine samples, and 80.5% of the diversity was accounted for by three samples. Morisita indices of community similarity ranged between 0.00 and 0.89, with dissimiliarity (<0.5) between most samples when compared two at a time. Our findings suggest that, although phylotypes are common among individuals, profiles among members of the same social group are host-specific. We conclude that factors other than social group, such as kinship and age, may influence fecal bacterial profiles of wild chimpanzees, and recommend that additional studies be conducted.

  16. Specific gravity as an alternative to creatinine for estimating urine concentration in captive and wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Samples.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Stephanie F; Breakey, Alicia A; Beuerlein, Melanie M; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The measurement of hormones in urine has become a widely used technique in primatology. Because urine concentration varies according to fluid intake, concentration must be measured in each sample collected, and hormone values are always expressed per unit of concentration. Traditionally, creatinine has been used as a concentration index, but some studies in humans have shown that creatinine varies among populations and even within and between individuals within a population, and that it begins to degrade after just one freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, creatinine measurement is relatively time-consuming and expensive and creates hazardous waste. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific gravity, or the ratio of the density of a sample to that of water, is highly correlated with creatinine measurement in urine samples collected from captive chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana and wild chimpanzees at the Ngogo study site in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found that specific gravity and creatinine were highly correlated in both captive (N=124) and wild (N=13) chimpanzee samples, and that specific gravity measurement was robust to actual and simulated transport conditions and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend that researchers consider specific gravity measurement as a preferable alternative to creatinine measurement in their studies of primate endocrinology.

  17. Stereotypical behaviors in chimpanzees rescued from the african bushmeat and pet trade.

    PubMed

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

    2013-03-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as "pets" can have on their mental health.

  18. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

    PubMed Central

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M.; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

    2012-01-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

  19. Stereotypical behaviors in chimpanzees rescued from the african bushmeat and pet trade.

    PubMed

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

    2013-03-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as "pets" can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

  20. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  1. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  2. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) fail a what-where-when task but find rewards by using a location-based association strategy.

    PubMed

    Dekleva, Marusha; Dufour, Valérie; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2011-01-01

    Recollecting the what-where-when of an episode, or episodic-like memory, has been established in corvids and rodents. In humans, a linkage between remembering the past and imagining the future has been recognised. While chimpanzees can plan for the future, their episodic-like memory has hardly been investigated. We tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with an adapted food-catching paradigm. They observed the baiting of two locations amongst four and chose one after a given delay (15 min, 1 h or 5 h). We used two combinations of food types, a preferred and a less preferred food that disappeared at different rates. The subjects had to base their choices on the time elapsed since baiting, and on their memory of which food was where. They could recover either their preferred food or the one that remained present. All animals failed to obtain the preferred or present foods above chance levels. They were like-wise unsuccessful at choosing baited cups above chance levels. The subjects, thus, failed to use any feature of the baiting events to guide their choices. Nonetheless, their choices were not random, but the result of a developed location-based association strategy. Choices in the second half of the study correlated with the rewards obtained at each location in the first half of the study, independent from the choices made for each location in the first half of the study. This simple location-based strategy yielded a fair amount of food. The animals' failure to remember the what-where-when in the presented set-up may be due to the complexity of the task, rather than an inability to form episodic-like memories, as they even failed to remember what was where after 15 minutes.

  3. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Fail a What-Where-When Task but Find Rewards by Using a Location-Based Association Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dekleva, Marusha; Dufour, Valérie; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Recollecting the what-where-when of an episode, or episodic-like memory, has been established in corvids and rodents. In humans, a linkage between remembering the past and imagining the future has been recognised. While chimpanzees can plan for the future, their episodic-like memory has hardly been investigated. We tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with an adapted food-caching paradigm. They observed the baiting of two locations amongst four and chose one after a given delay (15 min, 1 h or 5 h). We used two combinations of food types, a preferred and a less preferred food that disappeared at different rates. The subjects had to base their choices on the time elapsed since baiting, and on their memory of which food was where. They could recover either their preferred food or the one that remained present. All animals failed to obtain the preferred or present foods above chance levels. They were like-wise unsuccessful at choosing baited cups above chance levels. The subjects, thus, failed to use any feature of the baiting events to guide their choices. Nonetheless, their choices were not random, but the result of a developed location-based association strategy. Choices in the second half of the study correlated with the rewards obtained at each location in the first half of the study, independent from the choices made for each location in the first half of the study. This simple location-based strategy yielded a fair amount of food. The animals' failure to remember the what-where-when in the presented set-up may be due to the complexity of the task, rather than an inability to form episodic-like memories, as they even failed to remember what was where after 15 minutes. PMID:21359204

  4. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  5. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  6. A pan-African medium-range ensemble flood forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

    2015-08-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Ranged Weather Forecasts) and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper, the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 when important floods were observed. Results were verified by ground measurements of 36 sub-catchments as well as by reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70 % of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (> 1 week) and large affected areas (> 10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for the flood event in March 2003 in the Sabi Basin (Zimbabwe) illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

  7. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  8. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  9. Constraints on the exploitation of the functional properties of objects in expert tool-using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Povinelli, Daniel J; Frey, Scott H

    2016-09-01

    Many species exploit immediately apparent dimensions of objects during tool use and manufacture and operate over internal perceptual representations of objects (they move and reorient objects in space, have rules of operation to deform or modify objects, etc). Humans, however, actively test for functionally relevant object properties before such operations begin, even when no previous percepts of a particular object's qualities in the domain have been established. We hypothesize that such prospective diagnostic interventions are a human specialization of cognitive function that has been entirely overlooked in the neuropsychological literature. We presented chimpanzees with visually identical rakes: one was functional for retrieving a food reward; the other was non-functional (its base was spring-loaded). Initially, they learned that only the functional tool could retrieve a distant reward. In test 1, we explored if they would manually test for the rakes' rigidity during tool selection, but before using it. We found no evidence of such behavior. In test 2, we obliged the apes to deform the non-functional tool's base before using it, in order to evaluate whether this would cause them to switch rakes. It did not. Tests 3-6 attempted to focus the apes' attention on the functionally relevant property (rigidity). Although one ape eventually learned to abandon the non-functional rake before using it, she still did not attempt to test the rakes for rigidity prior to use. While these results underscore the ability of chimpanzees to use novel tools, at the same time they point toward a fundamental (and heretofore unexplored) difference in causal reasoning between humans and apes. We propose that this behavioral difference reflects a human specialization in how object properties are represented, which could have contributed significantly to the evolution of our technological culture. We discuss developing a new line of evolutionarily motivated neuropsychological research on

  10. Constraints on the exploitation of the functional properties of objects in expert tool-using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Povinelli, Daniel J; Frey, Scott H

    2016-09-01

    Many species exploit immediately apparent dimensions of objects during tool use and manufacture and operate over internal perceptual representations of objects (they move and reorient objects in space, have rules of operation to deform or modify objects, etc). Humans, however, actively test for functionally relevant object properties before such operations begin, even when no previous percepts of a particular object's qualities in the domain have been established. We hypothesize that such prospective diagnostic interventions are a human specialization of cognitive function that has been entirely overlooked in the neuropsychological literature. We presented chimpanzees with visually identical rakes: one was functional for retrieving a food reward; the other was non-functional (its base was spring-loaded). Initially, they learned that only the functional tool could retrieve a distant reward. In test 1, we explored if they would manually test for the rakes' rigidity during tool selection, but before using it. We found no evidence of such behavior. In test 2, we obliged the apes to deform the non-functional tool's base before using it, in order to evaluate whether this would cause them to switch rakes. It did not. Tests 3-6 attempted to focus the apes' attention on the functionally relevant property (rigidity). Although one ape eventually learned to abandon the non-functional rake before using it, she still did not attempt to test the rakes for rigidity prior to use. While these results underscore the ability of chimpanzees to use novel tools, at the same time they point toward a fundamental (and heretofore unexplored) difference in causal reasoning between humans and apes. We propose that this behavioral difference reflects a human specialization in how object properties are represented, which could have contributed significantly to the evolution of our technological culture. We discuss developing a new line of evolutionarily motivated neuropsychological research on

  11. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber.

  12. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Planning for future needs has traditionally been considered to be restricted to human cognition. Although recent studies on great ape and corvid cognition challenge this belief, the phylogenesis of human planning remains largely unknown. The complex skill for future planning has not yet been satisfactorily established in any other extant primate species than our own. In humans, planning for future needs rely heavily on two overarching capacities, both of which lie at the heart of our cognition: self-control, often defined as the suppression of immediate drives in favor of delayed rewards, and mental time travel, which could be described as a detached mental experience of a past or future event. Future planning is linked to additional high complexity cognition such as metacognition and a consciousness usually not attributed to animals. In a series of four experiments based on tool use, we demonstrate that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) override immediate drives in favor of future needs, and they do not merely rely on associative learning or semantic prospection when confronted with a planning task. These results suggest that great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally pre-experiencing an upcoming event. This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed.

  13. Censored Data Analysis Reveals Effects of Age and Hepatitis C Infection on C-Reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Adult Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J.; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, M. Lon

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein, a conserved acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver and involved in inflammation, infection, and tissue damage, is an informative biomarker for human cardiovascular disease. Out of 258 captive adult common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) assayed for CRP, 27.9% of the data were below the quantitation limit. Data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and results compared to other methods for handling censored data (including deletion, replacement, and imputation). Kaplan-Meier results demonstrated a modest age effect and a strong effect of HCV infection in reducing CRP but did not allow inference of reference intervals. Results of other methods varied considerably. Substitution schemes differed widely in statistical significance, with estimated group means biased by the size of the substitution constant, while inference of unbiased reference intervals was impossible. Single imputation gave reasonable statistical inferences but unreliable reference intervals. Multiple imputation gave reliable results, for both statistical inference and reference intervals, and was comparable to the Kaplan-Meier standard. Other methods should be avoided. CRP did not predict cardiovascular disease, but CRP levels were reduced by 50% in animals with hepatitis C infection and showed inverse relationships with 2 liver function enzymes. Results suggested that hsCRP can be an informative biomarker of chronic hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26317021

  14. Censored Data Analysis Reveals Effects of Age and Hepatitis C Infection on C-Reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Adult Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Lammey, M Lon

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein, a conserved acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver and involved in inflammation, infection, and tissue damage, is an informative biomarker for human cardiovascular disease. Out of 258 captive adult common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) assayed for CRP, 27.9% of the data were below the quantitation limit. Data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and results compared to other methods for handling censored data (including deletion, replacement, and imputation). Kaplan-Meier results demonstrated a modest age effect and a strong effect of HCV infection in reducing CRP but did not allow inference of reference intervals. Results of other methods varied considerably. Substitution schemes differed widely in statistical significance, with estimated group means biased by the size of the substitution constant, while inference of unbiased reference intervals was impossible. Single imputation gave reasonable statistical inferences but unreliable reference intervals. Multiple imputation gave reliable results, for both statistical inference and reference intervals, and was comparable to the Kaplan-Meier standard. Other methods should be avoided. CRP did not predict cardiovascular disease, but CRP levels were reduced by 50% in animals with hepatitis C infection and showed inverse relationships with 2 liver function enzymes. Results suggested that hsCRP can be an informative biomarker of chronic hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26317021

  15. Perceived variability and symbol use: a common language-cognition interface in children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P M; Savage-Rumbaugh, E S

    1984-06-01

    Analysis of two chimpanzees' conversations with their teacher during a tool-use training task demonstrated that chimps use lexigrams, a humanly devised visual symbol system, selectively to encode perceived variability; that is, they generally used their symbols to differentiate alternative possibilities or to represent change or novelty in a situation. In contrast, they tended to leave unsaid what was unchanging, repetitive, or the unique possibility in a situation. Perceived variability influenced not only which symbols were selected but also utterance length: A single dimension of variability in a situation leads to single-lexigram utterances; multiple dimensions are associated with multi-lexigram utterances. This pattern of results indicates that the absence of formal grammatical structure in chimp language does not imply that utterances beyond one word in length are either rote strings or imitations. The chimps' tendency to mention the variable while leaving the constant or redundant unsaid is, moreover, strong support for the position that their use of a humanly devised symbol system is more than a series of conditioned responses.

  16. Anaesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane with and without midazolam, in eight captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Morath, U; Bergadano, A

    2013-08-01

    In 8 captive adult chimpanzees of various ages premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (40 or 50 µg/kg and 5 mg/kg, IM, respectively), with and without midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. At the end of the procedure, sedation was reversed with atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg, IM) and sarmazenil (0.005 mg/kg, IM) when midazolam had been administered. Oral zuclopenthixol resulted in tranquillization of the whole group and only one animal required a second dart injection to achieve adequately deep anaesthesia. Effective and reliable anaesthesia was achieved in all apes; the depth of hypnosis was stable and sudden arousal did not occur. Physiological parameters remained within normal ranges in the majority of the animals; however, manageable anaesthesia-related complications, namely apnoea after darting, hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia and prolonged recovery, occurred in 6 out of 8 animals. The use of monitoring devices was essential to guarantee adequate management of these complications.

  17. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  18. A Polymorphic Indel Containing the RS3 Microsatellite in the 5’ Flanking Region of the Vasopressin V1a Receptor Gene is Associated with Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Donaldson, Zoe R.; Young, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin is a neuropeptide that has been strongly implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition in mammals. Recent studies in voles have shown that polymorphic variation in the promoter region of the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (avpr1a) is associated with different dimensions of sociality. In humans, variation in a repetitive sequence element in the 5’ flanking region of the AVPR1A, known as RS3, have also been associated with variation in AVPR1a gene expression, brain activity and social behavior. Here, we examined the association of polymorphic variation in this same 5’ flanking region of the AVPR1A on subjective ratings of personality in a sample of 83 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Initial analyses indicated that 34 females and 19 males were homozygous for the short allele, which lacks RS3(DupB−/−); while 18 females and 12 males were heterozygous and thus had one copy of the long allele containing RS3 (DupB+/−), yielding overall allelic frequencies of 0.82 for the DupB− allele and 0.18 for the DupB+ allele. DupB+/+ chimpanzees were excluded from the analysis due to the limited number of individuals. Results indicated no significant sex difference in personality between chimpanzees homozygous for the deletion of the RS3-containing DupB region (DupB−/−); however, among chimpanzees carrying one allele with the DupB present (DupB+/−), males had significantly higher dominance and lower conscientiousness scores than females. These findings are the first evidence showing that the AVPR1A gene plays a role in different aspects of personality in male and female chimpanzees. PMID:22520444

  19. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

    2016-01-25

    The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives. PMID:26776735

  20. The influence of AVPR1A genotype on individual differences in behaviors during a mirror self-recognition task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Mahovetz, L M; Young, L J; Hopkins, W D

    2016-06-01

    The mark/rouge test has been used to assess mirror self-recognition (MSR) in many species. Despite consistent evidence of MSR in great apes, genetic or non-genetic factors may account for the individual differences in behavioral responses that have been reported. We examined whether vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) polymorphisms are associated with MSR-related behaviors in chimpanzees since vasopressin has been implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition and chimpanzees are polymorphic for the presence of the RS3-containing DupB region. We compared a sample of DupB+/- and DupB-/- chimpanzees on a mark test to assess its role on social behavior toward a mirror. Chimpanzees were administered two, 10-min sessions where frequencies of mirror-guided self-directed behaviors, contingent actions and other social behaviors were recorded. Approximately one-third showed evidence of MSR and these individuals exhibited more mirror-guided self-exploratory behaviors and mouth contingent actions than chimpanzees not classified as passers. Moreover, DupB+/- males exhibited more scratching and agonistic behaviors than other male and female cohorts. Our findings support previous studies demonstrating individual differences in MSR abilities in chimpanzees and suggest that AVPR1A partly explains individual differences in MSR by influencing the behavioral reactions of chimpanzees in front of a mirror. PMID:27058969

  1. The influence of AVPR1A genotype on individual differences in behaviors during a mirror self-recognition task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Mahovetz, L M; Young, L J; Hopkins, W D

    2016-06-01

    The mark/rouge test has been used to assess mirror self-recognition (MSR) in many species. Despite consistent evidence of MSR in great apes, genetic or non-genetic factors may account for the individual differences in behavioral responses that have been reported. We examined whether vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) polymorphisms are associated with MSR-related behaviors in chimpanzees since vasopressin has been implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition and chimpanzees are polymorphic for the presence of the RS3-containing DupB region. We compared a sample of DupB+/- and DupB-/- chimpanzees on a mark test to assess its role on social behavior toward a mirror. Chimpanzees were administered two, 10-min sessions where frequencies of mirror-guided self-directed behaviors, contingent actions and other social behaviors were recorded. Approximately one-third showed evidence of MSR and these individuals exhibited more mirror-guided self-exploratory behaviors and mouth contingent actions than chimpanzees not classified as passers. Moreover, DupB+/- males exhibited more scratching and agonistic behaviors than other male and female cohorts. Our findings support previous studies demonstrating individual differences in MSR abilities in chimpanzees and suggest that AVPR1A partly explains individual differences in MSR by influencing the behavioral reactions of chimpanzees in front of a mirror.

