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Sample records for african chimpanzees pan

  1. The type locality of Pan troglodytes vellerosus (Gray, 1862), and implications for the nomenclature of West African chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Oates, John F; Groves, Colin P; Jenkins, Paulina D

    2009-01-01

    We show that, in 1862, Richard Burton collected the type specimen of Pan troglodytes vellerosus not on Mount Cameroon, as has been generally assumed, but in Gabon. Therefore, P. t. vellerosus is not the correct name for the chimpanzee population of western Cameroon and southern Nigeria, if that population is taxonomically distinct. As First Reviser, we choose the name Pan troglodytes ellioti for this population of chimpanzees, based on Anthropopithecus ellioti named by Matschie [Matschie P (1914) Neue Affen aus Mittelafrika. Sitzungsber Ges Naturforsch Freunde Berlin 1914:323-342] from a specimen in the Humboldt Museum, Berlin, collected in Bascho (=Basho), Cameroon, and given to the museum in 1905.

  2. A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) analogue of cross-national generalization of personality structure: zoological parks and an African sanctuary.

    PubMed

    King, James E; Weiss, Alexander; Farmer, Kay H

    2005-04-01

    Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats.

  3. Identification of a hepatitis B virus genome in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) from East Africa indicates a wide geographical dispersion among equatorial African primates.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Pineau, Pascal; Henry, Michel; Hamilton, William D; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2002-11-01

    DNAs from four wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) from eastern Africa were screened for 14 DNA viruses and retroviruses. Between two and three viruses were found in each animal. An entire hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome was amplified and sequenced from samples taken from one animal. This indicates that HBV is distributed across the entire range of chimpanzee habitats.

  4. Twinning and heteropaternity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Frels, William I; Howell, Sue; Izard, M Kay; Keeling, Michale E; Lee, D Rick

    2006-05-01

    Unlike monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins develop from separate ova. The resulting twins can have different sires if the fertilizing sperm comes from different males. Routine paternity testing of a pair of same-sexed chimpanzee twins born to a female housed with two males indicated that the twins were sired by two different males. DNA typing of 22 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci demonstrated that these twins were not MZ twins but heteropaternal DZ twins. Reproductive data from 1926-2002 at five domestic chimpanzee colonies, including 52 twins and two triplets in 1,865 maternities, were used to estimate total twinning rates and the MZ and DZ components. The average chimpanzee MZ twinning rate (0.43%) equaled the average human MZ rate (0.48%). However, the chimpanzee DZ twinning rate (2.36%) was over twice the human average, and higher than all but the fertility-enhanced human populations of Nigeria. Similarly high twinning rates among African chimpanzees indicated that these estimates were not artifacts of captivity. Log-linear analyses of maternal and paternal effects on recurrent twinning indicated that females who twinned previously had recurrence risks five times greater than average, while evidence for a paternal twinning effect was weak. Chimpanzee twinning rates appear to be elevated relative to corresponding estimated human rates, making twinning and possibly heteropaternity more important features of chimpanzee reproductive biology than previously recognized.

  5. A case of maxillary sarcoma in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, M; Udono, T; Nogami, E; Hirosawa, M; Morimura, N; Saito, A; Seres, M; Teramoto, M; Nagano, K; Mori, Y; Uesaka, H; Nasu, K; Tomonaga, M; Idani, G; Hirata, S; Tsuruyama, T; Matsubayashi, K

    2014-04-01

    Oral malignancy is rare in chimpanzees. A 34-year-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) at Kumamoto Sanctuary, Japan, had developed it. Treatment is technically difficult for chimpanzees while malignant neoplasm is seemingly rising in captive populations. Widespread expert discussion, guidelines for treatment, especially for great apes in terminal stages is urgently needed.

  6. The chimpanzee-specific pericentric inversions that distinguish humans and chimpanzees have identical breakpoints in Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Szamalek, Justyna M; Goidts, Violaine; Searle, Jeremy B; Cooper, David N; Hameister, Horst; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2006-01-01

    Seven of nine pericentric inversions that distinguish human (HSA) and chimpanzee karyotypes are chimpanzee-specific. In this study we investigated whether the two extant chimpanzee species, Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) and Pan paniscus (bonobo), share exactly the same pericentric inversions. The methods applied were FISH with breakpoint-spanning BAC/PAC clones and PCR analyses of the breakpoint junction sequences. Our findings for the homologues to HSA 4, 5, 9, 12, 16, and 17 confirm for the first time at the sequence level that these pericentric inversions have identical breakpoints in the common chimpanzee and the bonobo. Therefore, these inversions predate the separation of the two chimpanzee species 0.86-2 Mya. Further, the inversions distinguishing human and chimpanzee karyotypes may be regarded as early acquisitions, such that they are likely to have been present at the time of human/chimpanzee divergence. According to the chromosomal speciation theory the inversions themselves could have promoted human speciation.

  7. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2006-07-01

    Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant

  8. Multimodal communication by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown that apes and monkeys are adept at cross-modal matching tasks requiring the subject to identify objects in one modality when information regarding those objects has been presented in a different modality. However, much less is known about non-human primates’ production of multimodal signaling in communicative contexts. Here, we present evidence from a study of 110 chimpanzees demonstrating that they select the modality of communication in accordance with variations in the attentional focus of a human interactant, which is consistent with previous research. In each trial, we presented desirable food to one of two chimpanzees, turning mid-way through the trial from facing one chimpanzee to facing the other chimpanzee, and documented their communicative displays, as the experimenter turned towards or away from the subjects. These chimpanzees varied their signals within a context-appropriate modality, displaying a range of different visual signals when a human experimenter was facing them and a range of different auditory or tactile (attention-getting) signals when the human was facing away from them; this finding extends previous research on multimodal signaling in this species. Thus, in the impoverished circumstances characteristic of captivity, complex signaling tactics are nevertheless exhibited by chimpanzees, suggesting continuity in intersubjective psychological processes in humans and apes. PMID:19504272

  9. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  10. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  11. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  12. Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Michiko; Hockings, Kimberley J; Soumah, Aly Gaspard; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Despite intensive observation of nonhuman great apes during long-term field studies, observations of great ape births in the wild are rare. Research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea has been ongoing for 35 years, yet chimpanzee parturitions have been observed on only two occasions. Here we provide information regarding both chimpanzee births, with detailed information from the close observation of one. During this birth, the mother built a day nest in a tree before parturition. After giving birth, the mother consumed the placenta, and the other chimpanzees in her party gathered near her and her neonate. However, she did not share the placenta, and consumed it all herself. In the second observation, the mother also built a nest in a tree and subsequently gave birth. Thereafter, she shared the placenta with some individuals and consumed part of the placenta herself. Although maternal placentophagy is a ubiquitous behavior among the majority of non-human primates, observations of placenta sharing by wild primates are infrequent, and the proximate and ultimate explanations for the behavior remain unclear.

  13. Metacarpal trabecular architecture variation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for locomotion and tool-use?

    PubMed

    Lazenby, Richard A; Skinner, Matthew M; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    Trabecular architecture was assessed by 3D micro-computed tomography from spherical volumes of interest located within the head and base of metacarpals (MC) 1, 2, and 5 from n = 19 adult common chimpanzees. Two subspecies, West African Pan troglodytes verus from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire (n = 12) and Central African P. t. troglodytes from Cameroon (n = 7), were studied. For the combined sample, the metacarpal head is distinguished by greater bone volume fraction across all metacarpals, though the MC 1 is distinctive in having thicker, more plate-like trabeculae. The architecture in the MC 2 and MC 5 can be related to strains associated with terrestrial knuckle-walking. In particular, the relatively robust MC 5 head architecture may result from functional loading incurred during braking and use of a palm-in hand posture. Examining differences between samples, we found that the Cameroon chimpanzees possess a more robust architecture across all metacarpals in the form of greater bone volume fraction, higher connectivity, and somewhat more plate-like structure. These differences are not explicable in terms of population distinctions in body size or daily travel distance, but possibly reflect a combination of more terrestrial knuckle-walking in the Cameroon sample and more diverse hand postures and precision handling required of nut-cracking in West African chimpanzees.

  14. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  15. Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Alison W; Weghorst, Jennifer A

    2005-05-01

    Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens. However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up, eat, and pluck. Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed comparatively with reference to

  16. SUSPECTED LYME BORRELIOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Wack, Allison N; Holland, Cynthia J; Lopez, Job E; Schwan, Tom G; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    An 18-yr-old female captive-born chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with an intermittent history of inappetence, lethargy, and lower limb stiffness. No notable abnormalities were found on exam or complete blood cell count and serum biochemistry analysis. Serologic testing was strongly positive via indirect fluorescent antibody testing and Western blot for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with doxycycline was initiated, and a clinical response was seen within 1 wk. Convalescent serum exhibited an eightfold increase in titer. Serologic testing was performed on several conspecifics with banked serum; while some low positive titers were present and presumed indicative of past exposure, no titer was elevated to the extent of the affected chimpanzee during its course of disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of suspected Lyme borreliosis in a great ape species, and the case originates from an area of the United States with a high incidence of human borreliosis.

  17. Volumetric and lateralized differences in selected brain regions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Lyn, Heidi; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    The two species of Pan, bonobos and common chimpanzees, have been reported to have different social organization, cognitive and linguistic abilities and motor skill, despite their close biological relationship. Here, we examined whether bonobos and chimpanzee differ in selected brain regions that may map to these different social and cognitive abilities. Eight chimpanzees and eight bonobos matched on age, sex and rearing experiences were magnetic resonance images scanned and volumetric measures were obtained for the whole brain, cerebellum, striatum, motor-hand area, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus and planum temporale. Chimpanzees had significantly larger cerebellum and borderline significantly larger hippocampus and putamen, after adjusting for brain size, compared with bonobos. Bonobos showed greater leftward asymmetries in the striatum and motor-hand area compared with chimpanzees. No significant differences in either the volume or lateralization for the so-called language homologs were found between species. The results suggest that the two species of Pan are quite similar neurologically, though some volumetric and lateralized differences may reflect inherent differences in social organization, cognition and motor skills.

  18. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    PubMed

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. .

  19. Bipedality in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus): testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; McGrew, W C

    2002-06-01

    A host of ecological, anatomical, and physiological selective pressures are hypothesized to have played a role in the evolution of hominid bipedalism. A referential model, based on the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), was used to test through experimental manipulation four hypotheses on the evolution of hominid bipedalism. The introduction of food piles (Carry hypothesis) increased locomotor bipedality in both species. Neither the introduction of branches (Display hypothesis) nor the construction of visual barriers (Vigilance hypothesis) altered bipedality in either species. Introduction of raised foraging structures (Forage hypothesis) increased postural bipedality in chimpanzees. These experimental manipulations provided support for carrying of portable objects and foraging on elevated food-items as plausible mechanisms that shaped bipedalism in hominids.

  20. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Bailes, E; Robertson, D L; Chen, Y; Rodenburg, C M; Michael, S F; Cummins, L B; Arthur, L O; Peeters, M; Shaw, G M; Sharp, P M; Hahn, B H

    1999-02-04

    The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections have been documented, one of which involved a virus so divergent that it might represent a different primate lentiviral lineage. In a search for the HIV-1 reservoir, we have now sequenced the genome of a new SIVcpzstrain (SIVcpzUS) and have determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, the subspecies identity of all known SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees. We find that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa, the central P. t. troglodytes and the eastern P. t. schweinfurthii, harbour SIVcpz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages. All HIV-1 strains known to infect man, including HIV-1 groups M, N and O, are closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages, that found in P. t. troglodytes. Moreover, we find that HIV-1 group N is a mosaic of SIVcpzUS- and HIV-1-related sequences, indicating an ancestral recombination event in a chimpanzee host. These results, together with the observation that the natural range of P. t. troglodytes coincides uniquely with areas of HIV-1 group M, N and O endemicity, indicate that P. t. troglodytes is the primary reservoir for HIV-1 and has been the source of at least three independent introductions of SIVcpz into the human population.

  1. Is the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, an endangered species? It depends on what "endangered" means.

    PubMed

    Oates, John F

    2006-01-01

    I review information on the status in the wild of the robust chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and consider whether this evidence is consistent with the designation of P. troglodytes as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List, and with public statements to the effect that great apes as a whole will be extinct within a few decades. Chimpanzees remain widespread in tropical Africa, occurring in a variety of forested habitats. Estimates of total surviving numbers have increased from about 200,000 in the 1980s to a maximum of almost 300,000 in 2003. However, this apparent increase comes about from new survey data, rather than representing a measured increase in actual population numbers. Infectious disease decimated several chimpanzee populations during the 1990s, and data from parts of Gabon, extrapolated to that country as a whole, suggest a major decline in great ape populations caused by disease and hunting. However, accurate data on population numbers are absent for the majority of wild chimpanzee populations. I found reports of the presence of Pan troglodytes in at least 51 national parks in at least 19 countries; some of these parks have been established very recently. Chimpanzees also occur in many non-park conservation areas. A set of large, well-protected parks could safeguard chimpanzees for the foreseeable future. Although many African parks do not function well at present, mechanisms to improve their function are understood and available. By a strict application of IUCN threat criteria, P. troglodytes can be considered Endangered, based on estimated rates of past decline and on the species' long generation time. Relatively speaking, however, P. troglodytes is less endangered than are orangutans or gorillas, and the species is unlikely to go extinct by the year 2100, especially if existing conservation measures improve. The IUCN threat-rating system has become overly complex; the system can

  2. Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mario L; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A; Lwanga, Jeremiah S; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M; Heeney, Jonathan L; Watts, David P; Pusey, Anne E; Collins, D Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F Y; Sharp, Paul M; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2003-07-01

    assay limitations; this possibility was ruled out with 95% certainty. These results indicate that SIVcpz is unevenly distributed among P. t. schweinfurthii in east Africa, with foci or "hot spots" of SIVcpz endemicity in some communities and rare or absent infection in others. This situation contrasts with that for smaller monkey species, in which infection rates by related SIVs are generally much higher and more uniform among different groups and populations. The basis for the wide variability in SIVcpz infection rates in east African apes and the important question of SIVcpz prevalence in west central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) remain to be elucidated.

  3. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    possibility was ruled out with 95% certainty. These results indicate that SIVcpz is unevenly distributed among P. t. schweinfurthii in east Africa, with foci or “hot spots” of SIVcpz endemicity in some communities and rare or absent infection in others. This situation contrasts with that for smaller monkey species, in which infection rates by related SIVs are generally much higher and more uniform among different groups and populations. The basis for the wide variability in SIVcpz infection rates in east African apes and the important question of SIVcpz prevalence in west central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) remain to be elucidated. PMID:12805455

  4. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates.

  5. Fournier's gangrene syndrome in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Marrow, Judilee; Carpenter, James W; Armbrust, Laura J; Ragsdale, John M; Klocke, Emily

    2010-03-01

    A 37-yr-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was evaluated for intermittent diarrhea, scrotal swelling, and lethargy of 2 days duration. Physical examination revealed marked swelling of the scrotum and perineal tissues with mild pitting edema and crepitus. Computed tomography revealed a mixed gas and soft-tissue density extending from the caudal ventral subcutaneous tissues caudally to the scrotum and perineal tissues. Surgical exploration and castration were performed to establish drainage, and culture revealed a polymicrobial infection. A diagnosis of scrotal and fascial plane abscessation consistent with Fournier's gangrene was made. Although castration with open drainage was performed, the animal died 36 hr after surgery. Postmortem examination and histopathology revealed necrotizing fasciitis of the penis, vaginal tunic, and subcutaneous perineal and perianal tissues.

  6. New evidence on imitation in an enculturated chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Lara; Posada, Sandra; Colell, Montserrat

    2009-11-01

    Imitation in the great apes continues to be an active field of research and one that is not free of controversy. Several studies suggest that these species do not tend to match the motor movements of the model they observe, but try to achieve the same results using their own methods (emulation of results). In the studies reviewed, gestures have been used very infrequently outside an intraspecific communicative context to evaluate imitation. In fact, the imitation of gestural actions has been tested only in 4 individual great apes. This study assessed a chimpanzee's (Pan troglodytes) ability to imitate 52 actions in 4 categories. The levels of accuracy attained by the subject in her imitations exceeded those described in previous studies. Moreover, contrary to the idea defended in some articles, the subject seemed to find it easier to imitate gestures than actions with objects.

  7. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this “firstborn advantage” between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  8. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina; Jin, Xin; Li, Yingrui; Skov, Laurits; Glemin, Sylvain; Munch, Kasper; Jiang, Tao; Qian, Yu; Hobolth, Asger; Wang, Jun; Mailund, Thomas; Siegismund, Hans R; Schierup, Mikkel H

    2015-03-30

    We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and indels were called and genotyped for greater than 50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35× per individual. Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are the most polymorphic (nucleotide diversity, θw = 0.0023 per site) followed by Eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0016) and Western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0008). A demographic scenario of divergence without gene flow fits the patterns of autosomal synonymous nucleotide diversity well except for a signal of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked versus autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection statistic exhibits a strong nonmonotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous versus nonsynonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on nonsynonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human populations.

  9. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  10. The "original" hepatitis B virus of Eastern chimpanzees (Pan trogrodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Kaiser, Marco; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Pauli, Georg; Opuda-Asibo, John; Joseph, Olobo O; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections in chimpanzees. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of chimpanzee HBV (chHBV) infections in captive, wild born chimpanzees in the sanctuary on Ngamba Island, Uganda and one sample from a wild free ranging chimpanzee. In one third of the plasma samples (32.4%; 12/37) we detected antibodies to Hepatitis B (core) antigen. Amongst those individuals HBV DNA was detected in one captive wild born and the wild chimpanzee. In contrast to the only available earlier described HBV sequence from the subspecies Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, there was no evidence of recombination with human HBV. Our sequences therefore are likely to present the "original" chHBV from P. t. schweinfurthii.

  11. Homologous whole blood transfusion during treatment of severe anemia in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John James; Atencia, Rebeca

    2014-09-01

    A 12-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was presented as severely emaciated and with generalized muscle weakness. Hematology and biochemistry revealed severe anemia and hypokalemia. The chimpanzee was treated supportively and symptomatically; although initially stable, the animal deteriorated rapidly on day 5, becoming depressed and jaundiced with further deterioration of anemia. To address the decline, a prompt transfusion of compatible and cross-matched fresh whole blood from a healthy adult male chimpanzee was administered over 120 min. During transfusion, an immediate reduction in the recipient's tachycardia was noted and substantial clinical improvement continued over 24 hr posttransfusion; no adverse transfusion reactions were observed.

  12. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  13. Use of gesture sequences in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) play.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maureen S; Jensvold, Mary Lee Abshire; Fouts, Deborah H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the use of sensory modalities relative to a partner's behavior in gesture sequences during captive chimpanzee play at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. We hypothesized that chimpanzees would use visual gestures toward attentive recipients and auditory/tactile gestures toward inattentive recipients. We also hypothesized that gesture sequences would be more prevalent toward unresponsive rather than responsive recipients. The chimpanzees used significantly more auditory/tactile rather than visual gestures first in sequences with both attentive and inattentive recipients. They rarely used visual gestures toward inattentive recipients. Auditory/tactile gestures were effective with and used with both attentive and inattentive recipients. Recipients responded significantly more to single gestures than to first gestures in sequences. Sequences often indicated that recipients did not respond to initial gestures, whereas effective single gestures made more gestures unnecessary. The chimpanzees thus gestured appropriately relative to a recipient's behavior and modified their interactions according to contextual social cues.

  14. Re-analysis of a human hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolate from an East African wild born Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii: evidence for interspecies recombination between HBV infecting chimpanzee and human.

    PubMed

    Magiorkinis, Emmanuil N; Magiorkinis, Gkikas N; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N; Hatzakis, Angelos E

    2005-04-11

    According to current estimates, hepatitis B virus (HBV) has infected 2 billion people worldwide and among them, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection. Except humans, HBV or HBV-like viruses have also been isolated from different species of apes and mammals. Although recombination has been described to occur extensively between different genotypes within the human HBV lineage, no recombination event has ever been reported between human and non-human primate HBV sequences. It was our objective to perform an exhaustive search for recombination between human and non-human primate HBV strains among all available full-length human and non-human primate HBV sequences, using bootscanning and phylogenetic analyses. Intriguingly, we found that an HBV sequence isolated from a wild born Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in East Africa-FG-is a recombinant consisting of HBV infecting chimpanzee (ChHBV) and human genotype C. More specifically, in a fragment of approximately 500 nt (positions 551-1050 spanning half of the RT domain of pol, which overlaps with half of the coding region of the small surface protein), FG grouped with HBV genotype C, while in the rest of the genome it grouped with ChHBV sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that in the latter region FG was more closely related to the Pan troglodytes troglodytes subspecies, forming an outlier to this group. Moreover, we show evidence that the recombination event occurred after the initial dispersion of HBV genotype C in humans. Finally, our findings point out that although rare recombination between HBV viruses infecting different species occurs.

  15. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading—of grooming for mating—by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism–egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees’ willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness. PMID:26279605

  16. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) quantify split solid objects.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Trix; Hrubesch, Christine; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that gorillas' and orangutans' object representations survive cohesion violations (e.g., a split of a solid object into two halves), but that their processing of quantities may be affected by them. We assessed chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) reactions to various fission events in the same series of action tasks modelled after infant studies previously run on gorillas and orangutans (Cacchione and Call in Cognition 116:193-203, 2010b). Results showed that all four non-human great ape species managed to quantify split objects but that their performance varied as a function of the non-cohesiveness produced in the splitting event. Spatial ambiguity and shape invariance had the greatest impact on apes' ability to represent and quantify objects. Further, we observed species differences with gorillas performing lower than other species. Finally, we detected a substantial age effect, with ape infants below 6 years of age being outperformed by both juvenile/adolescent and adult apes.

  17. Spontaneous triadic engagement in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    MacLean, Evan; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Humans are believed to have evolved a unique motivation to participate in joint activities that first develops during infancy and supports the development of shared intentionality. We conducted five experiments with bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (Total n = 119) to assess their motivation to spontaneously participate in joint activities with a conspecific or a human. We found that even the youngest subjects preferred to interact together with a human and a toy rather than engaging in an identical game alone. In addition, we found that subjects could spontaneously interact with a human in a turn-taking game involving passing a ball back and forth and used behaviors to elicit additional interaction when the game was disrupted. However, when paired with a conspecific, subjects preferred to interact with an object individually rather than together. Our results indicate that nonhuman apes are motivated to engage in triadic activities if they occur spontaneously with humans and require a minimum amount of coordination. These findings leave open the question of whether these activities are coordinated through shared intentions.

  18. The default mode network in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is similar to that of humans.

    PubMed

    Barks, Sarah K; Parr, Lisa A; Rilling, James K

    2015-02-01

    The human default mode network (DMN), comprising medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, lateral parietal cortex, and medial temporal cortex, is highly metabolically active at rest but deactivates during most focused cognitive tasks. The DMN and social cognitive networks overlap significantly in humans. We previously demonstrated that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show highest resting metabolic brain activity in the cortical midline areas of the human DMN. Human DMN is defined by task-induced deactivations, not absolute resting metabolic levels; ergo, resting activity is insufficient to define a DMN in chimpanzees. Here, we assessed the chimpanzee DMN's deactivations relative to rest during cognitive tasks and the effect of social content on these areas' activity. Chimpanzees performed a match-to-sample task with conspecific behavioral stimuli of varying sociality. Using [(18)F]-FDG PET, brain activity during these tasks was compared with activity during a nonsocial task and at rest. Cortical midline areas in chimpanzees deactivated in these tasks relative to rest, suggesting a chimpanzee DMN anatomically and functionally similar to humans. Furthermore, when chimpanzees make social discriminations, these same areas (particularly precuneus) are highly active relative to nonsocial tasks, suggesting that, as in humans, the chimpanzee DMN may play a role in social cognition.

  19. Auditory-visual intermodal matching based on individual recognition in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Laura; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    The ability to recognize familiar individuals with different sensory modalities plays an important role in animals living in complex physical and social environments. Individual recognition of familiar individuals was studied in a female chimpanzee named Pan. In previous studies, Pan learned an auditory-visual intermodal matching task (AVIM) consisting of matching vocal samples with the facial pictures of corresponding vocalizers (humans and chimpanzees). The goal of this study was to test whether Pan was able to generalize her AVIM ability to new sets of voice and face stimuli, including those of three infant chimpanzees. Experiment 1 showed that Pan performed intermodal individual recognition of familiar adult chimpanzees and humans very well. However, individual recognition of infant chimpanzees was poorer relative to recognition of adults. A transfer test with new auditory samples (Experiment 2) confirmed the difficulty in recognizing infants. A remaining question was what kind of cues were crucial for the intermodal matching. We tested the effect of visual cues (Experiment 3) by introducing new photographs representing the same chimpanzees in different visual perspectives. Results showed that only the back view was difficult to recognize, suggesting that facial cues can be critical. We also tested the effect of auditory cues (Experiment 4) by shortening the length of auditory stimuli, and results showed that 200 ms vocal segments were the limit for correct recognition. Together, these data demonstrate that auditory-visual intermodal recognition in chimpanzees might be constrained by the degree of exposure to different modalities and limited to specific visual cues and thresholds of auditory cues.

  20. Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2009-10-01

    chimpanzee cultural data are not only comparable to a series of modern human cultural data sets in terms of how tree-like they are, but are also comparable to a series of genetic, anatomical, and behavioural data sets that can be assumed to have been produced by a branching process. Again, this is what would be expected if vertical inter-group transmission has been the dominant process in chimpanzee cultural evolution. Human culture has long been considered to be adaptive, but recent studies have suggested that this needs to be demonstrated rather than assumed. With this in mind, in the third set of analyses we investigated whether chimpanzee culture is adaptive. We found the hypothesis that chimpanzee culture is adaptive was supported by an analysis of data from the Eastern African subspecies, but not by an analysis of data from the eastern and western subspecies. The results of our analyses have implications for the number of subspecies in Pan troglodytes, the relationship between hominin taxa and Palaeolithic industries, and the evolution of hominin cognition and behaviour.

  1. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  2. A Longitudinal Assessment of Vocabulary Retention in Symbol-Competent Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Heimbauer, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition. PMID:25706561

  3. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Potts, Kevin B; Krupenye, Christopher; Byrne, Maisie-Rose; Mackworth-Young, Constance; McGrew, William C; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned.

  4. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Diane M

    2008-10-01

    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  5. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  6. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) birth patterns and human presence in zoological settings.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katherine E; Ross, Stephen R

    2008-07-01

    In response to work demonstrating a negative correlation between human staff activity and parturition in laboratory-managed primates, this study examined the distribution of 231 captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) births that occurred in accredited American zoological institutions by the day of the week on which the birth was discovered. We hypothesized that if chimpanzee parturition patterns displayed sensitivity to human presence, then fewer births per day would be reported during the weekend period, when the visitor density was high, as compared with the lower density working week. Analyses indicated that chimpanzee births were randomly distributed throughout the week. In the context of the questionable sensitivity of primate parturition to external influence, results suggest that variations in human presence do not affect the fine-level timing of birth in chimpanzees managed in a zoological setting.

  7. Moving shadows contribute to the corridor illusion in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that backgrounds depicting linear perspective and texture gradients influence relative size discrimination in nonhuman animals (known as the "corridor illusion"), but research has not yet identified the other kinds of depth cues contributing to the corridor illusion. This study examined the effects of linear perspective and shadows on the responses of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to the corridor illusion. The performance of the chimpanzee was worse when a smaller object was presented at the farther position on a background reflecting a linear perspective, implying that the corridor illusion was replicated in the chimpanzee (Imura, Tomonaga, & Yagi, 2008). The extent of the illusion changed as a function of the position of the shadows cast by the objects only when the shadows were moving in synchrony with the objects. These findings suggest that moving shadows and linear perspective contributed to the corridor illusion in a chimpanzee.

  8. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana…

  9. Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Schwandt, Melanie L; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items--the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability--more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.

  10. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  11. Numerical judgments by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Hoyle, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    We presented four chimpanzees with a series of tasks that involved comparing two token sets or comparing a token set to a quantity of food. Selected tokens could be exchanged for food items on a one-to-one basis. Chimpanzees successfully selected the larger numerical set for comparisons of 1 to 5 items when both sets were visible and when sets were presented through one-by-one addition of tokens into two opaque containers. Two of four chimpanzees used the number of tokens and food items to guide responding in all conditions, rather than relying on token color, size, total amount, or duration of set presentation. These results demonstrate that judgments of simultaneous and sequential sets of stimuli are made by some chimpanzees on the basis of the numerousness of sets rather than other non-numerical dimensions. The tokens were treated as equivalent to food items on the basis of their numerousness, and the chimpanzees maximized reward by choosing the larger number of items in all situations.

  12. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) understand single invisible displacement?

    PubMed

    Collier-Baker, Emma; Davis, Joanne M; Nielsen, Mark; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that chimpanzees understand single invisible displacement. However, this Piagetian task may be solvable through the use of simple search strategies rather than through mentally representing the past trajectory of an object. Four control conditions were thus administered to two chimpanzees in order to separate associative search strategies from performance based on mental representation. Strategies involving experimenter cue-use, search at the last or first box visited by the displacement device, and search at boxes adjacent to the displacement device were systematically controlled for. Chimpanzees showed no indications of utilizing these simple strategies, suggesting that their capacity to mentally represent single invisible displacements is comparable to that of 18-24-month-old children.

  13. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L.; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, “Do chimpanzees display distal communication?” Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. PMID:26292996

  14. Chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-04-23

    Many animal species cooperate, but the underlying proximate mechanisms are often unclear. We presented chimpanzees with a mutualistic collaborative food-retrieval task requiring complementary roles, and tested subjects' ability to help their partner perform her role. For each role, subjects required a different tool, and the tools were not interchangeable. We gave one individual in each dyad both tools, and measured subjects' willingness to transfer a tool to their partner as well as which tool (correct versus incorrect) they transferred. Most subjects helped their partner and transferred the tool the partner needed. Thus, chimpanzees not only coordinate different roles, but they also know which particular action the partner needs to perform. These results add to previous findings suggesting that many of chimpanzees' limitations in collaboration are, perhaps, more motivational than cognitive.

  15. Social play in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for natural social systems and interindividual relationships.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2006-03-01

    This study compares adult play behavior in the two Pan species in order to test the effects of phylogenetic closeness and the nature of social systems on play distribution. The social play (both with fertile and immature subjects) performed by adults did not differ between the two species. In contrast, in bonobos, play levels among fertile subjects were higher than in chimpanzees. Findings regarding levels of undecided conflicts (more frequent in bonobos) and formal submission displays (lacking in bonobos) confirm, in the two colonies under study, that bonobos exhibit "egalitarianism" more than chimpanzees. Some authors emphasized the importance of play-fighting for social assessment when relationships among individuals are not codified and structured according to rank-rules. Indeed, adult bonobos played more roughly than chimpanzees. Moreover, adult bonobos displayed the full play-face at a high frequency especially during rough play sessions, whereas in chimpanzees, the frequency of play signals was not affected by roughness of play. The frequency of social play among bonobo females was higher than in any other sex combinations, whereas no difference was found for chimpanzees. As a matter of fact, social play can be viewed as a balance between cooperation and competition. Among bonobo females, characterized by social competence and affiliation, social play might enhance their behavioral flexibility and increase their socially symmetrical relationships which, after all, are the basis for their egalitarian society.

  16. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  17. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  18. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-07-16

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model.

  19. Referential understanding of videos in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Poss, Sarah R; Rochat, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Performance on identical search tasks based on cues directly perceived or indirectly perceived through video were compared among a group of 4 adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a group of 2 adult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and a group of 36 children (between 2 and 3 years of age). Children comprehended directly perceived cues but had difficulty with video cues. In contrast, chimpanzees and 1 orangutan were successful in using video to guide their search for a hidden object. Two follow-up studies with 3-year-old children demonstrated the importance of more distinct perceptual and verbal cues in aiding children's understanding of video as referring to real-world events.

  20. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  1. Arboreal nesting as anti-predator adaptation by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in southeastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Fulton, S J; Marchant, L F; McGrew, W C; Schiel, M; Waller, M

    2008-04-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) make nests for resting and sleeping, which is unusual for anthropoid primates but common to all great apes. Arboreal nesting has been linked to predation pressure, but few studies have tested the adaptive nature of this behavior. We collected data at two chimpanzee study sites in southeastern Senegal that differed in predator presence to test the hypothesis that elevated sleeping platforms are adaptations for predator defense. At Assirik in the Parc National du Niokolo-Koba, chimpanzees face four species of large carnivore, whereas at Fongoli, outside national park boundaries, humans have exterminated almost all natural predators. We quantified the availability of vegetation at the two sites to test the alternative hypothesis that differences in nesting reflect differences in habitat structure. We also examined possible sex differences in nesting behavior, community demographic differences, seasonality and nest age differences as variables also potentially affecting nest characteristics and nesting behavior between the two sites. Chimpanzees at Fongoli nested at lower heights and farther apart than did chimpanzees at Assirik and sometimes made nests on the ground. The absence of predators outside of the national park may account for the differences in nest characteristics at the two sites, given the similarities in habitat structure between Fongoli and Assirik. However, Fongoli chimpanzees regularly build arboreal nests for sleeping, even under minimal predation pressure, and this requires explanation.

  2. Sequence analysis of the MHC class II DPB1 gene in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bak, E-J; Ishii, Y; Omatsu, T; Kyuwa, S; Hayasaka, I; Yoshikawa, Y

    2005-06-01

    The diversity of the MHC class II region in non-human primates is a focus of biomedical research because this region plays a crucial role in the recognition of antigens in the immune system. In particular, the chimpanzee [Pan troglodytes (Patr)], which belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea, has been used as a human model for the study of diseases such as human hepatitis C virus (HCV), human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, to which only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible. In the present study, polymorphisms of the MHC-DPB1 gene (Patr-DPB1) in a chimpanzee colony in Japan were examined using a stepwise polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In order to design a suitable primer pair which would amplify exon 2 of the Patr-DPB1 gene, a fragment of approximately 8 kb from exon 1 to exon 3 was amplified from chimpanzee genomic DNA. After designing a 500-bp primer pair at the 3' region of intron 1 and the 5' region of intron 2, analysis of DPB1 exon 2 alleles of each chimpanzee was carried out. Twenty-two chimpanzees were used in our study, and we identified seven alleles by sequence analysis on the Patr-DPB1 gene, including one new allele. The obtained nucleotide sequence patterns suggest that Patr-DPB1 alleles emerge by genetic variations such as the exchange of sequence motifs and the accumulation of point mutations.

  3. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Timothy M; Kennedy, Erica Hoy

    2011-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been known to exhibit rudimentary abilities in analogical reasoning (Flemming, Beran, Thompson, Kleider, & Washburn, 2008; Gillian, Premack, & Woodruff, 1981; Haun & Call, 2009; Thompson & Oden, 2000; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). With a wide array of individual differences, little can be concluded about the species' capacity for analogies, much less their strategies employed for solving such problems. In this study, we examined analogical strategies in 3 chimpanzees using a 3-dimensional search task (e.g., Kennedy & Fragaszy, 2008). Food items were hidden under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of varying sizes. Subsequently, chimpanzees searched for food under the cup of the same relative size in their own set of cups--reasoning by analogy. Two chimpanzees initially appeared to fail the first relational phase of the task. Meta-analyses revealed, however, that they were instead using a secondary strategy not rewarded by the contingencies of the task--choosing on the basis of the same relative position in the sample. Although this was not the intended strategy of the task, it was nonetheless analogical. In subsequent phases of the task, chimpanzees eventually learned to shift their analogical reasoning strategy to match the reward contingencies of the task and successfully choose on the basis of relative size. This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee.

  4. Genome Sequence of a Central Chimpanzee-Associated Polyomavirus Related to BK and JC Polyomaviruses, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Polyomavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Madinda, Nadège F; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-09-03

    We amplified and sequenced the genome of a polyomavirus infecting a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). This virus, which is closely related to BK and JC polyomaviruses, may help shed a new light on these human pathogens' evolutionary history.

  5. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Emma K; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees' use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare.

  6. Intracranial arachnoid cysts in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Takaaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Maeda, Norihiko; Kumazaki, Kiyonori; Suzuki, Juri; Fujiwara, Reina; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mikami, Akichika

    2014-01-01

    An intracranial arachnoid cyst was detected in a 32-year-old, 44.6-kg, female chimpanzee at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed and the cognitive studies in which she participated were reviewed. MRI revealed that the cyst was present in the chimpanzee's right occipital convexity, and was located in close proximity to the posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle without ventriculomegaly. CT confirmed the presence of the cyst and no apparent signs indicating previous skull fractures were found. The thickness of the mandible was asymmetrical, whereas the temporomandibular joints and dentition were symmetrical. She showed no abnormalities in various cognitive studies since she was 3 years old, except a different behavioural pattern during a recent study, indicating a possible visual field defect. Detailed cognitive studies, long-term observation of her physical condition and follow-up MRI will be continued.

  7. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Variation and Context of Yawns in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Sarah-Jane; Paukner, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Primate yawns are usually categorised according to context (e.g. as a threat, anxious or rest yawn) but there has been little consideration of whether these yawns are best regarded as a unitary behaviour that only differs with respect to the context in which it is observed. This study examined the context and precise morphology of yawns in a group of 11 captive chimpanzees. Focal video sampling was used to describe the morphology and intensity of 124 yawns using ChimpFACS, a system for coding facial movements. Two distinct forms of yawn were identified, a full yawn and a yawn which is modified by additional actions which reduce the mouth aperture. These modified yawns may indicate some degree of voluntary control over facial movement in chimpanzees and consequently multiple functions of yawning according to context. To assess context effects, mean activity levels (resting, locomotion and grooming) and scratching rates were compared one minute before and after each yawn. Locomotion was significantly increased following both types of yawn, while scratching rates significantly increased following modified yawns but decreased following full yawns. In terms of individual differences, males did not yawn more than females although male yawns were of higher intensity, both in the degree of mouth opening and in the amount of associated head movement. These data indicate that yawning is associated with a change in activity levels in chimpanzees but only modified yawns may be related to increased arousal. Different types of yawn can therefore be differentiated at the morphological level as well as context level. PMID:20014109

  9. Fatal fulminant hepatitis in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) receiving cyproterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Roe, Wendi D; Geschke, Katja; Pease, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Cyproterone acetate is a steroidal anti-androgen that has been used in human medicine for contraceptive purposes as well as treatment of medical conditions responsive to suppression of testosterone production. While serious side effects are considered to be rare, sporadic cases of severe hepatitis have been reported, including several fatal cases. This report describes a case of fatal fulminant hepatitis in one of four male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were undergoing trial treatment with cyproterone acetate to decrease inter-male aggression.