  2. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  3. Reconstruction of Holocene southern African continental climate using biomarkers from salt pan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The climate system of southern Africa is strongly influenced by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. Recent publications provided evidence for strong spatial and temporal climate variability in southern Africa over the Holocene. It is of major importance to understand the mechanisms driving the southern African climate system in order to estimate regional implications of current global change. However, proxy datasets from continental geoarchives especially of the semi-arid western Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13Corg, TIC, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb, TN, δ15N, the paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Preliminary results show prominent shifts in n-alkane distribution and δ13C values of the C33 homologue during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. These shifts correlate to changes of the TOC content. Our data indicate changes in carbon sources which possibly reflect major environmental changes.

  4. Use of Biomarkers of Collagen Types I and III Fibrosis Metabolism to Detect Cardiovascular and Renal Disease in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J; Bishop, Micah A; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Steiner, Jörg M; Lee, D Rick

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among captive chimpanzees. The most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease among chimpanzees is sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis was the only significant pathologic lesion observed in affected animals at necropsy. We previously showed an association between myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. The presumed pathogenesis was interstitial myocardial fibrosis that led to decreased myocardial contractility and interrupted signal propagation in the heart, leading to fibrillation and resulting in sudden cardiac death. In this pilot study, we assayed 5 biomarkers of collagen types I and III metabolism and fibrogenesis and studied their association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarker MMP1 did not crossreact in chimpanzee sera and could not be studied further. Two biomarkers (TIMP1 and PINP) and their difference showed no significant association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarkers ICTP and PIIINP were significantly increased in cases of CVD with concurrent renal disease. Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. PMID:20412692

  5. Use of biomarkers of collagen types I and III fibrosis metabolism to detect cardiovascular and renal disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Bishop, Micah A; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Steiner, Jörg M; Lee, D Rick

    2010-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among captive chimpanzees. The most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease among chimpanzees is sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis was the only significant pathologic lesion observed in affected animals at necropsy. We previously showed an association between myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. The presumed pathogenesis was interstitial myocardial fibrosis that led to decreased myocardial contractility and interrupted signal propagation in the heart, leading to fibrillation and resulting in sudden cardiac death. In this pilot study, we assayed 5 biomarkers of collagen types I and III metabolism and fibrogenesis and studied their association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarker MMP1 did not crossreact in chimpanzee sera and could not be studied further. Two biomarkers (TIMP1 and PINP) and their difference showed no significant association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarkers ICTP and PIIINP were significantly increased in cases of CVD with concurrent renal disease. Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. PMID:20412692

  6. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clay, Andrea W; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Bard, Kim A; Maple, Terry L; Marr, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age. Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a significant predictor of stereotypic rocking in adult chimpanzees, F(1, 18) = 7.50, p = .013. For those subjects (N = 24) with a full 20 years (birth through age 20 years) of health data available, both rearing experience and disorganized attachment were significant predictors of upper respiratory infection frequency, F(2, 21) = 8.86, p = .002. Chimpanzees with disorganized attachment exhibited average subjective well-being as adults, whereas chimpanzees with organized strategies exhibited higher than average subjective well-being as adults. These results support the findings of human attachment research and are in line with attachment-based predictions for chimpanzees, such that the consequences of an early history of disorganized attachment may be adverse and long lasting.

  7. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day's breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  8. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Karline R. L.; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day’s breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  9. What School for Africa in the Year 2000? Report of the Proceedings of the Pan-African Conference on Education (Yaounde, Cameroon, April 2-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    The Pan-African Conference on Education was organized by the World Confederation of Organisations of the Teaching Profession, with the cooperation of UNESCO and many other groups. The conference invited representatives of teacher organizations and education ministries in both English- and French-speaking African countries. Of the 26 African…

  10. A cross-setting study of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality structure and development: zoological parks and Yerkes National Primate Research Center.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Hopkins, William D

    2007-11-01

    This study addressed whether personality ratings using a 43 adjective questionnaire based on the Five-Factor Model generalized from a sample of 202 zoo-housed chimpanzees to a sample of 175 chimpanzees housed in Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Mean interrater reliabilities of adjectival ratings were lower for the chimpanzees housed in Yerkes. In addition, rank order of the interrater reliabilities of items differed between settings. To compare factor structure, we first examined whether we could replicate the original six factor structure found in an earlier study of 100 zoo chimpanzees using principal factors analysis in the Yerkes sample and 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors were clearly replicated in the Yerkes sample and the 102 new zoo chimpanzees. The Neuroticism and Openness factors did not replicate in the Yerkes sample, but they also did not replicate in the new zoo chimpanzees. These findings suggest the need to sample more adjectives representing neuroticism and openness in future versions of the questionnaire. We next sought to determine whether factor structure, as determined by principal components analysis, remained invariant across the two settings. This analysis revealed dominance, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness factors in both settings and a high level of congruence between the zoo and Yerkes samples for these factors. Finally, we tested whether factor scores in the two samples were similarly related to age and sex. With the exception of differences in age effects for dominance and agreeableness, age, and sex effects were consistent across samples. These findings suggest that, whereas there may be differences in the ease with which ratings are made, personality structure, and development are largely consistent across widely differing settings.

  11. Post-collisional Pan-African granitoids and rare metal pegmatites in western Nigeria: Age, petrogenesis, and the 'pegmatite conundrum'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, K. M.; Lusty, P. A. J.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Key, R. M.; Garba, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Minna area of western Nigeria lies within a Pan-African orogenic belt that extends along the margin of the West African Craton, from Algeria southwards through Nigeria, Benin and Ghana, and into the Borborema Province of Brazil. This belt is characterised by voluminous post-collisional granitoid plutons that are well exposed around the city of Minna. In this paper we present new information about their age and petrogenesis. The Pan-African plutons around Minna can be divided into two main groups: a group of largely peraluminous biotite-muscovite granites that show varying levels of deformation in late Pan-African shear zones; and a younger group of relatively undeformed, predominantly metaluminous hornblende granitoids. Pegmatites, including both barren and rare-metal types, occur at the margins of some of the plutons. New U-Pb zircon dating presented here, in combination with published data, indicates an early phase of magmatism at c. 790-760 Ma in the Minna area. This magmatism could be related either to continental rifting, or to subduction around the margins of an existing continent. The peraluminous biotite-muscovite granites were intruded at c. 650-600 Ma during regional shearing in the orogenic belt, and are likely to have formed largely by crustal melting. Subsequent emplacement of metaluminous granitoids at c. 590 Ma indicates the onset of post-orogenic extension in this area, with a contribution from mantle-derived magmas. The rare-metal pegmatites represent the youngest intrusions in this area and thus are likely to have formed in a separate magmatic episode, post-dating granite intrusion.

  12. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  13. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  14. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  15. Delaying gratification for food and tokens in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): when quantity is salient, symbolic stimuli do not improve performance.

    PubMed

    Evans, T A; Beran, M J; Paglieri, F; Addessi, E

    2012-07-01

    Capuchin monkeys have been tested for the capacity to delay gratification for accumulating rewards in recent studies and have exhibited variable results. Meanwhile, chimpanzees have consistently excelled at this task. However, neither species have ever been tested at accumulating symbolic tokens instead of food items, even though previous reports indicate that tokens sometimes facilitate performance in other self-control tasks. Thus, in the present study, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees for their capacity to delay gratification in a delay maintenance task, in which an experimenter presented items, one at a time, to within reach of an animal for as long as the animal refrained from taking them. In Experiment 1, we assessed how long capuchin monkeys could accumulate items in the delay maintenance task when items were food rewards or tokens exchangeable for food rewards. Monkeys accumulated more food rewards than they did tokens. In Experiment 2, we tested capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees in a similar accumulation test. Whereas capuchins again accumulated more food than tokens, all chimpanzees but one showed no difference in performance in the two conditions. These findings provide additional evidence that chimpanzees exhibit greater self-control capacity in this task than do capuchin monkeys and indicate that symbolic stimuli fail to facilitate delay maintenance when they do not abstract away from the quantitative dimension of the task. This is consistent with previous findings on the effects of symbols on self-control and illuminates what makes accumulation a particularly challenging task. PMID:22434403

  16. Invention and modification of a new tool use behavior: ant-fishing in trees by a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamakoshi, Gen; Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    Wild chimpanzees are known to have a different repertoire of tool use unique to each community. For example, "ant-dipping" is a tool use behavior known in several chimpanzee communities across Africa targeted at driver ants (Dorylus spp.) on the ground, whereas "ant-fishing," which is aimed at carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) in trees, has primarily been observed among the chimpanzees of Mahale in Tanzania. Although the evidence for differences between field sites is accumulating, we have little knowledge on how these tool use behaviors appear at each site and on how these are modified over time. This study reports two"ant-fishing" sessions which occurred 2 years apart by a young male chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Ant-fishing had never been observed before in this community over the past 27 years. During the first session, at the age of 5, he employed wands of similar length when ant-fishing in trees to those used for ant-dipping on the ground, which is a customary tool use behavior of this community. Two years later, at the age of 7, his tools for ant-fishing were shorter and more suitable for capturing carpenter ants. This observation is a rare example of innovation in the wild and does provide insights into problem-solving and learning processes in chimpanzees.

  17. Planum temporale surface area and grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the effect of handedness and comparison with findings in humans.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Nir, Talia M

    2010-04-01

    The planum temporale (PT) is the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl's gyrus and is considered a key brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and grey matter volume of the PT is larger in the left compared to right hemisphere in approximately 2/3rds of individuals, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we examined whether chimpanzees show asymmetries in the PT for grey matter volume and surface area in a sample of 103 chimpanzees from magnetic resonance images. The results indicated that, overall, the chimpanzees showed population-level leftward asymmetries for both surface area and grey matter volumes. Furthermore, chimpanzees that prefer to gesture with their right-handed had significantly greater leftward grey matter asymmetries compared to ambiguously- and left-handed apes. When compared to previously published data in humans, the direction and magnitude of PT grey matter asymmetries were similar between humans and apes; however, for the surface area measures, the human showed more pronounced leftward asymmetries. These results suggest that leftward asymmetries in the PT were present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  18. Invention and modification of a new tool use behavior: ant-fishing in trees by a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamakoshi, Gen; Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    Wild chimpanzees are known to have a different repertoire of tool use unique to each community. For example, "ant-dipping" is a tool use behavior known in several chimpanzee communities across Africa targeted at driver ants (Dorylus spp.) on the ground, whereas "ant-fishing," which is aimed at carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) in trees, has primarily been observed among the chimpanzees of Mahale in Tanzania. Although the evidence for differences between field sites is accumulating, we have little knowledge on how these tool use behaviors appear at each site and on how these are modified over time. This study reports two"ant-fishing" sessions which occurred 2 years apart by a young male chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Ant-fishing had never been observed before in this community over the past 27 years. During the first session, at the age of 5, he employed wands of similar length when ant-fishing in trees to those used for ant-dipping on the ground, which is a customary tool use behavior of this community. Two years later, at the age of 7, his tools for ant-fishing were shorter and more suitable for capturing carpenter ants. This observation is a rare example of innovation in the wild and does provide insights into problem-solving and learning processes in chimpanzees. PMID:18459112

  19. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Mareno, Mary C; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either gray matter (GM) volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance image scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  20. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  1. A pan-African medium-range ensemble flood forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Bisselink, Bernard; Pappenberger, Florian; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this study the predictive capability is investigated, to estimate AFFS' potential as an operational flood forecasting system for the whole of Africa. This is done in a hindcast mode, by reproducing pan-African hydrological predictions for the whole year of 2003 where important flood events were observed. Results were analysed in two ways, each with its individual objective. The first part of the analysis is of paramount importance for the assessment of AFFS as a flood forecasting system, as it focuses on the detection and prediction of flood events. Here, results were verified with reports of various flood archives such as Dartmouth Flood Observatory, the Emergency Event Database, the NASA Earth Observatory and Reliefweb. The number of hits, false alerts and missed alerts as well as the Probability of Detection, False Alarm Rate and Critical Success Index were determined for various conditions (different regions, flood durations, average amount of annual precipitations, size of affected areas and mean annual discharge). The second part of the analysis complements the first by giving a basic insight into the prediction skill of the general streamflow. For this, hydrological predictions were compared against observations at 36 key locations across Africa and the Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score (CRPSS), the limit of predictability and reliability were calculated. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70 % of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (> 1 week) and large affected areas (> 10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas

  2. Achaean Continental Crust Under the Pan-African Orogenic Belt, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2001-12-01

    Lützow-Holm Complex, located in East Antarctica, is a Cambrian collision zone between Achaean craton (Napier Complex) and Dronning Moud Land, where occurs the upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks, and it is regarded as a part of the Pan-African orogenic belt during Gondwana continent amalgamation. The exhumation of the granulite-facies rocks with clockwise P-T path has been attributed to extensive surface erosion (up to 30 km thick) of double-thickened crust, but the common belief that higher-pressure garnet bearing rocks e.g. high-pressure granulites and/or eclogites exist at deeper level of crust is not supported by geophysical data. In this paper we reconstruct crustal structure beneath Lützow-Holm Complex by combining ultrasonic velocity of rocks with seismic velocity structure. Consequently our results suggest that Achaean continental crust (lower pressure) exists under the Pan-African Orogenic Belt (higher pressure), and propose a new tectonic model for exhumation of the granulite-facies metamorphic belt instead of the double-thickened crust model. P-wave velocity (Vp) in ultra-high temperature granulites (UHT) was measured up to 1.0 GPa from 25°C to 400°C with a piston-cylinder-type high-pressure apparatus. Rocks measured are meta-igneous UHT rocks collected from Mount Riiser-Larsen, Enderby Land, East Antarctica where the Achaean Napier Complex occurs. Core rock samples with 14mm diameter and 12mm long were subjected to high-pressure experiments. All rocks show a rapid increase of Vp at low pressure up to 0.4 GPa and nearly constant Vp at higher pressures. The Vp values measured at 1.0 GPa and 400°C are 7.17 km/s for a meta-pyroxenite, 6.93 km/s, 6.88 km/s for mafic granulites and 6.17 km/s for an orthopyroxene felsic gneiss. The Vp values measured for the Napier mafic granulites are comparable to the lower crustal layer (6.95 km/s of Vp at depth from 33 to 40 km) under the Lützow-Holm Complex. The present results suggest that the lower crust