  10. Permanent tooth mineralization in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Boughner, Julia C; Dean, M Christopher; Wilgenbusch, Chelsea S

    2012-12-01

    The timing of tooth mineralization in bonobos (Pan paniscus) is virtually uncharacterized. Analysis of these developmental features in bonobos and the possible differences with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), is important to properly quantify the normal ranges of dental growth variation in closely related primate species. Understanding this variation among bonobo, chimpanzee and modern human dental development is necessary to better contextualize the life histories of extinct hominins. This study tests whether bonobos and chimpanzees are distinguished from each other by covariance among the relative timing and sequences of tooth crown initiation, mineralization, root extension, and completion. Using multivariate statistical analyses, we compared the relative timing of permanent tooth crypt formation, crown mineralization, and root extension between 34 P. paniscus and 80 P. troglodytes mandibles radiographed in lateral and occlusal views. Covariance among our 12 assigned dental scores failed to statistically distinguish between bonobos and chimpanzees. Rather than clustering by species, individuals clustered by age group (infant, younger or older juvenile, and adult). Dental scores covaried similarly between the incisors, as well as between both premolars. Conversely, covariance among dental scores distinguished the canine and each of the three molars not only from each other, but also from the rest of the anterior teeth. Our study showed no significant differences in the relative timing of permanent tooth crown and root formation between bonobos and chimpanzees.

  11. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma K.; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M.; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees’ use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare. PMID:28355212

  12. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature

    PubMed Central

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle–tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion–dorsiflexion (PF–DF) and eversion–inversion (EV–IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF–DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  13. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature.

    PubMed

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle-tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion (PF-DF) and eversion-inversion (EV-IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF-DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  14. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-09-04

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies.

  15. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies. PMID:22912400

  16. A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Model of Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs: Development and Initial Validation

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Drislane, Laura E.; Hecht, Lisa K.; Brislin, Sarah J.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Freeman, Hani J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The current work sought to operationalize constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species well-suited for investigations of basic biobehavioral dispositions relevant to psychopathology. Across three studies, we generated validity evidence for scale measures of the triarchic model constructs in a large sample (N=238) of socially-housed chimpanzees. Using a consensus-based rating approach, we first identified candidate items for the chimpanzee triarchic (CHMP-Tri) scales from an existing primate personality instrument and refined these into scales. In Study 2, we collected data for these scales from human informants (N=301), and examined their convergent and divergent relations with scales from another triarchic inventory developed for human use. In Study 3, we undertook validation work examining associations between CHMP-Tri scales and task measures of approach-avoidance behavior (N=73) and ability to delay gratification (N=55). Current findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology. PMID:26779396

  17. Dynamic in-hand movements in adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Crast, Jessica; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-03-01

    Descriptions of manual function in nonhuman primates have largely focused on static precision and power grasping (as first defined by Napier,1956), while identification and description of dynamic manual function are rare and incomplete. Here, we describe several forms of in-hand movements used by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) when manipulating small objects. In-hand movements are defined as the movement of an object within one hand via manipulation of the digits. We presented adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (ages 5-29 years) with a task that required inserting small objects through correspondingly shaped cutouts in a transparent Plexiglas panel. While attempting to insert the objects through the cutouts, the subjects used at least two forms of in-hand movements to change their grip on the object for more precise alignment. We describe in detail the in-hand movements they used and the variability observed in form and execution among the subjects. In general, the adult subjects used in-hand movements more frequently and used a wider variety of forms than did the young juvenile subjects, suggesting that in-hand movements are in the process of fine-tuning around the age of 5 years in chimpanzees. The dexterity exhibited by the adults, however, shows that the neuromuscular and morphological requirements for relatively complex digital manipulation are present in the adult chimpanzee.

  18. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): descriptive, comparative and phylogenetic contexts

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Bonar, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Facial expressions are a critical mode of non-vocal communication for many mammals, particularly non-human primates. Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have an elaborate repertoire of facial signals, little is known about the facial expression (i.e. mimetic) musculature underlying these movements, especially when compared with some other catarrhines. Here we present a detailed description of the facial muscles of the chimpanzee, framed in comparative and phylogenetic contexts, through the dissection of preserved faces using a novel approach. The arrangement and appearance of muscles were noted and compared with previous studies of chimpanzees and with prosimians, cercopithecoids and humans. The results showed 23 mimetic muscles in P. troglodytes, including a thin sphincter colli muscle, reported previously only in adult prosimians, a bi-layered zygomaticus major muscle and a distinct risorius muscle. The presence of these muscles in such definition supports previous studies that describe an elaborate and highly graded facial communication system in this species that remains qualitatively different from that reported for other non-human primate species. In addition, there are minimal anatomical differences between chimpanzees and humans, contrary to conclusions from previous studies. These results amplify the importance of understanding facial musculature in primate taxa, which may hold great taxonomic value. PMID:16441560

  19. A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Model of Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs: Development and Initial Validation.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Drislane, Laura E; Hecht, Lisa K; Brislin, Sarah J; Patrick, Christopher J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Freeman, Hani J; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2016-01-01

    The current work sought to operationalize constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species well-suited for investigations of basic biobehavioral dispositions relevant to psychopathology. Across three studies, we generated validity evidence for scale measures of the triarchic model constructs in a large sample (N=238) of socially-housed chimpanzees. Using a consensus-based rating approach, we first identified candidate items for the chimpanzee triarchic (CHMP-Tri) scales from an existing primate personality instrument and refined these into scales. In Study 2, we collected data for these scales from human informants (N=301), and examined their convergent and divergent relations with scales from another triarchic inventory developed for human use. In Study 3, we undertook validation work examining associations between CHMP-Tri scales and task measures of approach-avoidance behavior (N=73) and ability to delay gratification (N=55). Current findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology.

  20. Environmental management procedures following fatal melioidosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Kasantikul, Tanit; Somsa, Wachirawit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Sermswan, Rasana W; Kongmakee, Piyaporn; Thomas, Warissara; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bush, Mitchell; Banlunara, Wijit

    2013-06-01

    A 40-yr-old male captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with depression and anorexia for 7 days. The tentative diagnosis, following a physical examination under anesthesia, was pneumonia with sepsis. Despite antibiotic treatment and supportive care the chimpanzee died a week following presentation. Gross pathology confirmed severe purulent pneumonia and diffuse hepatosplenic abscesses. Detected in serum at the time of the initial examination, the melioidosis serum antibody titer was elevated (> 1:512). Soil samples were collected from three sites in the exhibit at three depths of 5, 15, and 30 cm. By direct and enrichment culture, positive cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei were found at 5 and 15 cm in one site. The other two sites were positive by enrichment culture at the depth of 5 cm. To prevent disease in the remaining seven troop members, they were relocated to permit a soil treatment with calcium oxide. The exhibit remained empty for approximately 1 yr before the chimpanzees were returned. During that period, the soil in the exhibit area was again cultured as before and all samples were negative for B. pseudomallei. Following the soil treatment in the exhibit, all chimpanzees have remained free of clinical signs consistent with melioidosis.

  1. Different early rearing experiences have long term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Stephanie L.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition, however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. PMID:24206013

  2. Trading Up: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Show Self-Control Through Their Exchange Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Rossettie, Mattea S.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Self-control is defined as the ability or capacity to obtain an objectively more valuable outcome rather than an objectively less valuable outcome though tolerating a longer delay or a greater effort requirement (or both) in obtaining that more valuable outcome. A number of tests have been devised to assess self-control in nonhuman animals, including exchange tasks. In this study, three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) participated in a delay of gratification task that required food exchange as the behavioral response that reflected self-control. The chimpanzees were offered opportunities to inhibit eating and instead exchange a currently possessed food item for a different (and sometimes better) item, often needing to exchange several food items before obtaining the highest-valued reward. We manipulated reward type, reward size, reward visibility, delay to exchange, and location of the highest-valued reward in the sequence of exchange events to compare performance within the same individuals. The chimpanzees successfully traded until obtaining the best item in most cases, although there were individual differences among participants in some variations of the test. These results support the idea that self-control is robust in chimpanzees even in contexts in which they perhaps anticipate future rewards and sustain delay of gratification until they can obtain the ultimately most-valuable item. PMID:26325355

  3. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  4. Effect of species-specificity in auditory-visual intermodal matching in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Martinez, L; Matsuzawa, T

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the performance of a chimpanzee and humans on auditory-visual intermodal matching of conspecifics and non-conspecifics. The task consisted of matching vocal samples to facial images of the corresponding vocalizers. We tested the chimpanzee and human subjects with both chimpanzee and human stimuli to assess the involvement of species-specificity in the recognition process. All subjects were highly familiar with the stimuli. The chimpanzee subject, named Pan, had had extensive previous experience in auditory-visual intermodal matching tasks. We found clear evidence of a species-specific effect: the chimpanzee and human subjects both performed better at recognizing conspecifics than non-conspecifics. Our results suggest that Pan's early exposure to human caretakers did not seem to favor a perceptual advantage in better discriminating familiar humans compared to familiar conspecifics. The results also showed that Pan's recognition of non-conspecifics did not significantly improve over the course of the experiment. In contrast, human subjects learned to better discriminate non-conspecific stimuli, suggesting that the processing of recognition might differ across species. Nevertheless, this comparative study demonstrates that species-specificity significantly affects intermodal individual recognition of highly familiar individuals in both chimpanzee and human subjects.

  5. Isoflurane to prolong medetomidine/ ketamine anaesthesia in six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Adams, W A; Robinson, K J; Jones, R S; Sanderson, S

    2003-01-04

    Six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anaesthetised for the placement of intrauterine contraceptive devices, microchips for identification, routine blood sampling, and physical measurements. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine in combination with ketamine administered by intramuscular injection with a projectile syringe. Induction was smooth and rapid, but five of the animals were insufficiently relaxed for orotracheal intubation. The plane of anaesthesia was deepened by administering isoflurane delivered in oxygen and nitrous oxide, and general anaesthesia was maintained for up to 74 minutes. The action of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and the animals recovered smoothly and uneventfully.

  6. Brief communication: Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of "fire behavior" and the case for a chimpanzee model.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, Jill D; LaDuke, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    The use and control of fire are uniquely human traits thought to have come about fairly late in the evolution of our lineage, and they are hypothesized to correlate with an increase in intellectual complexity. Given the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities yet small brain size of living apes compared to humans and even early hominins, observations of wild chimpanzees' reactions to naturally occurring fire can help inform hypotheses about the likely responses of early hominins to fire. We use data on the behavior of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal during two encounters with wildfires to illuminate the similarities between great apes and humans regarding their reaction to fire. Chimpanzees' close relatedness to our lineage makes them phylogenetically relevant to the study of hominid evolution, and the open, hot and dry environment at Fongoli, similar to the savanna mosaic thought to characterize much of hominid evolution, makes these apes ecologically important as a living primate model as well. Chimpanzees at Fongoli calmly monitor wildfires and change their behavior in anticipation of the fire's movement. The ability to conceptualize the "behavior" of fire may be a synapomorphic trait characterizing the human-chimpanzee clade. If the cognitive underpinnings of fire conceptualization are a primitive hominid trait, hypotheses concerning the origins of the control and use of fire may need revision. We argue that our findings exemplify the importance of using living chimpanzees as models for better understanding human evolution despite recently published suggestions to the contrary.

  7. Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Suda, Chikako; Call, Josep

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated whether physical discreteness helps apes to understand the concept of Piagetian conservation (i.e. the invariance of quantities). Subjects were four bonobos, three chimpanzees, and five orangutans. Apes were tested on their ability to conserve discrete/continuous quantities in an over-conservation procedure in which two unequal quantities of edible rewards underwent various transformations in front of subjects. Subjects were examined to determine whether they could track the larger quantity of reward after the transformation. Comparison between the two types of conservation revealed that tests with bonobos supported the discreteness hypothesis. Bonobos, but neither chimpanzees nor orangutans, performed significantly better with discrete quantities than with continuous ones. The results suggest that at least bonobos could benefit from the discreteness of stimuli in their acquisition of conservation skills.

  8. Simian T cell leukaemia virus type I subtype B in a wild-caught gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes vellerosus) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nerrienet, Eric; Meertens, Laurent; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Gessain, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    A serological survey for human T cell leukaemia virus (HTLV)/simian T cell leukaemia virus (STLV) antibodies was performed in 61 wild-caught African apes, including five gorillas and 56 chimpanzees originating from south Cameroon. Two young animals, a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes vellerosus), exhibited a pattern of complete HTLV-I seroreactivity. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses using the complete LTR (750 bp) and a 522 bp fragment of the env gene indicated the existence of two novel STLV-I strains, both of which belonged to HTLV-I/STLV-I molecular clade subtype B, specific to central Africa. These first STLV-I strains to be characterized in gorilla and chimpanzee were closely related to each other as well as to several HTLV-I strains originating from inhabitants of south Cameroon, including pygmies. Such findings reinforce the hypothesis of interspecies transmission of STLV-I to humans, leading to the present day distribution of HTLV-I in central African inhabitants.

  9. The Occurrence of Postconflict Skills in Captive Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Samina H; Koyama, Nicola F

    Conflict management strategies can reduce costs of aggressive competition in group-living animals. Postconflict behaviors such as reconciliation and third-party postconflict affiliation are widely accepted as social skills in primates and have been demonstrated in many species. Although immature primates possess a repertoire of species-specific behaviors, it is thought that they gradually develop appropriate social skills throughout prolonged juvenility to establish and maintain complex social relationships within their group. We examined the occurrence of postconflict skills in five immature chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) over 15 mo, focusing on interactions that were not with the subject's mother. We observed reconciliation, with conciliatory tendencies comparable to adults, and provide the first evidence that captive immature chimpanzees commonly reconciled using social play. However, immatures were not more likely to reconcile valuable than nonvaluable relationships. We also observed third party postconflict affiliation although at a lower level than reported for adults. Our results provide evidence for postconflict skills in immature chimpanzees but the lack of higher conciliatory tendency with valuable partners and low occurrence of third-party affiliation indicates extended juvenility may be required refine these skills. Further work is needed to investigate whether these behaviors have the same function and effectiveness as those found in adults.

  10. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  11. Mural Dissections of Brain-Supplying Arteries in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baze, Wallace B; Storts, Ralph W; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Buchl, Stephanie J; Magden, Elizabeth R; Chaffee, Beth K

    2015-12-01

    We describe the pathologic features of mural arterial dissection involving brain-supplying arteries in a 31-y-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Several hours after examination for a possible respiratory tract infection, the chimpanzee became unresponsive, developed seizures, and died within 18 h. At necropsy, the occipital cortex of the brain had a small area of congestion, and the cerebellar cortex contained a small necrotic area. Histologic evaluation confirmed the cortical lesions and revealed an additional necrotic area in the medulla oblongata characterized by mural dissection of the brain-supplying vertebral and basilar arteries and subsequent branches. Lesions in the cortices and medulla were within areas supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. Dissection of brain-supplying arteries has been described in humans but not previously in chimpanzees (or any other NHP), suggesting that these species might be useful in understanding this condition in humans. In addition, the lesion should be added to the NHP clinician's and pathologist's differential diagnosis list for similar presentations in this species.

  12. Extensive vascular mineralization in the brain of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Connor-Stroud, Fawn R; Hopkins, William D; Preuss, Todd M; Johnson, Zachary; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous vascular mineralization (deposition of iron or calcium salts) has been observed in marble brain syndrome, mineralizing microangiopathy, hypothyroidism, Fahr syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and calciphylaxis in humans and as an aging or idiopathic lesion in the brains of horses, cats, nonhuman primates, mice, rats, cattle, white-tailed deer, and dogs. Here we present a 27-y-old, adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with spontaneous, extensive vascular mineralization localized solely to the brain. The chimpanzee exhibited tremors and weakness of the limbs, which progressed to paralysis before euthanasia. Magnetic resonance brain imaging in 2002 and 2010 (immediately before euthanasia) revealed multiple hypointense foci, suggestive of iron- and calcium-rich deposits. At necropsy, the brain parenchyma had occasional petechial hemorrhage, and microscopically, the cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem, gray and white matter had moderate to severe mural aggregates of a granular, basophilic material (mineral) in the blood vessels. In addition, these regions often had moderate to severe medial to transmural deposition of mature collagen in the blood vessels. We ruled out common causes of brain mineralization in humans and animals, but an etiology for the mineralization could not be determined. To our knowledge, mineralization in brain has been reported only once to occur in a chimpanzee, but its chronicity in our case makes it particularly interesting.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti (Primates: Hominidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Yin-Hua; Tang, Ming-Gui; Chai, Hai-Xia; Xuan, Xing-Wei; Guo, Wei-Yan; Yang, Mu; Pu, Jian-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees are especially suited to teach us about ourselves, both in terms of their similarities and differences with human, and such important similarities and differences have also been noted for the incidence and severity of several major human diseases. In the present work, we report the entire mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) for the first time. Results shows that this mitogenome is 16,559 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 putative non-coding region (D-loop region). The genomic organization and gene order are the same as other Chimpanzees. The whole nucleotide base composition is 31.1% of A, 30.7% of C, 12.9% G, and 25.3% T, with a slight A+T bias of 56.4%. Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here provides useful genetic information for P. t. ellioti, and will further contribute to the comparative genomics studies in primates.

  14. Correlation between menstrual cycle and cognitive performance in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Extensive research on human subjects has tried to investigate whether there is a correlation between cognitive performance and the menstrual cycle. Less is known about the relationship between the menstrual cycle and task performance in other cognitive animals. We test whether the secretion of a sex hormone [luteinizing hormone(LH)] influences the performance of cognitive tasks by a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who is part of a long-term cognition research program. We focus on two cognitive tasks: an "easy task," which consists of simple numerical ordering, and a "difficult task," which combines numerical ordering with memorizing the numerals' spatial location. Data on the performance of these cognitive tasks, urine samples, and sexual swelling over six menstrual cycles showed that the chimpanzee's performance accuracy decreased and that the intertrial interval was longer during the LH-surge of the menstrual cycle, but only for the performance of the difficult task. These performance attributes seem to reflect a decrease in attention or motivation during ovulation. In summary, the cognitive performance of a chimpanzee was disturbed by hormonal changes despite her long-term experience in the tasks.

  15. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution.

  16. Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Susan P; Hau, Jann; Perlman, Jaine E; Martino, Michele; Schapiro, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.

  17. Analysis of cDNA coding MHC class II beta chain of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yuki; Kanai, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2002-04-01

    The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, Patr) is the closest zoological living relative of humans and shares approximately 98.6% genetic homology to human beings. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a critical role in T cell-mediated immune responses in vertebrates, the information on Patr MHC remains at a relatively poor level. Therefore, we attempted to isolate Patr MHC class II genes and determine their nucleotide sequences. The cDNAs encoding Patr MHC class II DP, DQ and DR beta chains were isolated from the cDNA library of a chimpanzee B lymphocyte cell line Bch261. As a result of screening, the clone 6-3-1 as a representative of Patr DP clone, clone 30-1 as a Patr DQ clone, and clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 having different sequences as Patr DR clones were detected. The clone 6-3-1 consisted of 1,062 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 777 bp. In the same way, clone 30-1 consisted of 1,172 nucleotides including ORF of 786 bp, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 consisted of 1,163 nucleotides including ORF of 801 bp. Except for five nucleotide changes, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 were the same sequence. By comparison with the nucleotide sequences already reported on chimpanzee MHC class II beta 1 genes, clones 6-3-1, 30-1, 4-7-1 and 55-1 were classified as PatrDPB1*16, PatrDQB1*0302, PatrDRB1*0201 and PatrDRB1*0204, respectively. This is the first report to describe complete cDNA sequences of Patr DP and DQ molecules. The nucleotide sequence data of Patr MHC class II genes obtained in this study will be useful for the genotyping of Patr MHC class II genes in individual chimpanzees.

  18. Genome Sequences of Polyomaviruses from the Wild-Living Red Colobus (Piliocolobus badius) and Western Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Nicole; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2016-10-13

    We identified with PCR and sequencing the full genomes of the recently discovered Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 8 and Piliocolobus badius polyomavirus 2 in a western chimpanzee and a western red colobus free-ranging in Taï National Park of Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. How Young Children and Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") Perceive Objects in a 2D Display: Putting an Assumption to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighty, Katherine A.; Menzel, Charles R.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Object recognition research is typically conducted using 2D stimuli in lieu of 3D objects. This study investigated the amount and complexity of knowledge gained from 2D stimuli in adult chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and young children (aged 3 and 4 years) using a titrated series of cross-dimensional search tasks. Results indicate that 3-year-old…

  20. Evidence of cave use by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: implications for thermoregulatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D

    2007-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to how humans both adapt and acclimate to heat stress, primarily due to the relevance of these issues to hominid evolution in open Plio-Pleistocene environments. However, little is known about the responses of human's closest living relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), to similar environmental stressors. In southeastern Senegal, one of the hottest and driest habitats that chimpanzees (P. t. verus) live in today, apes rely on behavioral mechanisms of dealing with thermal stress. Chimpanzees' use of caves was based primarily on indirect evidence (feeding traces, feces, and hairs) gathered from one cave from January to December 2004, but data from observational records collected from May 2001 through March 2006 supplement these data. The hypothesis that chimpanzees' use of caves is a response to heat was tested by collecting data on temperatures within the largest cave and in different habitats used by chimpanzees, such as gallery forest and woodland. Results indicate that chimpanzees primarily use caves as shelters during the hottest times of year and that caves are consistently and significantly cooler than open habitats. Insight into the way that chimpanzees in Senegal cope with extreme temperatures may help us to better understand the behavior of early hominids in such an environment.

  1. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    This study first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. The genome was a total of 16 556 bp in length and had a base composition of A (31.05%), G (12.95%), C (30.84%), and T (25.16%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (56.21%) is higher than G + C (43.79%). Similar to other primates, it possessed a typically conserved structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of these genes were found to locate on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the P. t. troglodytes mitochondrial genome formed a cluster with the other three Pan troglodytes genomes and that the genus Pan is closely related to the genus Homo. This mitochondrial genome sequence would supply useful genetic resources to help the conservation management of primate germplasm and uncover hominoid evolution.

  3. Novel hepatitis B virus strain from a chimpanzee of Central Africa (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) with an unusual antigenicity of the core protein.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Mishiro, S; Prince, A M

    2001-01-01

    We and others have previously reported a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-like hepadnavirus strain which seemed to be indigenous to West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). After that, we obtained an HBsAg-positive serum sample from a chimpanzee from Central Africa, named Bassi, belonging to another subspecies (P. troglodytes troglodytes). The full-genome nucleotide sequence of the hepadnavirus from Bassi showed a significant difference (9-26%) from those so far reported from primates including humans, chimpanzees and gorillas, suggesting a novel strain. More interestingly, however, the core antigen (HBcAg) deduced from Bassi's sequence showed only 78-82% similarity to known primate strains at the amino acid level, whereas the other strains shared more than 90% similarity. HBcAg expressed from Bassi HBV failed to react with monoclonal antibodies that were directed at an epitope borne by codons 135-145 of HBcAg of conventional hepadnaviruses. This could explain why Bassi was negative for anti-HBc in a routine test. Here we report the novel HBV strain presumably indigenous to P. troglodytes troglodytes in Central Africa.

  4. Anxiety-related behavior of orphan chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Botero, Maria; Macdonald, Suzanne E; Miller, Rowland S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the anxiety levels and social interactions of two orphan and four mother-reared adolescent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kasekela community at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We used focal sampling in the field at Gombe to observe these adolescent individuals. Their social interactions and anxious behavior, measured as rough scratching, were recorded. The two orphans differed from others of a similar age by exhibiting higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of play. These results suggest that a mother's absence, even in naturalistic conditions in which other members of the community are available to the orphan, may have long-lasting impact on an adolescent's anxiety and its ability to engage in complex social interactions, such as play.

  5. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  6. How chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perform in a modified emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emotional Stroop task is an experimental paradigm developed to study the relationship between emotion and cognition. Human participants required to identify the color of words typically respond more slowly to negative than to neutral words (emotional Stroop effect). Here we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would show a comparable effect. Using a touch screen, eight chimpanzees were trained to choose between two simultaneously presented stimuli based on color (two identical images with differently colored frames). In Experiment 1, the images within the color frames were shapes that were either of the same color as the surrounding frame or of the alternative color. Subjects made fewer errors and responded faster when shapes were of the same color as the frame surrounding them than when they were not, evidencing that embedded images affected target selection. Experiment 2, a modified version of the emotional Stroop task, presented subjects with four different categories of novel images: three categories of pictures of humans (veterinarian, caretaker, and stranger), and control stimuli showing a white square. Because visits by the veterinarian that include anaesthetization can be stressful for subjects, we expected impaired performance in trials presenting images of the veterinarian. For the first session, we found correct responses to be indeed slower in trials of this category. This effect was more pronounced for subjects whose last anaesthetization experience was more recent, indicating that emotional valence caused the slowdown. We propose our modified emotional Stroop task as a simple method to explore which emotional stimuli affect cognitive performance in nonhuman primates.

  7. PROSPECTIVE POPULATION MANAGEMENT FOR HEPATITIS B IN THE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) SSP® POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Meals, Laura Cummins; Ross, Stephen R; Eng, Curtis; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus causes horizontally transmitted infectious hepatopathy of primates and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. However, the overall status for this population and the interpretation of these individual test results have not been established previously. The current U.S. zoo-housed population (n = 259) was assessed serologically for hepatitis B by surface protein antigen (HbsAg) and surface antibodies (anti-Hbs). Signalment, origin, current health status, history of liver disease, and hepatitis B vaccination history were obtained for each animal. Serologic status was measured directly in 86.5% (n = 224) of these individuals, with 2.2% (n = 5) of the study population determined to be chronically infected by positive HbsAg and negative anti-Hbs status. Additionally, 11.6% (n = 26) of the directly measured population tested were HbsAg negative and anti-Hbs positive, which was indicative of viral exposure. No animals were determined to be acutely infected as HbsAg and anti-Hbs positive. Although these results demonstrated a relatively low prevalence of hepatitis B infection among these chimpanzees, the varied serologic results between institutions underscored the importance of routine serologic testing, especially at times of proposed transfers, and consideration of species vaccination protocols.

  8. Relationship between sunlight exposure, housing condition, and serum vitamin D and related physiologic biomarker levels in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Heward, Christopher B; Fritz, Jo; Murphy, James; Cortez, Czarina; Su, Yali

    2007-08-01

    In primates, the primary source of vitamin D is synthesis in the skin through sun exposure. Decreased sun exposure may lead to vitamin D deficiency and consequently other health issues. In laboratory, sanctuary, and zoo settings, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) may be housed indoors for prolonged periods of time without regular exposure to unfiltered sunlight. However, little research has examined the relationship between housing conditions and vitamin D serum levels in captive chimpanzees. In this study, we retrospectively compared serum levels of total vitamin D, calcium, ionic calcium, phosphorous, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase in 18 female and 12 male chimpanzees as they cycled between indoor-only and indoor-outdoor enclosures. Total vitamin D was significantly lower and alkaline phosphatase significantly higher when subjects were in the indoor-only enclosures compared with when they had regular access to outdoor enclosures. A vitamin D effect occurred only in young and prime-adult animals. Changes were significant in female but not in male chimpanzees. Calcium, ionic calcium, phosphorus, and albumin did not differ between indoor-only and indoor-outdoor enclosures. However, female chimpanzees exhibited significantly lower calcium and phosphorous levels while in the indoor-only enclosures. These results suggest that adult captive chimpanzees experience vitamin D deficiency when housed without regular access to unfiltered sunlight and that these effects may be more acute for adult female animals.

  9. Obstructive uropathy secondary to uterine leiomyoma in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Satterfield, William C; McArthur, Mark J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2012-12-01

    Complications due to uterine leiomyomata in chimpanzees have rarely been documented. Here we describe a female chimpanzee that developed severe hydronephrosis in the right kidney due to leiomyoma. Because hysterectomy did not alleviate the hydronephrosis, nephrectomy was elected. After these procedures, the chimpanzee is doing well. Leiomyomata screening programs with treatment algorithms are a useful component of a comprehensive chimpanzee program.

  10. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  11. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  12. Reproductive State and Rank Influence Patterns of Meat Consumption in Wild Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Gilby, Ian C.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A. Catherine; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline several possible mechanisms for

  13. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of 'Laugh Faces' when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent.

    PubMed

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates' open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  14. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical.

  15. Genomic tools for evolution and conservation in the chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes ellioti is a genetically distinct population.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Rory; MacFie, Tammie S; Myers, Simon; Hellenthal, Garrett; Nerrienet, Eric; Bontrop, Ronald E; Freeman, Colin; Donnelly, Peter; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ∼700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ∼100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10-20) is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions.

  16. Genomic Tools for Evolution and Conservation in the Chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes ellioti Is a Genetically Distinct Population

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Simon; Hellenthal, Garrett; Nerrienet, Eric; Bontrop, Ronald E.; Freeman, Colin; Donnelly, Peter; Mundy, Nicholas I.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ∼700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ∼100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10–20) is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions. PMID:22396655

  17. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  18. Social environment elicits lateralized behaviors in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Quaresmini, Caterina; Forrester, Gillian S; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the social environment on lateralized behaviors has now been investigated across a wide variety of animal species. New evidence suggests that the social environment can modulate behavior. Currently, there is a paucity of data relating to how primates navigate their environmental space, and investigations that consider the naturalistic context of the individual are few and fragmented. Moreover, there are competing theories about whether only the right or rather both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the processing of social stimuli, especially in emotion processing. Here we provide the first report of lateralized social behaviors elicited by great apes. We employed a continuous focal animal sampling method to record the spontaneous interactions of a captive zoo-living colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a biological family group of peer-reared western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We specifically focused on which side of the body (i.e., front, rear, left, right) the focal individual preferred to keep conspecifics. Utilizing a newly developed quantitative corpus-coding scheme, analysis revealed both chimpanzees and gorillas demonstrated a significant group-level preference for focal individuals to keep conspecifics positioned to the front of them compared with behind them. More interestingly, both groups also manifested a population-level bias to keep conspecifics on their left side compared with their right side. Our findings suggest a social processing dominance of the right hemisphere for context-specific social environments. Results are discussed in light of the evolutionary adaptive value of social stimulus as a triggering factor for the manifestation of group-level lateralized behaviors.

  19. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly

  20. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  1. Behavioural Development in Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Human Newborns across the First Month of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Martha B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports comparisons of behaviors of nine chimpanzee and nine human newborns on a standardized human neonatal assessment scale at the ages of three days and one month. Human infants scored higher than chimpanzee infants on the orientation cluster at both ages, but were lower than chimpanzee infants in motoric maturity. (RJC)

  2. Menopause occurs late in life in the captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Herndon, James G; Paredes, Jamespaul; Wilson, Mark E; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Walker, Margaret L

    2012-10-01

    Menopause in women occurs at mid-life. Chimpanzees, in contrast, continue to display cycles of menstrual bleeding and genital swelling, suggestive of ovulation, until near their maximum life span of about 60 years. Because ovulation was not confirmed hormonally, however, the age at which chimpanzees experience menopause has remained uncertain. In the present study, we provide hormonal data from urine samples collected from 30 female chimpanzees, of which 9 were old (>30 years), including 2 above the age of 50 years. Eight old chimpanzees showed clear endocrine evidence of ovulation, as well as cycles of genital swelling that correlated closely with measured endocrine changes. Endocrine evidence thus confirms prior observations (cyclic anogenital swelling) that menopause is a late-life event in the chimpanzee. We also unexpectedly discovered an idiopathic anovulation in some young and middle-aged chimpanzees; this merits further study. Because our results on old chimpanzees validate the use of anogenital swelling as a surrogate index of ovulation, we were able to combine data on swelling and urinary hormones to provide the first estimates of age-specific rates of menopause in chimpanzees. We conclude that menopause occurs near 50 years of age in chimpanzees as it does in women. Our finding identifies a basic difference between the human and chimpanzee aging processes: female chimpanzees can remain reproductively viable for a greater proportion of their life span than women. Thus, while menopause marks the end of the chimpanzee's life span, women may thrive for decades more.

  3. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: third-party identity as a window on possible function.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M

    2010-08-01

    Consolation, that is, postconflict affiliative contact by a bystander toward a recipient of aggression, has acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes because it has been proposed that the reassuring behavior aimed at distressed parties reflects empathetic arousal. However, the function of this behavior is not fully understood. The present study tests specific predictions about the identity of bystanders on the basis of a database of 1102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that recipients of aggression were more likely to be contacted by their own "friends" than by "friends" of the aggressor and that frequent targets of aggression were not more likely to offer consolation than were nontargets of aggression. These findings support the stress reduction hypothesis rather than two proposed alternatives, that is, the opponent relationship repair hypothesis and the self-protection hypothesis. Our results provide further support for relationship quality as a fundamental underlying factor explaining variation in the occurrence of consolation.

  4. Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov., isolated from a foot abscess of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Yan, Lifang; Zhu, Guan; Holifield, Michael; Todd, Donna; Zhang, Shuping

    2013-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive-staining, coccus-shaped bacterium was isolated from an abscess on the right foot of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The colonies were β-haemolytic. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The Lancefield group B antigen was expressed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 96.7 %, 96.4 %, 96.1 %, 95.8 % and 95.7 % sequence similarities with Streptococcus gordonii, S. cristatus, S. intermedius, S. anginosus and S. constellatus, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes encoding D-alanine : D-alanine ligase (ddl), the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) revealed that the bacterium represented a novel species closely related to, albeit different from, S. gordonii, S. cristatus and the anginosus streptococci. The name Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M09-11185(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2337(T) = KCTC 33006(T)).

  5. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Call, J

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile and adult orangutans (n = 5; Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (n = 7; Pan troglodytes), and 19- and 26-month-old children (n = 24; Homo sapiens) received visible and invisible displacements. Three containers were presented forming a straight line, and a small box was used to displace a reward under them. Subjects received 3 types of displacement: single (the box visited 1 container), double adjacent (the box visited 2 contiguous containers), and double nonadjacent (the box visited 2 noncontiguous containers). All species performed at comparable levels, solving all problems except the invisible nonadjacent displacements. Visible displacements were easier than invisible, and single were easier than double displacements. In a 2nd experiment, subjects saw the baiting of either 2 adjacent or 2 nonadjacent containers with no displacements. All species selected the empty container more often when the baited containers were nonadjacent than when they were adjacent. It is hypothesized that a response bias and inhibition problem were responsible for the poor performance in nonadjacent displacements.

  6. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G

    2011-04-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease.

  7. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  8. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed Central

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future

  9. Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Call, Josep; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2005-07-01

    There is currently much debate about the nature of social learning in chimpanzees. The main question is whether they can copy others' actions, as opposed to reproducing the environmental effects of these actions using their own preexisting behavioral strategies. In the current study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens) were shown different demonstrations of how to open a tube-in both cases by a conspecific. In different experimental conditions, demonstrations consisted of (1) action only (the actions necessary to open the tube without actually opening it); (2) end state only (the open tube, without showing any actions); (3) both of these components (in a full demonstration); or (4) neither of these components (in a baseline condition). In the first three conditions subjects saw one of two different ways that the tube could open (break in middle; caps off ends). Subjects' behavior in each condition was assessed for how often they opened the tube, how often they opened it in the same location as the demonstrator, and how often they copied the demonstrator's actions or style of opening the tube. Whereas chimpanzees reproduced mainly the environmental results of the demonstrations (emulation), human children often reproduced the demonstrator's actions (imitation). Because the procedure used was similar in many ways to the procedure that Meltzoff (Dev Psych 31:1, 1995) used to study the understanding of others' unfulfilled intentions, the implications of these findings with regard to chimpanzees' understanding of others' intentions are also discussed.

  10. Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Howell, Sue; Murphy, James

    2007-01-01

    Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (<0.5%) throughout the study and was unaffected by music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.

  11. Ground night nesting in chimpanzees: new insights from central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in South-East Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert; Haggis, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Some chimpanzee populations exhibit ground night nesting, which occurs in different habitat types, is driven by a variety of interconnected factors, and may reflect cultural or social differences. This has important implications for ape conservation management, given that accurate nest builder identification is required to estimate density, crucial in monitoring, and allows inferences about environmental and social factors that may have contributed to the transition from tree to ground sleeping in early hominins. We conducted a 24-month marked nest count survey in La Belgique, Cameroon, and recorded the occurrence of chimpanzee tree and ground night nests, temperature and rainfall, predator and large mammal abundance, human activities, nesting tree species, and Uapaca spp. consumption. Ground night nesting occurred at a rate of 3.47% (n = 1,008), with more in swamps, in the dry season and with increasing human activities. We found no influence of leopard/elephant presence, but a possible influence of lack of nesting trees. We suggest chimpanzees visit swamps in the dry season (low water levels) for relief from hunting pressure and to consume Uapaca spp. fruits. Ground nesting may be enabled due to high abundance of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation, and may be favoured for inconspicuousness and safety from gun hunters.

  12. Comparative assessment of handedness for a coordinated bimanual task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Stoinski, Tara S; Lukas, Kristen E; Ross, Stephen R; Wesley, Michael J

    2003-09-01

    Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in a sample of 31 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and 19 captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and were compared with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hand preferences in subjects that were matched on the basis of age, sex, and rearing history. The task required that the apes remove food from the inside edges of a symmetrical polyvinyl chloride pipe presented to them in their home cages. The results indicate significant species differences with chimpanzees showing population-level right-handedness and orangutans showing population-level left-handedness. The gorillas showed a nonsignificant trend toward right-handedness. The results are discussed in terms of possible ecological or biomechanical factors that may influence hand preferences in different ape species.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Handedness for a Coordinated Bimanual Task in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Stoinski, Tara S.; Lukas, Kristen E.; Ross, Stephen R.; Wesley, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in a sample of 31 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and 19 captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and were compared with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hand preferences in subjects that were matched on the basis of age, sex, and rearing history. The task required that the apes remove food from the inside edges of a symmetrical polyvinyl chloride pipe presented to them in their home cages. The results indicate significant species differences with chimpanzees showing population-level right-handedness and orangutans showing population-level left-handedness. The gorillas showed a nonsignificant trend toward right-handedness. The results are discussed in terms of possible ecological or biomechanical factors that may influence hand preferences in different ape species. PMID:14498806

  14. Natural Choice in Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"): Perceptual and Temporal Effects on Selective Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Ratliff, Chasity L.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, four chimpanzees made choices between two visible food options to assess the validity of the "selective value effect" (the assignment of value to only the most preferred type of food presented in a comparison). In Experiment 1, we established that all chimpanzees preferred single banana pieces to single apple pieces before…

  15. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals’ face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos’ and chimpanzees’ spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time. PMID:26075710

  16. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium.

  17. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) instrumentally help but do not communicate in a mutualistic cooperative task.

    PubMed

    Bullinger, Anke F; Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Chimpanzees cooperate in a variety of contexts, but communicating to influence and regulate cooperative activities is rare. It is unclear whether this reflects chimpanzees' general inability or whether they have found other means to coordinate cooperative activities. In the present study chimpanzees could help a partner play her role in a mutually beneficial food-retrieval task either by transferring a needed tool (transfer condition) or by visually or acoustically communicating the hiding-location of the needed tool (communication condition). Overall, chimpanzees readily helped their partner by delivering the needed tool, but none of them communicated the hiding location of the tool to their partner reliably across trials. These results demonstrate that although chimpanzees can coordinate their cooperative activities by instrumentally helping their partner in her role, they do not readily use communication with their partner for this same end.

  18. Comparison of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, Elaine N; Heward, Christopher B; Chowdhury, Kajal; Plummer, John; Su, Yali; Cutler, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    In the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, the aging process is the result of cumulative damage by reactive oxygen species. Humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar; but humans live twice as long as chimpanzees and therefore are believed to age at a slower rate. The purpose of this study was to compare biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress, and aging between male chimpanzees and humans. Compared with men, male chimpanzees were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease because of their significantly higher levels of fibrinogen, IGF1, insulin, lipoprotein a, and large high-density lipoproteins. Chimpanzees showed increased oxidative stress, measured as significantly higher levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, a higher peroxidizability index, and higher levels of the prooxidants ceruloplasmin and copper. In addition, chimpanzees had decreased levels of antioxidants, including α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and tocopherols, as well as decreased levels of the cardiovascular protection factors albumin and bilirubin. As predicted by the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging, male chimpanzees exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress and a much higher risk for cardiovascular disease, particularly cardiomyopathy, compared with men of equivalent age. Given these results, we hypothesize that the longer lifespan of humans is at least in part the result of greater antioxidant capacity and lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with lower oxidative stress. PMID:19619420

  19. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees.

  20. Glucuronidation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): studies with acetaminophen, oestradiol and morphine.

    PubMed

    Wong, H; Grace, J E; Wright, M R; Browning, M R; Grossman, S J; Bai, S A; Christ, D D

    2006-12-01

    The chimpanzee has recently been characterized as a surrogate for oxidative drug metabolism in humans and as a pharmacokinetic model for the selection of drug candidates. In the current study, the glucuronidation of acetaminophen, morphine and oestradiol was evaluated in the chimpanzee to extend the characterization of this important animal model. Following oral administration of acetaminophen (600 mg) to chimpanzees (n=2), pharmacokinetics were comparable with previously reported human values, namely mean oral clearance 0.91 vs. 0.62+/-0.05 l h-1 kg-1, apparent volume of distribution 2.29 vs. 1.65+/-0.25 l kg-1, and half-life 1.86 vs. 1.89+/-7h, for chimpanzee vs. human, respectively. Urinary excretions (percentage of dose) of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide and acetaminophen sulfate were also similar between chimpanzees and humans, namely 2.3 vs. 5.0, 63.1 vs. 54.7, and 25.0 vs. 32.3%, respectively. Acetaminophen, oestradiol and morphine glucuronide formation kinetics were investigated using chimpanzee (n=2) and pooled human liver microsomes (n=10). V(max) (app) and K(m)(app) (or S(50)(app)) for acetaminophen glucuronide, morphine 3- and 6-glucuronide, and oestradiol 3- and 17-glucuronide formation were comparable in both species. Eadie-Hofstee plots of oestradiol 3-glucuronide formation in chimpanzee microsomes were characteristic of autoactivation kinetics. Western immunoblot analysis of chimpanzee liver microsomes revealed a single immunoreactive band when probed with anti-human UGT1A1, anti-human UGT1A6, and anti-human UGT2B7. Taken collectively, these data demonstrate similar glucuronidation characteristics in chimpanzees and humans.

  1. Neurochemical organization of the vestibular brainstem in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baizer, Joan S; Paolone, Nicholas A; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-11-01

    Chimpanzees are one of the closest living relatives of humans. However, the cognitive and motor abilities of chimpanzees and humans are quite different. The fact that humans are habitually bipedal and chimpanzees are not implies different uses of vestibular information in the control of posture and balance. Furthermore, bipedal locomotion permits the development of fine motor skills of the hand and tool use in humans, suggesting differences between species in the structures and circuitry for manual control. Much motor behavior is mediated via cerebro-cerebellar circuits that depend on brainstem relays. In this study, we investigated the organization of the vestibular brainstem in chimpanzees to gain insight into whether these structures differ in their anatomy from humans. We identified the four nuclei of vestibular nuclear complex in the chimpanzee and also looked at several other precerebellar structures. The size and arrangement of some of these nuclei differed between chimpanzees and humans, and also displayed considerable inter-individual variation. We identified regions within the cytoarchitectonically defined medial vestibular nucleus visualized by immunoreactivity to the calcium-binding proteins calretinin and calbindin as previously shown in other species including human. We have found that the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis, which is identified in the human but not in macaque monkeys, is present in the chimpanzee brainstem. However, the arcuate nucleus, which is present in humans, was not found in chimpanzees. The present study reveals major differences in the organization of the vestibular brainstem among Old World anthropoid primate species. Furthermore, in chimpanzees, as well as humans, there is individual variability in the organization of brainstem nuclei.

  2. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  3. Nesting Ecology of a Small Montane Population of the Nigerian/Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Moltchanova, Elena; Chapman, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nest site choice by chimpanzees has implications for ecology, anthropology, and in the collection of census data, yet it remains controversial. Here we provide the first information on environmental factors affecting nest site choice in a montane population of the rare and relatively understudied Nigerian/Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Nigeria. The forest is small, isolated, and visited by researchers, community members, and hunters. We also tested the hypothesis that people (researchers) walking along forest trails collecting data on a regular basis since 2005 will have changed nesting behaviour in the vicinity of the trails. Along the trails searched for nests, the chimpanzees used a subset of 35 (28.5%) of all available tree species. The top 5 nest tree species represented 16% of all non-nest tree species. The nest trees were on steeper than average slopes and the trees themselves were shorter and had a smaller DBH (diameter at breast height) than trees without nests. We found no evidence to suggest a change in nesting behaviour along trails compared with off trails; however, the average nest height today is considerably higher than it was in 2004, which may indicate a change in behaviour across the whole forest.

  4. Maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Delay maintenance, which is the continuance over time of the choice to forgo an immediate, less preferred reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). In the 1st experiment, the apes were presented with 20 chocolate pieces that were placed, one at a time, into a bowl that was within their reach. The apes could consume the available chocolate pieces at any time during a trial, but no additional pieces would be given. The total length of time taken to place the 20 items into the bowl ranged from 60 s to 180 s. All 5 apes delayed gratification on a majority of trials until all 20 chocolate pieces were presented. Unlike in most experiments with human children using this test situation, attention by the apes to the reward was not detrimental to delay maintenance. In a 2nd experiment with the chimpanzees only, 4 foods of differing incentive value were presented in different trials in the same manner as in Experiment 1. The chimpanzees were highly successful in obtaining all food pieces, and there was no difference in performance as a function of food type.

  5. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine.

  6. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa.

  7. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  8. Long-term balancing selection at the antiviral gene OAS1 in Central African chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, William; Dvora, Shira; Fikes, Ronald W; Stone, Anne C; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon-induced enzymes that participate in the first line of defense against a wide range of viral infection in animals. Upon activation by viral double-stranded RNA, OAS synthesizes (2-5) oligoadenylates, which activate RNase L, leading to the nonspecific degradation of cellular and viral RNA. Some association studies in humans suggest that variation at one of the OAS genes, OAS1, could be influencing host susceptibility to viral infection. We assessed the diversity of OAS1 in hominoid primates with a focus on chimpanzees. We found that the OAS1 gene is extremely polymorphic in Central African chimpanzee and exhibits levels of silent and replacement diversity much higher than neutral regions of the chimpanzee genome. This level of variation strongly suggests that balancing selection is acting on OAS1, and indeed, this conclusion was validated by several tests of neutrality. We further demonstrated that balancing selection has been acting at this locus since the split between chimpanzees, humans, and gorillas (~8.6 Ma) and caused the persistence of two deeply divergent allelic lineages in Central African chimpanzees. These two groups of OAS1 alleles differ by a large number of amino acids (a.a.), including several a.a. putatively involved in RNA binding. It is therefore very likely that variation at the OAS1 locus affects the innate immune response of individuals to specific viral infection. Our data strongly suggest that interactions between viral RNA and OAS1 are responsible for the maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms at this locus for at least 13.2 My.

  9. Vocal learning of a communicative signal in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jamie L; McIntyre, Joseph M; Hopkins, William D; Taglialatela, Jared P

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that chimpanzees could learn to produce attention-getting (AG) sounds via positive reinforcement. We conducted a vocal assessment in 76 captive chimpanzees for their use of AG sounds to acquire the attention of an otherwise inattentive human. Fourteen individuals that did not produce AG sounds during the vocal assessment were evaluated for their ability to acquire the use of an AG sound through operant conditioning and to employ these sounds in an attention-getting context. Nine of the 14 chimpanzees were successfully shaped using positive reinforcement to produce an AG sound. In a post-training vocal assessment, eight of the nine individuals that were successfully trained to produce AG sounds generalized the use of these newly acquired signals to communicatively relevant situations. Chimpanzees possess the ability to acquire the use of a communicative signal via operant conditioning and can generalize the use of this newly acquired signal to appropriate communicative contexts.

  10. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  11. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  12. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment.

  13. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities. PMID:27870877

  14. New tools suggest local variation in tool use by a montane community of the rare Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Regional variations in tool use among chimpanzee subspecies and between populations within the same subspecies can often be explained by ecological constraints, although cultural variation also occurs. In this study we provide data on tool use by a small, recently isolated population of the endangered Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti, thus demonstrating regional variation in tool use in this rarely studied subspecies. We found that the Ngel Nyaki chimpanzee community has its own unique tool kit consisting of five different tool types. We describe a tool type that has rarely been observed (ant-digging stick) and a tool type that has never been recorded for this chimpanzee subspecies or in West Central Africa (food pound/grate stone). Our results suggest that there is fine- scale variation in tool use among geographically close communities of P. t. ellioti, and that these variations likely reflect both ecological constraints and cultural variation.

  15. Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Normand, Emmanuelle; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2009-11-01

    It is assumed that spatial memory contributes crucially to animal cognition since animals' habitats entail a large number of dispersed and unpredictable food sources. Spatial memory has been investigated under controlled conditions, with different species showing and different conditions leading to varying performance levels. However, the number of food sources investigated is very low compared to what exists under natural conditions, where food resources are so abundant that it is difficult to precisely identify what is available. By using a detailed botanical map containing over 12,499 trees known to be used by the Taï chimpanzees, we created virtual maps of all productive fruit trees to simulate potential strategies used by wild chimpanzees to reach resources without spatial memory. First, we simulated different assumptions concerning the chimpanzees' preference for a particular tree species, and, second, we varied the detection field to control for the possible use of smell to detect fruiting trees. For all these assumptions, we compared simulated distance travelled, frequencies of trees visited, and revisit rates with what we actually observed in wild chimpanzees. Our results show that chimpanzees visit rare tree species more frequently, travel shorter distances to reach them, and revisit the same trees more often than if they had no spatial memory. In addition, we demonstrate that chimpanzees travel longer distances to reach resources where they will eat for longer periods of time, and revisit resources more frequently where they ate for a long period of time during their first visit. Therefore, this study shows that forest chimpanzees possess a precise spatial memory which allows them to remember the location of numerous resources and use this information to select the most attractive resources.

  16. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20–30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is

  17. Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) delay gratification by choosing token exchange over immediate reward consumption.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Token exchange inherently introduces an element of delay between behavior and reward and so token studies may help us better understand delay of gratification and self-control. To examine this possibility, we presented three language-trained chimpanzees with repeated choices involving different foods that could be eaten immediately or lexigram (graphic symbol) tokens that represented (and could be traded for) foods later. When both options were foods, chimpanzees always chose more preferred foods over less preferred foods. When both options were lexigram tokens representing those same foods, performance remained the same as chimpanzees selected the higher value token and then traded it for food. Then, when faced with choosing a token that could be traded later or choosing a food item that could be eaten immediately, most chimpanzees learned to make whatever response led to the more preferred food. They did this even when that meant selecting a high value lexigram token that could be traded only 2 to 3 min later instead of a medium value, but immediately available, food item. Thus, chimpanzees flexibly selected tokens even though such selections necessarily delayed gratification and required forgoing immediately available food. This finding illustrates the utility of symbolic token exchange for assessing self-control in nonhuman animals.

  18. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the gastroesophageal junction in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Stovall, Melissa I; Breding, Eileen; Crane, Maria M

    2014-06-01

    A 49-y-old, female chimpanzee presented with a history of cardiac failure. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with congestive heart failure and 2 incidental, round, firm, pale-tan intramural nodules (diameter, 2 cm) in the stomach at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Histologically, the GEJ nodules were diagnosed as benign spindle-cell tumors. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed neoplastic cells diffusely labeled with α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, multifocally labeled for desmin, and were negative for c-kit (CD117). Electron microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic bundles of myofilaments with dense bodies, basal lamina, and few pinocytic vesicles in the neoplastic cells. According to these findings, leiomyomas of the GEJ were diagnosed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been documented to occur in chimpanzees, but there are no reports of GEJ leiomyomas. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous leiomyomas of the GEJ in a chimpanzee.

  19. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  20. Flexibility and persistence of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foraging behavior in a captive environment.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Milstein, Marissa S; Calcutt, Sarah E; Ross, Stephen R; Wagner, Kathy E; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2012-07-01

    As a result of environmental variability, animals may be confronted with uncertainty surrounding the presence of, or accessibility to, food resources at a given location or time. While individuals can rely on personal experience to manage this variability, the behavior of members of an individual's social group can also provide information regarding the availability or location of a food resource. The purpose of the present study was to measure how captive chimpanzees individually and collectively adjust their foraging strategies at an artificial termite mound, as the availability of resources provided by the mound varied over a number of weeks. As predicted, fishing activity at the mound was related to resource availability. However, chimpanzees continued to fish at unbaited locations on the days and weeks after a location had last contained food. Consistent with previous studies, our findings show that chimpanzees do not completely abandon previously learned habits despite learning individually and/or socially that the habit is no longer effective.

  1. Grip preference, dermatoglyphics, and hand use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Hostetter, Autumn; Pilcher, Dawn; Dahl, Jeremy F

    2005-09-01

    This paper examined the association between grip type, hand use, and fingerprint patterns in a sample of captive chimpanzees. Grip type for simple reaching was assessed for the left and right hand and classified as thumb-index, middle-index, or single-digit responses. Fingerprint patterns were characterized as whorls, loops, or arches on each finger. The results indicated that chimpanzees exhibit significantly more thumb-index responses for the right compared to the left hand. In addition, thumb-index responses were more prevalent for subjects that had a whorl compared to a loop or arch on their thumb. The results suggest that fingerprint patterns are associated with individual differences in grasping type in chimpanzees as well as some variation in hand use.

  2. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  3. The effects of antifreeze peptide III (AFP) and insulin transferrin selenium (ITS) on cryopreservation of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Younis, A I; Rooks, B; Khan, S; Gould, K G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of antifreeze peptides (AFP) and insulin transferrin selenium (ITS) on the motility and membrane integrity of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spermatozoa after chilling (0-5 degrees C) and thawing. The effects of three thawing procedures, in the presence or absence of AFP and ITS, on sperm motility and on the status of the plasma membrane and acrosome were also examined. During chilling, AFP and ITS seem mildly cytotoxic, as the progressive motility and velocity (curvilinear and straight line) declined significantly at AFP concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 microg/ml and at ITS concentrations of 1 and 10 microg/ml. However, at a concentration of 100 microg/ml, ITS was able to protect sperm during short-term hypothermic storage. Addition of AFP or ITS at 100 microg/ml to test egg yolk-glycerol extender during freezing significantly (P < 0.05) increased postthaw motility, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity. The mean (+/-SE) motility recovery rate increased from 28.9 +/- 3.9%, for the untreated control, to 59.2 +/- 5.8% and 67.8 +/- 7.4%, for ITS and AFP, respectively. The effects of the thawing procedure were influenced by the presence of AFP during the freezing cycle. An improved motility recovery rate of 67 +/- 4.2% was obtained when chimpanzee sperm frozen in test egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with AFP were thawed rapidly at 37 degrees C, compared to 47 +/- 5.2% and 44 +/- 8.2% for slow (23 degrees C) and ultrarapid (75 degrees C) thawing, respectively. The motility recovery after thawing of ITS-treated semen at 23 degrees C, 37 degrees C, or 75 degrees C was not significantly different. Semen frozen without AFP or ITS and thawed at 75 degrees C was seriously (P < 0.05) damaged. This study provides evidence that AFP- or ITS-supplemented semen extender improves postthaw sperm motility in the chimpanzee.

  4. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions.

  5. How to crack nuts: acquisition process in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) observing a model.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Satoshi; Morimura, Naruki; Houki, Chiharu

    2009-10-01

    Stone tool use for nut cracking consists of placing a hard-shelled nut onto a stone anvil and then cracking the shell open by pounding it with a stone hammer to get to the kernel. We investigated the acquisition of tool use for nut cracking in a group of captive chimpanzees to clarify what kind of understanding of the tools and actions will lead to the acquisition of this type of tool use in the presence of a skilled model. A human experimenter trained a male chimpanzee until he mastered the use of a hammer and anvil stone to crack open macadamia nuts. He was then put in a nut-cracking situation together with his group mates, who were naïve to this tool use; we did not have a control group without a model. The results showed that the process of acquisition could be broken down into several steps, including recognition of applying pressure to the nut,emergence of the use of a combination of three objects, emergence of the hitting action, using a tool for hitting, and hitting the nut. The chimpanzees recognized these different components separately and practiced them one after another. They gradually united these factors in their behavior leading to their first success. Their behavior did not clearly improve immediately after observing successful nut cracking by a peer, but observation of a skilled group member seemed to have a gradual, long-term influence on the acquisition of nut cracking by naïve chimpanzees.

  6. Acupuncture as an adjunct therapy for osteoarthritis in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-07-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees.

  7. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  8. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Associations between Personality and Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Hecht, Lisa K.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Converging empirical data suggests a set of largely consistent personality traits exist in both human and nonhuman primates; despite these similarities, almost nothing is known concerning the neurobiological basis of these traits in nonhuman primates. The current study examined associations between chimpanzee personality traits and the grey matter volume and asymmetry of various frontal cortex regions in 107 captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzees rated as higher on Openness and Extraversion had greater bilateral grey matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Further, chimpanzee rated as higher on Dominance had larger grey volumes in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Finally, apes rated higher on Reactivity/Unpredictability had higher grey matter volumes in the right mesial PFC. All associations survived after applying False Discovery Rate (FDR) thresholds. Results are discussed in terms of current neuroscientific models of personality which suggest that the frontal cortex, and asymmetries in this region, play an important role in the neurobiological foundation of broad dispositional traits. PMID:26311604

  9. Dogs (Canis familiaris), but not chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), understand imperative pointing.

    PubMed

    Kirchhofer, Katharina C; Zimmermann, Felizitas; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chimpanzees routinely follow the gaze of humans to outside targets. However, in most studies using object choice they fail to use communicative gestures (e.g. pointing) to find hidden food. Chimpanzees' failure to do this may be due to several difficulties with this paradigm. They may, for example, misinterpret the gesture as referring to the opaque cup instead of the hidden food. Or perhaps they do not understand informative communicative intentions. In contrast, dogs seem to be skilful in using human communicative cues in the context of finding food, but as of yet there is not much data showing whether they also use pointing in the context of finding non-food objects. Here we directly compare chimpanzees' (N = 20) and dogs' (N = 32) skills in using a communicative gesture directed at a visible object out of reach of the human but within reach of the subject. Pairs of objects were placed in view of and behind the subjects. The task was to retrieve the object the experimenter wanted. To indicate which one she desired, the experimenter pointed imperatively to it and directly rewarded the subject for handing over the correct one. While dogs performed well on this task, chimpanzees failed to identify the referent. Implications for great apes' and dogs' understanding of human communicative intentions are discussed.

  10. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, Ivan; Kalousová, Barbora; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, Fiona; Levecke, Bruno; Modrý, David; Piel, Alex K; Petrželková, Klára J

    2016-05-01

    To address the molecular diversity and occurrence of pathogenic species of the genus Entamoeba spp. in wild non-human primates (NHP) we conducted molecular-phylogenetic analyses on Entamoeba from wild chimpanzees living in the Issa Valley, Tanzania. We compared the sensitivity of molecular [using a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and coproscopic detection (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration) of Entamoeba spp. We identified Entamoeba spp. in 72 chimpanzee fecal samples (79%) subjected to species-specific PCRs for six Entamoeba species/groups (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba polecki ST2). We recorded three Entamoeba species: E. coli (47%), E. dispar (16%), Entamoeba hartmanni (51%). Coproscopically, we could only distinguish the cysts of complex E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii/nuttalli and E. coli. Molecular prevalence of entamoebas was higher than the prevalence based on the coproscopic examination. Our molecular phylogenies showed that sequences of E. dispar and E. coli from Issa chimpanzees are closely related to sequences from humans and other NHP from GenBank. The results showed that wild chimpanzees harbour Entamoeba species similar to those occurring in humans; however, no pathogenic species were detected. Molecular-phylogenetic methods are critical to improve diagnostics of entamoebas in wild NHP and for determining an accurate prevalence of Entamoeba species.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of degenerative joint disease in a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-03-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. Progression from minimal to moderate to severe osteoarthritis occurred in this animal over the course of 1 y. Treatment with chondroprotective supplements (that is, glucosamine chondroitin, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) and intraarticular corticosteroid injections (that is, methylprednisolone, ketorolac), together with pain management (that is, celecoxib, tramadol, carprofen), resulted in increased activity levels and decreased clinical signs of disease. DJD has a considerable negative effect on quality of life among the human geriatric population and therefore is likely to be one of the most significant diseases that will affect the increasingly aged captive chimpanzee population. As this case study demonstrates, appropriate treatment can improve and extend quality of life dramatically in these animals. However, in cases of severe osteoarthritis cases, medication alone may be insufficient to increase stability, and surgical options should be explored.

  12. Brief communication: Cineradiographic analysis of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nathan E; Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Larson, Susan G

    2014-08-01

    During terrestrial locomotion, chimpanzees exhibit dorsiflexion of the midfoot between midstance and toe-off of stance phase, a phenomenon that has been called the "midtarsal break." This motion is generally absent during human bipedalism, and in chimpanzees is associated with more mobile foot joints than in humans. However, the contribution of individual foot joints to overall foot mobility in chimpanzees is poorly understood, particularly on the medial side of the foot. The talonavicular (TN) and calcaneocuboid (CC) joints have both been suggested to contribute significantly to midfoot mobility and to the midtarsal break in chimpanzees. To evaluate the relative magnitude of motion that can occur at these joints, we tracked skeletal motion of the hindfoot and midfoot during passive plantarflexion and dorsiflexion manipulations using cineradiography. The sagittal plane range of motion was 38 ± 10° at the TN joint and 14 ± 8° at the CC joint. This finding indicates that the TN joint is more mobile than the CC joint during ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. We suggest that the larger range of motion at the TN joint during dorsiflexion is associated with a rotation (inversion-eversion) across the transverse tarsal joint, which may occur in addition to sagittal plane motion.

  13. Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Associations between personality and frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Hecht, Lisa K; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-12-01

    Converging empirical data suggests that a set of largely consistent personality traits exist in both human and nonhuman primates; despite these similarities, almost nothing is known concerning the neurobiological basis of these traits in nonhuman primates. The current study examined associations between chimpanzee personality traits and the grey matter volume and asymmetry of various frontal cortex regions in 107 captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzees rated as higher on Openness and Extraversion had greater bilateral grey matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Further, chimpanzee rated as higher on Dominance had larger grey volumes in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Finally, apes rated higher on Reactivity/Unpredictability had higher grey matter volumes in the right mesial PFC. All associations survived after applying False Discovery Rate (FDR) thresholds. Results are discussed in terms of current neuroscientific models of personality which suggest that the frontal cortex, and asymmetries in this region, play an important role in the neurobiological foundation of broad dispositional traits.

  14. Displacement behaviors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A neurogenomics investigation of the RDoC Negative Valence Systems domain.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Young, Larry J; Hopkins, William D

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to systematically investigate genetic and neuroanatomical correlates of individual variation in scratching behaviors, a well-validated animal-behavioral indicator of negative emotional states with clear links to the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) response to potential harm ("anxiety") construct within the Negative Valence Systems domain. Utilizing data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we (a) examined the association between scratching and presence or absence of the RS3-containing DupB element in the AVPR1A 5' flanking region, (b) utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify gray matter (GM) voxel clusters that differentiated AVPR1A genotype, and (c) conducted a VBM-guided voxel-of-interest analysis to examine the association between GM intensity and scratching. AVPR1A evidenced sexually dimorphic associations with scratching. VBM analyses revealed significant differences in GM by genotype across twelve clusters largely in the frontal cortex. Regions differentiating AVPR1A genotype showed sex-specific associations with scratching. Results suggest that sexually dimorphic associations between AVPR1A and scratching may be explained by genotype-specific neuroanatomical variation. The current study provides an example of the way in which chimpanzee research is uniquely poised for multilevel, systematic investigations of psychopathology-relevant constructs within the context of the RDoC framework.

  15. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion.

  16. Environmental variables across Pan troglodytes study sites correspond with the carbon, but not the nitrogen, stable isotope ratios of chimpanzee hair.

    PubMed

    Schoeninger, Margaret J; Most, Corinna A; Moore, Jim J; Somerville, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Diet influences the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13) C and δ(15) N values) in animal tissue; but here we explore the influences of particular aspects of the local environment on those values in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this article we present new δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in Gombe chimpanzees using hairs collected from night nests in 1989. Then, we explore the influence of environmental factors by comparing our Gombe data to those from eight additional Pan study sites with previously published stable isotope data. We compare chimpanzee δ(13) Chair and δ(15) Nhar values to specific characteristics of local site ecology (biome and ecoregion) and to local Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) to test hypotheses based on known effects of these variables on the δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in plant tissues. The comparison shows that hair from chimpanzees living in savanna sites with lower MAP have higher δ(13) Chair values than do chimpanzees living in woodland and forested sites with higher MAP. These results demonstrate the potential of using δ(13) C values in primate tissue to indicate aspects of their local ecology in cases where the ecology is uncertain, such as samples collected early in the last century and in fossil hominins. In contrast to expectations, however, chimpanzee δ(15) Nhair values from some savanna sites with lower MAP are lower, not higher, than those living in more forested areas with higher MAP. It is likely that diet selectivity by chimpanzees affects δ(15) Nhair values to a greater extent than does the influence of precipitation on plants. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1055-1069, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effectiveness of using carbonate isotope measurements of body tissues to infer diet in human evolution: Evidence from wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Boesch, Christophe; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Changes in diet throughout hominin evolution have been linked with important evolutionary changes. Stable carbon isotope analysis of inorganic apatite carbonate is the main isotopic method used to reconstruct fossil hominin diets; to test its effectiveness as a paleodietary indicator we present bone and enamel carbonate carbon isotope data from a well-studied population of modern wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known sex and age from Taï, Cote d'Ivoire. We found a significant effect of age class on bone carbonate values, with adult chimpanzees being more (13)C- and (18)O-depleted compared to juveniles. Further, to investigate habitat effects, we compared our data to existing apatite data on eastern chimpanzees (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii) and found that the Taï chimpanzees are significantly more depleted in enamel δ(13)Cap and δ(18)Oap compared to their eastern counterparts. Our data are the first to present a range of tissue-specific isotope data from the same group of wild western chimpanzees and, as such, add new data to the growing number of modern non-human primate comparative isotope datasets providing valuable information for the interpretation of diet throughout hominin evolution. By comparing our data to published isotope data on fossil hominins we found that our modern chimpanzee bone and enamel data support hypotheses that the trend towards increased consumption of C4 foods after 4 Ma (millions of years ago) is unique to hominins.

  18. Expression of beta-defensin-1 in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) airways.

    PubMed

    Duits, L A; Langermans, J A; Paltansing, S; van der Straaten, T; Vervenne, R A; Frost, P A; Hiemstra, P S; Thomas, A W; Nibbering, P H

    2000-10-01

    In human airways, beta-defensins function in the elimination of various pathogens. They have been identified in a wide range of species. Here we report the identification and expression of chimpanzee beta-defensin-1 (cBD1), which is a homolog of human beta-defensin-1, in chimpanzee airways and skin. The cBD1 cDNA sequence differs by only one synonymous nucleotide substitution compared to the human cDNA sequence. In situ hybridization revealed that in lung tissue beside alveolar macrophages also airway epithelial cells, endothelial cells and type II pneumocytes express cBD1 mRNA. In skin, cBD1 mRNA was expressed in keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Together, these results show similarity in structure and expression pattern and perhaps in function.

  19. Genetic analysis of putative familial relationships in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Renato; Lorenz, Joseph; Beck, Jeanne; Else, James; Bender, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Twelve autosomal dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed in chimpanzees genomes by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. The markers span the entire length of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Nine markers were polymorphic in chimpanzee as well, with a somewhat comparable level of polymorphism and allele size range. Even in the presence of very limited information and in spite of missing samples, it was possible to reconstruct a complex pedigree and to provide molecular data that corroborate family relationships that were deduced from cage history and behavioral data. The conclusions were further supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis. The data presented in this report show that the extremely abundant source of human markers may be exploited to validate, with molecular evidence, hypotheses on individual relationship or alleged pedigrees, based upon behavioral observations.

  20. "Missing perikymata"--fact or fiction? A study on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) canines.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Uwe; Skinner, Matthew M; Skinner, Mark F

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a lower than expected number of perikymata between repetitive furrow-type hypoplastic defects has been reported in chimpanzee canines from the Fongoli site, Senegal (Skinner and Pruetz: Am J Phys Anthropol 149 (2012) 468-482). Based on an observation in a localized enamel fracture surface of a canine of a chimpanzee from the Taï Forest (Ivory Coast), these authors inferred that a nonemergence of striae of Retzius could be the cause for the "missing perikymata" phenomenon in the Fongoli chimpanzees. To check this inference, we analyzed the structure of outer enamel in three chimpanzee canines. The teeth were studied using light-microscopic and scanning-electron microscopic techniques. Our analysis of the specimen upon which Skinner and Pruetz (Am J Phys Anthropol 149 (2012) 468-482) had made their original observation does not support their hypothesis. We demonstrate that the enamel morphology described by them is not caused by a nonemergence of striae of Retzius but can be attributed to structural variations in outer enamel that result in a differential fracture behavior. Although rejecting the presumed existence of nonemergent striae of Retzius, our study provided evidence that, in furrow-type hypoplastic defects, a pronounced tapering of Retzius increments can occur, with the striae of Retzius forming acute angles with the outer enamel surface. We suggest that in such cases the outcrop of some striae of Retzius is essentially unobservable at the enamel surface, causing too low perikymata counts. The pronounced tapering of Retzius increments in outer enamel presumably reflects a mild to moderate disturbance of the function of late secretory ameloblasts.

  1. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Carlitz, Esther H. D.; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species. PMID:27050418

  2. Saving the gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan t. troglodytes) of the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Tutin, C E

    2001-01-01

    The forests of the Congo Basin in equatorial Africa are home to significant populations of gorillas and chimpanzees. However, numbers are declining owing to hunting and to alteration of their habitat. Gorillas and chimpanzees are particularly vulnerable for biological reasons: slow reproduction, prolonged developmental periods and complex social behaviour. In addition, their capacity to recover from disturbance is limited and the reinforcement of wild populations with captive-born individuals is rarely an option. Compared with the critically endangered mountain gorillas and the beleaguered chimpanzees in forest fragments in West Africa, there are some reasons for optimism about the future of the Congo Basin apes: levels of threat remain relatively low; and conservation of tropical rainforests has become a priority of the international community. At the same time, knowledge of the ecological needs of wild apes has increased and non-invasive techniques now exist to monitor population health. Sadly, no animals remain truly 'wild', as their survival depends to a greater or lesser extent on management. Protected areas and laws that forbid hunting of vulnerable species are classic tools of management, but broader landscape visions are now emerging that may allow the Congo Basin to avoid the fragile scenario of larger animals persisting only in 'island' parks.

  3. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  4. Skill mastery inhibits adoption of observed alternative solutions among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hrubesch, Christine; Preuschoft, Signe; van Schaik, Carel

    2009-03-01

    Geographic variation in socially transmitted skills and signals, similar to human culture, has been well documented for great apes. The rules governing the adoption of novel behaviours, however, are still largely unknown. We conducted an innovation-and-transmission experiment with two groups of chimpanzees living at hopE Primate Sanctuary Gänserndorf, Austria, presenting a board on which food had to be manoeuvred around obstacles to be acquired. Most chimpanzees used sticks to acquire the food, but five adults independently invented a novel technique, rattling, which was subsequently tested by almost all group members. However, individuals who had become proficient with sticks were reluctant to switch to rattling, despite it being more efficient. Similarly, after rattling was prevented, rattle specialists kept trying to rattle and made no attempt to use the stick technique, despite their knowledge about its existence. We conclude that innovators stimulate others to experiment with the solutions they display, but that chimpanzees are nevertheless conservative; mastery of a skill inhibits further exploration, and hence adoption of alternative techniques even if these are more efficient. Consequently, conformity among group members should not be expected in great apes when individuals develop proficiency at different techniques. Conservatism thus joins conformity as a mechanism to bring about cultural uniformity and stability.

  5. Robust Retention and Transfer of Tool Construction Techniques in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Pender, Lydia; Price, Elizabeth; Whiten, Andrew; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory can be critical to a species’ survival in environments with seasonal and even longer-term cycles of resource availability. The present, longitudinal study investigated whether complex tool behaviors used to gain an out-of-reach reward, following a hiatus of about 3 years and 7 months since initial experiences with a tool use task, were retained and subsequently executed more quickly by experienced than by naïve chimpanzees. Ten of the 11 retested chimpanzees displayed impressive long-term procedural memory, creating elongated tools using the same methods employed years previously, either combining 2 tools or extending a single tool. The complex tool behaviors were also transferred to a different task context, showing behavioral flexibility. This represents some of the first evidence for appreciable long-term procedural memory, and improvements in the utility of complex tool manufacture in chimpanzees. Such long-term procedural memory and behavioral flexibility have important implications for the longevity and transmission of behavioral traditions. PMID:26881941

  6. Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum parietale in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Taglialatela, Jared P; Dadda, Marco; Hopkins, William D

    2007-12-03

    Magnetic resonance images were collected in 76 chimpanzees and the sylvian fissure was examined for the presence of a posterior bifurcation. A bilateral bifurcation of the sylvian fissure into an ascending and descending ramus was identified in 58 of the subjects. The posterior ascending ramus was measured in both hemispheres in order to evaluate the presence, magnitude, and direction of a planum parietale asymmetry. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex. Specifically, females showed a significant rightward bias, whereas males did not. Moreover, an examination of posterior bifurcation patterns of the sylvian fissure revealed differences between the left and right hemispheres. In humans, subject handedness and sex have been found to have an effect on planum parietale asymmetry. To determine if this was also the case in our chimpanzee subjects, we evaluated whether or not planum parietale asymmetry was related to subject handedness. Although subject handedness was not directly related to planum parietale asymmetry quotients, whether or not the sylvian fissure bifurcated bilaterally at its posterior end was influenced by the handedness of the subjects. These results support the view that asymmetries in the perisylvian language areas were present in the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.

  7. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  8. Long-term reciprocation of grooming in wild West African chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cristina M.; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Humans are well known for their ability to keep track of social debts over extended periods of time, and for their tendency to preferentially cooperate with closely bonded partners. Non-human primates have been shown to cooperate with kin and non-kin, and reciprocate helpful acts. However, there is ongoing debate over whether they keep track of previous interactions and, if so, whether they can do it over extended periods of time, or are constrained to finalize exchanges within a single encounter. In this study, we used 3000 hours of all-day focal follows of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) to investigate whether both females and males reciprocate grooming within a single interaction, throughout the day, or over longer periods of time. We found that grooming was reciprocated more symmetrically when measured on a long-term, rather than on an immediate or short-term basis. Random giving, general allocation of grooming efforts, similarities among individuals and kinship do not appear to explain these highly reciprocal exchanges. Previously collected consecutive focal follows of single individuals revealed that dyads groomed an average of once every 7 days. Our findings strongly suggest that chimpanzees, similar to humans, are able to keep track of past social interactions, at least for a one-week period, and balance services over repeated encounters. PMID:18957365

  9. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    PubMed

    Duval, Linda; Nerrienet, Eric; Rousset, Dominique; Sadeuh Mba, Serge Alain; Houze, Sandrine; Fourment, Mathieu; Le Bras, Jacques; Robert, Vincent; Ariey, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  10. Chimpanzee Malaria Parasites Related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Linda; Nerrienet, Eric; Rousset, Dominique; Sadeuh Mba, Serge Alain; Houze, Sandrine; Fourment, Mathieu; Le Bras, Jacques; Robert, Vincent; Ariey, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes. PMID:19436742

  11. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R; Mullikin, James C; Meader, Stephen J; Ponting, Chris P; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-06-28

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other.

  12. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R.; Mullikin, James C.; Meader, Stephen J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E.; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E.; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours1–4, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other. PMID:22722832

  13. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, J D; Bertolani, P; Ontl, K Boyer; Lindshield, S; Shelley, M; Wessling, E G

    2015-04-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins.