  3. No evidence of short-term exchange of meat for sex among chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ian C; Emery Thompson, M; Ruane, Jonathan D; Wrangham, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The meat-for-sex hypothesis posits that male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) trade meat with estrous females in exchange for short-term mating access. This notion is widely cited in the anthropological literature and has been used to construct scenarios about human evolution. Here we review the theoretical and empirical basis for the meat-for-sex hypothesis. We argue that chimpanzee behavioral ecology does not favor the evolution of such exchanges because 1) female chimpanzees show low mate selectivity and require little or no material incentive to mate, violating existing models of commodity exchange; and 2) meat-for-sex exchanges are unlikely to provide reproductive benefits to either partner. We also present new analyses of 28 years of data from two East African chimpanzee study sites (Gombe National Park, Tanzania; Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda) and discuss the results of previously published studies. In at least three chimpanzee communities, 1) the presence of sexually receptive females did not increase hunting probability, 2) males did not share preferentially with sexually receptive females, and 3) sharing with females did not increase a male's short-term mating success. We acknowledge that systematic meat sharing by male chimpanzees in expectation of, or in return for, immediate copulations might be discovered in future studies. However, current data indicate that such exchanges are so rare, and so different in nature from exchanges among humans, that with respect to chimpanzees, sexual bartering in humans should be regarded as a derived trait with no known antecedents in the behavior of wild chimpanzees. PMID:20493515

  4. No evidence of short-term exchange of meat for sex among chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ian C; Emery Thompson, M; Ruane, Jonathan D; Wrangham, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The meat-for-sex hypothesis posits that male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) trade meat with estrous females in exchange for short-term mating access. This notion is widely cited in the anthropological literature and has been used to construct scenarios about human evolution. Here we review the theoretical and empirical basis for the meat-for-sex hypothesis. We argue that chimpanzee behavioral ecology does not favor the evolution of such exchanges because 1) female chimpanzees show low mate selectivity and require little or no material incentive to mate, violating existing models of commodity exchange; and 2) meat-for-sex exchanges are unlikely to provide reproductive benefits to either partner. We also present new analyses of 28 years of data from two East African chimpanzee study sites (Gombe National Park, Tanzania; Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda) and discuss the results of previously published studies. In at least three chimpanzee communities, 1) the presence of sexually receptive females did not increase hunting probability, 2) males did not share preferentially with sexually receptive females, and 3) sharing with females did not increase a male's short-term mating success. We acknowledge that systematic meat sharing by male chimpanzees in expectation of, or in return for, immediate copulations might be discovered in future studies. However, current data indicate that such exchanges are so rare, and so different in nature from exchanges among humans, that with respect to chimpanzees, sexual bartering in humans should be regarded as a derived trait with no known antecedents in the behavior of wild chimpanzees.

  5. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  6. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  7. Dietary preferences of a submontane population of the rare Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dietary preferences of chimpanzees residing in a Nigerian submontane forest using a combination of fecal analysis, observations of feeding remains, evidence from feeding tools and fruiting phenological data between April 2010 and March 2011. A total of 495 fecal samples were collected in which 52 fruit taxa were identified as having being consumed by chimpanzees, including 22 identified to species level and two identified to genus level. Ficus (seven species) was the most common seed genus identified, occurring in 61.2% of all fecal samples. Based on fecal analysis and phenological data, Ngel Nyaki chimpanzees do not solely consume fruits based on their availability within the habitat; while the proportion of fruit consumed did reflect the relative availability of fruit in the forest for some fruit species, Ficus was a preferred fruit even when scarce. In contrast, the proportion consumed of other fruit species was low relative to the abundance of their fruit available in the forest. Our results from the Rank Preference Index (RPI) suggest that relative preferences in fruit are seasonal. We discuss the role of Ficus in the diet of chimpanzees in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve.

  8. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID

  9. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    PubMed

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  10. The Risk of Disease to Great Apes: Simulating Disease Spread in Orang-Utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Association Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  11. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  12. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    PubMed

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  13. Urinary C-peptide tracks seasonal and individual variation in energy balance in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W; Lwanga, Jeremiah S; Potts, Kevin B

    2009-02-01

    C-peptide of insulin presents a promising new tool for behavioral ecologists that allows for regular, non-invasive assessment of energetic condition in wild animals. C-peptide is produced on an equimolar basis with insulin, thus is indicative of the body's response to available glucose and, with repeated measurement, provides a biomarker of energy balance. As yet, few studies have validated the efficacy of C-peptide for monitoring energy balance in wild animals. Here, we assess seasonal and interindividual variation in urinary C-peptide concentrations of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). We assayed 519 urine samples from 13 adult male chimpanzees in the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. C-peptide levels were significantly predicted by the total amount of fruit and the amount of preferred fruit in the diet. However, chimpanzees had very low C-peptide titers during an epidemic of severe respiratory illness, despite highly favorable feeding conditions. Kanyawara males had significantly lower C-peptide levels than males at Ngogo, a nearby chimpanzee community occupying a more productive habitat. Among Kanyawara males, low-ranking males had consistently higher C-peptide levels than dominant males. While counterintuitive, this result supports previous findings of costs associated with dominance in male chimpanzees. Our preliminary investigations demonstrate that C-peptide has wide applications in field research, providing an accessible tool for evaluating seasonal and individual variation in energetic condition, as well as the costs of processes such as immune function and reproduction. PMID:19084530

  14. From migmatites to granites in the Pan-African Damara orogenic belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toé, W.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; André-Mayer, A.-S.; Feybesse, J.-L.; Milési, J.-P.

    2013-09-01

    The Swakop River exposes a unique structural section into the root of the Pan-African Damara orogenic belt (DOB) in Namibia formed as a result of collision between the Congo and the Kalahari cratons from ca. 550 to 500 Ma. The Central Zone of the Damara orogenic belt is characterized by amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by intense partial melting. Three tectonic units are defined in the Central Zone based on the proportion and distribution of the granitic fraction, namely (1) a lower unit dominated by diatexites and comprising plutons of homogeneous granites, (2) a middle unit composed by metatexites with mainly a metasedimentary protolith, and (3) an upper unit corresponding to metamorphic rocks with intrusive leucogranitic sills and laccoliths. The increase in the granitic fraction with structural depth is suggesting an increase in the degree of partial melting and implies a relative inefficiency of magma mobility from the source to higher structural levels. The transition from metatexites of the middle unit to diatexites and granites of the lower unit is interpreted as reflecting the former transition from partially molten rocks to a crustal-scale magmatic layer. Mushroom-shaped granitic plutons in the lower unit are consistent with their emplacement as diapirs and the development of gravitational instabilities within the magmatic layer. In the middle unit, granitic veins concordant and discordant to the synmigmatitic foliation localized in structurally-controlled sites (foliation, boudin's necks, shear zones, fold hinges) indicate that, within the partially molten zone, deformation plays the dominant role in melt segregation and migration at the outcrop scale. Melt migration from the partially molten zone to the intrusive zone is related to the build-up of an interconnected network of dikes and sills with diffuse contacts with the migmatitic hosts in the middle unit. In contrast, the upper unit is characterized by homogeneous

  15. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    contribute in enhancing the value of research in Africa, the Pan African Medical Journal will start a new regular column that will highlight priority systematic reviews relevant to the continent. PMID:27795777

  16. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient.

  17. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  18. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  19. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  20. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies.

  1. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) exhibit sleep related behaviors that minimize exposure to parasitic arthropods? A preliminary report on the possible anti-vector function of chimpanzee sleeping platforms.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Hunt, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Great apes spend half of their lives in a nightly "nest" or sleeping platform (SP), a complex object created by modifying foliage, which functions as a stable substrate on which to sleep. Of the several purported functions of SPs, one hypothesis is that they protect against parasitic infection. Here we investigate the role of SP site choice in avoiding molestation by arthropods. This study presents preliminary data on the insect-repellent properties of preferred sleeping tree species Cynometra alexandri. Insect traps were deployed in gallery forest habitats in which chimpanzees typically "nest." We compared traps placed adjacent to SPs artificially manufactured with C. alexandri trees to an open area within the same habitat. Multiple measures of arthropod counts indicate that simulated C. alexandri SP sites have fewer arthropods than similar non-SP sites. Volatile compounds secreted by C. alexandri foliage are hypothesized to repel annoying arthropods and/or mask chimpanzee olfactory signals. Of the total insects captured (n = 6,318), n = 145 were mosquitoes. Of the total mosquitoes captured, n = 47 were identified as Anopheles (female, n = 12). The prominent malarial vector Anopheles gambiae was identified among the captured mosquito sample. These results suggest that the presence of broken branches of the tree species C. alexandri reduce the amount of insects a chimpanzee is exposed to throughout a night's sleep. This great ape behavioral and socio-technological adaptation may have evolved, in part, to increase quality of sleep as well as decrease exposure to vectors of disease.

  2. Magnetic fabrics and Pan-African structural evolution in the Najd Fault corridor in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Sadek, Mohamed F.; Hamad, Sayed S.

    2014-11-01

    In order to assess the Pan-African structural evolution from early orogenic fabrics through Najd wrenching to the latest orogenic collapse/extension, the authors used field work, aided by aerial photographs and satellite images. This work is complemented by the study of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS, or magnetic fabric). The Pan-African rock associations of the Um Gheig-Kadabora area can be divided into a lower tier composed mainly of amphibolite-migmatite and granitoid gneisses, and an upper tier of ophiolitic rocks, metavolcanics and their related volcaniclastics, and molasse-type Hammamat sediments. Both these units are intruded by late orogenic granitoid plutons and dykes. The lower tier is exposed in a domal structure in the El Sibai area, the upper tier forms a series of weakly to highly deformed thrust units, called Pan-African Nappes here, which are dissected by high strain shear zones. According to their age, these rock units are divided here into early and late-orogenic. The early orogenic rock association is characterized by medium-high metamorphic grades. The late orogenic rock association is characterized by low metamorphic grade. The rocks in the upper tier form a series of low angle thrust sheets, which are bounded by NW-striking high angle shear zones related to the Najd Fault System. The early orogenic rocks show a polyphase structural evolution with early folds, thrusts, and strike-slip shear zones. The late orogenic rocks show a relatively weaker deformation. The latest intrusives studied here are the dykes dissecting the late orogenic Kadabora granite. In the present work magnetic fabric data document the deformational features in detail and assess the role of the Najd Fault System in the deformational evolution. A strong variation in volume susceptibility of various rocks, due to their variations in mineral composition, is observed. Lower values are in the range of 10-6 SI units for late-orogenic alkaline granite and the

  3. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Stephens, N; Vogelnest, L; Lowbridge, C; Christensen, A; Marks, G B; Sintchenko, V; McAnulty, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a pathogen of humans. Infections have been reported in animal species and it is emerging as a significant disease of elephants in the care of humans. With the close association between humans and animals, transmission can occur. In November 2010, a clinically healthy Asian elephant in an Australian zoo was found to be shedding M. tuberculosis; in September 2011, a sick chimpanzee at the same zoo was diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by an indistinguishable strain of M. tuberculosis. Investigations included staff and animal screening. Four staff had tuberculin skin test conversions associated with spending at least 10 hours within the elephant enclosure; none had disease. Six chimpanzees had suspected infection. A pathway of transmission between the animals could not be confirmed. Tuberculosis in an elephant can be transmissible to people in close contact and to other animals more remotely. The mechanism for transmission from elephants requires further investigation.

  4. Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark F; Hopwood, David

    2004-03-01

    Repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is often observed in recent large-bodied apes from Africa and Asia as well as Mid- to Late Miocene sites from Spain to China. The ubiquity and periodicity of rLEH are not understood. Its potential as an ontogenetic marker of developmental stress in threatened species (as well as their ancient relatives) makes rLEH an important if enigmatic problem. We report research designed to show the periodicity of rLEH among West African Pan troglodytes (12 male, 32 female), Gorilla gorilla (10 male, 10 female), and Bornean and Sumatran Pongo pygmaeus (11 male, 9 female, 9 unknown) from collections in Europe. Two methods were employed. In the common chimpanzees and gorillas, the space between adjacent, macroscopically visible LEH grooves on teeth with two or more episodes was expressed as an absolute measure and as a ratio of complete unworn crown height. In the orangutans, the number of perikymata between episode onsets, as well as duration of rLEH, was determined from scanning electron micrographs of casts of incisors and canines. We conclude that stress in the form of LEH commences as early as 2.5 years of age in all taxa and lasts for several years, and even longer in orangutans; the stress is not chronic but episodic; the stressor has a strong tendency to occur in pulses of two occurrences each; and large apes from both land masses exhibit rLEH with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof; Sumatran orangutans seem to show only annual stress), but this needs further research. This is supported by evidence of spacing between rLEH as well as perikymata counts. Duration of stress in orangutans averages about 6 weeks. Finally, the semiannual stressor transcends geographic and temporal boundaries, and is attributed to regular moisture cycles associated with the intertropical convergence zone modified by the monsoon. While seasonal cycles can influence both disease and nutritional stress, it is likely the combination of

  5. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  6. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  7. Planum temporale grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet (Macaca radiata) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Heidi; Pierre, Peter; Bennett, Allyson J; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hopkins, William D

    2011-06-01

    Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl's gyrus and encompasses Wernicke's area, an important brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and the grey matter volume of the PT are larger in the left compared to right hemisphere, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we compared the grey matter volume and asymmetry of the PT in chimpanzees and three other species of nonhuman primate in two Genera including vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We show that the three monkey species do not show population-level asymmetries in this region whereas the chimpanzees do, suggesting that the evolutionary brain development that gave rise to PT asymmetry occurred after our split with the monkey species, but before our split with the chimpanzees.

  8. Development of adrenal cortical zonation and expression of key elements of adrenal androgen production in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Parker, C R; Grizzle, W E; Blevins, J K; Hawkes, K

    2014-04-25

    The basis for the pattern of adrenal androgen production in the chimpanzee, which resembles that of humans, is poorly defined. We characterized the developmental zonation and expression of elements of the androgen biosynthetic pathway in the chimpanzee adrenal. The newborn adrenal contained a broad fetal zone (FZ) expressing CYP17, SULT2A1, and Cytochrome B5 (CB5) but not HSD3B; the outer cortex expressed HSD3B but not SULT2A1 or CB5. During infancy, the FZ involuted and the HSD3B-expressing outer cortex broadened. By 3years of age, a thin layer of cells that expressed CB5, SULT2A1, and CYP17 adjoined the medulla and likely represented the zona reticularis; the outer cortex consisted of distinct zonae fasiculata and glomerulosa. Thereafter, the zona reticularis broadened as also occurs in the human. The adult chimpanzee adrenal displayed other human-like characteristics: intramedullary clusters of reticularis-like cells and also a cortical cuff of zona fasiculata-like cells adjoining the central vein.