  14. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Pruetz, J. D.; Bertolani, P.; Ontl, K. Boyer; Lindshield, S.; Shelley, M.; Wessling, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis that sex and age patterns in tool-assisted hunting (n=308 cases) at Fongoli occur and differ from chimpanzees elsewhere, and we compare tool-assisted hunting to the overall hunting pattern. Males accounted for 70% of all captures but hunted with tools less than expected based on their representation on hunting days. Females accounted for most tool-assisted hunting. We propose that social tolerance at Fongoli, along with the tool-assisted hunting method, permits individuals other than adult males to capture and retain control of prey, which is uncommon for chimpanzees. We assert that tool-assisted hunting could have similarly been important for early hominins. PMID:26064638

  15. Detection of hepatitis B virus infection in wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): phylogenetic relationships with human and other primate genotypes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, D M; Holmes, E C; Lewis, J C; Simmonds, P

    2000-05-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected by serological testing for HBV surface antigen and by PCR assay for HBV DNA in serum samples from two common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes subsp. verus) born in West Africa. The complete genome sequences obtained by nucleotide sequencing of overlapping DNA fragments amplified by PCR were compared with HBV variants recovered from other primates and with human genotypes A to F. Both chimpanzee sequences were 3, 182 nucleotides in length, and the surface gene sequence predicted the existence of a, d, and w serological determinants. Neither sequence contained stop codons in the precore region. On phylogenetic analysis, the HBV variants infecting the chimpanzees clustered together with a third chimpanzee HBV isolate independently obtained from an infected captive animal (A. J. Zuckerman, A. Thornton, C. R. Howard, K. N. Tsiquaye, D. M. Jones, and M. R. Brambell, Lancet ii:652-654, 1978), with an overall sequence similarity of >94%. This provides strong evidence for a chimpanzee-specific genotype of HBV which circulates in nature. These findings add to the recent evidence for infection in the wild of other Old and New World primates (gibbon, orangutan, and woolly monkey) with species-specific variants of HBV. There is no evidence for close phylogenetic clustering of variants found so far in primates with any of the established HBV genotypes from humans. With the new evidence for the widespread distribution of HBV in primates, hypotheses for the origins of human infection are reviewed.

  16. Assessment of behavior and space use before and after forelimb amputation in a zoo-housed chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ang, Mabel Y L; Shender, Marisa A; Ross, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Primates possess great manual dexterity, and their limbs are integral to many aspects of normal functioning (e.g., climbing, feeding). As such, the loss of a limb carries the risk of significant disability and potentially harmful impairment of species-typical functioning. Limb loss is known to occur in some wild primate populations due to entanglement in hunting snares, but can also occur in captive settings due to injury that necessitates therapeutic amputation. In this study, we conducted a detailed evaluation of the behavior, travel, and space use expressed by a female zoo-housed chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) before and following surgical amputation of her right forelimb. Overall, our results suggest that the injury did not substantively affect her daily activities. She showed no change to her vertical space use, spending equivalent proportions of her time on the ground and high in the enclosure. There was a decrease in the frequency of locomotion on the ground (P = 0.006) but also a significant increase in the overall distance travelled (P = 0.0015) following the removal of the limb. This case study provides evidence that individual chimpanzees are able to successfully adjust to significant anatomical changes when provided adequate environments in which to stay active, and highlights the importance of an effective post-surgical monitoring period-a comprehensive recovery evaluation that includes input from both veterinary and behavioral research staff is likely to provide the most holistic assessment of animal health and long-term wellbeing. Zoo Biol. 36:5-10, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus)

    PubMed Central

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  18. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals.

  19. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.

  20. Discrimination of contour-deleted images in baboons (Papio papio) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Martin-Malivel, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Humans readily group component elements into a coherent perceptual whole and perceive the global form of visual patterns in priority over local features, which stands in contrast to at least some data from the animal literature, suggesting possible species differences in perceptual processes. In this study, chimpanzees and baboons were required to match intact and partially contour-deleted line-drawings in a computerized task in order to further explore the ability of nonhuman primates to group component elements into a coherent perceptual whole and to determine to what extent they use the global form or the local features. Experiment 1 showed that the baboons and chimpanzees matched intact continuous line-drawings (intact-intact) more easily than partially contour-deleted line-drawings (deleted-deleted). Both species could also match partially deleted line-drawings with their intact version (deleted-intact), but at a lower performance level. Experiment 2 further showed that subjects from the two species could match partially deleted coherent line-drawings (deleted-deleted) more easily than their scrambled incoherent versions (scrambled-scrambled). They could however match the coherent deleted forms with their scrambled version (deleted-scrambled). It is suggested that solutions of these tasks rely on the processing of both global and local cues, with no clear-cut species difference in that ability. Overall, the results show that contour completion of line-drawings was not easy. Implications on the processing of human-made two-dimensional representations such as line-drawings are discussed.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Naito, Mariko; Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Takada, Kazuko; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 was isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and was found to be the most closely related species of the mutans group streptococci to Streptococcus mutans. The complete sequence of TKU31 genome consists of a single circular chromosome that is 2,097,874 base pairs long and has a G + C content of 37.18%. It possesses 2082 coding sequences (CDSs), 65 tRNAs and five rRNA operons (15 rRNAs). Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, six insertion sequences and two predicted prophage elements were identified. The genome of TKU31 harbors some putative virulence associated genes, including gtfB, gtfC and gtfD genes encoding glucosyltransferase and gbpA, gbpB, gbpC and gbpD genes encoding glucan-binding cell wall-anchored protein. The deduced amino acid identity of the rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide F gene (rgpF), which is one of the serotype determinants, is 91% identical with that of S. mutans LJ23 (serotype k) strain. However, two other virulence-associated genes cnm and cbm, which encode the collagen-binding proteins, were not found in the TKU31 genome. The complete genome sequence of S. troglodytae TKU31 has been deposited at DDBJ/European Nucleotide Archive/GenBank under the accession no. AP014612.

  2. A new entodiniomorphid ciliate, Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp., from the wild eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Modrý, David; Ito, Akira; Pomajbíková, Katerina; Petrzelková, Klára J; Imai, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp. is described from the feces of wild eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Uganda. This new species has a spherical body with a frontal lobe, a long vestibulum, a cytoproct located at the posterior dorsal side of the body, an ovoid macronucleus, a contractile vacuole near the cytoproct, and a large concavity on the left surface of the body. Buccal ciliature is non-retractable and consists of three ciliary zones: an adoral zone surrounding the vestibular opening, a dorso-adoral zone extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe, and a vestibular zone longitudinally extending in a gently spiral curve to line the surface of the vestibulum. Two non-retractable somatic ciliary zones comprise arches over the body surface: a short dorsal ciliary arch extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe and a wide C-shaped left ciliary arch in the left concavity. Because of the presence of three ciliary zones in the non-retractable buccal ciliature, the present genus might be a member of the family Blepharocorythidae, but the large left concavity and the C-shaped left ciliary arch are unique, such structures have never been described from other blepharocorythids.

  3. Age-related alterations of plasma glutathione and oxidation of redox potentials in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jamespaul; Jones, Dean P; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2014-04-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens) share physiological and genetic characteristics, but have remarkably different life spans, with chimpanzees living 50-60 % and the rhesus living 35-40 % of maximum human survival. Since oxidative processes are associated with aging and longevity, we might expect to see species differences in age-related oxidative processes. Blood and extracellular fluid contain two major thiol redox nodes, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione-disulfide (GSSG) and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS), which are subject to reversible oxidation-reduction reactions and are maintained in a dynamic non-equilibrium state. Disruption of these thiol redox nodes leads to oxidation of their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) which affects cellular physiology and is associated with aging and the development of chronic diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure age-related changes in these redox thiols and their corresponding redox potentials (Eh) in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Our results show similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH as well as oxidation of the EhGSSG in male and female chimpanzees. Female chimpanzees and female rhesus monkeys also were similar in several outcome measures. For example, similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH, as well as age-related oxidation of the EhGSSG were observed. The data collected from chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys corroborates previous reports on oxidative changes in humans and confirms their value as a comparative reference for primate aging.

  4. Spatial rotations and transpositions in orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus) and chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Call, Josep

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the ability of three chimpanzees and three orangutans to track the position of a reward after a series of displacements. The reward was placed under one of two opaque containers resting on a platform. Experiment 1 investigated rotational displacements in which the platform was rotated 0 degrees, 180 degrees, or 360 degrees. Experiment 2 investigated transpositional displacements in which the platform remained stationary while the containers either remained stationary, or swapped their positions (in a one- two- or three-step sequence). In both experiments, the initial position of the reward was indicated either by directly showing the reward under the containers, or by placing a landmark, which had been previously associated with the reward, on top of the baited container. Subjects successfully tracked the reward through rotations and transpositions when they had seen it, but their performance substantially deteriorated when the landmark indicated the reward's initial position, even though subjects successfully used the landmark to find the reward in the absence of displacements. This decrease was especially pronounced in rotational displacements. A language-trained orangutan outperformed all the other apes and solved all problems.

  5. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey: the Pan-African SCD study

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Aimé; Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Kane, Adama; Marrakchi, Sonia; Okello, Emmy; Taty, Georges; Gehani, Abdulrrazzak; Diakite, Mamadou; Talle, Mohammed A; Lambiase, Pier D; Houenassi, Martin; Chin, Ashley; Otieno, Harun; Temu, Gloria; Koffi Owusu, Isaac; Karaye, Kamilu M; Awad, Abdalla AM; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Priori, Silvia G; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300 000 to 400 000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD in Africa. Methods The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as ‘witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms’ or ‘unwitnessed natural death within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms’. After appro val from institutional boards, we will record demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and biological variables of SCD victims (including survivors of cardiac arrest) in several African cities. All deaths occurring in residents of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. Conclusion This study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of SCD in Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in this region of the world. PMID:25192301

  6. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Can Wait, When They Choose To: A Study with the Hybrid Delay Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Paglieri, Fabio; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control has been studied in nonhuman animals using a variety of tasks. The inter-temporal choice (ITC) task presents choices between smaller-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) options. Using food amounts as rewards, this presents two problems: (i) choices of the LL option could either reflect self-control or instead result from animals’ difficulty with pointing to smaller amounts of food; (ii) there is no way to verify whether the subjects would not revert their choice for the LL option, if given the opportunity to do so during the ensuing delay. To address these problems, we have recently introduced a new protocol, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial ITC with a subsequent accumulation phase in which selection of the SS option leads to its immediate delivery, but choice of the LL option then leads to one-by-one presentation of those items that continues only as long as the subject does not eat any of the accumulated items (delay maintenance). The choice of the LL option therefore only reflects self-control when the number of items obtained from LL choices during the accumulation phase is higher than what could be received in the SS option. Previous research with capuchin monkeys demonstrated that their apparent self-control responses in the ITC task may have over-estimated their general self-control abilities, given their poor performance in the hybrid delay task. Here, chimpanzees instead demonstrated that their choices for the LL option in the ITC phase of the hybrid delay task were confirmed by their ability to sustain long delays during accumulation of LL rewards. PMID:23774954

  7. A two-year longitudinal study of deferred imitation of object manipulation in a juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, D F; Bering, J M; Ragan, P

    2000-12-01

    Changes in deferred imitation of novel actions on objects were assessed over a 2-year period in two enculturated, juvenile great apes (one chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and one orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus). Both apes displayed deferred imitation, and both displayed improve ments in deferred imitation over the 2-year period, although the magnitude of improvement was greater for the chimpanzee. This is, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of longitudinal improvements of deferred imitation in great apes. The results were interpreted as reflecting maturationally paced cognitive differences consistent with other cognitive accomplishments in these species, and as demonstrating the influence that a species-atypical rearing environment can have on cognitive abilities in juvenile great apes.

  8. Pan-African genetic structure in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): investigating intraspecific divergence.

    PubMed

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today.

  9. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today. PMID:23437100

  10. A polymorphic indel containing the RS3 microsatellite in the 5' flanking region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene is associated with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Donaldson, Z R; Young, L J

    2012-07-01

    Vasopressin is a neuropeptide that has been strongly implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition in mammals. Recent studies in voles have shown that polymorphic variation in the promoter region of the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (avpr1a) is associated with different dimensions of sociality. In humans, variation in a repetitive sequence element in the 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A, known as RS3, have also been associated with variation in AVPR1a gene expression, brain activity and social behavior. Here, we examined the association of polymorphic variation in this same 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A on subjective ratings of personality in a sample of 83 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Initial analyses indicated that 34 females and 19 males were homozygous for the short allele, which lacks RS3 (DupB(-/-)), while 18 females and 12 males were heterozygous and thus had one copy of the long allele containing RS3 (DupB(+/-)), yielding overall allelic frequencies of 0.82 for the DupB(-) allele and 0.18 for the DupB(+) allele. DupB(+/+) chimpanzees were excluded from the analysis because of the limited number of individuals. Results indicated no significant sex difference in personality between chimpanzees homozygous for the deletion of the RS3-containing DupB region (DupB(-/-)); however, among chimpanzees carrying one allele with the DupB present (DupB(+/-)), males had significantly higher dominance and lower conscientiousness scores than females. These findings are the first evidence showing that the AVPR1A gene plays a role in different aspects of personality in male and female chimpanzees.

  11. From colour photographs to black-and-white line drawings: an assessment of chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes') transfer behaviour.

    PubMed

    Close, James; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over two experiments, we investigated the ability of two adolescent and two adult chimpanzees to generalise a learnt, pictorial categorisation to increasingly degraded and abstract stimuli. In Experiment 2, we further assessed the ability of the adolescent chimpanzees to engage in open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings. The current results confirmed and extended previous findings, showing that sub-adult chimpanzees outperform adult chimpanzees in the categorisation of pictorial stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are more degraded and abstract in nature. However, none of the four chimpanzees showed positive transfer of their category learning to a set of black-and-white line drawings, and neither of the adolescent chimpanzees evidenced reliable open-ended categorisation of the black-and-white line drawings. The latter findings suggest that both sub-adult and adult chimpanzees find it difficult to recognise black-and-white line drawings, and that open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings is challenging for chimpanzees.

  12. Differential onset of infantile deprivation produces distinctive long-term effects in adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kalcher, Elfriede; Franz, Cornelia; Crailsheim, Karl; Preuschoft, Signe

    2008-12-01

    Maternal or social deprivation during early infancy inevitably produces social deficiencies in juvenile chimpanzees. Hypothesizing such deficiencies to persist into adulthood (a), and, as in humans, a sensitive period in early infancy for attachment formation (b), we predicted and found behavioral differences in resocialized adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees after about 20 years of solitary confinement depending on their age at onset of deprivation: early deprived (ED; mean: 1.2 years) chimpanzees engaged significantly less in social interactions, spent less time associated, and showed more nonsocial idiosyncrasies than did late deprived (LD; mean: 3.6 years) chimpanzees. In addition to these individual attributes relational qualities, specifically the combination of ED and LD chimpanzees within social groups, have an impact on social recovery. LDs can best exploit their social potential in the company of other LDs and EDs tend to stagnate in their recovery when socialized with other EDs.

  13. Defining Value Through Quantity and Quality –Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Undervalue Food Quantities When Items are Broken

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is largely influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees’ food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a consistent bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than towards the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set’s quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a sets original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options. PMID:25447509

  14. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to Monitor Cardiac Arrhythmias and Assess the Effects of Acupuncture and Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Sleeper, Meg M; Buchl, Stephanie J; Jones, Rebekah A; Thiele, Erica J; Wilkerson, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued. After reviewing other potential therapies for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, we elected to try acupuncture and laser therapy in view of the positive results and the lack of adverse side effects reported in humans. We used 2 well-known cardiac acupuncture sites on the wrist, PC6 (pericardium 6) and HT7 (heart 7), and evaluated the results of the therapy by using the ECG recordings from the implantable loop recorder. Although periodic increases in the animal's excitement level introduced confounding variables that caused some variation in the data, acupuncture and laser therapy appeared to decrease the mean number of VPC/min in this chimpanzee. PMID:26884410

  15. Within- and Between-Task Consistency in Hand Use as a Means of Characterizing Hand Preferences in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Gardner, Molly; Mingle, Morgan; Reamer, Lisa; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    There remain considerable questions regarding the evidence for population-level handedness in nonhuman primates when compared with humans. One challenge in comparing human and nonhuman primate handedness involves the procedures used to characterize individual handedness. Studies of human handedness use consistency in hand use within and between tasks as a basis for hand preference classification. In contrast, studies of handedness in nonhuman primates use statistical criteria for classifying handedness. In this study, we examined within- and between-task consistency in hand use as a means of characterizing individual handedness in a sample of 300 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees showed population-level right-handedness for both within- and between-tasks consistency, though the proportion of right-handed chimpanzees was lower than what has typically been reported for humans. We further found that there were small, but significant, associations in hand use between measures. There were no significant sex or colony effects on the distribution of handedness. The results are discussed in the context of theories on the evolution of handedness in nonhuman primates. PMID:23356440

  16. Use of an Implantable Loop Recorder in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to Monitor Cardiac Arrhythmias and Assess the Effects of Acupuncture and Laser Therapy.

    PubMed

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Sleeper, Meg M; Buchl, Stephanie J; Jones, Rebekah A; Thiele, Erica J; Wilkerson, Gregory K

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued. After reviewing other potential therapies for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, we elected to try acupuncture and laser therapy in view of the positive results and the lack of adverse side effects reported in humans. We used 2 well-known cardiac acupuncture sites on the wrist, PC6 (pericardium 6) and HT7 (heart 7), and evaluated the results of the therapy by using the ECG recordings from the implantable loop recorder. Although periodic increases in the animal's excitement level introduced confounding variables that caused some variation in the data, acupuncture and laser therapy appeared to decrease the mean number of VPC/min in this chimpanzee.

  17. Kin, daytime associations, or preferred sleeping sites? Factors influencing sleep site selection in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lock, Louise C; Anderson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzee nesting behaviours and the factors that may influence these behaviours are rarely studied in captive settings. In the present study, the daytime associations, sleeping site selections and nesting groups of 11 zoo-housed chimpanzees over a 29-day period were analysed. Neither daytime associations nor presence of kin influenced sleeping site selection in females. Daytime associations did influence sleeping arrangements in males. Nighttime spatial arrangements and individual preferences for specific sleeping areas were broadly comparable to nesting patterns reported in free-living chimpanzee communities. In the interests of captive ape welfare, we conclude that exhibits should incorporate multilevel nesting areas and a choice of several potential sleeping sites.

  18. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (<1 km) for 63% of the observation time, (b) remained out of visual range (≥100 m) for 46% of observation time, and (c) remained within auditory range for 70% of the time when they were in different parties. We compared the observed distribution of IIDs with a random distribution obtained from permutations of the individuals' travel paths using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Observation IID values were significantly smaller than those generated by the permutation procedure. We conclude that these male chimpanzees actively maintain cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  19. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  20. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario.

  1. A Reconsideration of Pan African Orogenic Cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Soulaimani, A.; Samson, S. D.; Admou, H.; Inglis, J.; Saquaque, A.; Heywood, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'Pan African' orogeny was first proposed in 1964 for a tectonothermal event in Africa ~ 500+/- 50 Ma. Over the past 50 years, the Pan African orogeny has been extended to as much as ~1050-450 Ma and recognized in other Gondwanan continents where regional names such as Brasiliano (South America), Adelaidean (Australian) and Bearmore (Antarctica) have been applied. The Pan African time span of ~500 million years is much longer than any Phanerozoic orogeny. However, it does correlate with time ranges of well defined Phanerozoic orogenic cycles such as the Appalachian cycle, extending from ~1,100 to 250 Ma, and the Cordilleran cycle of ~350 Ma to the present. A significant difference of course is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Until recently, the absence of precise geochronology in West Africa has prevented a more refined analysis of individual orogenic events within the Pan-African orogenic cycle. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating by various researchers in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided critical data by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three separate orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (750-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (660-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-580 Ma). Generalized tectonic map of the Anti-Atlas Mountain inliers (Adapted from Ennih and Liégeois, 2008). Geodynamic model of the Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Modified from Walsh et al. (2012) and incorporating ideas from Thomas et al. (2002) and El Hadi et al. (2012).

  2. Role of Pan-African Structures in Intraplate Seismicity in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh, K.

    2004-05-01

    The setting for intraplate seismicity in southeastern Ghana has been cited as an analog to the even more destructive earthquakes in eastern North America such as at Charleston 1886 (Sykes 1978). Although located far away from any plate boundary, major earthquakes have occurred near Accra, the capital of Ghana in 1939 (M6.4), 1964, 1969, and most recently in 1997 (M4.8) and 2003 (M3.8). The setting for this seismic activity, near the eastern termination of the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ), presents the opportunity to investigate the relationship among Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) orogenic structures, transform tectonics, and neotectonic activity. Across the Ghana seismic zone prominent structures of the Pan-African orogen include: i) the Pan-African front (PF) representing the western limit of deformation, ii) the Pan-African suture zone (PS) represented by a ductile shear zone at the base of mafic granulites which comprise the suture zone nappes, and iii) a dexteral shear zone that projects into the RFZ represented by a prominent submarine canyon. Epicentral data compiled from local and teleseismic networks reveal clusters along the PF, a remarkable alignment of epicenters along the PS, and events along the coastline parallel Accra fault. Seismic reflection data offshore Ghana confirm active displacement along the Accra fault and, for the first time, provide direct evidence for neotectonic activity along the Pan-African front. The normal sense of displacement along the PF, inferred from the seismic sections, suggests that reactivation of the Pan-African structures involved inversion. The available data provide no support for active tectonics associated with the termination of the RFZ. However, reported seismic activity along the conjugate margin in northeastern Brazil suggests that far-field stresses related to active plate displacements in the Atlantic may contribute to the intraplate seismicity on these nominally passive paleo-transform margins.

  3. On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The last common ancestor (LCA) shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) was an Early Pleistocene African ape, which, based on the behavior of modern chimpanzees, may be assumed to be a tool-using animal. However, the character of tool use in the Pan lineage prior to the 20th century is largely unknown. Here, I use available data on wild bonobo tool use and emerging molecular estimates of demography during Pan evolution to hypothesise the plausible tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee LCA (or "Pancestor") at the start of the Pleistocene, over 2 million years ago. This method indicates that the common ancestor of living Pan apes likely used plant tools for probing, sponging, and display, but it did not use stone tools. Instead, stone tool use appears to have been independently invented by Western African chimpanzees (P. t. verus) during the Middle Pleistocene in the region of modern Liberia-Ivory Coast-Guinea, possibly as recently as 200,000-150,000 years ago. If this is the case, then the LCA of humans and chimpanzees likely also did not use stone tools, and this trait probably first emerged among hominins in Pliocene East Africa. This review also suggests that the consistently higher population sizes of Central African chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) over the past million years may have contributed to the increased complexity of wild tool use seen in this sub-species today.

  4. Fossil hominin shoulders support an African ape-like last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nathan M.; Capellini, Terence D.; Roach, Neil T.; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the behavioral shifts that drove hominin evolution requires knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and direction of anatomical changes over the past ∼6–7 million years. These reconstructions depend on assumptions regarding the morphotype of the Homo–Pan last common ancestor (LCA). However, there is little consensus for the LCA, with proposed models ranging from African ape to orangutan or generalized Miocene ape-like. The ancestral state of the shoulder is of particular interest because it is functionally associated with important behavioral shifts in hominins, such as reduced arboreality, high-speed throwing, and tool use. However, previous morphometric analyses of both living and fossil taxa have yielded contradictory results. Here, we generated a 3D morphospace of ape and human scapular shape to plot evolutionary trajectories, predict ancestral morphologies, and directly test alternative evolutionary hypotheses using the hominin fossil evidence. We show that the most parsimonious model for the evolution of hominin shoulder shape starts with an African ape-like ancestral state. We propose that the shoulder evolved gradually along a single morphocline, achieving modern human-like configuration and function within the genus Homo. These data are consistent with a slow, progressive loss of arboreality and increased tool use throughout human evolution. PMID:26351685

  5. First GIS Analysis of Modern Stone Tools Used by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  6. A retrospective analysis of factors correlated to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) respiratory health at Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Murray, Carson M; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Travis, Dominic A; Gilby, Ian C; Chosy, Julia; Goodall, Jane; Pusey, Anne E

    2011-03-01

    Infectious disease and other health hazards have been hypothesized to pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. Respiratory disease outbreaks have been shown to be of particular concern for several wild chimpanzee study sites, leading managers, and researchers to hypothesize that diseases originating from and/or spread by humans pose a substantial risk to the long-term survival of chimpanzee populations. The total chimpanzee population in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined from 120-150 in the 1960s to about 100 by the end of 2007, with death associated with observable signs of disease as the leading cause of mortality. We used a historical data set collected from 1979 to 1987 to investigate the baseline rates of respiratory illness in chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, and to analyze the impact of human-related factors (e.g., banana feeding, visits to staff quarters) and non-human-related factors (e.g., sociality, season) on chimpanzee respiratory illness rates. We found that season and banana feeding were the most significant predictors of respiratory health clinical signs during this time period. We discuss these results in the context of management options for the reduction of disease risk and the importance of long-term observational data for conservation.

  7. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  8. One of a kind--the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, a regional registry for Africa.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Amber L

    2011-01-01

    The 2004 Ministerial Summit on Health Research called on the World Health Organization to to establish a registry network with the intention of providing a single access point to identify trials. In 2007 the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors amended their support of this initiative stating that only trials registered prospectively on a member registry of the WHO's Network of Primary Registers would be published. The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (www.pactr.org), was established in early 2007 as the AIDS, TB and Malaria (ATM) Clinical Trials Registry with the aim of piloting the concept of a registry that would cater to the specific needs of African trialists. In 2009 the ATM Registry expanded its remit to include all diseases for all regions of Africa; The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry became the first and is presently the only African member of the World Health Organization's Network of Primary Registers.

  9. Use of exclusion by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) during speech perception and auditory-visual matching-to-sample.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    An adult female chimpanzee showed responding through use of exclusion in an auditory to visual matching-to-sample procedure. The chimpanzee had previously learned to associate specific visuographic symbols called lexigrams with real world referents and the spoken English words and photographs for those referents. On some trials, an unknown spoken English word was presented as the sample, and the match choices could consist of photographs or lexigrams that already were associated with known English words as well as unknown lexigrams or photos of objects without associated lexigrams. The chimpanzee reliably avoided choosing known comparisons for these unknown samples, instead relying on exclusion to choose comparisons that were of unknown lexigrams or photographs of items without associated lexigram symbols.

  10. Language-naive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) judge relations between relations in a conceptual matching-to-sample task.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R K; Oden, D L; Boysen, S T

    1997-01-01

    Three chimpanzees with a history of conditional and numeric token training spontaneously matched relations between relations under conditions of nondifferential reinforcement. Heretofore, this conceptual ability was demonstrated only in language-trained chimpanzees. The performance levels of the language-naive animals in this study, however, were equivalent to those of a 4th animal--Sarah--whose history included language training and analogical problem solving. There was no evidence that associative factors mediated successful performance in any of the animals. Prior claims of a profound disparity between language-trained and language-naive chimpanzees apparently can be attributed to prior experience with arbitrary tokens consistently associated with abstract relations and not language per se.

  11. Discovering Africa through Internet-Based Geographic Information Systems: A Pan-African Summit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…

  12. Foundations of cumulative culture in apes: improved foraging efficiency through relinquishing and combining witnessed behaviours in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sarah J.; Vale, Gillian L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Whiten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one. Only a single chimpanzee in control groups, who had not witnessed a knowledgeable model, discovered this. Individuals who switched were later able to combine components of their two learned techniques to produce a more efficient solution than their extensively used, original foraging method. These results suggest that, although chimpanzees show a considerable degree of conservatism, they also have an ability to combine independent behaviours to produce efficient compound action sequences; one of the foundational abilities (or candidate mechanisms) for human cumulative culture. PMID:27775061

  13. Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Biro, Dora; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an "outdoor laboratory" site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain stones as hammer and anvil more often than expected by chance, even when taking into account preferences for individual stones by themselves. This may reflect an ability to recognise the nut-cracker as a single tool (composed of two elements, but functional only as a whole), as well as discrimination of tool quality-effectiveness. Through repeatedly combining the same pairs of stones--whether due to preferences for particular composites or for the two elements independently--tool-users may amplify use-wear traces and increase the likelihood of fracturing the stones, and thus of detaching pieces by battering.

  14. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  15. Delay of gratification is associated with white matter connectivity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex: a diffusion tensor imaging study in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Individual variability in delay of gratification (DG) is associated with a number of important outcomes in both non-human and human primates. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), this study describes the relationship between probabilistic estimates of white matter tracts projecting from the caudate to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and DG abilities in a sample of 49 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After accounting for time between collection of DTI scans and DG measurement, age and sex, higher white matter connectivity between the caudate and right dorsal PFC was found to be significantly associated with the acquisition (i.e. training phase) but not the maintenance of DG abilities. No other associations were found to be significant. The integrity of white matter connectivity between regions of the striatum and the PFC appear to be associated with inhibitory control in chimpanzees, with perturbations on this circuit potentially leading to a variety of maladaptive outcomes. Additionally, results have potential translational implications for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric and clinical outcomes in humans. PMID:26041344

  16. Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates.

  17. The felsic magmatic province in East Gondwana: implications for Pan-African tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.; Yoshida, M.

    The East Gondwana crustal fragments, namely southern India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, East Antarctica and Western Australia, preserve evidence for a prominent Pan-African felsic magmatic event represented by feldspathoidal syenites, alkali granites and syenites emplaced proximal to fault lineaments. In Peninsular India, late or post-kinematic alkaline plutons ranging in age from 864 to 600 Ma characterize the Eastern Ghats belt, whereas a strong Pan-African imprint is provided by 550-750 Ma alkali granites and syenites in the southern granulite segment. In Sri Lanka, alkali granites occur in all major geologic units, with radiometric ages in the range of 550-760 Ma. In Madagascar, alkali granites and syenites with late Proterozoic to Palaeozoic ages are reported. Felsic magmatic activity in East Antarctica is characterized by post-tectonic granitic and syenitic plutons in Enderby Land and Queen Maud Land, showing an age range of 550-770 Ma. Pan-African felsic plutons in Western Australia define ages of 550-570 Ma. This paper summarizes the petrologic, geochemical and geochronologic characteristics of felsic plutons in the various East Gondwana fragments. Many of the intrusives represent anorogenic A-type magmas generated in rift-related environments of high heat flow and abundant volatile activity, correlative with an extensional tectonic regime and probably including melts generated from both upper mantle and lower crustal sources. This paper identifies a major Pan-African felsic magmatic province in East Gondwana, which, in association with their petrogenetic significance, is considered to be suggestive of a geodynamic signature of East Gondwana during the Pan-African period.

  18. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  19. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  20. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood, ranges of serum chemistries and clinical hematology values of healthy chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Stone, G A; Johnson, B K; Druilhet, R; Garza, P B; Gibbs, C J

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents clinical chemistry, hematology and immunophenotyping data from 102 chimpanzees over a 2-year period. The groupings were: 3 years or less, 4-7 years, and 8 + years. These data are intended to augment formerly published information on these parameters and to serve as a concise reference guide for primate veterinarians and researchers for whom these data may be useful. This study has larger samplings than previously published data and more panel constituents by immunophenotyping.

  1. Case study: Training a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to use a nebulizer to aid the treatment of airsacculitis.

    PubMed

    Gresswell, Claire; Goodman, Gidona

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial airsacculitis has been reported in a variety of nonhuman primates, and is widely treated using a combination of surgery and oral antibiotics. This case study details an alternative method of administering antibiotics (via the use of a nebulizer) when the chimpanzee subject developed resistance to all available oral preparations. Training the chimpanzee to use the nebulizer was performed using positive reinforcement techniques (PRT). It took a total of 89 sessions (<7 hr 25 min) to train the chimpanzee to use the nebulizer. The airsacculitis infection was treated using colistin in the nebulizer twice a day for 9 days. Out of 18 potential treatment sessions, full doses were administered on 13 occasions. The final dose of colistin was given via slow brachial intravenous injection under general anesthesia. The infection was successfully treated with colistin. Although there was a training time investment involved, it was felt to be outweighed by the success of the treatment. Also in the likelihood of the infection re-occurring at a later date, the now learnt behavior of using a nebulizer means that future treatment should now be considerably quicker. This is another example of how PRT is a useful tool in the successful welfare and management of captive animals.

  2. Specific gravity as an alternative to creatinine for estimating urine concentration in captive and wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Samples.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Stephanie F; Breakey, Alicia A; Beuerlein, Melanie M; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The measurement of hormones in urine has become a widely used technique in primatology. Because urine concentration varies according to fluid intake, concentration must be measured in each sample collected, and hormone values are always expressed per unit of concentration. Traditionally, creatinine has been used as a concentration index, but some studies in humans have shown that creatinine varies among populations and even within and between individuals within a population, and that it begins to degrade after just one freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, creatinine measurement is relatively time-consuming and expensive and creates hazardous waste. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific gravity, or the ratio of the density of a sample to that of water, is highly correlated with creatinine measurement in urine samples collected from captive chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana and wild chimpanzees at the Ngogo study site in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found that specific gravity and creatinine were highly correlated in both captive (N=124) and wild (N=13) chimpanzee samples, and that specific gravity measurement was robust to actual and simulated transport conditions and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend that researchers consider specific gravity measurement as a preferable alternative to creatinine measurement in their studies of primate endocrinology.

  3. A longitudinal study on hand and wrist skeletal maturation in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes), with emphasis on growth in linear dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yuzuru; Chatani, Kaoru; Udono, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Gunji, Harumoto

    2003-07-01

    Skeletal maturation in the chimpanzee hand and wrist (the RUS system; radius, ulna, and short bones) was studied both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. Maturity states were evaluated in each of the 13 bones of the RUS system based on the TW2 method (Tanner and Whitehouse method), and the RUS score was calculated by the summation of scores for these bones. Individual variation was examined by means of residual curves and pseudo-velocity curves of RUS score and anterior trunk length (ATL). Norms of the age change pattern in RUS skeletal maturation and the growth of ATL were determined for each sex, and the relationships among ATL growth and skeletal and reproductive maturation were examined. We found a fairly good relationship between ATL growth and RUS skeletal maturation. Comparison of growth and development between humans and chimpanzees showed that growth characteristics are coupled with each other at puberty in male chimpanzees and in both sexes of humans. Although nutritional condition influenced ATL growth in infancy, it had no effect on the RUS maturational process. Social relationships appeared to influence both ATL growth and RUS maturation. Analyses on relationships between RUS skeletal maturation, ATL growth, and reproductive maturation, showed that RUS skeletal maturation is a good indicator of "physiological age".

  4. A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Thomas R; Morgan, David; Deutsch, J Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Salzer, Johanna S; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

  5. A Legacy of Low-Impact Logging does not Elevate Prevalence of Potentially Pathogenic Protozoa in Free-Ranging Gorillas and Chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: Logging and Parasitism in African Apes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, David; Deutsch, J. Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Salzer, Johanna S.; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa. PMID:20238141

  6. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  7. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  8. Personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): exploring the hierarchical structure and associations with the vasopressin V1A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Young, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level.

  9. Socioecological correlates of clinical signs in two communities of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Gillespie, Thomas R; Wolf, Tiffany M; Lipende, Iddi; Raphael, Jane; Bakuza, Jared; Murray, Carson M; Wilson, Michael L; Kamenya, Shadrack; Mjungu, Deus; Collins, D Anthony; Gilby, Ian C; Stanton, Margaret A; Terio, Karen A; Barbian, Hannah J; Li, Yingying; Ramirez, Miguel; Krupnick, Alexander; Seidl, Emily; Goodall, Jane; Hahn, Beatrice H; Pusey, Anne E; Travis, Dominic A

    2016-05-16

    Disease and other health hazards pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. The total chimpanzee population at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined from an estimated 120 to 150 individuals in the 1960's to around 100 individuals by the end of 2013, with death associated with observable signs of disease as the leading cause of mortality. In 2004, we began a non-invasive health-monitoring program in the two habituated communities in the park (Kasekela and Mitumba) with the aim of understanding the prevalence of health issues in the population, and identifying the presence and impacts of various pathogens. Here we present prospectively collected data on clinical signs (observable changes in health) in the chimpanzees of the Kasekela (n = 81) and Mitumba (n = 32) communities over an 8-year period (2005-2012). First, we take a population approach and analyze prevalence of clinical signs in five different categories: gastrointestinal system (diarrhea), body condition (estimated weight loss), respiratory system (coughing, sneezing etc.), wounds/lameness, and dermatologic issues by year, month, and community membership. Mean monthly prevalence of each clinical sign per community varied, but typically affected <10% of observed individuals. Secondly, we analyze the presence of clinical signs in these categories as they relate to individual demographic and social factors (age, sex, and dominance rank) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection status. Adults have higher odds of being observed with diarrhea, loss of body condition, and wounds or lameness when compared to immatures, while males have a higher probability of being observed with wounds or lameness than females. In contrast, signs of respiratory illness appear not to be related to chimpanzee-specific factors and skin abnormalities are very rare. For a subset of known-rank individuals, dominance rank predicts the probability of wounding/lameness in adult males, but does

  10. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Morin, P A; Chambers, K E; Boesch, C; Vigilant, L

    2001-07-01

    Noninvasive samples are useful for molecular genetic analyses of wild animal populations. However, the low DNA content of such samples makes DNA amplification difficult, and there is the potential for erroneous results when one of two alleles at heterozygous microsatellite loci fails to be amplified. In this study we describe an assay designed to measure the amount of amplifiable nuclear DNA in low DNA concentration extracts from noninvasive samples. We describe the range of DNA amounts obtained from chimpanzee faeces and shed hair samples and formulate a new efficient approach for accurate microsatellite genotyping. Prescreening of extracts for DNA quantity is recommended for sorting of samples for likely success and reliability. Repetition of results remains extensive for analysis of microsatellite amplifications beginning from low starting amounts of DNA, but is reduced for those with higher DNA content.

  11. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  12. Enculturated Chimpanzees Imitate Rationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human infants imitate others' actions "rationally": they copy a demonstrator's action when that action is freely chosen, but less when it is forced by some constraint (Gergely, Bekkering & Kiraly, 2002). We investigated whether enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also imitate rationally. Using Gergely and colleagues' (2002) basic procedure,…

  13. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Planning for future needs has traditionally been considered to be restricted to human cognition. Although recent studies on great ape and corvid cognition challenge this belief, the phylogenesis of human planning remains largely unknown. The complex skill for future planning has not yet been satisfactorily established in any other extant primate species than our own. In humans, planning for future needs rely heavily on two overarching capacities, both of which lie at the heart of our cognition: self-control, often defined as the suppression of immediate drives in favor of delayed rewards, and mental time travel, which could be described as a detached mental experience of a past or future event. Future planning is linked to additional high complexity cognition such as metacognition and a consciousness usually not attributed to animals. In a series of four experiments based on tool use, we demonstrate that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) override immediate drives in favor of future needs, and they do not merely rely on associative learning or semantic prospection when confronted with a planning task. These results suggest that great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally pre-experiencing an upcoming event. This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed.

  14. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber.