  9. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  10. Blood Groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European Endangered Species Program, and Managed in situ Populations of Bonobo (Pan paniscus), Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.)

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Kathryn C.; Moyse, Jill A.; Lovstad, Jessica N.; Ober, Carole B.; Thompson, Emma E.

    2014-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes long have been considered similar although are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared to zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques and by genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and specifically the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient. PMID:20853409

  11. Use of leaves to inspect ectoparasites in wild chimpanzees: a third cultural variant?

    PubMed

    Assersohn, Clea; Whiten, Andrew; Kiwede, Zephyr T; Tinka, John; Karamagi, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    We report 26 cases of using leaves as tools with which wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda, appeared to inspect objects removed during grooming. Careful removal of potential ectoparasites and delicate lip or manual placement on leaves followed by intense visual examination characterised this behaviour. It appears to be done to judge whether either ingestion or discarding is most appropriate, the former occurring in most cases. This behaviour may represent a third variant of ectoparasite handling, different from those described at Tai and Gombe, yet sharing features with the latter. These two East African techniques may thus have evolved from leaf grooming.

  12. The Pan African E-Network Project: A New Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suniti, Nundoo-Ghoorah; Tara, Joyejob

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the paradigm shift in learning culture brought about by the advent of online learning in the mostly print-based ODL system at the Mauritius College of the Air (MCA). It delves into the perceptions of learners and MCA staff involved in a range of undergraduate to Master's programmes forming part of the Pan African…

  13. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. ); Brown, W.M. ); Honeycutt, R.L. )

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  14. What limits tool use in nonhuman primates? Insights from tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) aligning three-dimensional objects to a surface

    PubMed Central

    la Cour, L. T.; Stone, B. W.; Hopkins, W.; Menzel, C.; Fragaszy, D.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptuomotor functions that support using hand tools can be examined in other manipulation tasks, such as alignment of objects to surfaces. We examined tufted capuchin monkeys’ and chimpanzees’ performance at aligning objects to surfaces while managing one or two spatial relations to do so. We presented 6 subjects of each species with a single stick to place into a groove, two sticks of equal length to place into two grooves, or two sticks joined as a T to place into a T-shaped groove. Tufted capuchins and chimpanzees performed equivalently on these tasks, aligning the straight stick to within 22.5° of parallel to the groove in approximately half of their attempts to place it, and taking more attempts to place the T stick than two straight sticks. The findings provide strong evidence that tufted capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align even one prominent axial feature of an object to a surface, and that managing two concurrent allocentric spatial relations in an alignment problem is significantly more challenging to them than managing two sequential relations. In contrast, humans from two years of age display very different perceptuomotor abilities in a similar task: they align sticks to a groove reliably on each attempt, and they readily manage two allocentric spatial relations concurrently. Limitations in aligning objects and in managing two or more relations at a time significantly constrain how nonhuman primates can use hand tools. PMID:23820935

  15. How tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella spp) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) align objects to surfaces: Insights into spatial reasoning and implications for tool use

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M.; Stone, Brian; Scott, Nicole M.; Menzel, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses phylogenetic variation in a spatial skill that underlies tool use: aligning objects to a feature of a surface. Fragaszy and Cummins-Sebree’s [2005] model of relational spatial reasoning and Skill Development and Perception-Action theories guided the design of the study. We examined how capuchins and chimpanzees place stick objects of varying shapes into matching grooves on a flat surface. Although most individuals aligned the long axis of the object with the matching groove more often than expected by chance, all typically did so with poor precision. Some individuals managed to align a second feature, and only one (a capuchin monkey) achieved above-chance success at aligning three features with matching grooves. Our findings suggest that capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align objects along even one axis, and that neither species can reliably or easily master object placement tasks that require managing two or more spatial relations concurrently. Moreover, they did not systematically vary their behavior in a manner that would aid discovery of the affordances of the stick-surface combination beyond sliding the stick along the surface (which may have provided haptic information about the location of the groove). These limitations have profound consequences for the forms of tool use we can expect these individuals to master. PMID:21608008

  16. FIELD IMMOBILIATION FOR TREATMENT OF AN UNKNOWN ILLNESS IN A WILD CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) AT GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA: FINDINGS, CHALLENGES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Travis, Dominic; Ssuna, Richard; Lantz, Emma; Wilson, Michael; Gamble, Kathryn; Terio, Karen; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard; Keele, Brandon; Hahn, Beatrice; Gillespie, Thomas; Pond, Joel; Raphael, Jane; Collins, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are widely presumed to be one of the greatest threats to ape conservation in the wild. Human diseases are of particular concern and the costs and benefits of human presence in protected areas with apes are regularly debated. While numerous syndromes with fatal outcomes have recently been described, precise identification of pathogens remains difficult. These diagnostic difficulties are compounded by the fact that direct veterinary intervention on wild apes is quite rare. Here we present the unique case of a wild chimpanzee at Gombe National Park who was observed with a severe illness and was subsequently examined and treated in the field. Multiple specimens were collected and tested with the aim of identifying the pathogen responsible for the illness. Our findings represent the first extensive screening of a living wild chimpanzee, yet despite our efforts, the cause and source of illness remains unknown. Nevertheless, our findings represent valuable baseline data for the ape conservation community and for comparison with other recent findings. In addition, we present the case here to demonstrate the planning required and multiple types of expertise necessary to maximize the amount of data obtained from such a rare intervention, and to provide lessons learned for future studies. PMID:23872909

  17. Infectivity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of plasma collected before HCV RNA detectability by FDA-licensed assays: implications for transfusion safety and HCV infection outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Krishna K.; Kleinman, Steven H.; Hirschkorn, Dale F.; Herring, Belinda L.; Delwart, Eric L.; Racanelli, Vito; Yoon, Joo Chun; Rehermann, Barbara; Alter, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Serial plasma aliquots (50 mL) obtained from 10 commercial donors who converted from hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA negative to positive were transfused into 2 chimpanzees to assess infectivity during early HCV infection. Plasma, obtained 4 days before HCV RNA detectability by licensed assays, transmitted HCV infection to chimpanzee X355. The infectious PCR-negative plasma was subsequently shown to be positive in 2 of 23 replicates using a sensitive transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay, and estimated to contain 1.2 HCV RNA copies/mL (60 copies/50 mL transfused). Plasma units obtained up to 8 weeks earlier were not infectious in a second susceptible chimp, even when from donors with low-level, intermittent HCV RNA detection. Chimp x355 developed acute viremia with subsequent seroconversion, but cleared both virus and Ab in 17 weeks. When rechallenged 38 months later with 6000 RNA copies/mL from the same donor, X355 was transiently reinfected and again rapidly lost all HCV markers. We conclude that: (1) transfusions can transmit HCV infection before RNA detection, but the interval of test-negative infectivity is very brief; (2) early “blips” of HCV RNA appear noninfectious and can be ignored when calculating residual transfusion risk; and (3) markers of HCV infection can be lost rapidly after exposure to low-dose inocula. PMID:22498743

  18. Field immobilization for treatment of an unknown illness in a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania: findings, challenges, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Travis, Dominic; Ssuna, Richard; Lantz, Emma; Wilson, Michael; Gamble, Kathryn; Terio, Karen; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard; Keele, Brandon; Hahn, Beatrice; Gillespie, Thomas; Pond, Joel; Raphael, Jane; Collins, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are widely presumed to be one of the greatest threats to ape conservation in the wild. Human diseases are of particular concern, and the costs and benefits of human presence in protected areas with apes are regularly debated. While numerous syndromes with fatal outcomes have recently been described, precise identification of pathogens remains difficult. These diagnostic difficulties are compounded by the fact that direct veterinary intervention on wild apes is quite rare. Here we present the unique case of a wild chimpanzee at Gombe National Park that was observed with a severe illness and was subsequently examined and treated in the field. Multiple specimens were collected and tested with the aim of identifying the pathogen responsible for the illness. Our findings represent the first extensive screening of a living wild chimpanzee, yet despite our efforts, the cause and source of illness remain unknown. Nevertheless, our findings represent valuable baseline data for the ape conservation community and for comparison with other recent findings. In addition, we present the case here to demonstrate the planning required and multiple types of expertise necessary to maximize the amount of data obtained from such a rare intervention, and to provide lessons learned for future studies.

  19. The geology of the Matala Dome: an important piece of the Pan-African puzzle in Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, K. V.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Poterai, J.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Charlesworth, G.; Kramers, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    The Matala Dome (MD), an ENE-trending structure located at the junction between the Pan-African Lufilian and Zambezi belts, is cored by a Gneiss-Schist Unit with uncertain age overlain by a metasedimentary section (Quartzite-Schist Unit, Marble Unit and Carbonate-Siliciclastic Unit) of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Katanga Supergroup. The top of the Katangan stratigraphy is represented by synorogenic sedimentary rocks—Upper Siliciclastic Unit. An early event D1 resulted in the development of shallow-dipping metamorphic foliation S1 and pre- to syntectonic growth of garnet and kyanite in the schists of the Quartzite-Schist Unit. Pseudosections and garnet isopleth modelling on schist from this unit defined the peak metamorphism at P = 7.5-9.3 kbar and T = 620-700 °C. U-Pb detrital zircon dating revealed ca. 2.7 Ga source and a high-grade metamorphism during Pan-African times. The S1 foliation was affected by upright folding F2 with ENE-trending axes and associated subvertical crenulation fabric S2 development. The syn-D2 retrogression in the schists is marked by post-S1 staurolite crystallisation and further by chloritisation followed by sericitisation. The D2 event is interpreted to have exhumed the orogenic middle crust and to be responsible for the domal structure of the MD. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite at 529.3 ± 5.6 to 526.3 ± 6.2 is interpreted to date the exhumation event. D2 is correlated with regional N-S shortening event at ca. 530-520 Ma. Based on the lithology, structural record, and time and facies of the metamorphism, a correlation between the MD and the northern part of the Zambezi Belt is suggested.

  20. Structure, age, and regional significance of syntectonic augen gneisses in the Pan-African Zambezi belt, south-central Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.E.; Wilson, T.J.; Wardlaw, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Pan-African Zambezi belt in Zambia contains two major augen gneiss units that are elongated parallel to regional strike. These were previously regarded as slices of sialic basement structurally interleaved with Katangan metasedimentary rocks. New field and geochronologic evidence suggests that the gneisses are syntectonic granites intruded as large concordant sheets during main-phase (D/sub 1/) Pan-African deformation. A pervasive, horizontal or shallowly plunging mineral lineation on S/sub 1/ in the gneisses indicates that the parent granites were injected along major zones of transcurrent shear. The northern gneiss unit shows local discordant contacts against, and contains xenoliths of, adjacent Katangan rocks. Large, partly polygonized K-spar augen in the gneiss are wrapped around by S/sub 1/ and offset by microfractures antithetic to S/sub 1/. Finer grained granites intruding the gneiss are penetratively foliated to nondeformed, indicating that they were injected at various times relative to D/sub 1/. In the more intensely deformed southern gneiss unit, local pods of protomylonitic flaser gneiss grade into mylonites containing asymmetric K-spar augen set in a dynamically recrystallized matrix. U-Pb analyses of four fractions plus an air-abraded split of one fraction form a normal linear discordance pattern with an upper intercept of 820 +/- 7 Ma, taken as the age of igneous crystallization. Comparison with other available geochronologic data indicates that this age dates main-phase deformation in the Zambezi belt, and that deformation in the supposedly continuous Damaran belt to the SW was significantly younger.

  1. Structural and geochronological constraints on the Pan-African tectonic evolution of the northern Damara Belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Belyanin, George A.; Zwingmann, Horst; Charlesworth, Guy; Kinnaird, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The Pan-African Orogen formed by convergence of numerous continental blocks during the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian. This convergence eventually led to amalgamation of Gondwana, a supercontinent crosscut by a network of highly oblique linear orogenic belts that locally intersect each other, as in NW Namibia, where the NNW trending Kaoko Belt joins the NE trending Damara Belt. The northern Damara Belt has preserved well three regional Pan-African tectonic events due to the dominance of weak Neoproterozoic marine sediments (Damara Supergroup) that have been affected by low-grade metamorphism. A newly discovered early N-S horizontal contraction, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at ~590 Ma, is tentatively linked to convergence between the Congo and Kalahari cratons. This was superseded by collision between the Congo and Rio de la Plata cratons between 580 and 530 Ma that thickened and exhumed the orogenic crust of the Kaoko Belt and produce upper crustal N-S oriented folds of earlier fold trains and associated axial planar schistosities in the northern Damara Belt. A switch from E-W to NW-SE horizontal shortening occurred at ~530 Ma as a result of collision with the Kalahari Craton, triggering extensive syn-orogenic magmatism in the entire Damara Belt. During this last event, southward indentation and underthrusting of the Congo Craton promontory below the Neoproterozoic cover sequences produced a deformation front in the northern Damara Belt. Our results show that highly oblique convergent processes competed over a period of ~120 Ma to build Gondwana in Namibia during the late Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian.

  2. Late Precambrian alkaline plutons in southwest India: Geochronologic and rare-earth element constraints on Pan-African magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.; Iyer, S. S.; Vasconcellos, M. B. A.; Enzweiler, J.

    1989-12-01

    The Precambrian granulite facies terrain of southwestern India is intruded by a suite of alkali granite and syenite plutons. RbSr whole-rock isotope data for the Angadimogar syenite (AM) and the Peralimala alkali granite (PM), belonging to this suite, define isochron ages of 638 ± 28 and 750 ± 40 Ma, respectively, with initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratios of 0.7032 ± 0.0008 and 0.7031 ± 0.0008, respectively. These age data, together with data from previous studies, demonstrate long-lived magmatic activity in the time span from the late Proterozoic to the early Palaeozoic, broadly contemporaneous with Pan-African events in other fragments of the Gondwana supercontinent. REE patterns are reported for four plutons of this Pan-African alkali granite-syenite suite: Chengannoor (CR), Vellingiri (VL) and the two dated intrusions (AM and PM). CR and AM are characterised by high total REE, strongly LREE-enriched patterns with no Eu anomaly, associated with low Sr, Rb, U and Th. K 2O, {K2O }/{Na2O }, {K2O }/{MgO} and the agpaitic index are lower for these plutons as compared to the other two. The PM and VL intrusions have lower total REE and less strongly fractionated REE patterns, associated with high K 2O, {K2O }/{Na2O } and {K2O }/{MgO} ratios, high Sr and Rb levels, but low U and Th. The geochemical patterns in these rocks compare them well with A-type granites and their tectonic relations assign affinities to magmatism of within-plate type. The alkaline magmatism manifests an extensional phase associated with the pre-rift tectonics of the Indian continent within the Gondwana assemblage. A petrogenetic model is development for these plutons, involving decompression-induced melting of deep crustal source materials characterised by low initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} and high {K}/{Rb} ratios.

  3. On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos.

    PubMed

    Krief, Sabrina; Escalante, Ananias A; Pacheco, M Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; André, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F; Rénia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

    2010-02-12

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria.