  15. Behavioural responses to photographs by pictorially naïve baboons (Papio anubis), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Parron, Carole; Call, Josep; Fagot, Joël

    2008-07-01

    This study assessed how pictorially naïve nonhuman primates understand pictures. Fifty-five baboons with no prior exposure to pictures were trained to grasp a slice of banana presented against a pebble in a two alternative forced choice task. Post-training testing involved three stimulus pairs: (1) real banana slice vs. its picture, (2) the banana picture vs. a real pebble and (3) banana picture vs. a pebble picture which were presented twice. Preliminary data were also collected on naïve gorillas (n=4) and chimpanzees (n=7) using the same procedure. Baboons revealed a preference for the food picture in (2) and (3) and often ate this stimulus, but the food item and its picture were accurately discriminated in (1). These results suggest that baboons mistook the pictorial stimulus and its referent, but processed the banana pictures as poor exemplars of the real banana category. Among apes, only gorillas ate the banana pictures, suggesting that picture-object confusion may also occur in this species. Findings are discussed as pertaining to the general issue of representational abilities in nonhuman primates, and its evolution.

  16. Anaesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane with and without midazolam, in eight captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Morath, U; Bergadano, A

    2013-08-01

    In 8 captive adult chimpanzees of various ages premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (40 or 50 µg/kg and 5 mg/kg, IM, respectively), with and without midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. At the end of the procedure, sedation was reversed with atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg, IM) and sarmazenil (0.005 mg/kg, IM) when midazolam had been administered. Oral zuclopenthixol resulted in tranquillization of the whole group and only one animal required a second dart injection to achieve adequately deep anaesthesia. Effective and reliable anaesthesia was achieved in all apes; the depth of hypnosis was stable and sudden arousal did not occur. Physiological parameters remained within normal ranges in the majority of the animals; however, manageable anaesthesia-related complications, namely apnoea after darting, hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia and prolonged recovery, occurred in 6 out of 8 animals. The use of monitoring devices was essential to guarantee adequate management of these complications.

  17. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  18. Were aspects of Pan-African deformation linked to Iapetus opening?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunow, Anne; Hanson, Richard; Wilson, Terry

    1996-12-01

    The convergence recorded in some Pan-African deformational belts (sensu lato) in South America, Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka, and Antarctica is temporally correlated with opening of the Iapetus ocean. We propose a model in which continent-continent collision and closure of the Adamastor ocean between the Amazon West African Rio de La Plata cratons and the São Francisco Congo Kalahari cratons in the late Neoproterozoic are linked to rifting and orthogonal spreading between Laurentia and the South American cratons. By the Early Cambrian, the cratons in South America and Africa were assembled as West Gondwana. Closure of the Mozambique ocean, which appears to have extended across Antarctica between Lützow-Holm Bay and the Shackleton Range, resulted in continued convergence between the Congo Kalahari Queen Maud Land block and East Gondwana in the Cambrian. Coeval deformation in the Transantarctic Mountains may be related to the obliquity of the Antarctic margin relative to Iapetus spreading directions. Initiation of voluminous arc magmatism along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana in the Early Cambrian is broadly synchronous with the cessation of intra-Gondwana Pan-African deformation, possibly reflecting a change in plate motions at the time of final Gondwana assembly. The new subduction regime along the Gondwana margin in the Early Cambrian may be linked to the closure of the Iapetus ocean basin.

  19. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  20. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  1. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  2. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  3. The influence of AVPR1A genotype on individual differences in behaviors during a mirror self-recognition task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Mahovetz, L M; Young, L J; Hopkins, W D

    2016-06-01

    The mark/rouge test has been used to assess mirror self-recognition (MSR) in many species. Despite consistent evidence of MSR in great apes, genetic or non-genetic factors may account for the individual differences in behavioral responses that have been reported. We examined whether vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) polymorphisms are associated with MSR-related behaviors in chimpanzees since vasopressin has been implicated in the development and evolution of complex social relations and cognition and chimpanzees are polymorphic for the presence of the RS3-containing DupB region. We compared a sample of DupB+/- and DupB-/- chimpanzees on a mark test to assess its role on social behavior toward a mirror. Chimpanzees were administered two, 10-min sessions where frequencies of mirror-guided self-directed behaviors, contingent actions and other social behaviors were recorded. Approximately one-third showed evidence of MSR and these individuals exhibited more mirror-guided self-exploratory behaviors and mouth contingent actions than chimpanzees not classified as passers. Moreover, DupB+/- males exhibited more scratching and agonistic behaviors than other male and female cohorts. Our findings support previous studies demonstrating individual differences in MSR abilities in chimpanzees and suggest that AVPR1A partly explains individual differences in MSR by influencing the behavioral reactions of chimpanzees in front of a mirror.

  4. Hunting Activity Among Naturalistically Housed Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Fundació Mona (Girona, Spain). Predation, Occasional Consumption and Strategies in Rehabilitated Animals

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Miquel; Riba, David; Mosquera, Marina; Ventura, Mei; Feliu, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary: Hunting is well documented in wild chimpanzees, but has rarely been documented in captive chimpanzees. At Fundació Mona Primate Rescue we have obtained evidence of five episodes of hunting in rehabilitated chimpanzees who had no previous experience of these types of behaviors. This demonstrated that they were able to perform this species-typical behavior in a naturalistic environment without learning it in the wild. Abstract: Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and one carried out in cooperation. The evidence of group predation involved the chimpanzees adopting different roles as pursuers and ambushers. Prey was partially eaten in some cases, but not in the social episode. This study confirms that naturalistic environments allow chimpanzees to enhance species-typical behavioral patterns. PMID:26487027

  5. Pan-African high-pressure metamorphism in the Precambrian basement of the Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candan, O.; Dora, O. Ö.; Oberhänsli, R.; Çetinkaplan, M.; Partzsch, J. H.; Warkus, F. C.; Dürr, S.

    The Menderes Massif is made up of Pan-African basement and a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary cover sequence imbricated by Late Alpine deformation. The Precambrian basement comprises primarily medium- to high-grade schists, paragneisses, migmatites, orthogneisses, metagranites, charnockites, and metagabbros. High-pressure relics in the Pan-African basement are divided into two groups: eclogites and eclogitic metagabbros. The mineral assemblage in the eclogites is omphacite (Jd 44)-garnet-clinozoisite-rutile. The eclogites occur as pods and boudinaged layers in the basement schists and paragneisses. Inclusions found in the cores of the garnets indicate a medium-pressure protolith. The eclogitic metagabbros are closely related to Precambrian gabbroic stocks. The igneous texture and relic magmatic phases are preserved in these high-pressure rocks, which are characterized by the mineral assemblage omphacite (Jd 25)-garnet-rutile+/-kyanite. The P-T conditions of the Pan-African high-pressure metamorphism in the eclogites are estimated to be 644°C with a minimum pressure of approximately 15 kbar. The eclogites are partly to completely retrograded to garnet amphibolites by a Barrovian-type overprint which developed under isothermal decompression conditions. For this post-eclogitic event, the P-T estimates are 7 kbar and 623°C. The eclogite relics provide strong support for a correlation of the Menderes Massif with the Bitlis Massif in terms of common Pan-African high-pressure evolution.

  6. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  8. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Karline R. L.; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day’s breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  9. The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa - Evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, A.; Stern, R. J.; Dawoud, A. S.; Compston, W.; Reischmann, T.

    1987-09-01

    The evolution of the Pan-African ancient continental margin in northeastern Africa was investigated, using an Nd model age, ion-microprobe data on zircon ages, and Rb-Sr whole-rock dates on the high-grade gneiss terrain at Sabaloka, Sudan, a region which is formally considered to be part of the Archaean/early Proterozoic Nile craton. The analysis of these data indicates that the Sabaloka granulites and gneisses are not Archaen in age. Instead, they reflect Pan-African metamorphic events. The gneisses studied may represent the infrastructure of the ancient African continental margin onto which the juvenile arc assemblage of the Arabian-Nubian shield was accreted during intense horizontal shortening and crustal interstacking of a major collision event.

  10. The scramble for Africa: pan-temperate elements on the African high mountains

    PubMed Central

    Gehrke, Berit; Linder, H. Peter

    2009-01-01

    The composition of isolated floras has long been thought to be the result of relatively rare long-distance dispersal events. However, it has recently become apparent that the recruitment of lineages may be relatively easy and that many dispersal events from distant but suitable habitats have occurred, even at an infraspecific level. The evolution of the flora on the high mountains of Africa has been attributed to the recruitment of taxa not only from the African lowland flora or the Cape Floristic Region, but also to a large extent from other areas with temperate climates. We used the species rich, pan-temperate genera Carex, Ranunculus and Alchemilla to explore patterns in the number of recruitment events and region of origin. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, parametric bootstrapping and ancestral area optimizations under parsimony indicate that there has been a high number of colonization events of Carex and Ranunculus into Africa, but only two introductions of Alchemilla. Most of the colonization events have been derived from Holarctic ancestors. Backward dispersal out of Africa seems to be extremely rare. Thus, repeated colonization from the Northern Hemisphere in combination with in situ radiation has played an important role in the composition of the flora of African high mountains. PMID:19403534

  11. Pan-African deformation markers in the migmatitic complexes of Parakou-Nikki (Northeast Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chala, D.; Tairou, M. S.; Wenmenga, U.; Kwékam, M.; Affaton, P.; Kalsbeek, F.; Tossa, C.; Houéto, A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of structural markers collected from the petrostrutural units of Parakou-Nikki, in Northeast Benin, indicates that the Pan-African remobilization or rejuvenation (600 ± 50 Ma) of the Benino-Nigerian Metacraton consits of a wide migmatization accompanied by five tectogenetic phases (Dn-Dn+4). The Dn phase is penecontemporaneous with the collision between the Benino-Nigerian shield and the oriental margin of the West-African Craton. This phase is associated with the granulitization or migmatization episode, and materialized by the Sn foliation on which the Dn+1 deformation markers (major Pan-African structuring phase in the Dahomeyide orogenic belt) are superimposed. Thus, the Sn+1 plane and the Ln+1 lineations indicate a perfect transposition of the Sn plane and a syn-Dn paragenesis remobilization in the syn-Dn+1 amphibolite facies retromorphosis. The strong resumption of the main foliation (Sn+1) corresponds to the Dn+2 deformation phase. The latter, associated with a second retromorphosis, is materialized by Pn+2 folds, with submeridian to NE-SW axes, and by a Sn+2 foliation or strain-slip cleavage. It is also the phase of emplacement of the Kandi mega-shear zone associated with the development of Cn+2 dextral shear plane very generalized over all the petrostructural units of Parakou-Nikki. At a large scale, the Dn+3 phase is expressed as Pn+3 kilometric synform and antiform structures with NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending axes. This Dn+3 phase can be considered as a transpression responsible for the development of the Cn+3 sinistral shear plane and flat shear structures displaying a westward overlapping. It ends with a fracturing episode materialized by strike-slip fault systems defining a main stress σ1 trending ESE-WNW to SE-NW. The late Dn+4 phase only corresponds to conjugated strike-slip faults which resulted from a major SE-NW to SSE-NNW compression.

  12. What counts for ‘counting’? Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, respond appropriately to relevant and irrelevant information in a quantity judgment task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Garland, Alexis; Evans, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animals quantify all manner of things, and the way in which this is done is fairly well understood. However, little research has been conducted to determine how they know what is or is not relevant in the instances in which they quantify stimuli. We assessed how four chimpanzees chose between two sets of food items when the items were distributed across separate spatial arrays. Each item was covered by a container, and then was revealed in sequence so that neither whole set was visible at one time. After all containers were revealed, some were revealed again. The chimpanzees should have ignored items that were seen a second time and instead enumerated each item only once. In another test, some of the items were transposed in location and then uncovered again. Here, the chimpanzees needed to recognize that the newly shown food items were ones they already had seen. Overall, the chimpanzees were successful in selecting the truly larger array of items despite these potential distracting re-presentations of items. Discrimination performance also reflected analogue magnitude estimation because comparisons of sets that differed by larger amounts were easier than comparisons that differed by smaller amounts. Thus, chimpanzee quantity judgments for nonvisible sets of items are inexact, but they include an aspect of control for determining when items are uniquely presented versus re-presented. PMID:23750039

  13. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  14. Motor skill for tool-use is associated with asymmetries in Broca's area and the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier; Misiura, Maria; Pope, Sarah; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM). The IFG is the homolog to Broca's area in the chimpanzee brain and the PPFM is a buried gyrus that connects the pre- and post-central gyri and corresponds to the motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus. We found that chimpanzees that performed the task better with their right compared to left hand showed greater leftward asymmetries in the IFG and PPFM. This association between hand performance and PPFM asymmetry was particularly robust for right-handed individuals. Based on these findings, we propose that the evolution of tool use was associated with increased left hemisphere specialization for motor skill. We further suggest that lateralization in motor planning, rather than hand preference per se, was selected for with increasing tool manufacture and use in Hominid evolution.

  15. Pan-African phylogeography of a model organism, the African clawed frog 'Xenopus laevis'.

    PubMed

    Furman, Benjamin L S; Bewick, Adam J; Harrison, Tia L; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kusamba, Chifundera; Evans, Ben J

    2015-02-01

    The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis has a large native distribution over much of sub-Saharan Africa and is a model organism for research, a proposed disease vector, and an invasive species. Despite its prominent role in research and abundance in nature, surprisingly little is known about the phylogeography and evolutionary history of this group. Here, we report an analysis of molecular variation of this clade based on 17 loci (one mitochondrial, 16 nuclear) in up to 159 individuals sampled throughout its native distribution. Phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were incongruent with those among alleles of the putatively female-specific sex-determining gene DM-W, in contrast to the expectation of strict matrilineal inheritance of both loci. Population structure and evolutionarily diverged lineages were evidenced by analyses of molecular variation in these data. These results further contextualize the chronology, and evolutionary relationships within this group, support the recognition of X. laevis sensu stricto, X. petersii, X. victorianus and herein revalidated X. poweri as separate species. We also propose that portions of the currently recognized distributions of X. laevis (north of the Congo Basin) and X. petersii (south of the Congo Basin) be reassigned to X. poweri.

  16. Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria; Latash, Elitaveta M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2016-12-01

    Increases brain size has been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the expression of behavioral and brain asymmetries within and between species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the relation between asymmetries in the planum temporale (PT) and different measures of the corpus callosum (CC) including surface area, streamline count as measured from diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy values and the ratio in the number of fibers to surface area in a sample of chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees with larger PT asymmetries in absolute terms had smaller CC surface areas, fewer streamlines and a smaller ratio of fibers to surface area. These results were largely specific to male but not female chimpanzees. Our results partially support the hypothesis that brain asymmetries are linked to variation in corpus callosum morphology, although these associations may be sex-dependent.

  17. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  18. Dietary preferences of a submontane population of the rare Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dietary preferences of chimpanzees residing in a Nigerian submontane forest using a combination of fecal analysis, observations of feeding remains, evidence from feeding tools and fruiting phenological data between April 2010 and March 2011. A total of 495 fecal samples were collected in which 52 fruit taxa were identified as having being consumed by chimpanzees, including 22 identified to species level and two identified to genus level. Ficus (seven species) was the most common seed genus identified, occurring in 61.2% of all fecal samples. Based on fecal analysis and phenological data, Ngel Nyaki chimpanzees do not solely consume fruits based on their availability within the habitat; while the proportion of fruit consumed did reflect the relative availability of fruit in the forest for some fruit species, Ficus was a preferred fruit even when scarce. In contrast, the proportion consumed of other fruit species was low relative to the abundance of their fruit available in the forest. Our results from the Rank Preference Index (RPI) suggest that relative preferences in fruit are seasonal. We discuss the role of Ficus in the diet of chimpanzees in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve.

  19. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  20. The Use of Bouts and Frequencies in the Evaluation of Hand Preferences for a Coordinated Bimanual Task in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): An Empirical Study Comparing Two Different Indices of Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Wesley, Micheal J.; Hostetter, Autumn; Fernandez-Carriba, Samuel; Pilcher, Dawn; Poss, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in 109 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand preference was evaluated for 4 test sessions using bouts and frequencies of hand use to compare the sensitivity of each level of analysis in evaluating individual variation in handedness. Overall, significant population-level right-handedness was found using several different measures of hand use. Handedness indices based on bouts and frequencies were highly and significantly correlated. Moreover, hand preferences were consistent across tests despite efforts to situationally bias preference during each test. Taken together, these data do not support the view that bouts are a better level of analysis for evaluating hand preference. The results further suggest that hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions are not influenced by situational factors and may reflect an inherent specialization of the left hemisphere for motor skill. PMID:11594498

  1. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  2. The Risk of Disease to Great Apes: Simulating Disease Spread in Orang-Utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Association Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  3. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    PubMed

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  4. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  5. Reconstruction of Holocene southern African continental climate using biomarkers from salt pan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The climate system of southern Africa is strongly influenced by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. Recent publications provided evidence for strong spatial and temporal climate variability in southern Africa over the Holocene. It is of major importance to understand the mechanisms driving the southern African climate system in order to estimate regional implications of current global change. However, proxy datasets from continental geoarchives especially of the semi-arid western Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13Corg, TIC, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb, TN, δ15N, the paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Preliminary results show prominent shifts in n-alkane distribution and δ13C values of the C33 homologue during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. These shifts correlate to changes of the TOC content. Our data indicate changes in carbon sources which possibly reflect major environmental changes.

  6. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) exhibit sleep related behaviors that minimize exposure to parasitic arthropods? A preliminary report on the possible anti-vector function of chimpanzee sleeping platforms.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Hunt, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Great apes spend half of their lives in a nightly "nest" or sleeping platform (SP), a complex object created by modifying foliage, which functions as a stable substrate on which to sleep. Of the several purported functions of SPs, one hypothesis is that they protect against parasitic infection. Here we investigate the role of SP site choice in avoiding molestation by arthropods. This study presents preliminary data on the insect-repellent properties of preferred sleeping tree species Cynometra alexandri. Insect traps were deployed in gallery forest habitats in which chimpanzees typically "nest." We compared traps placed adjacent to SPs artificially manufactured with C. alexandri trees to an open area within the same habitat. Multiple measures of arthropod counts indicate that simulated C. alexandri SP sites have fewer arthropods than similar non-SP sites. Volatile compounds secreted by C. alexandri foliage are hypothesized to repel annoying arthropods and/or mask chimpanzee olfactory signals. Of the total insects captured (n = 6,318), n = 145 were mosquitoes. Of the total mosquitoes captured, n = 47 were identified as Anopheles (female, n = 12). The prominent malarial vector Anopheles gambiae was identified among the captured mosquito sample. These results suggest that the presence of broken branches of the tree species C. alexandri reduce the amount of insects a chimpanzee is exposed to throughout a night's sleep. This great ape behavioral and socio-technological adaptation may have evolved, in part, to increase quality of sleep as well as decrease exposure to vectors of disease.

  7. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient.

  8. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Stephens, N; Vogelnest, L; Lowbridge, C; Christensen, A; Marks, G B; Sintchenko, V; McAnulty, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a pathogen of humans. Infections have been reported in animal species and it is emerging as a significant disease of elephants in the care of humans. With the close association between humans and animals, transmission can occur. In November 2010, a clinically healthy Asian elephant in an Australian zoo was found to be shedding M. tuberculosis; in September 2011, a sick chimpanzee at the same zoo was diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by an indistinguishable strain of M. tuberculosis. Investigations included staff and animal screening. Four staff had tuberculin skin test conversions associated with spending at least 10 hours within the elephant enclosure; none had disease. Six chimpanzees had suspected infection. A pathway of transmission between the animals could not be confirmed. Tuberculosis in an elephant can be transmissible to people in close contact and to other animals more remotely. The mechanism for transmission from elephants requires further investigation.

  9. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska E; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like.

  10. A population estimate of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Ugalla region using standard and spatially explicit genetic capture-recapture methods.

    PubMed

    Moore, Deborah L; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Population parameters such as size, density, and distribution of a species across a landscape are important metrics that inform conservation science and are key to management strategies. In this study, we used genetic capture-recapture methods to estimate the population size and density of the little-studied chimpanzees in the Ugalla region of western Tanzania. From 237 fecal samples collected non-invasively over a 10-month period, we identified a minimum of 113 individuals. Based on the two-innate rate method (TIRM) modeled in the software capwire, we obtained a maximum-likelihood estimate of 322 (CI 227-373) individuals over the 624 km(2) area surveyed. Using a spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) method, we estimated a population density of 0.25 (CI 0.16-0.38) individuals/km(2) . Observations of nests and search effort data revealed areas of more intense usage. The findings of this study are an important step in the characterization of the Ugalla chimpanzees, and substantially improve our understanding of the number of chimpanzees that occupy this savanna-woodland region at the easternmost extent of the geographic range of this endangered subspecies.

  11. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  12. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska E.; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the ‘face inversion effect’, humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like. PMID:27902685

  13. Development of adrenal cortical zonation and expression of key elements of adrenal androgen production in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Parker, C R; Grizzle, W E; Blevins, J K; Hawkes, K

    2014-04-25

    The basis for the pattern of adrenal androgen production in the chimpanzee, which resembles that of humans, is poorly defined. We characterized the developmental zonation and expression of elements of the androgen biosynthetic pathway in the chimpanzee adrenal. The newborn adrenal contained a broad fetal zone (FZ) expressing CYP17, SULT2A1, and Cytochrome B5 (CB5) but not HSD3B; the outer cortex expressed HSD3B but not SULT2A1 or CB5. During infancy, the FZ involuted and the HSD3B-expressing outer cortex broadened. By 3years of age, a thin layer of cells that expressed CB5, SULT2A1, and CYP17 adjoined the medulla and likely represented the zona reticularis; the outer cortex consisted of distinct zonae fasiculata and glomerulosa. Thereafter, the zona reticularis broadened as also occurs in the human. The adult chimpanzee adrenal displayed other human-like characteristics: intramedullary clusters of reticularis-like cells and also a cortical cuff of zona fasiculata-like cells adjoining the central vein.

  14. A pan-African medium-range ensemble flood forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Bisselink, Bernard; Pappenberger, Florian; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this study the predictive capability is investigated, to estimate AFFS' potential as an operational flood forecasting system for the whole of Africa. This is done in a hindcast mode, by reproducing pan-African hydrological predictions for the whole year of 2003 where important flood events were observed. Results were analysed in two ways, each with its individual objective. The first part of the analysis is of paramount importance for the assessment of AFFS as a flood forecasting system, as it focuses on the detection and prediction of flood events. Here, results were verified with reports of various flood archives such as Dartmouth Flood Observatory, the Emergency Event Database, the NASA Earth Observatory and Reliefweb. The number of hits, false alerts and missed alerts as well as the Probability of Detection, False Alarm Rate and Critical Success Index were determined for various conditions (different regions, flood durations, average amount of annual precipitations, size of affected areas and mean annual discharge). The second part of the analysis complements the first by giving a basic insight into the prediction skill of the general streamflow. For this, hydrological predictions were compared against observations at 36 key locations across Africa and the Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score (CRPSS), the limit of predictability and reliability were calculated. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70 % of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (> 1 week) and large affected areas (> 10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas

  15. Triple junction orogeny: tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Northern Damara Belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Charlesworth, Eugene G.; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Frei, Dirk; Kramers, Jan D.; Zwingmann, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Trench-trench-trench triple junctions are generally geometrically and kinematically unstable and therefore can result at the latest stages in complicated collisional orogenic belts. In such geodynamic sites, mechanism and timescale of deformations that accommodate convergence and final assembly of the three colliding continental plates are poorly studied. In western Namibia, Pan-African convergence of three cratonic blocks led to pene-contemporaneous closure of two highly oblique oceanic domains and formation of the triple junction Damara Orogen where the NE-striking Damara Belt abuts to the west against the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt. Detailed description of structures and microstructures associated with remote sensing analysis, and dating of individual deformation events by means of K-Ar, Ar-Ar (micas) and U-Pb (zircon) isotopic studies from the Northern Damara Belt provide robust constraints on the tectonic evolution of this palaeo-triple junction orogeny. There, passive margin sequences of the Neoproterozoic ocean were polydeformed and polymetamorphosed to the biotite zone of the greenschist facies to up to granulite facies and anatexis towards the southern migmatitic core of the Central Damara Belt. Subtle relict structures and fold pattern analyses reveal the existence of an early D1 N-S shortening event, tentatively dated between ~635 Ma and ~580 Ma using published data. D1 structures were almost obliterated by pervasive and major D2 E-W coaxial shortening, related to the closure of the Kaoko-Gariep oceanic domain and subsequent formation of the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt to the west of the study area. Early, km-scale D1 E-W trending steep folds were refolded during this D2 event, producing either Type I or Type II fold interference patterns visible from space. The D2 E-W convergence could have lasted until ~533 Ma based on published and new U-Pb ages. The final D3 NW-SE convergence in the northernmost Damara Belt produced a NE-striking deformation

  16. Indirect dating of deformation: a geochronological study from the Pan African Ajaj shear zone, Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Klötzli, Urs

    2013-04-01

    The metamorphic complexes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield were exhumed by different exhumation mechanisms (i.e. in extension or oblique transpression regime) during the Pan African activity of Najd Fault System - the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on Earth. The different exhumation mechanisms could be the consequence of (i) orientation of the complexes at slightly different angles with respect to the overall orientation of the principal stresses of the Najd Fault System, (ii) exhumation from different depths, or (iii) change of the stress regime through time. In order to test the third hypothesis, geochronological work will be applied on a representative suite of complexes across the Najd Fault System. In particular we focus on three complexes in the Arabian part of the shield named Qazaz, Hamadat and Wajh. In general, the metamorphic complexes of the Arabian part of the shield exhibit left-lateral transcurrent tectonism along the NW-SE Najd faults and right-lateral movement along conjugate NE-SW striking structures. The whole unit forms an anastomosing network of planar structures that demarcate large fish-shaped bodies of high grade metamorphics. The Hamadat complex is surrounded by a left-lateral greenshist facies WNW-ESE Ajaj shear zone. The complex consists of folds that are strongly pinched to the north and more open to the south marked by a well-developed parallel stretching sub-horizontal lineation. Granite intrusions along and across the Ajaj shear zone may allow testing the timing of the deformation. Deformed and non-deformed samples of these granites will be examined by age dating to determine the absolute timing of the metamorphism and the deformation for the complex. Some 20 samples are currently being prepared for zircon dating. Whilst no results are available at the time of writing of this abstract, they will be presented at EGU 2013.

  17. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  18. Genetic influence on the expression of hand preferences in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence in support of the right-shift theory and developmental instability.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Dahl, J F; Pilcher, D

    2001-07-01

    Genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pervasive representation of right-handedness in humans, whereas random, nongenetic factors have been posited to explain the lack of population-level right-handedness in nonhuman primates. We report evidence that hand preferences in chimpanzees are heritable, even among related individuals raised in different environments. Furthermore, we report that the degree of heritability is modified by factors associated with developmental instability, notably, offspring parity. The data are interpreted to reconcile both genetic models for handedness and hypotheses suggesting that developmental instability influences variation in handedness.

  19. Genetic Influence on the Expression of Hand Preferences in Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes): Evidence in Support of the Right-Shift Theory and Developmental Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Dahl, Jeremy F.; Pilcher, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pervasive representation of right-handedness in humans, whereas random, nongenetic factors have been posited to explain the lack of population-level right-handedness in nonhuman primates. We report evidence that hand preferences in chimpanzees are heritable, even among related individuals raised in different environments. Furthermore, we report that the degree of heritability is modified by factors associated with developmental instability, notably, offspring parity. The data are interpreted to reconcile both genetic models for handedness and hypotheses suggesting that developmental instability influences variation in handedness. PMID:11476096

  20. FIELD IMMOBILIATION FOR TREATMENT OF AN UNKNOWN ILLNESS IN A WILD CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) AT GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA: FINDINGS, CHALLENGES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Travis, Dominic; Ssuna, Richard; Lantz, Emma; Wilson, Michael; Gamble, Kathryn; Terio, Karen; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard; Keele, Brandon; Hahn, Beatrice; Gillespie, Thomas; Pond, Joel; Raphael, Jane; Collins, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are widely presumed to be one of the greatest threats to ape conservation in the wild. Human diseases are of particular concern and the costs and benefits of human presence in protected areas with apes are regularly debated. While numerous syndromes with fatal outcomes have recently been described, precise identification of pathogens remains difficult. These diagnostic difficulties are compounded by the fact that direct veterinary intervention on wild apes is quite rare. Here we present the unique case of a wild chimpanzee at Gombe National Park who was observed with a severe illness and was subsequently examined and treated in the field. Multiple specimens were collected and tested with the aim of identifying the pathogen responsible for the illness. Our findings represent the first extensive screening of a living wild chimpanzee, yet despite our efforts, the cause and source of illness remains unknown. Nevertheless, our findings represent valuable baseline data for the ape conservation community and for comparison with other recent findings. In addition, we present the case here to demonstrate the planning required and multiple types of expertise necessary to maximize the amount of data obtained from such a rare intervention, and to provide lessons learned for future studies. PMID:23872909

  1. Field immobilization for treatment of an unknown illness in a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania: findings, challenges, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Travis, Dominic; Ssuna, Richard; Lantz, Emma; Wilson, Michael; Gamble, Kathryn; Terio, Karen; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard; Keele, Brandon; Hahn, Beatrice; Gillespie, Thomas; Pond, Joel; Raphael, Jane; Collins, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are widely presumed to be one of the greatest threats to ape conservation in the wild. Human diseases are of particular concern, and the costs and benefits of human presence in protected areas with apes are regularly debated. While numerous syndromes with fatal outcomes have recently been described, precise identification of pathogens remains difficult. These diagnostic difficulties are compounded by the fact that direct veterinary intervention on wild apes is quite rare. Here we present the unique case of a wild chimpanzee at Gombe National Park that was observed with a severe illness and was subsequently examined and treated in the field. Multiple specimens were collected and tested with the aim of identifying the pathogen responsible for the illness. Our findings represent the first extensive screening of a living wild chimpanzee, yet despite our efforts, the cause and source of illness remain unknown. Nevertheless, our findings represent valuable baseline data for the ape conservation community and for comparison with other recent findings. In addition, we present the case here to demonstrate the planning required and multiple types of expertise necessary to maximize the amount of data obtained from such a rare intervention, and to provide lessons learned for future studies.

  2. Geochronological and Petrological Constraints on the Evolution of the Pan African Ajjaj Shear Zone, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Stuewe, K.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Kloetzli, U. S.; Tiepolo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the active tectonic regions, shear zones play an important role to re-configure the structure of the lithosphere. One of the largest shear zones on the Earth is the Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Literature data record the main active phase of this shear zone during the last stages of the Pan-African Orogeny (ca. 630 - 540 Ma). The Najd Fault System is composed of several shear zone segments, one of them is the Ajjaj shear zone. Determination of the age of variably deformed intrusions is expected to give approximated age of deformation in Ajjaj shear zone. Six samples of intrusive rocks showing variable composition were used to illustrate the time progress and evolution of the Ajjaj shear zone. One sample is from a very coarse grained diorite lying within the Ajjaj shear zone. It has very weak deformation and produces an intercept U-Pb zircon age of 696 ± 6 Ma. Two samples are from granodiorite-tonalite intrusions to the tenant of the Ajjaj shear zones. They show conspicuous degree of deformation and define two U-Pb clusters of concordia ages at 747 ± 12 Ma - 668 ± 8 Ma and 742 ± 5 Ma - 702 ± 12 Ma. Three samples are granites from variable plutons along the Ajjaj shear zone. Two of them show mylonitic foliation of flattened quartz and platy minerals such as biotite parallel to the main deformation trend of the shear zone. They yield U-Pb ages of 601 ± 6 Ma - 584 ± 3 Ma. The third sample is undeformed and has a cross-cut contact relationship with the foliation of the Ajjaj shear zone. It yield concordia ages of 581 ± 4 Ma. These data confine the activity of the Ajjaj shear zone to a limited period between 605 Ma and 577 Ma. As the activity of the Ajjaj shear zone was responsible for the exhumation of the Hamadat metamorphic complex, we also constrained the vertical motions that occurred during the shear zone activity using mmetamorphic rocks. It is shown that peak metamorphism occurred around 505 - 700 ºC at two ranges of pressure 8 - 11

  3. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    contribute in enhancing the value of research in Africa, the Pan African Medical Journal will start a new regular column that will highlight priority systematic reviews relevant to the continent. PMID:27795777

  4. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. ); Brown, W.M. ); Honeycutt, R.L. )

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  5. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies.

  6. Assessment of Water Use in Pan-Eurasian and African Continents by ETMonitor with Multi-Source Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chaolei; Jia, Li; Hu, Guangcheng; Menenti, Massimo; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhansheng

    2017-02-01

    The Pan-Eurasian and African Continents are characterized by large ranges of climates varying from humid, semi-humid, semi-arid and arid regions, and great challenges exist in water allocation for different sectors that related to water resource and food security, which depends strongly on the water use information. Quantitative information on water use is also important to understand the effectiveness of water allocation and further to prevent from water stress resulted by drought in water-scarce regions. Explosive development of satellite remote sensing observations provide great chance to provide useful spatiotemporal information for quantifying the water use at regional to global scales. In this paper, a process-based model ETMonitor was used in combination with biophysical and hydrological parameters retrieved from earth observations to estimate the actual evapotranspiration, i.e. the agricultural and ecological water use. The total water use is also partitioned into beneficial part, e.g. plant transpiration, and non-beneficial part, e.g. soil evaporation and canopy rainfall interception, according to the water accounting framework. The estimated water use show good agreements with the ground observation, indicating the ability of ETMonitor for global and continental scale water use estimation. The spatial and temporal patterns of the water use in the Pan-Eurasian and African Continents were further analysed, while large spatial variation of water use was convinced. Current study also highlights the great capability of satellite observations in studying the regional water resource and continental water cycle.

  7. Early Precambrian gneiss terranes and Pan-African island arcs in Yemen: Crustal accretion of the eastern Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windley, Brian F.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ba-Bttat, Mahfood A. O.

    1996-02-01

    Within the Precambrian of Yemen, we have identified four gneiss terranes and two island-arc terranes on the basis of existing literature, mapping, and our own field observations, together with new Sm-Nd isotopic data. The two western gneiss terranes can be correlated with well-documented terranes (Asir and Afif) in Saudi Arabia. To the east of these, the Abas and Al-Mahfid gneiss terranes yield Sm-Nd model ages (tDM) of 1.7 2.3 Ga and 1.3 2.7 Ga, respectively, and cannot be correlated with any documented terranes in Saudi Arabia. These two terranes are separated by a Pan-African island-arc terrane that has been obducted onto one or both of the gneiss terranes, and a second arc bounds the Al-Mahfid gneiss terrane to the east. Our discovery of extensive Proterozoic to late Archean gneisses in Yemen provides important constraints upon the much-discussed tectonic framework of northeast Gondwana and the rate of Pan-African crustal growth. The terranes in Yemen may be correlated with comparable terranes on the eastern margin of the Arabian Shield and in northern Somalia. Thus Yemen provides a link between the arc collage of the Arabian Shield and the gneissic Mozambique belt of East Africa.

  8. Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).

    PubMed

    Petros, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms.

  9. A new method of walking rehabilitation using cognitive tasks in an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) with a disability: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yoko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hayashi, Misato

    2016-07-01

    There are few studies of long-term care and rehabilitation of animals which acquired physical disabilities in captivity, despite their importance for welfare. An adult male chimpanzee named Reo at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, developed acute myelitis, inflammation of the spinal cord, which resulted in impaired leg function. This report describes a walking rehabilitation system set up in a rehabilitation room where he lives. The rehabilitation apparatus consisted of a touch monitor presenting cognitive tasks and a feeder presenting food rewards at a distance of two meters from the monitor, to encourage him to walk between the monitor and the feeder repeatedly. Initially, Reo did not touch the monitor, therefore we needed adjustment of the apparatus and procedure. After the habituation to the monitor and cognitive tasks, he started to show behaviors of saving food rewards without walking, or stopping participation to the rehabilitation. Finally it took seven phases of the adjustment to determine the final setting; when the monitor automatically displayed trials in 4-h, AM (1000-1200 hours) and PM (1400-1600 hours) sessions through a day, Reo spontaneously walked from the monitor to the feeder to receive rewards, and returned to the monitor to perform the next trial. Comparison of Reo's locomotion in a no-task period and under the final setting revealed that the total travel distance increased from 136.7 to 506.3 m, movement patterns became multiple, and the percentage of walking increased from 1.2 to 27.2 % in PM session. The findings of this case study suggest that cognitive tasks may be a useful way to rehabilitate physically disabled chimpanzees, and thus improve their welfare in captivity.

  10. Magnetic fabrics and Pan-African structural evolution in the Najd Fault corridor in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Sadek, Mohamed F.; Hamad, Sayed S.

    2014-11-01

    In order to assess the Pan-African structural evolution from early orogenic fabrics through Najd wrenching to the latest orogenic collapse/extension, the authors used field work, aided by aerial photographs and satellite images. This work is complemented by the study of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS, or magnetic fabric). The Pan-African rock associations of the Um Gheig-Kadabora area can be divided into a lower tier composed mainly of amphibolite-migmatite and granitoid gneisses, and an upper tier of ophiolitic rocks, metavolcanics and their related volcaniclastics, and molasse-type Hammamat sediments. Both these units are intruded by late orogenic granitoid plutons and dykes. The lower tier is exposed in a domal structure in the El Sibai area, the upper tier forms a series of weakly to highly deformed thrust units, called Pan-African Nappes here, which are dissected by high strain shear zones. According to their age, these rock units are divided here into early and late-orogenic. The early orogenic rock association is characterized by medium-high metamorphic grades. The late orogenic rock association is characterized by low metamorphic grade. The rocks in the upper tier form a series of low angle thrust sheets, which are bounded by NW-striking high angle shear zones related to the Najd Fault System. The early orogenic rocks show a polyphase structural evolution with early folds, thrusts, and strike-slip shear zones. The late orogenic rocks show a relatively weaker deformation. The latest intrusives studied here are the dykes dissecting the late orogenic Kadabora granite. In the present work magnetic fabric data document the deformational features in detail and assess the role of the Najd Fault System in the deformational evolution. A strong variation in volume susceptibility of various rocks, due to their variations in mineral composition, is observed. Lower values are in the range of 10-6 SI units for late-orogenic alkaline granite and the

  11. On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; André, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M.; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E.; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Rénia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria. PMID:20169187

  12. Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, Kimberley J.; Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Carvalho, Susana; Fujisawa, Michiko; Humle, Tatyana; McGrew, William C.; Nakamura, Miho; Ohashi, Gaku; Yamanashi, Yumi; Yamakoshi, Gen; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, from 1995 to 2012. Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology—a leafy tool—to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol. PMID:26543588

  13. Pan-African granulite facies reworking along Moyar shear zone, south India: Implications for Gondwanaland assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    ER: Fe-Bt + Mg-Grt → Mg-Bt + Fe-Grt) equilibria. Mineral and isopleth thermobarometry constrain the peak metamorphic condition at 900 oC, 9.5 kbar implying high pressure granulite facies metamorphism. ReNTR and ReER equilibria were constrained to be closed respectively at 740 oC, 8 kbar and 650 oC, 7 kbar. Geo-speedometric analyses reveal very rapid cooling in the order of >150 oC/Ma, at least during the initial stages of retrograde metamorphism. This estimate is commensurate with strong Mn kick up near the garnet rim along Fe+Mg-Ca+Mn+profiles and absence of any symplectectic phases through break down of porphyroblastic garnet. High-P granulite facies metamorphism and subsequent cooling decompression path, documented in this study, in conjugation with reported Neoproterozoic Sm-Nd garnet ages (624-591 Ma) from the quartzo-feldspathic gneiss bear semblance with Pan-African HT-UHT reworking along Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (521 Ma) that was culminated with the closure of Paleo-Mozambique ocean during east and west Gondwanaland assembly. We envisaged that peak granulite facies metamorphism in MSZ marks the onset of paleo-Mozambique ocean closure in the northern part of SGT. Rapid exhumation along MSZ was possibly engineered by early Paleozoic tectonic extrusion related processes during final assembly of the Gondwanaland.