  4. A new method of walking rehabilitation using cognitive tasks in an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with a disability: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hayashi, Misato

    2016-07-01

    There are few studies of long-term care and rehabilitation of animals which acquired physical disabilities in captivity, despite their importance for welfare. An adult male chimpanzee named Reo at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, developed acute myelitis, inflammation of the spinal cord, which resulted in impaired leg function. This report describes a walking rehabilitation system set up in a rehabilitation room where he lives. The rehabilitation apparatus consisted of a touch monitor presenting cognitive tasks and a feeder presenting food rewards at a distance of two meters from the monitor, to encourage him to walk between the monitor and the feeder repeatedly. Initially, Reo did not touch the monitor, therefore we needed adjustment of the apparatus and procedure. After the habituation to the monitor and cognitive tasks, he started to show behaviors of saving food rewards without walking, or stopping participation to the rehabilitation. Finally it took seven phases of the adjustment to determine the final setting; when the monitor automatically displayed trials in 4-h, AM (1000-1200 hours) and PM (1400-1600 hours) sessions through a day, Reo spontaneously walked from the monitor to the feeder to receive rewards, and returned to the monitor to perform the next trial. Comparison of Reo's locomotion in a no-task period and under the final setting revealed that the total travel distance increased from 136.7 to 506.3 m, movement patterns became multiple, and the percentage of walking increased from 1.2 to 27.2 % in PM session. The findings of this case study suggest that cognitive tasks may be a useful way to rehabilitate physically disabled chimpanzees, and thus improve their welfare in captivity. PMID:27150249

  5. A new method of walking rehabilitation using cognitive tasks in an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with a disability: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hayashi, Misato

    2016-07-01

    There are few studies of long-term care and rehabilitation of animals which acquired physical disabilities in captivity, despite their importance for welfare. An adult male chimpanzee named Reo at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, developed acute myelitis, inflammation of the spinal cord, which resulted in impaired leg function. This report describes a walking rehabilitation system set up in a rehabilitation room where he lives. The rehabilitation apparatus consisted of a touch monitor presenting cognitive tasks and a feeder presenting food rewards at a distance of two meters from the monitor, to encourage him to walk between the monitor and the feeder repeatedly. Initially, Reo did not touch the monitor, therefore we needed adjustment of the apparatus and procedure. After the habituation to the monitor and cognitive tasks, he started to show behaviors of saving food rewards without walking, or stopping participation to the rehabilitation. Finally it took seven phases of the adjustment to determine the final setting; when the monitor automatically displayed trials in 4-h, AM (1000-1200 hours) and PM (1400-1600 hours) sessions through a day, Reo spontaneously walked from the monitor to the feeder to receive rewards, and returned to the monitor to perform the next trial. Comparison of Reo's locomotion in a no-task period and under the final setting revealed that the total travel distance increased from 136.7 to 506.3 m, movement patterns became multiple, and the percentage of walking increased from 1.2 to 27.2 % in PM session. The findings of this case study suggest that cognitive tasks may be a useful way to rehabilitate physically disabled chimpanzees, and thus improve their welfare in captivity.

  6. Screening of the Pan-African Natural Product Library Identifies Ixoratannin A-2 and Boldine as Novel HIV-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A.; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva’a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Rice, Charles M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world. PMID:25830320

  7. Screening of the Pan-African natural product library identifies ixoratannin A-2 and boldine as novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva'a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M; Rice, Charles M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world.

  8. Seeing History: Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" Painting and Pan-African Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Maureen G.

    2010-01-01

    Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" (2004) is an acrylic painting that depicts 24 portraits of leading poets of the African Diaspora. Commissioned by Dr Joanne Gabbin, English professor and director of the Furious Flower Poetry Center at James Madison University, the painting is part of a larger programme of poetry education. The…

  9. Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Victoria; Carter, J. Devyn; Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of human and primate altruism faces an evolutionary anomaly: There is ample evidence for altruistic preferences in our own species and growing evidence in monkeys, but one of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is viewed as a reluctant altruist, acting only in response to pressure and solicitation. Although chimpanzee prosocial behavior has been reported both in observational captive studies and in the wild, thus far Prosocial Choice Tests have failed to produce evidence. However, methodologies of previous Prosocial Choice Tests may have handicapped the apes unintentionally. Here we present findings of a paradigm in which chimpanzees chose between two differently colored tokens: one “selfish” token resulting in a reward for the actor only (1/0), and the other “prosocial” token rewarding both the actor and a partner (1/1). Seven female chimpanzees, each tested with three different partners, showed a significant bias for the prosocial option. Prosocial choices occurred both in response to solicitation by the partner and spontaneously without solicitation. However, directed requests and pressure by the partner reduced the actor's prosocial tendency. These results draw into question previous conclusions indicating that chimpanzees have a limited sensitivity to the needs of others and behave prosocially only in response to significant prompting. PMID:21825175

  10. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  11. Southern African continental climate since the late Pleistocene: Insights from biomarker analyses of Kalahari salt pan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The climate system of sub-tropical southern Africa is mainly controlled by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. This underlines the importance of paleoenvironmental reconstructions in order to estimate regional implications of current global changes. However, the majority of studies on southern African paleoclimate are based on the investigation of marine sedimentary archives and past climate development especially in continental areas is still poorly understood. This emphasizes the necessity of continental proxy-data from this area. Proxy datasets from local geoarchives especially of the southwestern Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. An age model based on 14C dating of total organic carbon (TOC) shows evidence that sedimentation predominates over erosional processes with respect to pan formation. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13CTOC, total inorganic carbon, δ13CTIC, δ18OTIC, total nitrogen and δ15N, our paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Results show prominent shifts in n-alkane and n-alkanol distributions and compound specific carbon isotope values, pointing to changes to a more grass dominated environment during Heinrich Stadial 1 (18.5-14.6 ka BP), while hydrogen isotope values suggest wetter phases during Holocene and LGM. This high variability indicates the local vulnerability to global change.

  12. Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, Kimberley J.; Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Carvalho, Susana; Fujisawa, Michiko; Humle, Tatyana; McGrew, William C.; Nakamura, Miho; Ohashi, Gaku; Yamanashi, Yumi; Yamakoshi, Gen; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, from 1995 to 2012. Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology—a leafy tool—to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol. PMID:26543588

  13. Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Carvalho, Susana; Fujisawa, Michiko; Humle, Tatyana; McGrew, William C; Nakamura, Miho; Ohashi, Gaku; Yamanashi, Yumi; Yamakoshi, Gen; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-06-01

    African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, from 1995 to 2012. Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology-a leafy tool-to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol. PMID:26543588

  14. Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i) it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii) it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii) it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions. PMID:22838941

  15. Derivation of detrital rutile in the Yaoundé region from the Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt in southern Cameroon (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendal, Henrik; Toteu, Sadrack Félix; Frei, Robert; Penaye, Joseph; Njel, Urbain Olivier; Bassahak, Jean; Nni, Jean; Kankeu, Boniface; Ngako, Vincent; Hell, Joseph Victor

    2006-04-01

    Rutile, as an important component in alluvial or eluvial heavy mineral deposits, is known in southern Cameroon. These deposits are underlain by the Neoproterozoic low- to high-grade Yaoundé Group. Geochemical, thermometric, fluid inclusion and Pb isotopic studies of the rutile from alluvial and eluvial concentrates and from medium-grade micaschist from the nearby Yaoundé region permit the following conclusions: (1) alluvial and eluvial rutile of the Yaoundé region are derived from the degradation of metapelites, metamafic rocks and pegmatites of the nearby Yaoundé Group; (2) rutile in the Yaoundé Group formed during the Pan-African metamorphism, or was inherited as detrital rutile from a ˜900 Ma source. The study also shows that the rutile can be used to trace the history of the Pan-African belt north of the Congo craton.

  16. Trace element enrichment in off-craton peridotites: comparison of off-craton Proterozoic and Pan-African mantle beneath southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Trace element abundances in constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite from off-craton mantle beneath the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal belt (South Africa) and in clinopyroxene and amphibole from the Pan African Damara belt (Namibia) have been determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. Chondrite normalised rare earth element abundances in clinopyroxenes show a wide range of patterns from LREE depleted, through sinusoidal patterns to strongly LREE enriched. In garnets, the patterns range from strongly LREE depleted with flat HREE, through sinusoidal patterns to 'humped' sinusoidal patterns. Numerical modelling shows that the range of REE enrichment patterns can be generated via reactive porous flow mechanisms involving an alkaline silicate melt and where, in the Proterozoic mantle, there is a high fluid/solid ratio (i.e. all clinopyroxene and garnet are products of modal metasomatism and/or near fully equilibrated with a metasomatic fluid). In contrast, clinopyroxene in the Pan African mantle shows evidence for cryptic metasomatism, where enrichment of pre-existing clinopyroxene by alkaline silicate melts has occurred at the distal regions of an advancing metasomatic front. Extreme fluid/melt compositions are not required to account for the enrichment patterns Numerical modelling of primitive mantle normalised trace element abundances in clinopyroxenes show that the commonly observed strong relative depletions in Nb-Ta and Rb-Ba present in clinopyroxenes can be accounted for by crystallisation of accessory phlogopite (in Proterozoic mantle) and amphibole (in Pan African mantle) from the metasomatising melt/fluid. In contrast, strong relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes in both Proterozoic and Pan African mantle regions requires either metasomatic crystallisation of zircon, or involvement of a carbonatitic melt as metasomatic agent. Trace element enrichment patterns seen in clinopyroxene and garnet in the Proterozoic off-craton regions of southern Africa

  17. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M.; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-01-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  18. Emplacement and deformation of the Fomopéa pluton: Implication for the Pan-African history of Western Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njanko, T.; Nédélec, A.; Kwékam, M.; Siqueira, R.; Esteban, L.

    2010-03-01

    The Fomopéa pluton (622-613 Ma) is located in the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon. It comprises of 3 units: biotite-hornblende granitoids (BHG), biotite monzogranites (BmG) and edenite syenogranites (EsG). The BHG unit displays magnetic fabrics characterized by foliations gently dipping towards the ESE and ENE-trending lineations (D1 event). Microstructures are magmatic to submagmatic. In discrete N-S deformation bands (D2), lineations are rotated towards the North and microstructures indicate solid-state deformation at mid- to low-T conditions, with kinematic indicators pointing to a sinistral motion. The second unit, BmG, displays lineation trajectories suggesting emplacement during the D2 event. The EsG unit displays fabrics consistent with a later emplacement, with no superposed deformation. The last event (D3) corresponds to a dextral shear zone, that runs along the southeastern border of the Fomopéa pluton. It was responsible for protomylonitic deformation of the granitic rocks in greenschist facies conditions, whereas the core of the shear zone registered higher temperatures and strain. This shear zone induced a rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr isotopic system in the pluton at ca 572 Ma. It belongs to the Central Cameroon shear zone system, regarded as the prolongation of the dextral Patos shear zone system in Brazil.

  19. Thermal history of the Pan-African/Brasiliano Borborema Province of northeast Brazil deduced from 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; de Figueiredo, L. Lambert; Caby, R.; Féraud, G.; Ruffet, G.; Vauchez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Detailed step heating 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were performed on different minerals from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Borborema Province. This region, located in northeast Brazil, belongs to the Pan-African/Brasiliano belt which is about 1000 km wide and 600 km long. Twenty-six single grains of amphibole, muscovite and biotite were extracted from eighteen samples selected in an area of about 17,500 km 2 (250 km by 70 km) in the Patos region. This region has been affected by a continental-scale shear zone system. Well-defined 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages and an U sbnd Pb analysis on zircon [Leterrier, J., Jardim de Sà, E.F, Bertrand, J.M. and Pin, C., 1994. Ages U sbnd Pb sur zircon de granitoïdes brasilianos de la ceinture du Serido (Province Borborema, NE brésil). C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 318: 1505-1511] allow the definition of a homogeneous and unusual slow cooling history (3-4°C/Ma) and suggest a rather slow uplift rate between 580 and 500 Ma, followed by a fast cooling of the whole studied area around 500 Ma. Rapid cooling is suggested by concordant plateau ages on muscovite and biotite. The existence of such an event at the end of the belt history is in agreement with data obtained on other major belts such as the Alpine-Himalayan system or the Hercynian belt.

  20. Geochemistry of basement rocks from SE Kenya and NE Tanzania: indications for rifting and early Pan-African subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauernhofer, A. H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Wallbrecher, E.; Muhongo, S.; Hoinkes, G.; Mogessie, A.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Tenczer, V.

    2009-12-01

    Amphibolites and orthogneisses from the Taita Hills-Galana River area (SE Kenya) indicate their broad geological-tectonic setting. There are groups of subduction-related rocks which show characteristic REE (rare earth element) patterns and enrichment or varying concentrations of HFS (high field strength) elements. The groups can be assigned to tectonostratigraphic domains marked by different structural styles (e.g., thrust- or strike slip dominated). Tholeiitic gneisses, often emerging as folded and isolated (ridge-shaped) leucocratic bodies, belong to a group of rocks located between the thrust- and strike-slip domain. Compared to calc-alkaline gneisses of the area they contain more mafic inclusions and have lower LIL (large ionic lithophile), HFS and light REE values. These gneisses have chemical characteristics of M-type granitoids of oceanic island arc signature. Intrusion ages of ~955-845 Ma determined for these rocks suggest early Pan-African subduction. Mafic to ultramafic rocks from the Pare mountains of NE Tanzania show evidence of ophiolitic cumulates, subduction settings were also observed for the granulite areas in central and southern Tanzania. Together with the widespread arc settings documented in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the presented data supports the continuation of an island-continental arc range across Kenya-Tanzania to Mozambique.

  1. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-02-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  2. Kibaran magmatism and Pan-African granulite metamorphism in northern Mozambique: single zircon ages and regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, A.; Sacchi, R.; Jaeckel, P.; Costa, M.

    1997-10-01

    Single zircons from granitoid orthogneisses in the foreland of the Lurio Belt of northern' Mozambique were dated by the evaporation method and yielded 207Pb/ 206Pb magmatic emplacement ages between 1040.1 ±0.4 and 1148.2±0.4 Ma. These data confirm previous RbSr whole rock and SHRIMP zircon analyses and record a period of magmatic activity corresponding to the Kibaran event of east central Africa. A1300 Ma old zircon xenocryst in one sample suggests the presence of still older crust in the region. Metamorphic zircons from a granulite-facies psammopelitic gneiss of the Mugeba klippe, which is derived tectonically from the Lurio Belt, were dated by evaporation, conventional techniques and SHRIMP at ˜615 Ma. This us interpreted as reflecting the peak of high-grade metamorphism in this rock and, by implication, in the Lurio Belt. It is concluded from this that the main metamorphism in the basement of northern Mozambique occured in Pan-African times, as is the case in adjacent regions of Tanzania and Malawi, and that this may be the result of collision between East and West Gondwana

  3. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-02-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet.