  14. The Pan African E-Network Project: A New Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suniti, Nundoo-Ghoorah; Tara, Joyejob

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the paradigm shift in learning culture brought about by the advent of online learning in the mostly print-based ODL system at the Mauritius College of the Air (MCA). It delves into the perceptions of learners and MCA staff involved in a range of undergraduate to Master's programmes forming part of the Pan African…

  15. Prospective Memory in Children and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Gonsiorowski, Anna; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something at a specific time in the future. Here we investigate the beginnings of this ability in young children (3-year-olds; Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using an analogous task. Subjects were given a choice between two toys (children) or two food items (chimpanzees). The selected item was delivered immediately, whereas the unselected item was hidden in an opaque container. After completing an ongoing quantity discrimination task, subjects could request the hidden item by asking for it (children) or by pointing to the container and identifying the item on a symbol board (chimpanzees). Children and chimpanzees showed evidence of prospective-like memory in this task, as evidenced by successful retrieval of the item at the end of the task, sometimes spontaneously with no prompting from the experimenter. These findings contribute to our understanding of prospective memory from an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. PMID:23884791

  16. Gene flow in wild chimpanzee populations: what genetic data tell us about chimpanzee movement over space and time.

    PubMed

    Gagneux, P; Gonder, M K; Goldberg, T L; Morin, P A

    2001-06-29

    The isolation of phylogenetically distinct primate immunodeficiency viruses from at least seven wild-born, captive chimpanzees indicates that viruses closely related to HIV-1 may be endemic in some wild chimpanzee populations. The search for the chimpanzee population or populations harbouring these viruses is therefore on. This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not such populations of chimpanzees are likely to exist at all, and, if so, where they are likely to be found. We summarize what is known about gene flow in wild populations of chimpanzees, both between major phylogeographical subdivisions of the species, and within these subdivisions. Our analysis indicates that hitherto undocumented reproductively isolated chimpanzee populations may in fact exist. This conclusion is based on the observation that, despite limited geographical sampling and limited numbers of genetic loci, conventional notions of the nature and extent of chimpanzee gene flow have recently been substantially revised. Molecular genetic studies using mitochondrial DNA sequences and hypervariable nuclear microsatellite markers have indicated the existence of heretofore undocumented barriers to chimpanzee gene flow. These studies have identified at least one population of chimpanzees genetically distinct enough to be classified into a new subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus). At the same time, they have called into question the long-accepted genetic distinction between eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and western equatorial chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). The same studies have further indicated that gene flow between local populations is more extensive than was previously thought, and follows patterns sometimes inconsistent with those documented through direct behavioural observation. Given the apparently incomplete nature of the current understanding of chimpanzee gene flow in equatorial Africa, it seems reasonable to speculate that a chimpanzee

  17. The Bir Safsaf Precambrian inlier of South West Egypt revisited. A model for ~ 1.5 Ga T DM late Pan-African granite generation by crustal reworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, F.; Montero, P.; Anbar, M. Abu; Molina, J. F.; Scarrow, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    Bir Safsaf is one of the four Precambrian inliers of the southern Egyptian Western Desert; it is located midway between the juvenile crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Archean terranes of Gebel Kamil, near the Libyan border. Contrary to previous belief, Bir Safsaf is exclusively composed of late Pan-African granitoids, with U/Pb SHRIMP ages between 627 Ma and 595 Ma. The presence of pre-Pan-African materials is limited to scarce inherited zircons with ~ 2.1 Ga and ~ 2.7 Ga, ages that are well-represented in the pre-Pan-African terranes of the neighboring Gebel Kamil inlier. Early Pan-African inherited zircons with ages of ~ 640-650 Ma and ~ 750 Ma are also found. The granitoids of Bir Safsaf show a large geochemical variability, with an overall composition similar to subduction-related granites, but they lack the inter-elemental correlations characteristic of magmatic differentiation, magma mixing or hybridization. This chemically heterogeneous set of granitoids has, nonetheless, nearly uniform initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd, and a ~ 1.5 Ga Nd model age (T DM) despite no new crust being formed at that time in northeast Africa. To reconcile the large chemical variability, the isotopic homogeneity, and the "mixed" Nd model age, we propose that these granitoids were derived from a lithologically heterogeneous pre-Pan African source that, prior to melting, was thoroughly homogenized with respect to Sr and Nd isotopes by convective metasomatism caused by juvenile hydrothermal fluids probably released from a subduction zone.

  18. Late Proterozoic evolution of the northern part of the Hamisana zone, northeast Sudan - Constraints on Pan-African accretionary tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes deformation fabrics developed in the northern part of the Hamisana zone in northeast Sudan. New structural data are presented which establish a structural chronology that characterizes distinct events of accretion, folding, and thrust faulting and reactivation of accretion-related faults. The structural data point to an intraplate compressional origin for the Hamisana zone. A review of available isotopic age data is carried out, and it is concluded that Pan-African accretionary processes may have been analogous to Phanerozoic ophiolite and island arc accretion in the western North American Cordillera, where penetrative deformation occurred in response to periodic intraplate shortening events, rather than an ultimate collision of unrelated crustal fragments.

  19. Structural and gravity evidence for an uplifted Pan-African granulite terrain in the Sabaloka Inlier, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, Ahmed S.; Sadig, Abdelati A.

    Granulite facies rocks of Pan-African age are exposed within retrogressed gneisses and migmatites of amphibolite facies in the Sabaloka inlier N of Khartoum and represent deepseated metamorphism in a thickned crust, while in the Red Sea Hills to the east and in the Bayuda to the nort volcanic rocks of greenchist facies metamorphism and associated granitoids of island arc affinity are dominant. We suggest that the granulites were uplifted to their present level by tectonic processes rather than by erosion only. Structural and gravity data, which show a remarkable correlation, indicate thrusting as the major cause of uplift for the granulites. Other mechanisms may also a remarkable correlation, indicate thrusting as the major cause of uplift for the granulites. Other mechanisms may also have contributed to the uplifting. These include faulting, folding and as rafts in an upward moving granitoid batholith.

  20. Structure, age, and regional significance of syntectonic augen gneisses in the Pan-African Zambezi belt, south-central Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.E.; Wilson, T.J.; Wardlaw, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Pan-African Zambezi belt in Zambia contains two major augen gneiss units that are elongated parallel to regional strike. These were previously regarded as slices of sialic basement structurally interleaved with Katangan metasedimentary rocks. New field and geochronologic evidence suggests that the gneisses are syntectonic granites intruded as large concordant sheets during main-phase (D/sub 1/) Pan-African deformation. A pervasive, horizontal or shallowly plunging mineral lineation on S/sub 1/ in the gneisses indicates that the parent granites were injected along major zones of transcurrent shear. The northern gneiss unit shows local discordant contacts against, and contains xenoliths of, adjacent Katangan rocks. Large, partly polygonized K-spar augen in the gneiss are wrapped around by S/sub 1/ and offset by microfractures antithetic to S/sub 1/. Finer grained granites intruding the gneiss are penetratively foliated to nondeformed, indicating that they were injected at various times relative to D/sub 1/. In the more intensely deformed southern gneiss unit, local pods of protomylonitic flaser gneiss grade into mylonites containing asymmetric K-spar augen set in a dynamically recrystallized matrix. U-Pb analyses of four fractions plus an air-abraded split of one fraction form a normal linear discordance pattern with an upper intercept of 820 +/- 7 Ma, taken as the age of igneous crystallization. Comparison with other available geochronologic data indicates that this age dates main-phase deformation in the Zambezi belt, and that deformation in the supposedly continuous Damaran belt to the SW was significantly younger.

  1. Structural and geochronological constraints on the Pan-African tectonic evolution of the northern Damara Belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Belyanin, George A.; Zwingmann, Horst; Charlesworth, Guy; Kinnaird, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The Pan-African Orogen formed by convergence of numerous continental blocks during the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian. This convergence eventually led to amalgamation of Gondwana, a supercontinent crosscut by a network of highly oblique linear orogenic belts that locally intersect each other, as in NW Namibia, where the NNW trending Kaoko Belt joins the NE trending Damara Belt. The northern Damara Belt has preserved well three regional Pan-African tectonic events due to the dominance of weak Neoproterozoic marine sediments (Damara Supergroup) that have been affected by low-grade metamorphism. A newly discovered early N-S horizontal contraction, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at ~590 Ma, is tentatively linked to convergence between the Congo and Kalahari cratons. This was superseded by collision between the Congo and Rio de la Plata cratons between 580 and 530 Ma that thickened and exhumed the orogenic crust of the Kaoko Belt and produce upper crustal N-S oriented folds of earlier fold trains and associated axial planar schistosities in the northern Damara Belt. A switch from E-W to NW-SE horizontal shortening occurred at ~530 Ma as a result of collision with the Kalahari Craton, triggering extensive syn-orogenic magmatism in the entire Damara Belt. During this last event, southward indentation and underthrusting of the Congo Craton promontory below the Neoproterozoic cover sequences produced a deformation front in the northern Damara Belt. Our results show that highly oblique convergent processes competed over a period of ~120 Ma to build Gondwana in Namibia during the late Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian.

  2. The geology of the Matala Dome: an important piece of the Pan-African puzzle in Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, K. V.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Poterai, J.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Charlesworth, G.; Kramers, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    The Matala Dome (MD), an ENE-trending structure located at the junction between the Pan-African Lufilian and Zambezi belts, is cored by a Gneiss-Schist Unit with uncertain age overlain by a metasedimentary section (Quartzite-Schist Unit, Marble Unit and Carbonate-Siliciclastic Unit) of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Katanga Supergroup. The top of the Katangan stratigraphy is represented by synorogenic sedimentary rocks—Upper Siliciclastic Unit. An early event D1 resulted in the development of shallow-dipping metamorphic foliation S1 and pre- to syntectonic growth of garnet and kyanite in the schists of the Quartzite-Schist Unit. Pseudosections and garnet isopleth modelling on schist from this unit defined the peak metamorphism at P = 7.5-9.3 kbar and T = 620-700 °C. U-Pb detrital zircon dating revealed ca. 2.7 Ga source and a high-grade metamorphism during Pan-African times. The S1 foliation was affected by upright folding F2 with ENE-trending axes and associated subvertical crenulation fabric S2 development. The syn-D2 retrogression in the schists is marked by post-S1 staurolite crystallisation and further by chloritisation followed by sericitisation. The D2 event is interpreted to have exhumed the orogenic middle crust and to be responsible for the domal structure of the MD. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite at 529.3 ± 5.6 to 526.3 ± 6.2 is interpreted to date the exhumation event. D2 is correlated with regional N-S shortening event at ca. 530-520 Ma. Based on the lithology, structural record, and time and facies of the metamorphism, a correlation between the MD and the northern part of the Zambezi Belt is suggested.

  3. Screening of the Pan-African natural product library identifies ixoratannin A-2 and boldine as novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva'a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M; Rice, Charles M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world.

  4. Screening of the Pan-African Natural Product Library Identifies Ixoratannin A-2 and Boldine as Novel HIV-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A.; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva’a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Rice, Charles M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world. PMID:25830320

  5. Seeing History: Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" Painting and Pan-African Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Maureen G.

    2010-01-01

    Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" (2004) is an acrylic painting that depicts 24 portraits of leading poets of the African Diaspora. Commissioned by Dr Joanne Gabbin, English professor and director of the Furious Flower Poetry Center at James Madison University, the painting is part of a larger programme of poetry…

  6. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  7. Chimpanzees are vengeful but not spiteful

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    People are willing to punish others at a personal cost, and this apparently antisocial tendency can stabilize cooperation. What motivates humans to punish noncooperators is likely a combination of aversion to both unfair outcomes and unfair intentions. Here we report a pair of studies in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) did not inflict costs on conspecifics by knocking food away if the outcome alone was personally disadvantageous but did retaliate against conspecifics who actually stole the food from them. Like humans, chimpanzees retaliate against personally harmful actions, but unlike humans, they are indifferent to simply personally disadvantageous outcomes and are therefore not spiteful. PMID:17644612

  8. Southern African continental climate since the late Pleistocene: Insights from biomarker analyses of Kalahari salt pan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The climate system of sub-tropical southern Africa is mainly controlled by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. This underlines the importance of paleoenvironmental reconstructions in order to estimate regional implications of current global changes. However, the majority of studies on southern African paleoclimate are based on the investigation of marine sedimentary archives and past climate development especially in continental areas is still poorly understood. This emphasizes the necessity of continental proxy-data from this area. Proxy datasets from local geoarchives especially of the southwestern Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. An age model based on 14C dating of total organic carbon (TOC) shows evidence that sedimentation predominates over erosional processes with respect to pan formation. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13CTOC, total inorganic carbon, δ13CTIC, δ18OTIC, total nitrogen and δ15N, our paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Results show prominent shifts in n-alkane and n-alkanol distributions and compound specific carbon isotope values, pointing to changes to a more grass dominated environment during Heinrich Stadial 1 (18.5-14.6 ka BP), while hydrogen isotope values suggest wetter phases during Holocene and LGM. This high variability indicates the local vulnerability to global change.

  9. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  10. Can chimpanzee biology highlight human origin and evolution?

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-07-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily "Homininae". This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human-chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine's subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  11. Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent.

    PubMed

    Nwaka, Solomon; Ochem, Alexander; Besson, Dominique; Ramirez, Bernadette; Fakorede, Foluke; Botros, Sanaa; Inyang, Uford; Mgone, Charles; Adae-Mensah, Ivan; Konde, Victor; Nyasse, Barthelemy; Okole, Blessed; Guantai, Anastasia; Loots, Glaudina; Atadja, Peter; Ndumbe, Peter; Sanou, Issa; Olesen, Ole; Ridley, Robert; Ilunga, Tshinko

    2012-07-27

    A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i) it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii) it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii) it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions.

  12. Competing for space: female chimpanzees are more aggressive inside than outside their core areas

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan A.; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Markham, A. Catherine; Murray, Carson M.

    2013-01-01

    Female space use can have important fitness consequences, which are likely due to differential access to food resources. Many studies have explored spatial competition in solitary species, but little is known about how individuals in social species compete over shared space. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of aggression among female East African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. This species provides an excellent opportunity to study spatial competition since (1) female chimpanzees occupy overlapping core areas (small areas of the community range in which individuals concentrate their space use) and (2) female core area quality is correlated with reproductive success, suggesting that females compete over long-term access to core areas. Here, we examine how female aggression towards other females varies inside and outside individual female core areas during a 14-year period at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Overall, females showed higher rates of aggression inside than outside their own core areas. This pattern was driven by spatial variation in aggression in nonfeeding contexts. While food-related aggression did not vary spatially, females were more aggressive in nonfeeding contexts inside their core areas than they were outside their core areas. These results suggest that female chimpanzees follow a mixed strategy in which they compete for long-term access to resources in their core areas as well as for immediate access to food throughout the community range. PMID:24436495

  13. Early Pan-African evolution of the basement around Elat, Israel, and the Sinai Peninsula revealed by single-zircon evaporation dating, and implications for crustal accretion rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kroener, A. ); Eyal, M.; Eyal, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors report {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb single-zircon evaporation ages for early Pan-African rocks from southern Israel and the northeastern Sinai Peninsula, the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian shield. The oldest rocks are metamorphic schists of presumed island-arc derivation; detrital zircons date the source terrain at ca. 800-820 Ma. A major phase of tonalite-trondhjemite plutonism occurred at ca. 760-780 Ma; more evolved granitic rocks were emplaced at about 745 Ma. A metagabbro-metadiorite complex reflects the youngest igneous phase at ca. 640 Ma. We find no evidence for pre-Pan-African crust, and our data document important crust-forming events that correlate with similar episodes elsewhere in the shield. The widespread presence of early Pan-African juvenile rocks (i.e., ca. 760-850 Ma) in many parts of the Arabian-Nubian shield makes this period the most important in the magmatic history of the shield and supports earlier suggestions for unusually high crust-production rates.

  14. Mapping and discriminating the Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar (southern Algeria) using Landsat 7 ETM+ data and airborne geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerrouk, Siham; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Liégeois, Jean Paul; Boubekri, Hichem; El Khaznadji, Riad Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a multidisciplinary approach to discriminate and map different types and generations of Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar, southern Algeria, using remote sensing and airborne geophysics in close correlation with previous works and established geological maps. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) combinations of band ratios; principal component analysis (PCA) and image classification for Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), allow spatial discrimination and mapping of granitoid rocks of the studied area (200*350 km). This area extend over four contrasted Pan-African terranes (In Tedeini, Iskel, Tefedest and Laouni terranes, the two latter belong to the LATEA (Laouni-Azrou-n-Fad-Tefedest-Egéré-Aleksod-Assodé-Issalane) metacraton. The airborne magnetic intensity provides a wide range of responses from high values (youngest granitoids) to low values (volcano-sedimentary and gneissic country-rocks). Radiometric data, displaying radioelements concentration, discriminate efficiently the late alkaline granitoids (high values), the calk-alkaline granitoids (intermediate values) and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite series (low values). This study led to the establishment of a more accurate geological map where the geochemical characteristics of the Pan-African granitoids are determined, including plutons not yet studied, especially in the poorly known In Tedeini terrane, and brings new constraints for the geodynamic development of the Tuareg Shield, which includes the Hoggar.

  15. High Diversity at PRDM9 in Chimpanzees and Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Linn Fenna; Atencia, Rebeca; Garriga, Rosa M.; Vigilant, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background The PRDM9 locus in mammals has increasingly attracted research attention due to its role in mediating chromosomal recombination and possible involvement in hybrid sterility and hence speciation processes. The aim of this study was to characterize sequence variation at the PRDM9 locus in a sample of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos. Methodology/Principal Findings PRDM9 contains a highly variable and repetitive zinc finger array. We amplified this domain using long-range PCR and determined the DNA sequences using conventional Sanger sequencing. From 17 chimpanzees representing three subspecies and five bonobos we obtained a total of 12 alleles differing at the nucleotide level. Based on a data set consisting of our data and recently published Pan PRDM9 sequences, we found that at the subspecies level, diversity levels did not differ among chimpanzee subspecies or between chimpanzee subspecies and bonobos. In contrast, the sample of chimpanzees harbors significantly more diversity at PRDM9 than samples of humans. Pan PRDM9 shows signs of rapid evolution including no alleles or ZnFs in common with humans as well as signals of positive selection in the residues responsible for DNA binding. Conclusions and Significance The high number of alleles specific to the genus Pan, signs of positive selection in the DNA binding residues, and reported lack of conservation of recombination hotspots between chimpanzees and humans suggest that PRDM9 could be active in hotspot recruitment in the genus Pan. Chimpanzees and bonobos are considered separate species and do not have overlapping ranges in the wild, making the presence of shared alleles at the amino acid level between the chimpanzee and bonobo species interesting in view of the hypothesis that PRDM9 plays a universal role in interspecific hybrid sterility. PMID:22768294

  16. High variety of different simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Fabian H; Junglen, Sandra; Boesch, Christophe; Formenty, Pierre; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Courgnaud, Valerie; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2004-04-01

    We found human T-cell leukemia virus type 1- and simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1)-related infections in 5 of 10 chimpanzees originating from three groups of wild chimpanzees. The new virus isolates showed a surprising heterogeneity not only in comparison to STLV-1 described previously in other primate species but also between the different chimpanzee groups, within a group, or even between strains isolated from an individual animal. The interdisciplinary combination of virology, molecular epidemiology, and long-term behavioral studies suggests that the primary route of infection might be interspecies transmission from other primates, such as red colobus monkeys, that are hunted and consumed by chimpanzees.

  17. Geochemistry of basement rocks from SE Kenya and NE Tanzania: indications for rifting and early Pan-African subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauernhofer, A. H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Wallbrecher, E.; Muhongo, S.; Hoinkes, G.; Mogessie, A.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Tenczer, V.

    2009-12-01

    Amphibolites and orthogneisses from the Taita Hills-Galana River area (SE Kenya) indicate their broad geological-tectonic setting. There are groups of subduction-related rocks which show characteristic REE (rare earth element) patterns and enrichment or varying concentrations of HFS (high field strength) elements. The groups can be assigned to tectonostratigraphic domains marked by different structural styles (e.g., thrust- or strike slip dominated). Tholeiitic gneisses, often emerging as folded and isolated (ridge-shaped) leucocratic bodies, belong to a group of rocks located between the thrust- and strike-slip domain. Compared to calc-alkaline gneisses of the area they contain more mafic inclusions and have lower LIL (large ionic lithophile), HFS and light REE values. These gneisses have chemical characteristics of M-type granitoids of oceanic island arc signature. Intrusion ages of ~955-845 Ma determined for these rocks suggest early Pan-African subduction. Mafic to ultramafic rocks from the Pare mountains of NE Tanzania show evidence of ophiolitic cumulates, subduction settings were also observed for the granulite areas in central and southern Tanzania. Together with the widespread arc settings documented in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the presented data supports the continuation of an island-continental arc range across Kenya-Tanzania to Mozambique.

  18. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-02-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet.

  19. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M.; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-01-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  20. Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: Implication for the continuation of the East African Rift System in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in Southern Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the

  1. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms.

  2. Molecular Biogeography: Towards an Integrated Framework for Conserving Pan-African Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Yoshan; Bruford, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Biogeographic models partition ecologically similar species assemblages into discrete ecoregions. However, the history, relationship and interactions between these regions and their assemblages have rarely been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop a taxon-based approach that explicitly utilises molecular information to compare ecoregion history and status, which we exemplify using a continentally distributed mammalian species: the African bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus). We reveal unprecedented levels of genetic diversity and structure in this species and show that ecoregion biogeographic history better explains the distribution of molecular variation than phenotypic similarity or geography. We extend these data to explore ecoregion connectivity, identify core habitats and infer ecological affinities from them. Conclusions/Significance This analysis defines 28 key biogeographic regions for sub-Saharan Africa, and provides a valuable framework for the incorporation of genetic and biogeographic information into a more widely applicable model for the conservation of continental biodiversity. PMID:17520013

  3. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  4. Do "savanna" chimpanzees consume C4 resources?

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, M; Loudon, J E; Codron, D; Howells, M E; Pruetz, J D; Codron, J; de Ruiter, D J; Lee-Thorp, J A

    2006-08-01

    Several stable carbon isotopic studies have shown that South African australopiths consumed significant quantities of C(4) resources (tropical grasses, sedges, or animals that eat those foods), but relatively little is known about the consumption of such resources by chimpanzees. Here, we present stable carbon isotopic data for 36 chimpanzee hair samples from Fongoli, one of the driest and most open areas inhabited by chimpanzees. These data suggest that the Fongoli chimpanzees consume little in the way of C(4) vegetation or animals that eat such vegetation, even though these resources are locally abundant and preferred fruits are more widely scattered than at most chimpanzee study sites. The homogeneity of the Fongoli results is especially striking and recalls the narrow isotopic distribution of stenotopic savanna mammals. This is in stark contrast to what has been observed for australopiths, which had highly variable diets and consumed about 35% C(4) vegetation on average. Carbon isotope data for modern and fossil Papio depict a dietarily variable genus with a tendency to consume C(4) vegetation. This trophic flexibility, or willingness to consume C(4) savanna resources, may make Papio a more profitable ecological analog for australopiths than chimpanzees.

  5. Different Selective Pressures Shape the Molecular Evolution of Color Vision in Chimpanzee and Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cecil M.; Stone, Anne C.; Perry, George H.

    2008-01-01

    A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, “red”) color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with balancing selection, it has been argued that a recombination “hot spot” or gene conversion within and between X-linked color vision genes alone may explain these patterns. The current analysis investigates a closely related primate with trichromatism to determine whether color vision gene amino acid polymorphism and signatures of adaptive evolution are characteristic of humans alone. Our population sample of 56 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) OPN1LW sequences shows three singleton amino acid polymorphisms and no unusual recombination or linkage disequilibrium patterns across the ∼5.5-kb region analyzed. Our comparative population genetic approach shows that the patterns of OPN1LW variation in humans and chimpanzees are consistent with positive and purifying selection within the two lineages, respectively. Although the complex role of color vision has been greatly documented in primate evolution in general, it is surprising that trichromatism has followed very different selective trajectories even between humans and our closest relatives. PMID:18832077

  6. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G

    2014-03-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.

  7. Phase equilibrium modeling of Pan-African incipient charnockite from southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Endo, Takahiro; Santosh, Mw; Thierry Rakotonandrasana, N. O.; Shaji, Erath; Rambeloson, Roger A.

    2013-04-01

    Dark brownish patches and/or veins of coarse-grained orthopyroxene-bearing felsic granulite (charnockite) within foliated amphibolite-facies gneiss/migmatite, are considered as examples of 'metamorphic' charnockite, and represent the transformation of amphibolite-facies rocks to dry granulites on a local scale. Such 'incipient' charnockites have been reported so far from many localities in southern India and Sri Lanka which corresponds to the central part of the East African - Antarctic Orogenic Belt related to the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent. Detailed petrological investigations of incipient charnockites therefore provide important insights into granulite-forming processes in the lower crust during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. Here, we report the first occurrence of incipient charnockite from Ihosy area in southern Madagascar, and discuss the petrogenesis of granulite formation in an arrested stage on the basis of petrography, geothermobarometry, fluid inclusion study, and mineral equilibrium modeling. In the study area, patches of brownish charnockite (Pl+ Qtz + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Opx + Ilm + Mag) of about 20 to 50 cm in length occur within host orthopyroxene-free garnet-biotite gneiss (Pl + Qtz + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Mag). The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on charnockite assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system to constrain the conditions of charnockitization defines a P - T range of 8-10.5 kbar and 820-880° C, which is broadly consistent with the results from the conventional geothermobarometry (820-880° C at 9 kbar) on Grt-Bt gneiss. The result of T versus mole H2O (M(H2O)) modeling demonstrated that orthopyroxene-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stable only at M(H2O) >0.1 mol.%, while orthopyroxene in charnockite occurs as a stable mineral at very low M(H2O) condition of

  8. The Bi'r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.; Harbi, Hesham M.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    The Bi'r Tawilah gold deposit in central western Saudi Arabia represents a Pan-African example of gold mineralization in which both hypogene and supergene ores are recorded. The sulphidic gold ore is hosted in intermediate to felsic intrusions that occur along the N-S trending thrust-fault zone within the so-called “Nabitah orogenic zone”. There are four rock units present (from oldest to youngest): serpentinites and related listwaenites, diorites, granitic rocks and porphyries. Hydrothermal alteration consists of chloritization, sericitization, carbonatization and silicification and affects all rock types. Chloritization of biotite results in abundant rutile, whereas sulphidization coincides with carbonatization. The Bi'r Tawilah ore is confined to NW-trending shears (Riedel fractures) related to N-S slip of the pre-existing Tawilah thrust due to activation within the Najd fault system. Samples from the boreholes show macro- and microscopic evidence of shearing such as micro-shear planes and strain shadows of pyrite. Sulphides and gold are present in most rock types. Paragenetically, the sulphides consist of abundant pyrite and relatively lesser amounts of arsenopyrite, in addition to very minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. In all boreholes, it was noticed that the abundance of arsenopyrite increases with depth. The elevated silver content of electrum (∼13-22 wt%) at Bi'r Tawilah is typical of gold deposits and low-sulphidation epithermal deposits. The early mineralization stage took place in proximity to hydrothermally altered intermediate to felsic intrusions. The aerially restricted hydrothermal alteration by carbon-aqueous fluids led to ore remobilization in which gold amounts up to 4.3 g/t. Finally, gold enrichment (up to 5.4 g/t) resulted from supergene alteration that took place during weathering above the water table at a depth of ∼20-25 m.

  9. Amplification of a Complete Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Genome from Fecal RNA of a Wild Chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Kamenya, Shadrack; Muller, Martin N.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is incomplete since few isolates, mostly from captive apes from Cameroon and Gabon, have been characterized; yet this information is critical for understanding the origins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the circumstances leading to the HIV-1 pandemic. Here, we report the first full-length SIVcpz sequence (TAN1) from a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Gombe National Park (Tanzania), which was obtained noninvasively by amplification of virion RNA from fecal samples collected under field conditions. Using reverse transcription-PCR and a combination of generic and strain-specific primers, we amplified 13 subgenomic fragments which together spanned the entire TAN1 genome (9,326 bp). Distance and phylogenetic tree analyses identified TAN1 unambiguously as a member of the HIV-1/SIVcpz group of viruses but also revealed an extraordinary degree of divergence from all previously characterized SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains. In Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, TAN1 differed from west-central African SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains on average by 36, 30, and 51% of amino acid sequences, respectively, approaching distance values typically found for SIVs from different primate species. The closest relative was SIVcpzANT, also from a P. t. schweinfurthii ape, which differed by 30, 25, and 44%, respectively, in these same protein sequences but clustered with TAN1 in all major coding regions in a statistically highly significant manner. These data indicate that east African chimpanzees, like those from west-central Africa, are naturally infected by SIVcpz but that their viruses comprise a second, divergent SIVcpz lineage which appears to have evolved in relative isolation for an extended period of time. Our data also demonstrate that noninvasive molecular epidemiological studies of SIVcpz in wild chimpanzees are feasible and that

  10. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of 9-11 kbar and 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 °C.km- 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  11. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R.; Hopkins, William D.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans’ closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:26475872

  12. The Development of Representational Play in Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Evolutionary Implications, Pretense, and the Role of Interspecies Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyn, Heidi; Greenfield, Patricia; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the development of symbolic or representational play in two species of the genus "Pan", bonobos ("Pan paniscus") and chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"). The participants varied not only by species, but also as to whether they had become proficient in communicating with humans via a set of arbitrary visual symbols, called…

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Allaqi shear zone and implications for Pan-African terrane amalgamation in the south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kazzaz, Y. A. H. A.; Taylor, W. E. G.

    2001-08-01

    The complex major Allaqi shear zone occurs within the meta-volcanic and meta-sedimentary Neoproterozoic rocks of the central Wadi Allaqi and is important for our understanding of the development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield within the evolution of the East African (Pan-African) Orogeny (950—550 Ma). Early-formed northerly-facing complex thrust duplex systems, with attendant west-northwest—east-southeast orientated recumbent folds, dominate the area. Early ductile structural phases are superseded by more brittle structures, and the intrusion of four granitoid plutons punctuates the development history. The Allaqi shear zone is interpreted as the most northerly major dislocation of a fault-duplex zone of regional significance but an interpretation of the zone as a palæo-suture is not proven despite the presence of an allochthonous ophiolitic unit (the Gebel Taylor Wedge), which has undergone blueschist-facies metamorphism.

  14. The Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline peraluminous Elat granite from southern Israel: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, M.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Katzir, Y.; Zanvilevich, A. N.

    2004-10-01

    Calc-alkaline leucocratic granites that were emplaced at the late post-collision stage of the Pan-African orogeny are abundant in the northern half of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Commonly, they are referred to as the Younger Granite II suite. In southern Israel such rocks are known as Elat granite. Studies of these rocks enable to recognize two types of granites: coarse-grained, massive Elat granite (EG), and fine- to medium-grained Shahmon gneissic granite (SGG). Both granite types are high-K and peraluminous ( ASI ranges from 1.03 to 1.16). They are similar in modal composition, mineral and whole-rock chemistry. Within the EG, a noticeable distinction in whole-rock chemistry and mineral composition is observed between rocks making up different plutons. In particular, the granite of Wadi Shelomo, as compared to the Rehavam pluton, is enriched in SiO 2, FeO∗, K 2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and impoverished in MgO, Na 2O, Sr, and HREE. The Eu/Eu∗ values in the granite are low, up to 0.44. Mass-balance calculations suggest that chemical and mineralogical variations were caused by fractionation of ˜16 wt.% plagioclase from the parental Rehavam granite magma at temperature of 760-800 °C (muscovite-biotite geothermometer). The Rb-Sr isochrons yielded a date of 623 ± 24 Ma for the EG, although high value of age-error does not allow to constrain time of emplacement properly. The Rb-Sr date for SGG is 640 ± 9 Ma; however, it is likely that this date points to the time of metamorphism. A survey of the literature shows that peraluminous, high-K granites, similar to the EG, are abundant among the Younger Granite II plutons in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, Egypt. They were emplaced at the end of the batholithic (late post-collision) stage. The most appropriate model for the generation of the peraluminous granitic magma is partial melting of metapelite and metagreywacke.

  15. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat

  16. Chimpanzee seed dispersal in a montane forest fragment in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Rebecca L; Rundus, Aaron S; Nyandwi, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    Primate seed dispersal plays an important role in forest regeneration. It may be particularly important to anthropogenically disturbed habitats such as forest fragments. However, few studies have examined primate seed dispersal in these types of environments. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are frugivorous and large-bodied, and are therefore able to disperse both large and small seeds, making them an important seed dispersal species. We examined chimpanzee seed dispersal in Gishwati forest, a 14 km(2) montane rainforest fragment in Rwanda. We systematically collected ≤24-hr-old fecal samples and counted the number of seeds of each fruit species. We also recorded observations of seeds found in wadges. We found that chimpanzees dispersed at least 18 fruit species in 14 families in their feces. Ninety-five percent of feces had seeds, the most common of which were Ficus spp., Myrianthus holstii, and Maesa lanceolata. We estimated that the Gishwati chimpanzee community with a density of 1.7 individuals per km(2) dispersed an average of 592 (>2 mm) seeds km(-2)  day(-1) . We also found that chimpanzees dispersed the seeds of at least two fruit species, Ficus spp. and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, in their wadges. In addition, 17% of the tree species recorded in our vegetation plots were chimpanzee-dispersed. This study emphasizes the importance of chimpanzees as large seed dispersers in regenerating forest fragments.

  17. Structure and metamorphism of the granitic basement around Antananarivo: A key to the Pan-African history of central Madagascar and its Gondwana connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NéDéLec, Anne; Ralison, Bruno; Bouchez, Jean-Luc; GréGoire, Vincent

    2000-10-01

    The Precambrian basement of Madagascar acquired a polyphase imprint during the Pan-African orogeny. In northern central Madagascar, emplacement of stratoid alkaline granites at midcrustal depth (4-5 kbars) led to formation of a layered crust in a postcollisional extensional regime at 630 Ma (D1). Subsequently, the structures of the stratoid granites were rotated by the sinistral and transpressive E-W Antananarivo flexure (or virgation) zone (D2). East of Antananarivo the structures of the D1 layered crust and the D2 virgation are crosscut by the steeply dipping N-S foliations of the Angavo belt. Lineations gently plunging to the north attest that the Angavo belt is a major strike-slip shear zone that formed under low-pressure granulitic conditions (3 kbars, 790°C). The nearby porphyritic Carion granite was emplaced at the end of this period of N-S shearing (D3), which can thus be no younger than 530 Ma. Late-Pan-African (580-550 Ma) strike-slip motion along broadly N-S shear zones has been recognized elsewhere in Madagascar and in its Gondwana connections. Continuation of the Angavo belt as one of the high strain belts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is discussed in the general framework of Gondwana assembly.

  18. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  19. Pan-African metamorphic evolution in the southern Yaounde Group (Oubanguide Complex, Cameroon) as revealed by EMP-monazite dating and thermobarometry of garnet metapelites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owona, Sebastien; Schulz, Bernhard; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Mvondo Ondoa, Joseph; Ekodeck, Georges E.; Tchoua, Félix M.; Affaton, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Garnet-bearing micaschists and paragneisses of the Yaounde Group in the Pan-African Central African Orogenic Belt in Cameroon underwent a polyphase structural evolution with the deformation stages D 1-D 2, D 3 and D 4. The garnet-bearing assemblages crystallized in course of the deformation stage D 1-D 2 which led to the formation of the regional main foliation S 2. In XCa- XMg coordinates one can distinguish several zonation trends in the garnet porphyroblasts. Zonation trends with increasing XMg and variably decreasing XCa signalize a garnet growth during prograde metamorphism. Intermineral microstructures provided criteria for local equilibria and a structurally controlled application of geothermobarometers based on cation exchange and net transfer reactions. The syndeformational P- T path sections calculated from cores and rims of garnets in individual samples partly overlap and align along clockwise P- T trends. The P- T evolution started at ˜450 °C/7 kbar, passed high-pressure conditions at 11-12 kbar at variable temperatures (600-700 °C) and involved a marked decompression toward 6-7 kbar at high temperatures (700-750 °C). Th-U-Pb dating of metamorphic monazite by electron microprobe (EMP-CHIME method) in eight samples revealed a single period of crystallization between 613 ± 33 Ma and 586 ± 15 Ma. The EMP-monazite age populations between 613 ± 33 Ma enclosed in garnet and 605 ± 12 Ma in the matrix apparently bracket the high temperature-intermediate pressure stage at the end of the prograde P- T path. The younger monazites crystallized still at amphibolite-facies conditions during subsequent retrogression. The Pan-African overall clockwise P- T evolution in the Yaounde Group with its syndeformational high pressure stages and marked pressure variations is typical of the parts of orogens which underwent contractional crustal thickening by stacking of nappe units during continental collision and/or during subduction-related accretionary processes.

  20. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes.

  1. The first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan: an attempt to care for the "surplus" of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Morimura, Naruki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    This article specifically examines several aspects of the human-captive chimpanzee bond and the effort to create the first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan. We discuss our ethical responsibility for captive chimpanzees that have been used in biomedical research. On April 1, 2007, the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto (CSU) was established as the first sanctuary for retired laboratory chimpanzees in Japan. This initiative was the result of the continuous efforts by members of Support for African/Asian Great Apes (SAGA), and the Great Ape Information Network to provide a solution to the large chimpanzee colony held in biomedical facilities. However, the cessation of invasive biomedical studies using chimpanzees has created a new set of challenges because Japan lacks registration and laws banning invasive ape experiments and lacks a national policy for the life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees. Therefore, CSU has initiated a relocation program in which 79 retired laboratory chimpanzees will be sent to domestic zoos and receive life-long care. By the end of 2009, the number of chimpanzees living at CSU had decreased from 79 to 59 individuals. A nationwide network of care facilities and CSU to provide life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees is growing across Japan. This will result in humane treatment of these research animals.

  2. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505). PMID:26328003

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of Late Pan-African intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China: Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wen-chun; Zhao, Guo-chun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui; Yu, Jie-jiang; Zhang, Yan-long

    2014-11-01

    To constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block and its relationship to the Late Pan-African event in Gondwana, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, and Hf isotopic compositions) of early Paleozoic intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data demonstrate that these intrusive rocks were emplaced at three stages during the Late Pan-African event, represented by ~ 540 Ma syenogranite, ~ 515 Ma quartz syenite, and ~ 500 Ma monzogranite and gabbro. Geochemically, the ~ 500 Ma gabbros in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block have low SiO2 (50.26-51.21 wt.%), relatively high MgO (4.08-5.67 wt.%), Ni (13.1-14.1 ppm) and Cr (28.4-56.0 ppm), and are slightly enriched in LILEs (e.g., Ba, K) and LREEs, and depleted in Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and P. The εHf(t) values of zircons in the gabbro range from + 2.6 to + 6.4. All these geochemical features indicate that the gabbros were likely produced by the partial melting of a depleted mantle that had been metasomatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. In contrast, the ca.540-500 Ma granites and quartz syenites contain high SiO2 (64.49-72.20 wt.%) and low MgO (0.40-0.75 wt.%), Cr (1.69-6.88 ppm) and Ni (1.26-3.26 ppm). They have relatively low 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.282247-0.282599 with Hf two-stage model ages of 1173-2280 Ma, and most of the magmatic zircons have positive εHf(t) values varying from + 0.2 - + 4.8, indicating that these granites and quartz syenites were probably derived from a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic "old" crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials. According to the geochemical data and global geological investigations, we propose that the 541-498 Ma intrusive rocks in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block formed in a post-collisional or post-orogenic extensional setting linked to the collapse of a Late Pan-African orogen associated within the Gondwana.

  4. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  5. A new malaria agent in African hominids.

    PubMed

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Durand, Patrick; Prugnolle, Franck; Douzery, Emmanuel; Arnathau, Céline; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric; Renaud, François

    2009-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the major human malaria agent responsible for 200 to 300 million infections and one to three million deaths annually, mainly among African infants. The origin and evolution of this pathogen within the human lineage is still unresolved. A single species, P. reichenowi, which infects chimpanzees, is known to be a close sister lineage of P. falciparum. Here we report the discovery of a new Plasmodium species infecting Hominids. This new species has been isolated in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) kept as pets by villagers in Gabon (Africa). Analysis of its complete mitochondrial genome (5529 nucleotides including Cyt b, Cox I and Cox III genes) reveals an older divergence of this lineage from the clade that includes P. falciparum and P. reichenowi (approximately 21+/-9 Myrs ago using Bayesian methods and considering that the divergence between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 4 to 7 million years ago as generally considered in the literature). This time frame would be congruent with the radiation of hominoids, suggesting that this Plasmodium lineage might have been present in early hominoids and that they may both have experienced a simultaneous diversification. Investigation of the nuclear genome of this new species will further the understanding of the genetic adaptations of P. falciparum to humans. The risk of transfer and emergence of this new species in humans must be now seriously considered given that it was found in two chimpanzees living in contact with humans and its close relatedness to the most virulent agent of malaria.

  6. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of climate change represent a major threat to sustainable development and growth in Southern Africa. Understanding the impact on the geo- and biosphere is therefore of great importance in this particular region. In this context the Kalahari salt pans (also known as playas or sabkhas) and their peripheral saline and alkaline habitats are an ecosystem of major interest. They are very sensitive to environmental conditions, and as thus hydrological, mineralogical and ecological responses to climatic variations can be analysed. Up to now the soil composition of salt pans in this area have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale. Furthermore, the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. High spectral resolution remote sensing can estimate evaporite content and mineralogy of soils based on the analyses of the surface reflectance properties within the Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR 400-1000 nm) and Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR 1000-2500 nm) regions. In these wavelength regions major chemical components of the soil interact with the electromagnetic radiation and produce characteristic absorption features that can be used to derive the properties of interest. Although such techniques are well established for the laboratory and field scale, the potential of current (Hyperion) and upcoming spaceborne sensors such as EnMAP for quantitative mineralogical and salt spectral mapping is still to be demonstrated. Combined with hyperspectral methods, multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent dynamic of these salt pans and link the mineralogical analysis of the pan surface to major physical processes in these dryland environments. In this study we focus on the analyses of the Namibian Omongwa salt pans based on satellite hyperspectral imagery and multispectral time-series data. First, a change detection analysis is applied using the Iterative

  7. Peter Pan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storr, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Offers a contemporary view of J. M. Barrie's life and his classic story, "Peter Pan." Suggests that "Peter Pan" does not really speak for today's children and that the time for Peter Pan's retirement has come. (PRA)

  8. Use of “Entertainment” Chimpanzees in Commercials Distorts Public Perception Regarding Their Conservation Status

    PubMed Central

    Schroepfer, Kara K.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Chartrand, Tanya; Hare, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing “entertainment” chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts. PMID:22022503

  9. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    PubMed

    Schroepfer, Kara K; Rosati, Alexandra G; Chartrand, Tanya; Hare, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  10. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  11. New constraints on the Pan-African Orogeny in Central Zambia: A structural and geochronological study of the Hook Batholith and the Mwembeshi Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin V.; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Charlesworth, Guy; Frei, Dirk; Rankin, William

    2014-12-01

    In Central Zambia, the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Pan-African Orogen: the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. To the north of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within Neoproterozoic Katangan metasedimentary rocks. Field mapping and structural studies, microstructural observations, interpretation of airborne geophysical images and U-Pb zircon geochronology constrain a new model for the tectonic evolution of this poorly studied part of the orogen. Two temporarily separated and highly oblique orogenic contraction events are defined. D1 is characterised by a regional low-metamorphic grade E-W shortening that produced strain partitioning between N-S trending pure-shear-dominated and NW trending sinistral simple-shear dominated domains. The emplacement of the batholith between ca. 550 and 533 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages) is syn-tectonic to D1. The D2 N-S shortening event was active after ca. 530, which is indicated by the age of the newly dated, deformed molasse of the Hook Batholith. During D2, the MwZ developed as an E- to ENE-striking zone of pure-shear dominated deformation that localised to the south and within the already exhumed Hook Batholith. At the scale of the Pan-African Orogen in Southern Africa, the D1 is considered to be a far field expression of the E-W collision event in the Mozambique Belt. The following Early Cambrian D2 event corresponds to the high angle collision between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons and the stitching of the Lufilian and Zambezi belts along the MwZ. Therefore, in the Hook area, the MwZ cannot be regarded as a continental-scale wrench structure as widely discussed in the literature. The tectonic events in Central Zambia suggest that the amalgamation of Gondwana was accompanied by suturing along highly oblique orogenic belts during plate reorganization at around 530 Ma.

  12. Timing and tectonic implications of the Pan-African Bangangte syenomonzonite, West Cameroon: Constraints from in-situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Li, Xian-Hua; Belnoun, Rose Noel Ngo; Mouafo, Lucas; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto

    2016-12-01

    The Bangangte pluton is a SW-NE elongated (5 × 20 km) massif located in the southeastern part of the Pan-African North Equatorial Fold Belt in Cameroon, consisting of two units with dominant monzonites in the south and syenites in the north. SIMS U-Pb zircon dating yields consistent emplacement ages of 585 ± 4 Ma and 583 ± 4 Ma for the southern unit and the northern unit, respectively. The Bangangte rocks display typical shoshonitic compositions characterized by Na2O + K2O > 5 wt%, K2O/Na2O ∼2, enrichment in LILE and LREE, but depletion in HFSE. Rocks from both units have similar O-Hf isotopes, with the monzonite zircons from the southern unit showing slightly higher δ18O (7.0 ± 0.4‰) but lower εHf(t) (-15.3 ± 1.4) value than the syenite zircons from southern unit (δ18O = 6.0 ± 0.4‰; εHf(t) = -14.0 ± 2.0). They were generated by partial melting of an enriched mantle source metasomatized by previous subduction processes, accompanied by crystal fractionation of pyroxene, Ti-Fe oxides and apatite, as well as crustal contamination to varying degrees. These rocks display a transitional geochemical feature of the subduction-related and within-plate shoshonites, suggesting that they were most likely emplaced in a post-collisional setting at the waning stage of the Pan-African orogeny.

  13. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Pan-African Mitochondrial DNA Variation Provides New Insights into Continental Variation and Demography.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María; Gusmão, Leonor; Černý, Viktor; Uddin, Nabeel; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Göbel, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Salas, Antonio

    2016-03-20

    Africa is the cradle of all human beings, and although it has been the focus of a number of genetic studies, there are many questions that remain unresolved. We have performed one of the largest and most comprehensive meta-analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages carried out in the African continent to date. We generated high-throughput mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (230 SNPs) from 2024 Africans, where more than 500 of them were additionally genotyped for the control region. These data were analyzed together with over 12,700 control region profiles collected from the literature, representing more than 300 population samples from Africa. Insights into the African homeland of humans are discussed. Phylogeographic patterns for the African continent are shown at a high phylogeographic resolution as well as at the population and regional levels. The deepest branch of the mtDNA tree, haplogroup L0, shows the highest sub-haplogroup diversity in Southeast and East Africa, suggesting this region as the homeland for modern humans. Several demographic estimates point to the coast as a facilitator of human migration in Africa, but the data indicate complex patterns, perhaps mirroring the effect of recent continental-scaled demographic events in re-shaping African mtDNA variability.

  15. Differential alu mobilization and polymorphism among the human and chimpanzee lineages.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Dale J; Callinan, Pauline A; Cordaux, Richard; Xing, Jinchuan; Barnes, Erin; Batzer, Mark A

    2004-06-01

    Alu elements are primate-specific members of the SINE (short interspersed element) retroposon family, which comprise approximately 10% of the human genome. Here we report the first chromosomal-level comparison examining the Alu retroposition dynamics following the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. We find a twofold increase in Alu insertions in humans in comparison to the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The genomic diversity (polymorphism for presence or absence of the Alu insertion) associated with these inserts indicates that, analogous to recent nucleotide diversity studies, the level of chimpanzee Alu diversity is approximately 1.7 times higher than that of humans. Evolutionarily recent Alu subfamily structure differs markedly between the human and chimpanzee lineages, with the major human subfamilies remaining largely inactive in the chimpanzee lineage. We propose a population-based model to account for the observed fluctuation in Alu retroposition rates across primate taxa.

  16. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U < 0.3). Cooling age (< 700°C) of these HP-HT rocks yielded to a younger age of 654 ±7 My (U-Pb method on rutile). Geochemical data of each mafic and ultramafic facies (hornblende gabbro, garnet-bearing facies and hornblendite) show typical arc signature (marked by e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly, (La/Sm)N: 0.8-1.6 ; (Nb/La) < 0.46 ; high Nb/Ba ratio ; 0.4 < K2O < 2.1 wt%). Intrusive granodioritic magmas show depleted HREE trend similar to granitoids in the Kohistan paleo-arc. Melting modeling suggests they are

  17. Contrasting effects of natural selection on human and chimpanzee CC chemokine receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Wooding, Stephen; Stone, Anne C; Dunn, Diane M; Mummidi, Srinivas; Jorde, Lynn B; Weiss, Robert K; Ahuja, Sunil; Bamshad, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolved via cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees, like humans, are susceptible to infection by HIV-1. However, unlike humans, infected chimpanzees seldom develop immunodeficiency when infected with SIVcpz or HIV-1. SIVcpz and most strains of HIV-1 require the cell-surface receptor CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) to infect specific leukocyte subsets, and, subsequent to infection, the level of CCR5 expression influences the amount of HIV-1 entry and the rate of HIV-1 replication. Evidence that variants in the 5' cis-regulatory region of CCR5 (5'CCR5) affect disease progression in humans suggests that variation in CCR5 might also influence the response of chimpanzees to HIV-1/SIVcpz. To determine whether patterns of genetic variation at 5'CCR5 in chimpanzees are similar to those in humans, we analyzed patterns of DNA sequence variation in 37 wild-born chimpanzees (26 P. t. verus, 9 P. t. troglodytes, and 2 P. t. schweinfurthii), along with previously published 5'CCR5 data from 112 humans and 50 noncoding regions in the human and chimpanzee genomes. These analyses revealed that patterns of variation in 5'CCR5 differ dramatically between chimpanzees and humans. In chimpanzees, 5'CCR5 was less diverse than 80% of noncoding regions and was characterized by an excess of rare variants. In humans, 5'CCR5 was more diverse than 90% of noncoding regions and had an excess of common variants. Under a wide range of demographic histories, these patterns suggest that, whereas human 5'CCR5 has been subject to balancing selection, chimpanzee 5'CCR5 has been influenced by a selective sweep. This result suggests that chimpanzee 5'CCR5 might harbor or be linked to functional variants that influence chimpanzee resistance to disease caused by SIVcpz/HIV-1.

  18. Chimpanzees and the mathematics of battle.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L; Britton, Nicholas F; Franks, Nigel R

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated the importance of numerical assessment in animal contests. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to model explicitly the relationship between the relative number of combatants on each side and the costs and benefits of entering a contest. One framework that may be especially suitable for making such explicit predictions is Lanchester's theory of combat, which has proved useful for understanding combat strategies in humans and several species of ants. We show, with data from a recent series of playback experiments, that a model derived from Lanchester's 'square law' predicts willingness to enter intergroup contests in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Furthermore, the model predicts that, in contests with multiple individuals on each side, chimpanzees in this population should be willing to enter a contest only if they outnumber the opposing side by a factor of 1.5. We evaluate these results for intergroup encounters in chimpanzees and also discuss potential applications of Lanchester's square and linear laws for understanding combat strategies in other species. PMID:12061952

  19. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

    PubMed Central

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Feldman, Rebecca A.; Quarles, Luke F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  20. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Imiter Pan-African granitoids (Saghro massif, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Geotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidada, Bouchra; Cousens, Brian; Alansari, Abdelkhalek; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Barbey, Pierre; Ilmen, Said; Ikenne, Moha

    2017-03-01

    The Imiter inlier (eastern part of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas) is located on the northwestern border of the West African Craton (WAC) and exhibits a range of Pan-African granitoids. Three massifs that crosscut the Imiter Saghro Group were targeted in this work: the Igoudrane granodiorite, Bou Teglimt granodiorite and Bou Fliou granite. We present here additional geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which define two distinct groups: (i) the Igoudrane massif (677 Ma) and (ii) the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (576 Ma) and the Bou Fliou granite (550 Ma). Geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline signature of the studied granitoids. Both groups of granitoids are slightly peraluminous and show strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti in multi-element plots normalized to the primitive mantle. The granitoids have low 143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.5116-0.5117), with TDM model ages ranging from 1.73 to 1.52Ga. The εNd(t) values are negative, decreasing from the Igoudrane samples (-1.1 to -3.1) to the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (-3.0 to -3.3) and Bou Fliou (-4.2 to -4.8). All these data suggest a mixed magmatic origin involving a juvenile mantle source and an old, at least Paleoproterozoic crust. Given Mesoproterozoic rocks are lacking or very scarce in the Anti-Atlas, these results confirm the existence of an old cratonic basement beneath the eastern Anti-Atlas, and therefore suggest that the northern border of the West African Craton must be placed further to the north, as suggested by previous work in this region.

  1. Hotspots for copy number variation in chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Tchinda, Joelle; McGrath, Sean D.; Zhang, Junjun; Picker, Simon R.; Cáceres, Angela M.; Iafrate, A. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Scherer, Stephen W.; Eichler, Evan E.; Stone, Anne C.; Lee, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Copy number variation is surprisingly common among humans and can be involved in phenotypic diversity and variable susceptibility to complex diseases, but little is known of the extent of copy number variation in nonhuman primates. We have used two array-based comparative genomic hybridization platforms to identify a total of 355 copy number variants (CNVs) in the genomes of 20 wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and have compared the identified chimpanzee CNVs to known human CNVs from previous studies. Many CNVs were observed in the corresponding regions in both chimpanzees and humans; especially those CNVs of higher frequency. Strikingly, these loci are enriched 20-fold for ancestral segmental duplications, which may facilitate CNV formation through nonallelic homologous recombination mechanisms. Therefore, some of these regions may be unstable “hotspots” for the genesis of copy number variation, with recurrent duplications and deletions occurring across and within species. PMID:16702545

  2. A fine-scale chimpanzee genetic map from population sequencing.

    PubMed

    Auton, Adam; Fledel-Alon, Adi; Pfeifer, Susanne; Venn, Oliver; Ségurel, Laure; Street, Teresa; Leffler, Ellen M; Bowden, Rory; Aneas, Ivy; Broxholme, John; Humburg, Peter; Iqbal, Zamin; Lunter, Gerton; Maller, Julian; Hernandez, Ryan D; Melton, Cord; Venkat, Aarti; Nobrega, Marcelo A; Bontrop, Ronald; Myers, Simon; Donnelly, Peter; Przeworski, Molly; McVean, Gil

    2012-04-13

    To study the evolution of recombination rates in apes, we developed methodology to construct a fine-scale genetic map from high-throughput sequence data from 10 Western chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Compared to the human genetic map, broad-scale recombination rates tend to be conserved, but with exceptions, particularly in regions of chromosomal rearrangements and around the site of ancestral fusion in human chromosome 2. At fine scales, chimpanzee recombination is dominated by hotspots, which show no overlap with those of humans even though rates are similarly elevated around CpG islands and decreased within genes. The hotspot-specifying protein PRDM9 shows extensive variation among Western chimpanzees, and there is little evidence that any sequence motifs are enriched in hotspots. The contrasting locations of hotspots provide a natural experiment, which demonstrates the impact of recombination on base composition.

  3. Direct evidence for the Homo-Pan clade.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Rainer; Kirsch, Stefan; Rappold, Gudrun A; Schempp, Werner

    2002-01-01

    For a long time, the evolutionary relationship between human and African apes, the 'trichotomy problem', has been debated with strong differences in opinion and interpretation. Statistical analyses of different molecular DNA data sets have been carried out and have primarily supported a Homo-Pan clade. An alternative way to address this question is by the comparison of evolutionarily relevant chromosomal breakpoints. Here, we made use of a P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)/bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig spanning approximately 2.8 Mb on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, to comparatively map individual PAC clones to chromosomes from great apes, gibbons, and two species of Old World monkeys by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. During our search for evolutionary breakpoints on the Y chromosome, it transpired that a transposition of an approximately 100-kb DNA fragment from chromosome 1 onto the Y chromosome must have occurred in a common ancestor of human, chimpanzee and bonobo. Only the Y chromosomes of these three species contain the chromosome-1-derived fragment; it could not be detected on the Y chromosomes of gorillas or the other primates examined. Thus, this shared derived (synapomorphic) trait provides clear evidence for a Homo-Pan clade independent of DNA sequence analysis.

  4. New constraints on the Pan-African tectonics and the role of the Mwembeshi Zone in Central Zambia: Deformation style and timing of two orthogonal shortening events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith; Charlesworth, Guy; Rankin, William; Frei, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    In Central Zambia the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Late Neoproterozoic - Cambrian Pan-African Orogen: the NE-convex Lufilian Arc and the E-W trending Zambezi Belt whose distinct features emphasize the role of the zone as a regional structural and metamorphic boundary. North of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within the low metamorphic grade Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks, and represents the largest Pan-African intrusion in Southern Africa. The granitoids and their host-rocks were affected by two deformation events. During the D1 deformation of E-W shortening, two high-strained zones developed in the batholith. To the NE, the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) is a ~3 km wide NW-striking subvertical sinistral strike-slip shear zone. To the SW, a ~2.5 km wide N-S trending subvertical pure-shear Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) formed. In both structures, the granitoids show a smooth transition from weakly deformed rocks to porphyroclastic mylonites. Microstructural analysis defined them as medium metamorphic grade zones, deforming the granitoids at temperatures between 500 and 550°C. The lower greenschist facies metamorphism in the country rocks indicates that the deformation occurred during the cooling of the granitoids. D1 in the metasedimentary rocks east of the Hook batholith formed tight, upright folds with subvertical axial-planar cleavage and NNW-SSE trending axis consistent with the E-W shortening. U-Pb zircon geochronology and cross-cutting relationships between granites bracket D1 deformation between 549 ± 2 Ma and 541 ± 3 Ma in the NZ and in the SE part of the batholith. In the ITZ, the 533 ± 3 Ma age on a deformed granite indicates prolonged E-W shortening during granite emplacement and cooling history. D2 represents a stage of N-S shortening. Airborne geophysical data revealed bending of the N-S trending ITZ and rotation to the east. The D1 structures in the granitoids are cut by D2 north-vergent thrusts and subvertical NW trending

  5. U-Pb La-Icp Zircon Geochoronology and Geochemistry of the Pan-African S-Type Metagranitoids: Implications for Melting of Crustal Sources, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar Erkül, Sibel; Erkül, Fuat; Klöeztli, Urs; Tiepelo, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    The Menderes Massif in western Turkey comprises nappe packages of Pre-Cambrian high-grade rocks and extensive metagranitoids together with granulitic and eclogitic relicts and Palaeozoic to Early Tertiary metaclastic and metacarbonate rocks that was subjected to high pressure-low temperature and Borrowian-type metamorphic conditions associated with Pan-African and Alpine orogeneses. In this study we discuss the implications of geochronological and geochemical data from the metagranitoids located on the eastern margin of the Menderes Massif, which may provide raw material for understanding the assembly of western and eastern Gondwanaland. Metagranitoids, which cover large areas in the Menderes Massif, comprise augen orthogneisses, porphyritic metagranites and tourmaline-bearing leucocratic metagranites. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb dating on zircon grains yielded concordia ages of 553.8±1.2, 548.8±1.3 and 506.5±1.6 Ma from augen orthogneisses, porphyritic granites and tourmaline-bearing leucocratic metagranites, respectively, confirming their close association with the Pan-African orogeny. Augen orthogneisses are typically mylonitic and consist of K-feldspar porphyroclasts and elongated tourmaline nodules enclosed by quartz, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclase, biotite, garnet muscovite, chlorite and minor zircon and apatite grains. Porphyritic metagranitoids are relatively less deformed and are defined by distinct K-feldspar megacrysts. Their mineral assemblage resembles those of augen gneisses, but lacking of garnet and tourmaline grains. Tourmaline-bearing leucocratic metagranites are rich in felsic minerals and are comprised of quartz, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite, biotite, chlorite, tourmaline and minor zircon and apatite. Mineralogical composition of these metagranitoids appears similar to each other. Metagranitoids have well-preserved intrusive contacts with high-grade mica schists and amphibolites and locally include xenoliths of

  6. Alloparenting for chimpanzee twins

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Takeshi; Ando, Juko; Tatara, Seiki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Konishi, Katsuya; Kimura, Natsuko; Fukumori, Akira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In April 2009, a female chimpanzee named Sango, living in a captive group at the Noichi Zoo, Japan, gave birth to dizygotic male-female twin chimpanzees (male: Daiya, female: Sakura). The extent to which adult group members cared for the twins was investigated using a focal animal sampling method targeting six adults (one male) when the twin chimpanzees were two years old. Data were collected for an average of 6.78 h (SD = 0.79) per focal participant. An unaffiliated female adult of Sango was engaged in parenting Sakura as much as Sango. Given that Sakura was in lesser proximity to Sango than Daiya, Sakura's departures from her mother and her ability to gesture requests might have enabled non-kin adults to provide her care. PMID:25200656

  7. Chimpanzee Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control processes are a feature of human cognition. Recent comparative tests have shown that some nonhuman animals also might share aspects of cognitive control with humans. Two of the executive processes that constitute cognitive control are metacognition and self-control, and recent experiments with chimpanzees are described that demonstrate metacognitive monitoring and control when these animals engage in an information-seeking task. Chimpanzees also show strategic responding in a self-control task by exhibiting self-distraction as an aid to delay of gratification. These demonstrations indicate continuity with similar human cognitive capacities, and the performances of chimpanzees in these kinds of tests have implications for considering the nature of the intelligence of these animals. PMID:26478660

  8. Relationships between deformation and magmatism in the Pan-African Kandi Shear Zone: Microstructural and AMS studies of Ediacaran granitoid intrusions in central Bénin (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adissin Glodji, L.; Bascou, J.; Yessoufou, S.; Ménot, R.-P.; Villaros, A.

    2014-09-01

    Relationships between the metamorphic basement, granitic intrusions and the Kandi Shear Zone (KSZ) in central Bénin have been investigated using petrological and structural approaches, in order to better understand the space and time parameters of the Pan-African shear deformation and the Ediacaran magmatism. In central Bénin, metamorphic rocks from the KSZ display a steep to vertical N-S trending foliation, a sub-horizontal mineral lineation together with kinematic indicators in agreement with a dextral transcurrent mega-shear zone. Four granitic intrusions (Dassa, Tré, Gobada and Tchetti) show many petrological similarities. They are biotite ± amphibole - ilmenite ± magnetite monzogranites with ferrous and metaluminous I-type features derived from high-K calk-alkaline magma. A fifth intrusion (Fita) is an alkali-feldspar, biotite, magnetite and ilmenite bearing granite crystallized from an alkaline magma. Moreover, high K2O, Zr, Y, Nb and low CaO, MgO and Al2O3 contents together with high (FeOt/MgO) and low LIL/HFS elements ratios suggesting an A-type granite affinity. Microstructural and AMS investigations presented in this paper show (i) solid-state deformation evidence for Dassa pluton and (ii) a magmatic deformation for the Tré, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids. Foliation in Dassa is parallel to the mesoscopic planar mylonitic foliation of the metamorphic basement. In the Tré, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids, magmatic textures and magnetic fabrics are coherent with the KSZ activity. These data suggest (i) a syn-kinematic nature for most of the intrusions (Tré, Gobada, Tchetti and Fita), except Dassa which correspond to an earlier event (ii) the succession of high-K calk-alkaline (Dassa, Tré, Gobada, Tchetti) evolves toward alkaline magmas (Fita) during the KSZ strike-slip tectonics. These observations highlight the changing nature of magma composition, magmatic processes and the different sources during KSZ activity in the Bénin Nigerian

  9. De Novo Assemblies of Three Oryza glaberrima Accessions Provide First Insights about Pan-Genome of African Rices

    PubMed Central

    Monat, Cécile; Pera, Bérengère; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Sow, Mounirou; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Bastianelli, Leila; Ghesquière, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Oryza glaberrima is one of the two cultivated species of rice, and harbors various interesting agronomic traits, especially in biotic and abiotic resistance, compared with its Asian cousin O. sativa. A previous reference genome was published but newer studies highlighted some missing parts. Moreover, global species diversity is known nowadays to be represented by more than one single individual. For that purpose, we sequenced, assembled and annotated de novo three different cultivars from O. glaberrima. After validating our assemblies, we were able to better solve complex regions than the previous assembly and to provide a first insight in pan-genomic divergence between individuals. The three assemblies shown large common regions, but almost 25% of the genome present collinearity breakpoints or are even individual specific. PMID:28173009

  10. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.].

  11. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia; Casanova, Catarina C N; Vicente, Luís

    2011-05-01

    Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed.

  12. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  13. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  14. Skeletal development in Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-04-01

    Fusion of skeletal elements provides markers for timing of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Epiphyseal closure defines bone growth and signals a mature skeleton. Most of what we know about timing of development in chimpanzees derives from dental studies on Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a wild range restricted to central Africa. Here, we report on the timing of skeletal fusion for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) whose known ages range from 0.83 to age 11.68 years. Observations on the skeletons were made after the individuals were dissected and bones cleaned. Comparisons with 10 female captive P. troglodytes confirm a generally uniform pattern in the sequence of skeletal fusion in the two captive species. We also compared the P. paniscus to a sample of three unknown-aged female wild P. paniscus, and 10 female wild P. troglodytes of known age from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The sequence of teeth emergence to bone fusion is generally consistent between the two species, with slight variations in late juvenile and subadult stages. The direct-age comparisons show that skeletal growth in captive P. paniscus is accelerated compared with both captive and wild P. troglodytes populations. The skeletal data combined with dental stages have implications for estimating the life stage of immature skeletal materials of wild P. paniscus and for more broadly comparing the skeletal growth rates among captive and wild chimpanzees (Pan), Homo sapiens, and fossil hominins.

  15. The Middle Neoproterozoic Sidi Flah Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): synrift deposition in a Pan-African continent/ocean transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkak, A.; Pouclet, A.; Benharref, M.

    2003-08-01

    The Middle Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) Sidi Flah Group rocks are located in the Saghro inlier of the Eastern Anti-Atlas and consists of siliciclastic detrital sediment, interbedded basaltic lavas and small ultramafic bodies. Sediment deposition occurred in three turbiditic formations of a deep-sea fan environment and was controlled by synsedimentary collapses. The composition of sandstones and typological study of zircons indicate that detrital material came from the gneisses and granites of a proximal craton. The lavas are synsedimentary subaqueous flows. They show chemical signatures of initial rift tholeiites and of plume-related alkaline intraplate basalts. The ultramafic rocks are serpentinized peridotites that were emplaced along N160° synsedimentary faults as numerous bodies 20-50 m in size. Their petrographical (Cr-spinel signature) and chemical features correspond to intracontinental ultramafic cumulates. The emplacement of the ultramafic rocks was associated with hydrothermal activity that generated calcareous and siliceous rocks such as ophicalcites and jaspers. All the features of the sediments, the lavas and the ultramafic bodies strongly suggest a continent-ocean transition geotectonic context, in an advanced stage of continental rifting that we attribute to the pre-Pan-African ocean passive margin extension.

  16. Radiometric, magnetic, and gravity study of the Quixadá batholith, central Ceará domain (NE Brazil): evidence for Pan-African/Brasiliano extension-controlled emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Mariano Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo; Martins, Guttenberg; Araújo de Castro, Neivaldo

    2002-10-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in the central Ceará domain of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil). The aim of this investigation was to find geophysical evidence for the emplacement of the Quixadá batholith, which is a granitic body probably situated in the local extensional site in the oblique collisional regime of the Pan-African/Brasiliano collage. Remote sensing and airborne geophysical data provided information on the regional deformation that affected the intrusion and surrounding country rocks. In addition, a gravity study was used to determine the three-dimensional geometry and constrain the emplacement model of the Quixadá granite at depth. The trajectories of structural and magnetic lineaments suggest that the regional deformation is strongly influenced by dextral transcurrent movements of the major shear zones. The batholith, which shows an unusual positive gravity anomaly and a low U counts, displays a subhorizontal floor with several gently dipping areas, which are interpreted as magma feeder channels. The 2300 m thick root zones are roughly aligned with NE-SW-trending shear zones. Finally, the internal architecture of the pluton suggests that the Quixadá batholith was emplaced in a dilational shear zone tip area at the north end of Quixeramobim shear zone.

  17. Y-Chromosome Structural Diversity in the Bonobo and Chimpanzee Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Oetjens, Matthew T.; Shen, Feichen; Emery, Sarah B.; Zou, Zhengting; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    The male-specific regions of primate Y-chromosomes (MSY) are enriched for multi-copy genes highly expressed in the testis. These genes are located in large repetitive sequences arranged as palindromes, inverted-, and tandem repeats termed amplicons. In humans, these genes have critical roles in male fertility and are essential for the production of sperm. The structure of human and chimpanzee amplicon sequences show remarkable difference relative to the remainder of the genome, a difference that may be the result of intense selective pressure on male fertility. Four subspecies of common chimpanzees have undergone extended periods of isolation and appear to be in the early process of subspeciation. A recent study found amplicons enriched for testis-expressed genes on the primate X-chromosome the target of hard selective sweeps, and male-fertility genes on the Y-chromosome may also be the targets of selection. However, little is understood about Y-chromosome amplicon diversity within and across chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze nine common chimpanzee (representing three subspecies: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Pan troglodytes ellioti, and Pan troglodytes verus) and two bonobo (Pan paniscus) male whole-genome sequences to assess Y ampliconic copy-number diversity across the Pan genus. We observe that the copy number of Y chromosome amplicons is variable among chimpanzees and bonobos, and identify several lineage-specific patterns, including variable copy number of azoospermia candidates RBMY and DAZ. We detect recurrent switchpoints of copy-number change along the ampliconic tracts across chimpanzee populations, which may be the result of localized genome instability or selective forces. PMID:27358426

  18. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Hutchison, W. M.; Siim, J. Chr.; Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Two chimpanzees were given by mouth large numbers of viable oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected cats. Before the experiment the first chimpanzee had a positive dye test reaction (1:250), an indication that it had undergone an earlier infection of toxoplasmosis; the serum antibody titres remained unchanged, no evidence of illness was found, and oocysts did not appear in its faeces during the subsequent six weeks. The second chimpanzee showed a negative dye test reaction before infection, and this converted to positive on the 7th day, rose to a peak on the 35th day, and remained high for six months. This animal appeared unwell during the first week, and on the 7th day its blood proved infective to mice; on the 40th day the lymph nodes became enlarged and biopsy specimens of a node and muscle in the 11th week were also infective to mice. No oocysts were passed in the faeces. The presumed cycle in the chimpanzee and in man and the relationships between Toxoplasma and Isospora are discussed. PMID:5575975

  19. Language in Chimpanzee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premack, David

    1971-01-01

    Describes procedures used to study abilities of chimpanzees to be taught written language. Words, sentences, questions, metalinguistics, class concepts, the copula, some quantifiers and if-then logical connections are investigated. Success seems attributable largely to non-linguistic cues. (JM)

  20. The Tachakoucht-Iriri-Tourtit arc complex (Moroccan Anti-Atlas): Neoproterozoic records of polyphased subduction-accretion dynamics during the Pan-African orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Bruguier, Olivier; Spagna, Paul; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-05-01

    We report new mapping, tectonic, metamorphic and U-Pb zircon dating data on the polyphased Tachakoucht-Iriri and Tourtit arc-related units within the Moroccan Pan-African belt (Sirwa window, Anti-Atlas). The studied area contains four different sub-units, from south to north: (1) the Tachakoucht gneisses intruded to its northern part by (2) Iriri intrusions. To the north, the Tachakoucht-Iriri massif is thrusted by (3) the south-verging 760 Ma Khzama ophiolitic sequence intruded by (4) the Tourtit meta-granitic complex. The Tachakoucht gneiss represents former andesitic to dacitic porphyritic rocks crystallized around 740-720 Ma in an intra-oceanic arc setting (IOAS). Subsequently, it has been buried and metamorphosed to 700 °C, 8 kbar in response to early accretion of the arc onto the West African Craton (WAC). This tectono-metamorphic event also led to the dismembering and stacking of back-arc ophiolite onto the arc unit. Subsequently, the Iriri intrusions, a suite of hydrous mafic dykes (hornblende gabbro and fine-grained basalt) and ultramafic (hornblendite) plutons showing subduction zone affinities, intruded the Tachakoucht gneiss under P-T conditions of 750-800 °C and 2-5 kbar. Emplacement of Iriri intrusions led locally to pronounced partial melting of the Tachakoucht gneiss and to the production of leucogranitic melts. These melts crop out into the Iriri-Tachakoucht gneiss contacts as leucogneissic bands (former leucosomes, dated at 651 ± 5 Ma) but also intruded the Khzama ophiolite to form the Tourtit granite (dated at 651 ± 3 Ma). These ages (651-641 Ma) also constrain the timing of Iriri intrusion emplacement. The entire complex has been overprinted by a second deformation event under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions marked by transposition of primary structures and a development of mylonitic shear zones. These results and those published on the Bou Azzer window show that two phases of subduction-related magmatism occurred in the Anti

  1. Pan thanatology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Gillies, Alasdair; Lock, Louise C

    2010-04-27

    Chimpanzees' immediate responses to the death of a group-member have rarely been described. Exceptions include maternal care towards dead infants, and frenzied excitement and alarm following the sudden, traumatic deaths of older individuals [1-5]. Some wild chimpanzees die in their night nest [6], but the immediate effect this has on others is totally unknown. Here, with supporting video material, we describe the peaceful demise of an elderly female in the midst of her group. Group responses include pre-death care of the female, close inspection and testing for signs of life at the moment of death, male aggression towards the corpse, all-night attendance by the deceased's adult daughter, cleaning the corpse, and later avoidance of the place where death occurred. Without death-related symbols or rituals, chimpanzees show several behaviours that recall human responses to the death of a close relative.

  2. The Human Semicircular Canals Orientation Is More Similar to the Bonobos than to the Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Marwan; Braga, José; Dumoncel, Jean; Nancy, Javotte; Esclassan, Remi; Vaysse, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    For some traits, the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than they are to each other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand whether and how morphostructural differences between humans, chimpanzees and bonobos reflect the well known phylogeny. Here we comparatively investigated intra and extra labyrinthine semicircular canals orientation using 260 computed tomography scans of extant humans (Homo sapiens), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Humans and bonobos proved more similarities between themselves than with chimpanzees. This finding did not fit with the well established chimpanzee – bonobo monophyly. One hypothesis was convergent evolution in which bonobos and humans produce independently similar phenotypes possibly in response to similar selective pressures that may be associated with postural adaptations. Another possibility was convergence following a “random walk” (Brownian motion) evolutionary model. A more parsimonious explanation was that the bonobo-human labyrinthine shared morphology more closely retained the ancestral condition with chimpanzees being subsequently derived. Finally, these results might be a consequence of genetic diversity and incomplete lineage sorting. The remarkable symmetry of the Semicircular Canals was the second major finding of this article with possible applications in taphonomy. It has the potential to investigate altered fossils, inferring the probability of post-mortem deformation which can lead to difficulties in understanding taxonomic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and functional morphology. PMID:24710502

  3. Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-03-01

    Chimpanzees are renowned for their use of foraging tools in harvesting social insects and some populations use tools to prey on aggressive army ants (Dorylus spp.). Tool use in army ant predation varies across chimpanzee study sites with differences in tool length, harvesting technique, and army ant species targeted. However, surprisingly little is known about the detailed ecology of army ant predation. We studied army ant predation by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at the Seringbara study site in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea (West Africa), over 10 years (2003-2013). We investigated chimpanzee selectivity with regards to army ant prey species. We assessed the temporal variation in army ant-feeding and examined whether army ant predation was related to rainfall or ripe fruit availability. Moreover, we examined whether chimpanzees showed selectivity regarding plant species used for tool manufacture, as well as the relationship between tool species preference and tool collection distance. Lastly, we measured tool properties and investigated the use of tool sets and composite tools in army ant predation. Seringbara chimpanzees preyed on one army ant species (D. nigricans) more often than expected based on encounter rates, which may be explained by the overlap in altitudinal distribution between chimpanzees and D. nigricans. Army ant predation was not related to rainfall or fruit availability. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tool materials and collected their preferred tool species (Alchornea hirtella) from greater distances than they did other species. Lastly, Seringbara chimpanzees used both tool sets and composite tools (tree perch) in army ant predation. Tool types (dig vs. dip) differed in width and strength, but not length. Tool composites were found at 40% of ant-feeding sites. Our study sheds new light on the ecology of army ant predation and provides novel insights into chimpanzee selection of army ant prey and tool species.