  4. Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: Implication for the continuation of the East African Rift System in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in Southern Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the

  5. Gene flow in wild chimpanzee populations: what genetic data tell us about chimpanzee movement over space and time.

    PubMed

    Gagneux, P; Gonder, M K; Goldberg, T L; Morin, P A

    2001-06-29

    The isolation of phylogenetically distinct primate immunodeficiency viruses from at least seven wild-born, captive chimpanzees indicates that viruses closely related to HIV-1 may be endemic in some wild chimpanzee populations. The search for the chimpanzee population or populations harbouring these viruses is therefore on. This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not such populations of chimpanzees are likely to exist at all, and, if so, where they are likely to be found. We summarize what is known about gene flow in wild populations of chimpanzees, both between major phylogeographical subdivisions of the species, and within these subdivisions. Our analysis indicates that hitherto undocumented reproductively isolated chimpanzee populations may in fact exist. This conclusion is based on the observation that, despite limited geographical sampling and limited numbers of genetic loci, conventional notions of the nature and extent of chimpanzee gene flow have recently been substantially revised. Molecular genetic studies using mitochondrial DNA sequences and hypervariable nuclear microsatellite markers have indicated the existence of heretofore undocumented barriers to chimpanzee gene flow. These studies have identified at least one population of chimpanzees genetically distinct enough to be classified into a new subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus). At the same time, they have called into question the long-accepted genetic distinction between eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and western equatorial chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). The same studies have further indicated that gene flow between local populations is more extensive than was previously thought, and follows patterns sometimes inconsistent with those documented through direct behavioural observation. Given the apparently incomplete nature of the current understanding of chimpanzee gene flow in equatorial Africa, it seems reasonable to speculate that a chimpanzee

  6. Prospective Memory in Children and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Gonsiorowski, Anna; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something at a specific time in the future. Here we investigate the beginnings of this ability in young children (3-year-olds; Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using an analogous task. Subjects were given a choice between two toys (children) or two food items (chimpanzees). The selected item was delivered immediately, whereas the unselected item was hidden in an opaque container. After completing an ongoing quantity discrimination task, subjects could request the hidden item by asking for it (children) or by pointing to the container and identifying the item on a symbol board (chimpanzees). Children and chimpanzees showed evidence of prospective-like memory in this task, as evidenced by successful retrieval of the item at the end of the task, sometimes spontaneously with no prompting from the experimenter. These findings contribute to our understanding of prospective memory from an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. PMID:23884791

  7. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Caught Chimpanzees from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nerrienet, Eric; Santiago, Mario L.; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bailes, Elizabeth; Mundy, Nicolas I.; Njinku, Bernadette; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz) infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in west central Africa are the closest relatives to all major variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ([HIV-1]; groups M, N and O), and have thus been implicated as the source of the human infections; however, information concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and subspecies association of SIVcpz still remains limited. In this study, we tested 71 wild-caught chimpanzees from Cameroon for evidence of SIVcpz infection. Thirty-nine of these were of the central subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), and 32 were of the Nigerian subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus), as determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Serological analysis determined that one P. t. troglodytes ape (CAM13) harbored serum antibodies that cross-reacted strongly with HIV-1 antigens; all other apes were seronegative. To characterize the newly identified virus, 14 partially overlapping viral fragments were amplified from fecal virion RNA and concatenated to yield a complete SIVcpz genome (9,284 bp). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SIVcpzCAM13 fell well within the radiation of the SIVcpzPtt group of viruses, as part of a clade including all other SIVcpzPtt strains as well as HIV-1 groups M and N. However, SIVcpzCAM13 clustered most closely with SIVcpzGAB1 from Gabon rather than with SIVcpzCAM3 and SIVcpzCAM5 from Cameroon, indicating the existence of divergent SIVcpzPtt lineages within the same geographic region. These data, together with evidence of recombination among ancestral SIVcpzPtt lineages, indicate long-standing endemic infection of central chimpanzees and reaffirm a west central African origin of HIV-1. Whether P. t. vellerosus apes are naturally infected with SIVcpz requires further study. PMID:15613358

  8. Seasonal Effects on Great Ape Health: A Case Study of Wild Chimpanzees and Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Chauffour, Sophie; Bain, Odile; Todd, Angelique; Guillot, Jacques; Krief, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples) of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals) of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda), and a western gorilla (G. gorilla) group (N = 13) in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic). Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July–December 2006; gorillas: April–July 2008 and December 2008–February 2009). Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load), but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes) having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  9. 'Friendship' for fitness in chimpanzees?

    PubMed

    Hemelrijk; Meier; Martin

    1999-12-01

    It has been repeatedly suggested that primates trade social services for fitness benefits in their relationships with the opposite sex. We tested this proposal in a colony of captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, by examining behavioural data on grooming, agonistic support and food sharing in relation to genetically established paternity. We found no support for the notion of trade. First, males did not sire more offspring with females that they actively groomed more frequently, that they supported more often or with which they shared food more frequently. Correspondingly, females did not give birth to more offspring sired by males from which they received more services. Second, males that showed more affiliative behaviour towards females in general did not sire more progeny. Furthermore, females did not bear more offspring sired by males to which they themselves directed more sociopositive behaviour. Results from this captive colony are compatible with those reported for chimpanzees under natural conditions. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Competing for space: female chimpanzees are more aggressive inside than outside their core areas.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jordan A; Pusey, Anne E; Gilby, Ian C; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2014-01-01

    Female space use can have important fitness consequences, which are likely due to differential access to food resources. Many studies have explored spatial competition in solitary species, but little is known about how individuals in social species compete over shared space. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of aggression among female East African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. This species provides an excellent opportunity to study spatial competition since (1) female chimpanzees occupy overlapping core areas (small areas of the community range in which individuals concentrate their space use) and (2) female core area quality is correlated with reproductive success, suggesting that females compete over long-term access to core areas. Here, we examine how female aggression towards other females varies inside and outside individual female core areas during a 14-year period at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Overall, females showed higher rates of aggression inside than outside their own core areas. This pattern was driven by spatial variation in aggression in nonfeeding contexts. While food-related aggression did not vary spatially, females were more aggressive in nonfeeding contexts inside their core areas than they were outside their core areas. These results suggest that female chimpanzees follow a mixed strategy in which they compete for long-term access to resources in their core areas as well as for immediate access to food throughout the community range.

  11. Competing for space: female chimpanzees are more aggressive inside than outside their core areas

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan A.; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Markham, A. Catherine; Murray, Carson M.

    2013-01-01

    Female space use can have important fitness consequences, which are likely due to differential access to food resources. Many studies have explored spatial competition in solitary species, but little is known about how individuals in social species compete over shared space. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of aggression among female East African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. This species provides an excellent opportunity to study spatial competition since (1) female chimpanzees occupy overlapping core areas (small areas of the community range in which individuals concentrate their space use) and (2) female core area quality is correlated with reproductive success, suggesting that females compete over long-term access to core areas. Here, we examine how female aggression towards other females varies inside and outside individual female core areas during a 14-year period at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Overall, females showed higher rates of aggression inside than outside their own core areas. This pattern was driven by spatial variation in aggression in nonfeeding contexts. While food-related aggression did not vary spatially, females were more aggressive in nonfeeding contexts inside their core areas than they were outside their core areas. These results suggest that female chimpanzees follow a mixed strategy in which they compete for long-term access to resources in their core areas as well as for immediate access to food throughout the community range. PMID:24436495

  12. Can chimpanzee biology highlight human origin and evolution?

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-07-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily "Homininae". This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human-chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine's subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  13. Can chimpanzee biology highlight human origin and evolution?

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-07-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily "Homininae". This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human-chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine's subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  14. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  15. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 °C.km- 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  16. Chimpanzees are vengeful but not spiteful.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-08-01

    People are willing to punish others at a personal cost, and this apparently antisocial tendency can stabilize cooperation. What motivates humans to punish noncooperators is likely a combination of aversion to both unfair outcomes and unfair intentions. Here we report a pair of studies in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) did not inflict costs on conspecifics by knocking food away if the outcome alone was personally disadvantageous but did retaliate against conspecifics who actually stole the food from them. Like humans, chimpanzees retaliate against personally harmful actions, but unlike humans, they are indifferent to simply personally disadvantageous outcomes and are therefore not spiteful.

  17. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat

  18. The Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline peraluminous Elat granite from southern Israel: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, M.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Katzir, Y.; Zanvilevich, A. N.

    2004-10-01

    Calc-alkaline leucocratic granites that were emplaced at the late post-collision stage of the Pan-African orogeny are abundant in the northern half of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Commonly, they are referred to as the Younger Granite II suite. In southern Israel such rocks are known as Elat granite. Studies of these rocks enable to recognize two types of granites: coarse-grained, massive Elat granite (EG), and fine- to medium-grained Shahmon gneissic granite (SGG). Both granite types are high-K and peraluminous ( ASI ranges from 1.03 to 1.16). They are similar in modal composition, mineral and whole-rock chemistry. Within the EG, a noticeable distinction in whole-rock chemistry and mineral composition is observed between rocks making up different plutons. In particular, the granite of Wadi Shelomo, as compared to the Rehavam pluton, is enriched in SiO 2, FeO∗, K 2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and impoverished in MgO, Na 2O, Sr, and HREE. The Eu/Eu∗ values in the granite are low, up to 0.44. Mass-balance calculations suggest that chemical and mineralogical variations were caused by fractionation of ˜16 wt.% plagioclase from the parental Rehavam granite magma at temperature of 760-800 °C (muscovite-biotite geothermometer). The Rb-Sr isochrons yielded a date of 623 ± 24 Ma for the EG, although high value of age-error does not allow to constrain time of emplacement properly. The Rb-Sr date for SGG is 640 ± 9 Ma; however, it is likely that this date points to the time of metamorphism. A survey of the literature shows that peraluminous, high-K granites, similar to the EG, are abundant among the Younger Granite II plutons in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, Egypt. They were emplaced at the end of the batholithic (late post-collision) stage. The most appropriate model for the generation of the peraluminous granitic magma is partial melting of metapelite and metagreywacke.

  19. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  20. Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2007-04-01

    With the exception of humans, chimpanzees show the most diverse and complex tool-using repertoires of all extant species. Specific tool repertoires differ between wild chimpanzee populations, but no apparent genetic or environmental factors have emerged as definitive forces shaping variation between populations. However, identification of such patterns has likely been hindered by a lack of information from chimpanzee taxa residing in central Africa. We report our observations of the technological system of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, located in the Republic of Congo, which is the first study to compile a complete tool repertoire from the Lower Guinean subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Between 1999 and 2006, we documented the tool use of chimpanzees by direct observations, remote video monitoring, and collections of tool assemblages. We observed 22 different types of tool behavior, almost half of which were habitual (shown repeatedly by several individuals) or customary (shown by most members of at least one age-sex class). Several behaviors considered universals among chimpanzees were confirmed in this population, but we also report the first observations of known individuals using tools to perforate termite nests, puncture termite nests, pound for honey, and use leafy twigs for rain cover. Tool behavior in this chimpanzee population ranged from simple tasks to hierarchical sequences. We report three different tool sets and a high degree of tool-material selectivity for particular tasks, which are otherwise rare in wild chimpanzees. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle are shown to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported in wild chimpanzee populations. We highlight new insights from this chimpanzee population to our understanding of ape technological systems and evolutionary models of tool-using behavior.

  1. Different selective pressures shape the molecular evolution of color vision in chimpanzee and human populations.

    PubMed

    Verrelli, Brian C; Lewis, Cecil M; Stone, Anne C; Perry, George H

    2008-12-01

    A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, "red") color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with balancing selection, it has been argued that a recombination "hot spot" or gene conversion within and between X-linked color vision genes alone may explain these patterns. The current analysis investigates a closely related primate with trichromatism to determine whether color vision gene amino acid polymorphism and signatures of adaptive evolution are characteristic of humans alone. Our population sample of 56 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) OPN1LW sequences shows three singleton amino acid polymorphisms and no unusual recombination or linkage disequilibrium patterns across the approximately 5.5-kb region analyzed. Our comparative population genetic approach shows that the patterns of OPN1LW variation in humans and chimpanzees are consistent with positive and purifying selection within the two lineages, respectively. Although the complex role of color vision has been greatly documented in primate evolution in general, it is surprising that trichromatism has followed very different selective trajectories even between humans and our closest relatives.

  2. Pan-African metamorphic evolution in the southern Yaounde Group (Oubanguide Complex, Cameroon) as revealed by EMP-monazite dating and thermobarometry of garnet metapelites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owona, Sebastien; Schulz, Bernhard; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Mvondo Ondoa, Joseph; Ekodeck, Georges E.; Tchoua, Félix M.; Affaton, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Garnet-bearing micaschists and paragneisses of the Yaounde Group in the Pan-African Central African Orogenic Belt in Cameroon underwent a polyphase structural evolution with the deformation stages D 1-D 2, D 3 and D 4. The garnet-bearing assemblages crystallized in course of the deformation stage D 1-D 2 which led to the formation of the regional main foliation S 2. In XCa- XMg coordinates one can distinguish several zonation trends in the garnet porphyroblasts. Zonation trends with increasing XMg and variably decreasing XCa signalize a garnet growth during prograde metamorphism. Intermineral microstructures provided criteria for local equilibria and a structurally controlled application of geothermobarometers based on cation exchange and net transfer reactions. The syndeformational P- T path sections calculated from cores and rims of garnets in individual samples partly overlap and align along clockwise P- T trends. The P- T evolution started at ˜450 °C/7 kbar, passed high-pressure conditions at 11-12 kbar at variable temperatures (600-700 °C) and involved a marked decompression toward 6-7 kbar at high temperatures (700-750 °C). Th-U-Pb dating of metamorphic monazite by electron microprobe (EMP-CHIME method) in eight samples revealed a single period of crystallization between 613 ± 33 Ma and 586 ± 15 Ma. The EMP-monazite age populations between 613 ± 33 Ma enclosed in garnet and 605 ± 12 Ma in the matrix apparently bracket the high temperature-intermediate pressure stage at the end of the prograde P- T path. The younger monazites crystallized still at amphibolite-facies conditions during subsequent retrogression. The Pan-African overall clockwise P- T evolution in the Yaounde Group with its syndeformational high pressure stages and marked pressure variations is typical of the parts of orogens which underwent contractional crustal thickening by stacking of nappe units during continental collision and/or during subduction-related accretionary processes.

  3. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  4. Pre-collisional geodynamic context of the southern margin of the Pan-African fold belt in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkoumbou, C.; Barbey, P.; Yonta-Ngouné, C.; Paquette, J. L.; Villiéras, F.

    2014-11-01

    We reassess the geodynamic context close to the Congo craton during the pre-collisional period of the Pan-African orogeny from whole-rock major and trace element compositions and isotopic data obtained in the westward extension of the Yaounde series (Boumnyebel area, Cameroon). The series consists of metasediments (micaschists, minor calc-silicate rocks and marbles) and meta-igneous rocks (hornblende gneisses, amphibolites, metagabbros, pyroxenites and talcschists) recrystallized under high-pressure conditions. Chemically, the micaschists correspond to shales and greywackes similar to the Yaounde high-grade gneisses. 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7084-0.7134), moderately negative εNd(620 Ma) values (-5.75 to -7.81), Nd model ages (1.66 < TDM < 1.74 Ga) and radiometric ages point to the conclusion that the Yaounde basin was filled with siliciclastic sediments derived from both reworked older continental crust (Palaeoproterozoic to Archaean in age) and Neoproterozoic juvenile volcanogenic material. This occurred in the same time span (625-1100 Ma) as the deposition of the Lower Dja, Yokadouma, Nola and Mintom series (Tonian-Cryogenian). Dolomitic marble associated with mafic/ultramafic rocks and characterized by high Cr (854-1371 ppm) and Ni (517-875 ppm) contents, are considered to result from chemical precipitation in relation with submarine magmatic activity. Talcschists (orthopyroxenitic to harzburgitic in composition) show primitive-mantle-normalized multi-element patterns with significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and slopes similar to that of average metasomatically altered lithospheric mantle. These rocks could be mantle slices involved in the collision tectonics. Amphibolites show the compositions of island-arc basalts with systematic negative Nb-Ta anomalies, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios mostly <0.7047 and positive εNd(620 Ma) values (+1.41 to +6.58). They are considered to be the expression of incipient oceanisation to the north of the Congo craton during the

  5. Amplification of a Complete Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Genome from Fecal RNA of a Wild Chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Kamenya, Shadrack; Muller, Martin N.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is incomplete since few isolates, mostly from captive apes from Cameroon and Gabon, have been characterized; yet this information is critical for understanding the origins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the circumstances leading to the HIV-1 pandemic. Here, we report the first full-length SIVcpz sequence (TAN1) from a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Gombe National Park (Tanzania), which was obtained noninvasively by amplification of virion RNA from fecal samples collected under field conditions. Using reverse transcription-PCR and a combination of generic and strain-specific primers, we amplified 13 subgenomic fragments which together spanned the entire TAN1 genome (9,326 bp). Distance and phylogenetic tree analyses identified TAN1 unambiguously as a member of the HIV-1/SIVcpz group of viruses but also revealed an extraordinary degree of divergence from all previously characterized SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains. In Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, TAN1 differed from west-central African SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains on average by 36, 30, and 51% of amino acid sequences, respectively, approaching distance values typically found for SIVs from different primate species. The closest relative was SIVcpzANT, also from a P. t. schweinfurthii ape, which differed by 30, 25, and 44%, respectively, in these same protein sequences but clustered with TAN1 in all major coding regions in a statistically highly significant manner. These data indicate that east African chimpanzees, like those from west-central Africa, are naturally infected by SIVcpz but that their viruses comprise a second, divergent SIVcpz lineage which appears to have evolved in relative isolation for an extended period of time. Our data also demonstrate that noninvasive molecular epidemiological studies of SIVcpz in wild chimpanzees are feasible and that

  6. Geochronology and geochemistry of Late Pan-African intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China: Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wen-chun; Zhao, Guo-chun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui; Yu, Jie-jiang; Zhang, Yan-long

    2014-11-01

    To constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block and its relationship to the Late Pan-African event in Gondwana, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, and Hf isotopic compositions) of early Paleozoic intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data demonstrate that these intrusive rocks were emplaced at three stages during the Late Pan-African event, represented by ~ 540 Ma syenogranite, ~ 515 Ma quartz syenite, and ~ 500 Ma monzogranite and gabbro. Geochemically, the ~ 500 Ma gabbros in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block have low SiO2 (50.26-51.21 wt.%), relatively high MgO (4.08-5.67 wt.%), Ni (13.1-14.1 ppm) and Cr (28.4-56.0 ppm), and are slightly enriched in LILEs (e.g., Ba, K) and LREEs, and depleted in Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and P. The εHf(t) values of zircons in the gabbro range from + 2.6 to + 6.4. All these geochemical features indicate that the gabbros were likely produced by the partial melting of a depleted mantle that had been metasomatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. In contrast, the ca.540-500 Ma granites and quartz syenites contain high SiO2 (64.49-72.20 wt.%) and low MgO (0.40-0.75 wt.%), Cr (1.69-6.88 ppm) and Ni (1.26-3.26 ppm). They have relatively low 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.282247-0.282599 with Hf two-stage model ages of 1173-2280 Ma, and most of the magmatic zircons have positive εHf(t) values varying from + 0.2 - + 4.8, indicating that these granites and quartz syenites were probably derived from a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic "old" crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials. According to the geochemical data and global geological investigations, we propose that the 541-498 Ma intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block formed in a post-collisional or post-orogenic extensional setting linked to the collapse of a Late Pan-African orogen associated within the Gondwana.

  7. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent

  8. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G

    2014-03-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.

  9. The Development of Representational Play in Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Evolutionary Implications, Pretense, and the Role of Interspecies Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyn, Heidi; Greenfield, Patricia; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the development of symbolic or representational play in two species of the genus "Pan", bonobos ("Pan paniscus") and chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"). The participants varied not only by species, but also as to whether they had become proficient in communicating with humans via a set of arbitrary visual symbols, called…

  10. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of climate change represent a major threat to sustainable development and growth in Southern Africa. Understanding the impact on the geo- and biosphere is therefore of great importance in this particular region. In this context the Kalahari salt pans (also known as playas or sabkhas) and their peripheral saline and alkaline habitats are an ecosystem of major interest. They are very sensitive to environmental conditions, and as thus hydrological, mineralogical and ecological responses to climatic variations can be analysed. Up to now the soil composition of salt pans in this area have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale. Furthermore, the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. High spectral resolution remote sensing can estimate evaporite content and mineralogy of soils based on the analyses of the surface reflectance properties within the Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR 400-1000 nm) and Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR 1000-2500 nm) regions. In these wavelength regions major chemical components of the soil interact with the electromagnetic radiation and produce characteristic absorption features that can be used to derive the properties of interest. Although such techniques are well established for the laboratory and field scale, the potential of current (Hyperion) and upcoming spaceborne sensors such as EnMAP for quantitative mineralogical and salt spectral mapping is still to be demonstrated. Combined with hyperspectral methods, multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent dynamic of these salt pans and link the mineralogical analysis of the pan surface to major physical processes in these dryland environments. In this study we focus on the analyses of the Namibian Omongwa salt pans based on satellite hyperspectral imagery and multispectral time-series data. First, a change detection analysis is applied using the Iterative

  11. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning.

  12. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  13. Synkinematic high-K calc-alkaline plutons associated with the Pan-African Central Cameroon shear zone (W-Tibati area): Petrology and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njanko, Théophile; Nédélec, Anne; Affaton, Pascal

    2006-04-01

    Four plutons from the W-Tibati area of central Cameroon crop out in close relationships with the Pan-African Adamawa ductile shear zone (Central Cameroon Shear Zone: CCSZ). These plutons include diorites, tonalites, granodiorites and granites, and most of them are porphyritic due to the abundance of pink K-feldspar megacrysts. Syn-kinematic magma emplacement is demonstrated by the elongate shape of the plutons and by magmatic and ductile (gneissic) foliations that strike parallel to or at a low angle with the CCSZ; the foliation obliquity is consistent with dextral transcurrent tectonics. Whole-rock geochemistry points to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic magmatism. Mixing-mingling features can be observed in the field. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite (+ K-feldspar in the more felsic compositions) appears to have played a dominant role in the magmatic differentiation processes, as confirmed by mass balance calculations based on major elements. Isotopic signatures suggest that the magmas may have originated from different sources, i.e. either from a young mafic underplate for most magmas with ɛNdi(600 Ma) around -1 to -2 and Sri (600 Ma) around 0.705, or from an enriched lithospheric mantle for some diorites with ɛNdi(600 Ma) at -6 and Sri (600 Ma) at 0.7065; mixing with young crustal component is likely. The plutonic rocks of W-Tibati are similar to other Pan-African high-K calk-alkaline syn-kinematic plutons in western Cameroon. They also display striking similarities with high-K calk-alkaline plutons associated with the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones of the Borborema province in NE Brazil.

  14. New constraints on the Pan-African Orogeny in Central Zambia: A structural and geochronological study of the Hook Batholith and the Mwembeshi Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin V.; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Charlesworth, Guy; Frei, Dirk; Rankin, William

    2014-12-01

    In Central Zambia, the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Pan-African Orogen: the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. To the north of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within Neoproterozoic Katangan metasedimentary rocks. Field mapping and structural studies, microstructural observations, interpretation of airborne geophysical images and U-Pb zircon geochronology constrain a new model for the tectonic evolution of this poorly studied part of the orogen. Two temporarily separated and highly oblique orogenic contraction events are defined. D1 is characterised by a regional low-metamorphic grade E-W shortening that produced strain partitioning between N-S trending pure-shear-dominated and NW trending sinistral simple-shear dominated domains. The emplacement of the batholith between ca. 550 and 533 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages) is syn-tectonic to D1. The D2 N-S shortening event was active after ca. 530, which is indicated by the age of the newly dated, deformed molasse of the Hook Batholith. During D2, the MwZ developed as an E- to ENE-striking zone of pure-shear dominated deformation that localised to the south and within the already exhumed Hook Batholith. At the scale of the Pan-African Orogen in Southern Africa, the D1 is considered to be a far field expression of the E-W collision event in the Mozambique Belt. The following Early Cambrian D2 event corresponds to the high angle collision between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons and the stitching of the Lufilian and Zambezi belts along the MwZ. Therefore, in the Hook area, the MwZ cannot be regarded as a continental-scale wrench structure as widely discussed in the literature. The tectonic events in Central Zambia suggest that the amalgamation of Gondwana was accompanied by suturing along highly oblique orogenic belts during plate reorganization at around 530 Ma.

  15. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094

  16. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:26475872

  17. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees.

  18. A new malaria agent in African hominids.

    PubMed

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Durand, Patrick; Prugnolle, Franck; Douzery, Emmanuel; Arnathau, Céline; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric; Renaud, François

    2009-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the major human malaria agent responsible for 200 to 300 million infections and one to three million deaths annually, mainly among African infants. The origin and evolution of this pathogen within the human lineage is still unresolved. A single species, P. reichenowi, which infects chimpanzees, is known to be a close sister lineage of P. falciparum. Here we report the discovery of a new Plasmodium species infecting Hominids. This new species has been isolated in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) kept as pets by villagers in Gabon (Africa). Analysis of its complete mitochondrial genome (5529 nucleotides including Cyt b, Cox I and Cox III genes) reveals an older divergence of this lineage from the clade that includes P. falciparum and P. reichenowi (approximately 21+/-9 Myrs ago using Bayesian methods and considering that the divergence between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 4 to 7 million years ago as generally considered in the literature). This time frame would be congruent with the radiation of hominoids, suggesting that this Plasmodium lineage might have been present in early hominoids and that they may both have experienced a simultaneous diversification. Investigation of the nuclear genome of this new species will further the understanding of the genetic adaptations of P. falciparum to humans. The risk of transfer and emergence of this new species in humans must be now seriously considered given that it was found in two chimpanzees living in contact with humans and its close relatedness to the most virulent agent of malaria.

  19. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W.

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  20. High frequency of postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Sean J; Lee, Phyllis C

    2006-01-01

    Cultural or tool use behaviours are typically conducted in social or food procurement contexts where the individual interacts with conspecifics, heterospecifics or environmental features. We report on postcoital penis cleaning in chimpanzees, an activity that does not fit this pattern. In penis cleaning, leaves are employed as 'napkins' to wipe clean the penis after sex. Alternatively, the same cleaning motion can be done without leaves, simply using the fingers. Not all chimpanzee communities studied across Africa clean their penes and, where documented, the behaviour is rare. By contrast, we identify postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo Forest, Uganda, as customary and corroborate penis cleaning as another cultural trait in chimpanzees, one that is specific to only a subset of the eastern subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). PMID:16912503

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of Pan-African Mitochondrial DNA Variation Provides New Insights into Continental Variation and Demography.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María; Gusmão, Leonor; Černý, Viktor; Uddin, Nabeel; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Göbel, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Salas, Antonio

    2016-03-20

    Africa is the cradle of all human beings, and although it has been the focus of a number of genetic studies, there are many questions that remain unresolved. We have performed one of the largest and most comprehensive meta-analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages carried out in the African continent to date. We generated high-throughput mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (230 SNPs) from 2024 Africans, where more than 500 of them were additionally genotyped for the control region. These data were analyzed together with over 12,700 control region profiles collected from the literature, representing more than 300 population samples from Africa. Insights into the African homeland of humans are discussed. Phylogeographic patterns for the African continent are shown at a high phylogeographic resolution as well as at the population and regional levels. The deepest branch of the mtDNA tree, haplogroup L0, shows the highest sub-haplogroup diversity in Southeast and East Africa, suggesting this region as the homeland for modern humans. Several demographic estimates point to the coast as a facilitator of human migration in Africa, but the data indicate complex patterns, perhaps mirroring the effect of recent continental-scaled demographic events in re-shaping African mtDNA variability.

  2. Comprehensive Analysis of Pan-African Mitochondrial DNA Variation Provides New Insights into Continental Variation and Demography.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María; Gusmão, Leonor; Černý, Viktor; Uddin, Nabeel; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Göbel, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Salas, Antonio

    2016-03-20

    Africa is the cradle of all human beings, and although it has been the focus of a number of genetic studies, there are many questions that remain unresolved. We have performed one of the largest and most comprehensive meta-analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages carried out in the African continent to date. We generated high-throughput mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (230 SNPs) from 2024 Africans, where more than 500 of them were additionally genotyped for the control region. These data were analyzed together with over 12,700 control region profiles collected from the literature, representing more than 300 population samples from Africa. Insights into the African homeland of humans are discussed. Phylogeographic patterns for the African continent are shown at a high phylogeographic resolution as well as at the population and regional levels. The deepest branch of the mtDNA tree, haplogroup L0, shows the highest sub-haplogroup diversity in Southeast and East Africa, suggesting this region as the homeland for modern humans. Several demographic estimates point to the coast as a facilitator of human migration in Africa, but the data indicate complex patterns, perhaps mirroring the effect of recent continental-scaled demographic events in re-shaping African mtDNA variability. PMID:27020033

  3. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U < 0.3). Cooling age (< 700°C) of these HP-HT rocks yielded to a younger age of 654 ±7 My (U-Pb method on rutile). Geochemical data of each mafic and ultramafic facies (hornblende gabbro, garnet-bearing facies and hornblendite) show typical arc signature (marked by e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly, (La/Sm)N: 0.8-1.6 ; (Nb/La) < 0.46 ; high Nb/Ba ratio ; 0.4 < K2O < 2.1 wt%). Intrusive granodioritic magmas show depleted HREE trend similar to granitoids in the Kohistan paleo-arc. Melting modeling suggests they are

  4. Lineage-Specific Expansions of Retroviral Insertions within the Genomes of African Great Apes but Not Humans and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Retroviral infections of the germline have the potential to episodically alter gene function and genome structure during the course of evolution. Horizontal transmissions between species have been proposed, but little evidence exists for such events in the human/great ape lineage of evolution. Based on analysis of finished BAC chimpanzee genome sequence, we characterize a retroviral element (Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus 1 [PTERV1]) that has become integrated in the germline of African great ape and Old World monkey species but is absent from humans and Asian ape genomes. We unambiguously map 287 retroviral integration sites and determine that approximately 95.8% of the insertions occur at non-orthologous regions between closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the endogenous retrovirus reveals that the gorilla and chimpanzee elements share a monophyletic origin with a subset of the Old World monkey retroviral elements, but that the average sequence divergence exceeds neutral expectation for a strictly nuclear inherited DNA molecule. Within the chimpanzee, there is a significant integration bias against genes, with only 14 of these insertions mapping within intronic regions. Six out of ten of these genes, for which there are expression data, show significant differences in transcript expression between human and chimpanzee. Our data are consistent with a retroviral infection that bombarded the genomes of chimpanzees and gorillas independently and concurrently, 3–4 million years ago. We speculate on the potential impact of such recent events on the evolution of humans and great apes. PMID:15737067

  5. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-02-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner's cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner's cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners--a situation akin to the so-called dictator game--they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness. PMID:23319633

  6. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-02-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner's cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner's cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners--a situation akin to the so-called dictator game--they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness.

  7. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A.; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2013-01-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner’s cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner’s cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners—a situation akin to the so-called dictator game—they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness. PMID:23319633

  8. New constraints on the Pan-African tectonics and the role of the Mwembeshi Zone in Central Zambia: Deformation style and timing of two orthogonal shortening events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith; Charlesworth, Guy; Rankin, William; Frei, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    In Central Zambia the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Late Neoproterozoic - Cambrian Pan-African Orogen: the NE-convex Lufilian Arc and the E-W trending Zambezi Belt whose distinct features emphasize the role of the zone as a regional structural and metamorphic boundary. North of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within the low metamorphic grade Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks, and represents the largest Pan-African intrusion in Southern Africa. The granitoids and their host-rocks were affected by two deformation events. During the D1 deformation of E-W shortening, two high-strained zones developed in the batholith. To the NE, the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) is a ~3 km wide NW-striking subvertical sinistral strike-slip shear zone. To the SW, a ~2.5 km wide N-S trending subvertical pure-shear Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) formed. In both structures, the granitoids show a smooth transition from weakly deformed rocks to porphyroclastic mylonites. Microstructural analysis defined them as medium metamorphic grade zones, deforming the granitoids at temperatures between 500 and 550°C. The lower greenschist facies metamorphism in the country rocks indicates that the deformation occurred during the cooling of the granitoids. D1 in the metasedimentary rocks east of the Hook batholith formed tight, upright folds with subvertical axial-planar cleavage and NNW-SSE trending axis consistent with the E-W shortening. U-Pb zircon geochronology and cross-cutting relationships between granites bracket D1 deformation between 549 ± 2 Ma and 541 ± 3 Ma in the NZ and in the SE part of the batholith. In the ITZ, the 533 ± 3 Ma age on a deformed granite indicates prolonged E-W shortening during granite emplacement and cooling history. D2 represents a stage of N-S shortening. Airborne geophysical data revealed bending of the N-S trending ITZ and rotation to the east. The D1 structures in the granitoids are cut by D2 north-vergent thrusts and subvertical NW trending

  9. Post pan-african denudation history of southwestern Madagascar during the complex rift-drift evolution of the island: new aspects from titanite and apatite fission track analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmel, B.; Jacobs, J.

    2003-04-01

    Titanite and apatite fission track (FT) thermochronology from 53 basement outcrops in southwest Madagascar reveal a protracted post Pan-African history of extensional tectonism, denudation and sedimentation. The titanite FT ages range between 276 ± 14 Ma and 379 ± 38 Ma. Apatite FT ages vary between 117 ± 26 Ma and 379 ± 19 Ma with mean track length scattering between 11.7 ± 0.59 μm and 13.74 ± 0.21 μm. Combined titanite and apatite FT data were used to calculate denudation rates. Samples from the paleo western margin of Madagascar along the N-S striking Pan-African Ejeda shear zone give above-average denudation rates (100-205 mMa-1) during Carboniferous times. The shear zone was probably reactivated during this times. In contrast the calculated denudation rates for samples from the interior of the island are moderate (25-120 mMa-1). Vitrinite reflectance data from the Sakoa coal area as well as titanite and apatite FT data imply that during the Permo-Triassic rifting, the areas along the paleo western margin that previously underwent fast denudation were buried by a sedimentary cover of up to ˜4.5 km. At this time, a graben developed further inland along the NW-SE striking transcontinental Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone (BRSZ). Modelled time-temperature paths indicate that the area within the BRSZ remained cool and unaffected since Carboniferous times whereas the samples northeast and southwest of the BRSZ suggest phases of differential cooling during Permian-Triassic times. Seismic data from the Morondava basin indicate that during the Middle Jurassic drift between Madagascar and East-Africa a rift jump towards the west occurred. Modelled time-temperature histories of basement units from the paleo western margin, buried during Permo Triassic times, were exhumed during Jurassic times. This is most probably related with the modified rift kinematics and the associated southwest migration of the margin. Modelled time-temperature paths of all samples from

  10. Relationships between deformation and magmatism in the Pan-African Kandi Shear Zone: Microstructural and AMS studies of Ediacaran granitoid intrusions in central Bénin (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adissin Glodji, L.; Bascou, J.; Yessoufou, S.; Ménot, R.-P.; Villaros, A.

    2014-09-01

    Relationships between the metamorphic basement, granitic intrusions and the Kandi Shear Zone (KSZ) in central Bénin have been investigated using petrological and structural approaches, in order to better understand the space and time parameters of the Pan-African shear deformation and the Ediacaran magmatism. In central Bénin, metamorphic rocks from the KSZ display a steep to vertical N-S trending foliation, a sub-horizontal mineral lineation together with kinematic indicators in agreement with a dextral transcurrent mega-shear zone. Four granitic intrusions (Dassa, Tré, Gobada and Tchetti) show many petrological similarities. They are biotite ± amphibole - ilmenite ± magnetite monzogranites with ferrous and metaluminous I-type features derived from high-K calk-alkaline magma. A fifth intrusion (Fita) is an alkali-feldspar, biotite, magnetite and ilmenite bearing granite crystallized from an alkaline magma. Moreover, high K2O, Zr, Y, Nb and low CaO, MgO and Al2O3 contents together with high (FeOt/MgO) and low LIL/HFS elements ratios suggesting an A-type granite affinity. Microstructural and AMS investigations presented in this paper show (i) solid-state deformation evidence for Dassa pluton and (ii) a magmatic deformation for the Tré, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids. Foliation in Dassa is parallel to the mesoscopic planar mylonitic foliation of the metamorphic basement. In the Tré, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids, magmatic textures and magnetic fabrics are coherent with the KSZ activity. These data suggest (i) a syn-kinematic nature for most of the intrusions (Tré, Gobada, Tchetti and Fita), except Dassa which correspond to an earlier event (ii) the succession of high-K calk-alkaline (Dassa, Tré, Gobada, Tchetti) evolves toward alkaline magmas (Fita) during the KSZ strike-slip tectonics. These observations highlight the changing nature of magma composition, magmatic processes and the different sources during KSZ activity in the Bénin Nigerian

  11. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  12. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  13. Nature, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the syn-tectonic Amspoort suite (Pan-African Boundary Igneous Complex, Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janousek, Vojtech; Konopasek, Jiri; Ulrich, Stanislav

    2010-05-01

    Crucial information on the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian amalgamation of Western Gondwana is provided by studies of the large Pan-African collisional belt in central-northern Namibia. This so-called Damara Orogen (Miller, 1983) can be subdivided into two branches, the SW-NE trending Damara Belt and a roughly perpendicular, NNW-SSE trending Kaoko Belt further north. The Kaoko Belt consists of two principal crustal units. The easterly part has a Congo Craton affinity (a basement built mostly by ≥ 1.5 Ga granitic gneisses with Neoproterozoic metasedimentary cover), whereas the westerly Coastal Terrane consists of Neoproterozoic (c.850-650 Ma) metapsammites and minor metabasic bodies; no exposures of the basement were found. The at least 180 km long, NNW-SSE trending suture between both units was intruded by numerous syn-tectonic magmatic bodies with ages spanning the interval 580-550 Ma (Seth et al., 1998; Kröner et al., 2004) designated as the Boundary Igneous Complex by Konopásek et al. (2008). The most typical representatives of this syn-collision igneous association are c.550 Ma old K-feldspar-phyric, Bt ± Cam granites-granodiorites of the Amspoort suite, with minor Cpx gabbro and rare two-pyroxene dolerite bodies. The petrological character, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures of the scarce Opx-Cpx-Bt dolerites indicate an origin from a CHUR-like mantle-derived melts (87Sr/86Sr550 ~ 0.7045, ɛNd550 ~ 0) modified by extensive (?Ol-) Cpx fractionation. The rest of the suite is interpreted as a product of a high-temperature anatexis of a heterogeneous lower crust, built mainly by immature metapsammites - rich in arc-derived detritus - with minor metabasite and intermediate metaigneous bodies. The most likely source appears to be the anatectic Coastal Terrane gneisses. Yet, partial melting of the so far little constrained Congo Craton cover, if formed by immature and youthful detritus unrelated to the basement, cannot be discounted. In any case, the

  14. Use of “Entertainment” Chimpanzees in Commercials Distorts Public Perception Regarding Their Conservation Status

    PubMed Central

    Schroepfer, Kara K.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Chartrand, Tanya; Hare, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing “entertainment” chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts. PMID:22022503

  15. Structure and petrology of Pan-African nepheline syenites from the South West Cameroon; Implications for their emplacement mode, petrogenesis and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, Nsifa Nkonguin; Rigobert, Tchameni; Anne, Nédélec; Roberto, Siqueira; André, Pouclet; Jérôme, Bascou

    2013-11-01

    Three late-Neoproterozoic nepheline syenite intrusions crop out close to the late-Pan-African SW Cameroon shear zone, namely the Mont des Eléphants, Eboundja and Rocher du Loup intrusions. They are characterized by magmatic to solid-state deformation structures and microstructures. Their magmas were mainly derived from partial melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Magmatic differentiation may have occurred through fractionation of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase and accessory minerals (apatite, sphene, magnetite and zircon). Bulk magnetic susceptibilities are variable in intensity depending of the magnetite content. Their magnetic anisotropies are unusally high, especially in the Rocher du Loup intrusion. The trajectories of magnetic foliations and lineations display an arcuate shape from an E-W direction in the easternmost Mont des Eléphants to a N-S direction in the Rocher du Loup intrusion. These features are consistent with a synkinematic emplacement in relation with the sinistral motion along the SW Cameroon shear zone, whose age is therefore dated by the age of the syenites, i.e. 590 Ma. Magma genesis and ascent was likely favored by a large gradient in lithospheric thickness along the western margin of the Congo craton.

  16. The Middle Neoproterozoic Sidi Flah Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): synrift deposition in a Pan-African continent/ocean transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkak, A.; Pouclet, A.; Benharref, M.

    2003-08-01

    The Middle Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) Sidi Flah Group rocks are located in the Saghro inlier of the Eastern Anti-Atlas and consists of siliciclastic detrital sediment, interbedded basaltic lavas and small ultramafic bodies. Sediment deposition occurred in three turbiditic formations of a deep-sea fan environment and was controlled by synsedimentary collapses. The composition of sandstones and typological study of zircons indicate that detrital material came from the gneisses and granites of a proximal craton. The lavas are synsedimentary subaqueous flows. They show chemical signatures of initial rift tholeiites and of plume-related alkaline intraplate basalts. The ultramafic rocks are serpentinized peridotites that were emplaced along N160° synsedimentary faults as numerous bodies 20-50 m in size. Their petrographical (Cr-spinel signature) and chemical features correspond to intracontinental ultramafic cumulates. The emplacement of the ultramafic rocks was associated with hydrothermal activity that generated calcareous and siliceous rocks such as ophicalcites and jaspers. All the features of the sediments, the lavas and the ultramafic bodies strongly suggest a continent-ocean transition geotectonic context, in an advanced stage of continental rifting that we attribute to the pre-Pan-African ocean passive margin extension.

  17. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction.

  18. The Tachakoucht-Iriri-Tourtit arc complex (Moroccan Anti-Atlas): Neoproterozoic records of polyphased subduction-accretion dynamics during the Pan-African orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Bruguier, Olivier; Spagna, Paul; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-05-01

    We report new mapping, tectonic, metamorphic and U-Pb zircon dating data on the polyphased Tachakoucht-Iriri and Tourtit arc-related units within the Moroccan Pan-African belt (Sirwa window, Anti-Atlas). The studied area contains four different sub-units, from south to north: (1) the Tachakoucht gneisses intruded to its northern part by (2) Iriri intrusions. To the north, the Tachakoucht-Iriri massif is thrusted by (3) the south-verging 760 Ma Khzama ophiolitic sequence intruded by (4) the Tourtit meta-granitic complex. The Tachakoucht gneiss represents former andesitic to dacitic porphyritic rocks crystallized around 740-720 Ma in an intra-oceanic arc setting (IOAS). Subsequently, it has been buried and metamorphosed to 700 °C, 8 kbar in response to early accretion of the arc onto the West African Craton (WAC). This tectono-metamorphic event also led to the dismembering and stacking of back-arc ophiolite onto the arc unit. Subsequently, the Iriri intrusions, a suite of hydrous mafic dykes (hornblende gabbro and fine-grained basalt) and ultramafic (hornblendite) plutons showing subduction zone affinities, intruded the Tachakoucht gneiss under P-T conditions of 750-800 °C and 2-5 kbar. Emplacement of Iriri intrusions led locally to pronounced partial melting of the Tachakoucht gneiss and to the production of leucogranitic melts. These melts crop out into the Iriri-Tachakoucht gneiss contacts as leucogneissic bands (former leucosomes, dated at 651 ± 5 Ma) but also intruded the Khzama ophiolite to form the Tourtit granite (dated at 651 ± 3 Ma). These ages (651-641 Ma) also constrain the timing of Iriri intrusion emplacement. The entire complex has been overprinted by a second deformation event under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions marked by transposition of primary structures and a development of mylonitic shear zones. These results and those published on the Bou Azzer window show that two phases of subduction-related magmatism occurred in the Anti

  19. Skeletal development in Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-04-01

    Fusion of skeletal elements provides markers for timing of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Epiphyseal closure defines bone growth and signals a mature skeleton. Most of what we know about timing of development in chimpanzees derives from dental studies on Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a wild range restricted to central Africa. Here, we report on the timing of skeletal fusion for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) whose known ages range from 0.83 to age 11.68 years. Observations on the skeletons were made after the individuals were dissected and bones cleaned. Comparisons with 10 female captive P. troglodytes confirm a generally uniform pattern in the sequence of skeletal fusion in the two captive species. We also compared the P. paniscus to a sample of three unknown-aged female wild P. paniscus, and 10 female wild P. troglodytes of known age from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The sequence of teeth emergence to bone fusion is generally consistent between the two species, with slight variations in late juvenile and subadult stages. The direct-age comparisons show that skeletal growth in captive P. paniscus is accelerated compared with both captive and wild P. troglodytes populations. The skeletal data combined with dental stages have implications for estimating the life stage of immature skeletal materials of wild P. paniscus and for more broadly comparing the skeletal growth rates among captive and wild chimpanzees (Pan), Homo sapiens, and fossil hominins.

  20. Pan thanatology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Gillies, Alasdair; Lock, Louise C

    2010-04-27

    Chimpanzees' immediate responses to the death of a group-member have rarely been described. Exceptions include maternal care towards dead infants, and frenzied excitement and alarm following the sudden, traumatic deaths of older individuals [1-5]. Some wild chimpanzees die in their night nest [6], but the immediate effect this has on others is totally unknown. Here, with supporting video material, we describe the peaceful demise of an elderly female in the midst of her group. Group responses include pre-death care of the female, close inspection and testing for signs of life at the moment of death, male aggression towards the corpse, all-night attendance by the deceased's adult daughter, cleaning the corpse, and later avoidance of the place where death occurred. Without death-related symbols or rituals, chimpanzees show several behaviours that recall human responses to the death of a close relative. PMID:21749950