  4. Applying remote sensing and GIS for chimpanzee habitat change detection, behaviour and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintea, Lilian

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relatives, are declining alarmingly in abundance and distribution all across Africa. Clearing of forests and woodlands has one of the most rapid and devastating impacts, leaving chimpanzees in isolated, small populations that face edge effects and elevated risk of extinction. Satellite imagery could be a powerful tool to map chimpanzee habitats and threats at the landscape scale even in the most remote, difficult to access areas. However, few applications exist to demonstrate how remote sensing methods can be used in Africa for chimpanzee research and conservation in practice. In chapter one, I investigate the use of Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite imagery to monitor dry tropical forests and miombo woodlands change between 1972-1999 inside and outside Gombe National Park, Tanzania. I show that canopy cover increased in the northern and middle parts of the park but with severe canopy loss outside protected area. Deforestation has had unequal effects on the three chimpanzee communities inside the park. The Kasekela chimpanzees have been least affected by canopy loss outside the park. In contrast, the Mitumba and Kalande communities have likely lost key range areas. In chapter two, I use 25 years of data on Gombe chimpanzees to investigate to what extent vegetation variables detected from multi-temporal satellite images can be applied to understand changes in chimpanzee feeding and party size. NDVI positively correlated with the time chimpanzees spent feeding but had no affect on the average number of adult males in the party. Instead the number of males in the party increased with proximity to hostile neighboring communities. In chapter three, I use Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery as the basis for Threat Reduction Assessment to evaluate conservation outcomes of a ten year community based conservation project in Tanzania. The findings suggest that the remote sensing methods applied in this study could provide new

  5. Chimpanzee isotopic ecology: a closed canopy C3 template for hominin dietary reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bryce A; Kingston, John D

    2014-11-01

    The most significant hominin adaptations, including features used to distinguish and/or classify taxa, are critically tied to the dietary environment. Stable isotopic analyses of tooth enamel from hominin fossils have provided intriguing evidence for significant C4/CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) resource consumption in a number of Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa. Relating isotopic tooth signatures to specific dietary items or proportions of C3 versus C4/CAM plants, however, remains difficult as there is an ongoing need to document and quantify isotopic variability in modern ecosystems. This study investigates the ecological variables responsible for carbon isotopic discrimination and variability within the C3-dominated dietary niche of a closed canopy East African hominoid, Pan troglodytes, from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. δ(13)C values among C3 resources utilized by Ngogo chimpanzees were highly variable, ranging over 13‰. Infrequent foraging on papyrus (the only C4 plant consumed by chimpanzees at the site) further extended this isotopic range. Variation was ultimately most attributable to mode of photosynthesis (C3 versus C4), food type, and elevation, which together accounted for approximately 78% of the total sample variation. Among C3 food types, bulk carbon values ranged from -24.2‰ to -31.1‰ with intra-plant variability up to 12.1‰. Pith and sapling leaves were statistically more (13)C depleted than pulp, seeds, flowers, cambium, roots, leaf buds, and leaves from mature trees. The effect of elevation on carbon variation was highly significant and equivalent to an approximately 1‰ increase in δ(13)C for every 150 m of elevation gain, likely reflecting habitat variability associated with topography. These results indicate significant δ(13)C variation attributable to food type and elevation among C3 resources and provide important data for hominin dietary interpretations based on carbon isotopic analyses.

  6. Detection of Termites and Other Insects Consumed by African Great Apes using Molecular Fecal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals. PMID:24675424

  7. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-03-27

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  8. Chimpanzee Personality and the Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A Genotype.

    PubMed

    Wilson, V A D; Weiss, A; Humle, T; Morimura, N; Udono, T; Idani, G; Matsuzawa, T; Hirata, S; Inoue-Murayama, M

    2017-03-01

    Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea. We fit three linear and three animal models. The first model included genotype, the second included sex and genotype, and the third included genotype, sex, and sex × genotype. All personality phenotypes were heritable. Chimpanzees possessing the long form of the allele were higher in conscientiousness, but only in models that did not include the other predictors; however, additional analyses suggested that this may have been a consequence of study design. In animal models that included sex and sex × genotype, chimpanzees homozygous for the short form of the allele were higher in extraversion. Taken with the findings of previous studies of chimpanzees and humans, the findings related to conscientiousness suggest that AVPR1a may be related to lower levels of impulsive aggression. The direction of the association between AVPR1a genotype and extraversion ran counter to what one would expect if AVPR1a was related to social behaviors. These results help us further understand the genetic basis of personality in chimpanzees.

  9. Is human conversation more efficient than chimpanzee grooming? : Comparison of clique sizes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M

    2000-09-01

    Clique sizes for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) grooming and for human conversation are compared in order to test Robin Dunbar's hypothesis that human language is almost three times as efficient a bonding mechanism as primate grooming. Recalculation of the data provided by Dunbar et al. (1995) reveals that the average clique size for human conversation is 2.72 whereas that of chimpanzee grooming is shown to be 2.18. The efficiency of human conversation and actual chimpanzee grooming over Dunbar's primate grooming model (always one-to-one and a one-way interaction) is 1.27 and 1.25, respectively, when we take role alternation into account. Chimpanzees can obtain about the same efficiency as humans in terms of quantity of social interactions because their grooming is often mutual and polyadic.

  10. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome.

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differences that have accumulated since the human and chimpanzee species diverged from our common ancestor, constituting approximately thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. We use this catalogue to explore the magnitude and regional variation of mutational forces shaping these two genomes, and the strength of positive and negative selection acting on their genes. In particular, we find that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles. We also use the chimpanzee genome as an outgroup to investigate human population genetics and identify signatures of selective sweeps in recent human evolution.

  11. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  12. A common Pan-African Lithospheric Mantle (PALM) source for HIMU-like Pb-isotope signatures in circum-Mediterranean magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H. P.; Wang, Z.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of widely distributed basaltic rocks of Europe and North Africa are clustered around a point that is displaced from modern MORB in 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, pointing to the 'HIMU' component proposed by Zindler and Hart (1986). This observation was originally highlighted in an abstract by Cebria and Wilson (1995), who suggested that a reservoir of unknown origin exists in the convecting upper mantle of the Mediterranean and coin it the 'European asthenospheric reservoir' or EAR in order to distinguish it from the apparent influence of an additional 'lithospheric' component having a Sr-Nd isotope composition similar to continental crust that is observed in some, but not all, Cenozoic igneous rocks. While this study and most authors agree that the 'lithospheric' component in the model of Cebria and Wilson (1995) is crustal material associated with Cenozoic subduction, explanations for the origin of the HIMU-like EAR reservoir, however, are diverse, ranging from deep plumes to recently subducted slabs. These explanations are problematic. For example, neither plumes nor recent subduction are spatially broad enough to explain all of the EAR occurrences. Alternatively, we argue that both components (lithospheric and EAR) observed by Cebria and Wilson are lithospheric in origin. We propose that the origin of the HIMU-like Pb component is metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Comparison with synthetic evolution models of a veined mantle show the HIMU-like composition of European Cenozoic igneous rocks can be generated after ~500 Ma (Pilet et al., 2011). Major and trace element compositions of the European alkalic-basalts are similar to experimental melts of amphibole-pyroxenite veins in peridotite (a common feature of the SCLM) (Médard et al., 2006). A likely candidate for a veined 500 Ma SCLM in this region is the 'Pan-African' age terrane that is currently widely distributed from England to the Sahara as well as on the

  13. Geochronological and geochemical study of the Pan African intrusive rocks along the Najd Fault system in El Wajh area, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Stüwe, Kurt; Tiepolo, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In the active tectonic regions, shear zones play an important role to re-configure the structure of the lithosphere. One of the largest shear zones on the Earth is the Najd Fault system of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Literature data record the main active phase of this shear zone during the last stages of the Pan-African Orogeny (ca. 650-550 Ma). Compilation of new geochronological and geochemical data in addition to field relation is used to figure the tectonic history of the Najd Fault system. Different relationships between igneous intrusions and the Najd Fault System are observed. Some igneous bodies predate the activity of the shear zone, others intruded during the shearing process and a later phase intruded after the activity of the Najd Fault system ceased. The intrusive rocks in the study area show a geochemical and compositional diversity. Intrusives with dioritic composition were derived from a metaluminous tholeiitic magma around 700 Ma, and granodiorite-tonalite intrusions have calcalkaline characters and display a metaluminous to peraluminous character (ca. 740 and 660 Ma) then the magmatic activity terminated with peraluminous calcalkaline intrusives which formed granitic rocks with intrusion ages of 605-580 Ma. These magmatic events are identical for the Arabian-Nubian Shield but contamination from the crust or different rates of fractionation are recorded in our samples which are responsible for variations in the geochemical signature of the intrusive rocks. Based on field observations and contact relations, the intrusive rocks within the Ajjaj shear zone were studied in details in order to determine the age and the tectonic history of this shear zone that marks the termination of the Najd System against the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The provided zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS and field relationships confine the activation age of the Ajjaj shear zone in limited period between 605 Ma and 580 Ma.

  14. Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, G.; Morteani, G.

    2008-02-01

    The genesis of gem-quality deep green emeralds of Zabara, Sikait and Umm Kabo (South Eastern Desert, Egypt) is to date a controversial topic. The emerald-bearing biotite schists and quartz lenses are interpreted alternatively as a product of (i) thrust-fault-shear zone - controlled large scale alkali-metasomatism driven by post-magmatic fluid flow or of (ii) a large scale interaction between syntectonic pegmatitic magma or hydrothermal fluids with pre-existing basic to ultrabasic rocks, or of (iii) a syn- to post-tectonic regional metamorphism and small scale blackwall metasomatism. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites. The complex interplay of magmatic and regional metamorphic events during the genesis of the Egyptian emeralds/beryls makes it impossible through stable oxygen isotope data to relate their genesis to the one or the other event.

  15. The Egyptian clinical trials' registry profile: Analysis of three trial registries (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry and clinicaltrials.gov).

    PubMed

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed A; Taha, Fatma M

    2016-01-01

    Registering clinical trials (CTs) in public domains enhances transparency, increases trust in research, improves participation and safeguards against publication bias. This work was done to study the profile of clinical research in Egypt in three CT registries with different scopes: the WHO International CT Registry Platform (ICTRP), the continental Pan-African CT Registry (PACTR) and the US clinicaltrials.gov (CTGR). In March 2014, ICTRP, PACTR and CTGR were searched for clinical studies conducted in Egypt. It was found that the number of studies conducted in Egypt (percentage) was 686 (0.30%) in ICTRP, 56 (11.3%) in PACTR and 548 (0.34%) in CTGR. Most studies were performed in universities and sponsored by university/organization, industry or individual researchers. Inclusion of adults from both genders predominated. The median number of participants per study in the three registries ranged between 63 and 155. The conditions researched differed among the three registries and study purpose was mostly treatment followed by prevention. Endpoints were mostly efficacy followed by safety. Observational:Interventional studies (i.e. clinical trials) represented 15.5%:84.5% in ICTRP, 0%:100% in PACTR and 16.4%:83.6% in CTGR. Most interventions were drugs or procedures. Observational studies were mostly prospective and cohort studies. Most CTs were phase 3 and tested drugs or procedures. Parallel group assignment and random allocation predominated. Blinding was implemented in many of trials and was mostly double-blind. We conclude that CTs from Egypt in trial registries are apparently low and do not accurately reflect clinical research conducted in Egypt or its potential. Development of an Egyptian CT registry is eagerly needed. Registering all Egyptian CTs in public domains is highly recommended.

  16. Structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí region, northern Paraguay: Evidence of a new Brasiliano/Pan-African mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanha, Ginaldo Ademar da Cruz; Warren, Lucas; Boggiani, Paulo César; Grohmann, Carlos Henrique; Cáceres, Alberto Arias

    The Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Itapucumí Group in northern Paraguay is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, including ooid grainstones, marls, shales and sandstones, containing Cloudina fossils in the eastern region. It is almost undeformed over the Rio Apa Cratonic Block but shows a strong deformational pattern at its western edge. A detailed structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group was conducted in the Vallemí Mine, along with a regional survey in other outcrops downstream in the Paraguay River and in the San Alfredo, Cerro Paiva and Sargento José E. López regions. In the main Vallemí quarry, the structural style is characterized by an axial-plane slaty cleavage in open to isoclinal folds, sometimes overturned, associated with N-S trending thrust faults and shear zones of E-vergence and with a low-grade chlorite zone metamorphism. The structural data presented here are compatible with the hypothesis of a newly recognized mobile belt on the western side of the Rio Apa Cratonic Block, with opposite vergence to that of the Paraguay Mobile Belt in Brazil. Both belts are related to the Late Brasiliano/Pan-African tectonic cycle with a Lower Cambrian deformation and metamorphism age. The deformation could be due to the late collision of the Amazonian Craton with the remainder of Western Gondwana or to the western active plate boundary related to the Pampean Belt. The structural and lithologic differences between the western Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí and Paraguay River region and the eastern region, near San Alfredo and Cerro Paiva, suggest that this group could be divided into two lithostratigraphic units, but more stratigraphic and geochronological analyses are required to confirm this possibility.

  17. River flow and inundation in African river systems: results from a new pan-African land-surface model validated against Earth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The role of surface-water flooding in controlling fluxes of water and carbon between the land and the atmosphere is increasingly recognized in studies of the Earth system. Simultaneous advances in remote earth observation and large-scale land-surface and hydrological modeling promise improvements in our ability to understand these linkages, and suggest that improvements in prediction of river flow and inundation extents may result. Here we present an analysis of newly-available observational estimates of surface water inundation obtained through satellite Earth observation with results from simulations produced by using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land-surface model operating at 0.5 degree resolution over the African continent. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that whilst the water balance in each of the catchments can be simulated with acceptable accuracy, the individual responses of each river vary between model configurations so that there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yields optimal results across all catchments. We trace these differences to the model's representation of sub-surface flow and make some suggestions to improve the performance of large-scale land-surface models for use in similar applications. These findings suggest that the use of Earth observation data together with improved models of large-scale hydrology have the potential to improve our ability to predict surface-water flooding and to develop our understanding of the role of flooding in driving components of the water and carbon

  18. Sexually coercive male chimpanzees sire more offspring.

    PubMed

    Feldblum, Joseph T; Wroblewski, Emily E; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Hahn, Beatrice H; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E; Gilby, Ian C

    2014-12-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice, but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female's swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal.

  19. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. PMID:26041356

  20. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire.

  1. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children.

  2. Responses of chimpanzees to cues of conspecific observation.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Cronin, Katherine A; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that humans are remarkably sensitive to artificial cues of conspecific observation when making decisions with potential social consequences. Whether similar effects are found in other great apes has not yet been investigated. We carried out two experiments in which individual chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, took items of food from an array in the presence of either an image of a large conspecific face or a scrambled control image. In experiment 1 we compared three versions of the face image varying in size and the amount of the face displayed. In experiment 2 we compared a fourth variant of the image with more prominent coloured eyes displayed closer to the focal chimpanzee. The chimpanzees did not look at the face images significantly more than at the control images in either experiment. Although there were trends for some individuals in each experiment to be slower to take high-value food items in the face conditions, these were not consistent or robust. We suggest that the extreme human sensitivity to cues of potential conspecific observation may not be shared with chimpanzees.

  3. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  4. Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Reyes, Laura D.; Hopkins, William D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal learning is a key property of spoken language, which might also be present in nonhuman primate species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), to a limited degree. While understanding the origins of vocal learning in the primate brain may help shed light on the evolution of speech and language, little is still known regarding the neurobiological correlates of vocal flexibility in nonhuman primates. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess whether the cerebral cortex of captive chimpanzees that learned to voluntarily produce sounds to attract the attention of a human experimenter (attention-getting sounds) differs in grey matter distribution compared to chimpanzees that do not exhibit this behavior. It was found that chimpanzees that produce attention-getting sounds were characterized by increased grey matter in the ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsal premotor cortices. These findings suggest that the evolution of the capacity to flexibly modulate vocal output may be associated with reorganization of regions for motor control, including orofacial movements, in the primate brain. PMID:27703216

  5. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a ‘copying dominants’ bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity. PMID:27053916

  6. Ontogenetic Trajectories of Chimpanzee Social Play: Similarities with Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cordoni, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes) and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases) seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases. PMID:22110630

  7. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.

    1987-10-16

    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  8. Tool transfers are a form of teaching among chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Musgrave, Stephanie; Morgan, David; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Mundry, Roger; Sanz, Crickette

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is a form of high-fidelity social learning that promotes human cumulative culture. Although recently documented in several nonhuman animals, teaching is rare among primates. In this study, we show that wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle teach tool skills by providing learners with termite fishing probes. Tool donors experienced significant reductions in tool use and feeding, while tool recipients significantly increased their tool use and feeding after tool transfers. These transfers meet functional criteria for teaching: they occur in a learner’s presence, are costly to the teacher, and improve the learner’s performance. Donors also showed sophisticated cognitive strategies that effectively buffered them against potential costs. Teaching is predicted when less costly learning mechanisms are insufficient. Given that these chimpanzees manufacture sophisticated, brush-tipped fishing probes from specific raw materials, teaching in this population may relate to the complexity of these termite-gathering tasks. PMID:27725706

  9. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Keele, Brandon F; Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Li, Yingying; Bailes, Elizabeth; Takehisa, Jun; Santiago, Mario L; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Chen, Yalu; Wain, Louise V; Liegeois, Florian; Loul, Severin; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Bienvenue, Yanga; Delaporte, Eric; Brookfield, John F Y; Sharp, Paul M; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2006-07-28

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cause of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a zoonotic infection of staggering proportions and social impact. Yet uncertainty persists regarding its natural reservoir. The virus most closely related to HIV-1 is a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) thus far identified only in captive members of the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Here we report the detection of SIVcpz antibodies and nucleic acids in fecal samples from wild-living P. t. troglodytes apes in southern Cameroon, where prevalence rates in some communities reached 29 to 35%. By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, we could trace the origins of pandemic (group M) and nonpandemic (group N) HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities. These findings establish P. t. troglodytes as a natural reservoir of HIV-1.

  10. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos,(1) we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) into two species is not supported by recent geographical knowledge about the formation of the Congo River. We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank. The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution.

  11. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  12. Suitable Habitats for Endangered Frugivorous Mammals: Small-Scale Comparison, Regeneration Forest and Chimpanzee Density in Kibale National Park, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bortolamiol, Sarah; Cohen, Marianne; Potts, Kevin; Pennec, Flora; Rwaburindore, Protase; Kasenene, John; Seguya, Andrew; Vignaud, Quentin; Krief, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2). Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment) and outside its limits (food and cash crops) may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species) and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure) with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density) and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli). Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA) of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially). Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance) differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site. PMID:25033459

  13. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Vale, Gillian; Harrison, Rachel A; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-02-07

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing" models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models. Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated by subordinate individuals and that, in some cases, social transmission may be constrained by high-rank demonstrators.

  14. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    the West Gondwana orogenic belt during the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny. The decompression associated with the early phase of exhumation was followed by an important increase in temperature towards granulite-facies conditions, possibly determined by the intrusion of abundant mafic rocks in this region due to delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The Ti-N-Eggoleh area and its high-pressure meta-ophiolitic series apparently belong to the Sérouènout Terrane, which stretches along the eastern margin of the Western Gondwana orogenic belt and consists mainly of oceanic metasediments; they are possibly markers of an ancient, yet unidentified, subduction and suture zone.

  15. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. An additional and crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model, implying crustal accretion accompanied by slab

  16. Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the pegmatites in Ede area, southwestern Nigeria: A newly discovered oldest Pan African rock in southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adetunji, A.; Olarewaju, V. O.; Ocan, O. O.; Ganev, V. Y.; Macheva, L.

    2016-03-01

    -precipitation promoted by microfractures induced by metamictization. Notwithstanding, the (Sm/La)N vs. La plot for zircon, weak positive Ce and variable europium anomaly (Eu*) are suggestive of pegmatites of hydrothermal origin. The pegmatites yielded a discordant U-Pb zircon age with upper concordia intercept of 709 +27/-19 (at 2σ, MSWD = 1.5) Ma which can be attributed to their emplacement. This age represents the oldest Pan African magmatic event reported so far in southwestern Nigeria.

  17. Geochemical and isotopic composition of Pan-African metabasalts from southwestern Gondwana: Evidence of Cretaceous South Atlantic opening along a Neoproterozoic back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas M.; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Gaucher, Claudio; Bossi, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    A lithogeochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope study of former oceanic crustal rocks from the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane in the southern Dom Feliciano Belt, Uruguay (La Tuna amphibolites) and metabasites in the Chameis Subterrane of the Marmora Terrane in the Gariep Belt, Namibia/South Africa shows that these rocks are compositionally very similar and probably represent the same unit on opposite sides of the modern South Atlantic. The mafic rocks from both terranes are tholeiitic metabasalts and -andesites and have depleted rare earth element patterns, generally low TiO2 (< 1.5 wt.%), very low Th/Nb ratios and lack negative Nb-Ta anomalies, all features that are typical of ‘normal' mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) and/or back-arc basin basalts (BABB). In addition, both rock suites have extremely depleted Nd isotope compositions (εNd630 Ma = 6.7-9.4), superchondritic 147Sm/144Nd ratios, and low 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb initial ratios. The 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios of the La Tuna mafic rocks are low, whereas the Chameis metagabbro samples have higher, possibly alteration-related ratios. The geochemical and isotopic signatures are consistent with the formation of both rock suites in the same mature Neoproterozoic back-arc basin (Marmora Basin), supporting conclusions drawn from earlier provenance studies of metasedimentary units from these terranes. Other mafic rocks from the Marmora Terrane are interpreted as ocean island basalts that formed in a within-plate setting. A corollary of the conclusion that the mafic rocks in the Cuchilla Dionisio and Marmora Terranes formed in the same back-arc basin is (1) that the main Pan-African suture between the Río de la Plata Craton and the Kalahari Craton lies to the west of the Dom Feliciano Belt in South America, and (2) that the opening of the modern South Atlantic did not occur along that suture but along the axis of the Neoproterozoic Marmora back-arc basin.

  18. Chemistry of serpentine "polymorphs" in the Pan-African serpentinites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, with an emphasis on the effect of superimposed thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with some Pan-African serpentinites of Neoproterozoic age from five localities in the Eastern Desert of Egypt namely, Abu Fannani, Fawakhir, Barramiya, Ras Shait and Wadi Ghadir that derivedmostly from lherzolite to harzburgite protoliths. The M-value of antigorite is anindicator of the metamorphic grade which is lowest at Fawakhir (greenschist facies) and highest at Abu Fannani (lower amphibolite facies). Antigoritization during progressive regional metamorphism at Fawakhir is limited and its M-value is much higher than 8.52 indicating crystallization temperatures of 220-250 °C whereas it is ≥300 °C in the rest. Antigorite recrystallized at T ≈ 400-450 °C in the contact metamorphic aureoles due to the emplacement of post-orogenic leucogranites at Fawakhir and Gebel Ghadir. Towards the contact with the granites, M-value of antigorite is low (6.48) compared to 8.52 in the least recrystallized antigorite due to the thermal effect. Antigorite that forms in the thermal aureoles is characterized by two types of substitution; Tschermak substitution (Al3+ and Cr3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral sites and Mg2+ in the octahedral sites) and non-Tschermak substitutionin the octahedral sites (2R3+ = 3R2+). Generally, both ortho- and clinochrysotiles are common with MgO contents of 41-41.13 wt% and 39.38-40.93 wt%, respectively. In addition to chlorite, high- and low-Al lizardites are present with almost constant total iron (~0.24 cations) as Fe2+(vi) and variable Mg2+. This suggests that significant R3+ in the octahedral sites are mostly occupied by Al3+ and Cr3+ and not iron. In the lizardite structure, there is Tschermak substitution of Si4+ by some trivalent cations in the tetrahedral sites. Using the TEM images, antigorite is distinguishable from chrysotile and they suggest the presence of polyhedral or polygonal serpentine (spherical or circular with alternating sectors of lizardite). Crack-seal microstructures are displayed by chrysotile and

  19. Chemistry of serpentine "polymorphs" in the Pan-African serpentinites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, with an emphasis on the effect of superimposed thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2017-02-01

    The present work deals with some Pan-African serpentinites of Neoproterozoic age from five localities in the Eastern Desert of Egypt namely, Abu Fannani, Fawakhir, Barramiya, Ras Shait and Wadi Ghadir that derivedmostly from lherzolite to harzburgite protoliths. The M-value of antigorite is anindicator of the metamorphic grade which is lowest at Fawakhir (greenschist facies) and highest at Abu Fannani (lower amphibolite facies). Antigoritization during progressive regional metamorphism at Fawakhir is limited and its M-value is much higher than 8.52 indicating crystallization temperatures of 220-250 °C whereas it is ≥300 °C in the rest. Antigorite recrystallized at T ≈ 400-450 °C in the contact metamorphic aureoles due to the emplacement of post-orogenic leucogranites at Fawakhir and Gebel Ghadir. Towards the contact with the granites, M-value of antigorite is low (6.48) compared to 8.52 in the least recrystallized antigorite due to the thermal effect. Antigorite that forms in the thermal aureoles is characterized by two types of substitution; Tschermak substitution (Al3+ and Cr3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral sites and Mg2+ in the octahedral sites) and non-Tschermak substitutionin the octahedral sites (2R3+ = 3R2+). Generally, both ortho- and clinochrysotiles are common with MgO contents of 41-41.13 wt% and 39.38-40.93 wt%, respectively. In addition to chlorite, high- and low-Al lizardites are present with almost constant total iron ( 0.24 cations) as Fe2+(vi) and variable Mg2+. This suggests that significant R3+ in the octahedral sites are mostly occupied by Al3+ and Cr3+ and not iron. In the lizardite structure, there is Tschermak substitution of Si4+ by some trivalent cations in the tetrahedral sites. Using the TEM images, antigorite is distinguishable from chrysotile and they suggest the presence of polyhedral or polygonal serpentine (spherical or circular with alternating sectors of lizardite). Crack-seal microstructures are displayed by chrysotile and

  20. Piagetian liquid conservation in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Suda, Chikako; Call, Josep

    2004-09-01

    An understanding of Piagetian liquid conservation was investigated in 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), 5 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and 5 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). The apes were tested in the ability to track the larger of 2 quantities of juice that had undergone various kinds of transformations. The accuracy of the apes' judgment depended on the shape or number of containers into which the larger quantity was transferred. The apes made their choice mainly on the basis of visual estimation but showed modest success when the quantities were occluded. The results suggest that the apes rely to a greater extent on visual information, although they might have some appreciation of the constancy of liquid quantities.

  1. Neoproterozoic oceanic arc remnants in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas: reconstructing deep to shallow arc crustal sequence and tracking Pan-African subduction-accretion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Spagna, Paul; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African belt of West and North Africa exposes many intra-oceanic arc complexes while they are rather uncommon in Phanerozoic orogenic belts. Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas crop out in two tectonic windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault: the Sirwa (western-) and the Bou Azzer (eastern- part) inliers, associated with 760 Ma back-arc ophiolites. These arc sequences are located at the south of the ophiolites and are named the Iriri-Tachakoucht (Sirwa window) and the Asmlil arc complexes (Bou Azzer inlier). (i) The Iriri-Tachakoucht unit is composed of coarse grained hornblendite lenticular plugs, medium-grained hornblende gabbro dykes intruding andesitic to dacitic porphyroclastic gneiss. The contact between both lithologies is gradual and marked by an increasing migmatitization of the gneisses towards hornblendite intrusions. Phase diagram calculation were performed on garnet-bearing gneisses. Garnet cores have grown during a prograde P-T path up to upper amphibolite facies conditions (660°C at ~9 kbar) and recorded the burial of the Tachakoucht metavolcanics, while rims composition indicates that the rock recrystallized under higher temperature conditions (800°C at 4-5 kbar). These HT conditions match those for hornblendites igneous emplacement (850°C and 4 kbar) and this event leaded to more pronounced but still limited partial melting (< 10% melting) of the porphyroclastic gneisses. New geochronological data on the migmatitic gneiss (zircon U-Pb dating) constrain the protolith age at 733 ±7 Ma (zircons core) and the HT tectono-metamorphic event at 654 ±7 Ma (zircons rim). (ii) The Asmlil arc complex is made of hornblende gabbros and garnet-bearing gabbros intruded under HT conditions by dykes of medium-grained hornblendites, hornblende-gabbros and leucodiorites. These metagabbroic intrusions have been dated at 697 ± 8 Ma (U-Pb zircons). P-T pseudosections were calculated for garnet-bearing gabbros and

  2. Chimpanzee intelligence is heritable.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer

    2014-07-21

    The role that genes play in human intelligence or IQ has remained a point of significant scientific debate dating back to the time of Galton [1]. It has now become increasingly clear that IQ is heritable in humans, but these effects can be modified by nongenetic mechanisms [2-4]. In contrast to human IQ, until recently, views of learning and cognition in animals have largely been dominated by the behaviorist school of thought, originally championed by Watson [5] and Skinner [6]. A large body of accumulated research now demonstrates a variety of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and challenges traditional behaviorist interpretations of performance [7, 8]. This, in turn, has led to a renewed interest in the role that social and biological factors might play in explaining individual and phylogenetic differences in cognition [9]. Specifically, aside from early attempts to selectively breed for learning skills in rodents [10-12], studies examining the role that genetic factors might play in individual variation in cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals, particularly nonhuman primates, are scarce. Here, we utilized a modified Primate Cognitive Test Battery [13] in conjunction with quantitative genetic analyses to examine whether cognitive performance is heritable in chimpanzees. We found that some but not all cognitive traits were significantly heritable in chimpanzees. We further found significant genetic correlations between different dimensions of cognitive functioning, suggesting that the genes that explain the variability of one cognitive trait might also explain that of other cognitive traits.

  3. Chimpanzee 'Ham' In Biopack Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee 'Ham' over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  4. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

    PubMed Central

    Marewski, Julian N.; Schooler, Lael J.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition. PMID:27853606

  5. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Marewski, Julian N; Schooler, Lael J; Gilby, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition.

  6. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans.

  7. Chimpanzees routinely fish for algae with tools during the dry season in Bakoun, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe; Kalan, Ammie K; Agbor, Anthony; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Dieguez, Paula; Lapeyre, Vincent; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2017-03-01

    Wild chimpanzees regularly use tools, made from sticks, leaves, or stone, to find flexible solutions to the ecological challenges of their environment. Nevertheless, some studies suggest strong limitations in the tool-using capabilities of chimpanzees. In this context, we present the discovery of a newly observed tool-use behavior in a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Bakoun Classified Forest, Guinea, where a temporary research site was established for 15 months. Bakoun chimpanzees of every age-sex class were observed to fish for freshwater green algae, Spirogrya sp., from rivers, streams, and ponds using long sticks and twigs, ranging from 9 cm up to 4.31 m in length. Using remote camera trap footage from 11 different algae fishing sites within an 85-km(2) study area, we found that algae fishing occurred frequently during the dry season and was non-existent during the rainy season. Chimpanzees were observed algae fishing for as little as 1 min to just over an hour, with an average duration of 9.09 min. We estimate that 364 g of Spirogyra algae could be retrieved in this time, based on human trials in the field. Only one other chimpanzee population living in Bossou, Guinea, has been described to customarily scoop algae from the surface of the water using primarily herbaceous tools. Here, we describe the new behavior found at Bakoun and compare it to the algae scooping observed in Bossou chimpanzees and the occasional variant reported in Odzala, Republic of the Congo. As these algae are reported to be high in protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, we hypothesize that chimpanzees are obtaining a nutritional benefit from this seasonally available resource.

  8. Tool-use to obtain honey by chimpanzees at Bulindi: new record from Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2011-10-01

    Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost.

  9. Chimpanzees process structural isomorphisms across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Ravignani, Andrea; Sonnweber, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Evolution has shaped animal brains to detect sensory regularities in environmental stimuli. In addition, many species map one-dimensional quantities across sensory modalities, such as conspecific faces to voices, or high-pitched sounds to bright light. If basic patterns like repetitions and identities are frequently perceived in different sensory modalities, it could be advantageous to detect cross-modal isomorphisms, i.e. develop modality-independent representations of structural features, exploitable in visual, tactile, and auditory processing. While cross-modal mappings are common in the animal kingdom, the ability to map similar (isomorphic) structures across domains has been demonstrated in humans but no other animals. We tested cross-modal isomorphisms in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals were previously trained to choose structurally 'symmetric' image sequences (two identical geometrical shapes separated by a different shape) presented beside 'edge' sequences (two identical shapes preceded or followed by a different one). Here, with no additional training, the choice between symmetric and edge visual sequences was preceded by playback of three concatenated sounds, which could be symmetric (mimicking the symmetric structure of reinforced images) or edge. The chimpanzees spontaneously detected a visual-auditory isomorphism. Response latencies in choosing symmetric sequences were shorter when presented with (structurally isomorphic) symmetric, rather than edge, sound triplets: The auditory stimuli interfered, based on their structural properties, with processing of the learnt visual rule. Crucially, the animals had neither been exposed to the acoustic sequences before the experiment, nor were they trained to associate sounds to images. Our result provides the first evidence of structure processing across modalities in a non-human species. It suggests that basic cross-modal abstraction capacities transcend linguistic abilities and might involve

  10. Geodynamic evolution of a Pan-African granitoid of extended Dizo Valley in Karbi Hills, NE India: Evidence from Geochemistry and Isotope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Dilip; Dutta, Pankhi

    2016-03-01

    The Dizo Valley is an important geological province in NW Karbi Hills of Shillong Plateau (NE India). The Karbi Hills contain profusely intruded bodies of A-type granitoids that have been attributed to a post-collision setting. The Dizo Valley magmatic suite is a bimodal association of voluminous granitoid plutons with dolerite and amphibolites (metabasalts). Our present data demonstrates that there were two episodes of A-type granitoid magmatism in this part of the craton. Studied Kathalguri granitoids (KG) of Dizo Valley represents the late phase, about 515.1 ± 3.3-515.5 + 2.7 Ma age, dated by zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb method. The age of emplacement represent the late Pan-African (Mid-Cambrian) event of granitoid magmatism concomitant to the Gondwana continental restructuring event with the integration of East and West Gondwana held between 570 and 510 Ma. A previous granitoid emplacement episode of about 690 Ma has been referred in literature. The late phase of granitoids formation tends to be massive, occasionally show flow banding, degassing pots and amphibolite breccias with chilled margin. Its mineralogy shows abundance of accessory phases like zircon, allanite, apatite, bastnaesite, monazite, sphene and xenotime. Geochemical parameters offer metaluminous to peraluminous, non-porphyritic, shoshonitic to high potassium, calc-alkaline composition. Other chemical criteria bear the character of A2-type granitoids with high SiO2 (64.00-70.75 wt.%) and alkali (3.26-6.30 wt.%) but poor Ca and Mg content. The binary plots of Y + Nb-Rb and Y-Nb confirm their within-plate granite (WPG) character. The pluton is enriched in total REE (av. 614.64 ppm), Y and heavy REE (27.62-65.00 ppm; av. 41.87 ppm) compared to low calcium granite; Eu anomaly is moderately negative (∂Eu = 0.43). Enrichment of incompatible elements like large ion lithophile elements (LILE) of Rb, Ba and Sr and REE are consistent with the A-type granites. The behavior of Ba, Rb and Sr suggest a progressive

  11. 4,300-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The “Chimpanzee Stone Age” pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human–chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence. PMID:17360606

  12. Landsat-based Earth Observations and Crowd-sourced Data Provide Near Real-time Monitoring of Chimpanzee Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nackoney, J.; Pintea, L.; Jantz, S.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The endangered chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is threatened by habitat loss from resource extraction and land conversion, as well as hunting, disease and the illegal pet trade. It has been estimated that more than 70% of chimpanzee's tropical forest habitats in Africa are now threatened by land use change. Recent developments in remote sensing and cloud computing enable the use of satellite observations to provide a synoptic view of chimpanzee habitats at finer spatial and temporal resolutions that are locally relevant and consistent across the entire species' range. We present a practical Decision Support System to be used by the Jane Goodall Institute and partners to annually monitor and forecast chimpanzee habitat health in Africa. The system integrates Earth observations from 30-meter resolution Landsat data with a species-specific habitat model and a model forecasting future land use change, enhanced by crowd-sourced field data collected by local communities and rangers using the Open Data Kit app and Android mobile smartphones and tablets. While coarser-scale and static chimpanzee habitat models have been previously developed, this project is the first to develop a dynamic monitoring system updated annually via Earth observations data that will systematically monitor threats and changes in habitat over time. Since the chimpanzee is an important keystone, flagship and umbrella species, an annual chimpanzee habitat health index would support conservation goals of other species within its large 2.5 million sq. km range and could be an important indicator of overall ecosystem health of tropical forests in Africa.

  13. Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee tool use

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of technology has been suggested to coincide with scarcity of staple resources that led to innovations in the form of tool-assisted strategies to diversify or augment typical diets. We examined seasonal patterns of several types of tool use exhibited by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population residing in central Africa, to determine whether their technical skills provided access to fallback resources when preferred food items were scarce. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle exhibit a diverse repertoire of tool behaviours, many of which are exhibited throughout the year. Further, they have developed specific tool sets to overcome the issues of accessibility to particular food items. Our conclusion is that these chimpanzees use a sophisticated tool technology to cope with seasonal changes in relative food abundance and gain access to high-quality foods. Subgroup sizes were smaller in tool using contexts than other foraging contexts, suggesting that the size of the social group may not be as important in promoting complex tool traditions as the frequency and type of social interactions. Further, reports from other populations and species showed that tool use may occur more often in response to ecological opportunities and relative profitability of foraging techniques than scarcity of resources. PMID:24101626

  14. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts