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Sample records for african computer scientists

  1. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  2. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post‐) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non‐permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity. PMID:25800667

  3. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research.

    PubMed

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W

    2015-12-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity.

  4. Mathematics for Computer Scientists: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sylvia; Bishop, Pam; Crawford, Ewan; McCartney, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The results of a survey of the mathematics provision within UK university computer science departments are presented. In particular it is found that many academics are dissatisfied with the level of "mathematical preparedness" of their students. A number of recommendations and resources are suggested to address this. (Contains 6 figures.)

  5. "Ask Argonne" - Charlie Catlett, Computer Scientist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Catlett, Charlie

    2016-07-12

    A few weeks back, computer scientist Charlie Catlett talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1joBtzk). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted. Enjoy!

  6. "Ask Argonne" - Charlie Catlett, Computer Scientist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Catlett, Charlie

    2014-06-17

    A few weeks back, computer scientist Charlie Catlett talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1joBtzk). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted. Enjoy!

  7. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  8. a Review of High Performance Computing Foundations for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Risueño, Pablo; Ibáñez, Pablo E.

    2012-07-01

    The increase of existing computational capabilities has made simulation emerge as a third discipline of Science, lying midway between experimental and purely theoretical branches [G. Makov, C. Gattinoni and A. D. Vita, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.17, 084008 (2009); C. J. Cramer, Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Models, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2002)]. Simulation enables the evaluation of quantities which otherwise would not be accessible, helps to improve experiments and provides new insights on systems which are analyzed [T. C. Germann, K. Kadau and S. Swaminarayan, Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exp.21, 2143 (2009); M. A. L. Marques, X. Lopez, D. Varsano, A. Castro and A. Rubio, Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 258101 (2003); D. E. Shaw, P. Maragakis, K. Lindorff-Larsen, S. Piana, R. O. Dror, M. P. Eastwood, J. A. Bank, J. M. Jumper, J. K. Salmon, Y. Shan and W. Wriggers, Science330, 341 (2010); D. Marx, Chem. Phys. Chem.7, 1848 (2006)]. Knowing the fundamentals of computation can be very useful for scientists, for it can help them to improve the performance of their theoretical models and simulations. This review includes some technical essentials that can be useful to this end, and it is devised as a complement for researchers whose education is focused on scientific issues and not on technological respects. In this document, we attempt to discuss the fundamentals of high performance computing (HPC) [G. Hager and G. Wellein, Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers, 1st edn. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011)] in a way which is easy to understand without much previous background. We sketch the way standard computers and supercomputers work, as well as discuss distributed computing and discuss essential aspects to take into account when running scientific calculations in computers.

  9. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  10. Recruitment of Foreigners in the Market for Computer Scientists in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bound, John; Braga, Breno; Golden, Joseph M; Khanna, Gaurav

    2015-07-01

    We present and calibrate a dynamic model that characterizes the labor market for computer scientists. In our model, firms can recruit computer scientists from recently graduated college students, from STEM workers working in other occupations or from a pool of foreign talent. Counterfactual simulations suggest that wages for computer scientists would have been 2.8-3.8% higher, and the number of Americans employed as computers scientists would have been 7.0-13.6% higher in 2004 if firms could not hire more foreigners than they could in 1994. In contrast, total CS employment would have been 3.8-9.0% lower, and consequently output smaller.

  11. Benefits of Exchange Between Computer Scientists and Perceptual Scientists: A Panel Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have established several major goals for this panel: 1) Introduce the computer graphics community to some specific leaders in the use of perceptual psychology relating to computer graphics; 2) Enumerate the major results that are known, and provide a set of resources for finding others; 3) Identify research areas where knowledge of perceptual psychology can help computer system designers improve their systems; and 4) Provide advice to researchers on how they can establish collaborations in their own research programs. We believe this will be a very important panel. In addition to generating lively discussion, we hope to point out some of the fundamental issues that occur at the boundary between computer science and perception, and possibly help researchers avoid some of the common pitfalls.

  12. African-American males in computer science---Examining the pipeline for clogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Daryl Bryant

    The literature on African-American males (AAM) begins with a statement to the effect that "Today young Black men are more likely to be killed or sent to prison than to graduate from college." Why are the numbers of African-American male college graduates decreasing? Why are those enrolled in college not majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines? This research explored why African-American males are not filling the well-recognized industry need for Computer Scientist/Technologists by choosing college tracks to these careers. The literature on STEM disciplines focuses largely on women in STEM, as opposed to minorities, and within minorities, there is a noticeable research gap in addressing the needs and opportunities available to African-American males. The primary goal of this study was therefore to examine the computer science "pipeline" from the African-American male perspective. The method included a "Computer Science Degree Self-Efficacy Scale" be distributed to five groups of African-American male students, to include: (1) fourth graders, (2) eighth graders, (3) eleventh graders, (4) underclass undergraduate computer science majors, and (5) upperclass undergraduate computer science majors. In addition to a 30-question self-efficacy test, subjects from each group were asked to participate in a group discussion about "African-American males in computer science." The audio record of each group meeting provides qualitative data for the study. The hypotheses include the following: (1) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between fourth and eighth graders. (2) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eighth and eleventh graders. (3) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eleventh graders and lower-level computer science majors. (4) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree

  13. The Computer Scientist: Game Cards, Transducers and Experimental Inputs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, William, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the electrical and material characteristics of a wide variety of sensors and switches, as well as methods for connecting them to computers that are equipped with a joystick interface. Includes a BASIC computer program that facilitates automation of science experiments and storage of data gathered with simple transducers and sensors.…

  14. Recruitment of Foreigners in the Market for Computer Scientists in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bound, John; Braga, Breno; Golden, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    We present and calibrate a dynamic model that characterizes the labor market for computer scientists. In our model, firms can recruit computer scientists from recently graduated college students, from STEM workers working in other occupations or from a pool of foreign talent. Counterfactual simulations suggest that wages for computer scientists would have been 2.8–3.8% higher, and the number of Americans employed as computers scientists would have been 7.0–13.6% higher in 2004 if firms could not hire more foreigners than they could in 1994. In contrast, total CS employment would have been 3.8–9.0% lower, and consequently output smaller. PMID:27170827

  15. Debugging Geographers: Teaching Programming to Non-Computer Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Catherine L.; Kidd, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The steep learning curve associated with computer programming can be a daunting prospect, particularly for those not well aligned with this way of logical thinking. However, programming is a skill that is becoming increasingly important. Geography graduates entering careers in atmospheric science are one example of a particularly diverse group who…

  16. NASA Scientists Push the Limits of Computer Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Donald Frazier,NASA researcher, uses a blue laser shining through a quarts window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming optical films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed thin films potentially useful in optical computers with fewer impurities than those formed on Earth. Patterns of these films can be traced onto the quartz surface. In the optical computers of the future, these films could replace electronic circuits and wires, making the systems more efficient and cost-effective, as well as lighter and more compact. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. NASA Scientists Push the Limits of Computer Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA research Dr. Donald Frazier uses a blue laser shining through a quartz window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming opticl films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed thin-films potentially useful in optical computers with fewer impurities than those formed on Earth. Patterns of these films can be traced onto the quartz surface. In the optical computers on the future, these films could replace electronic circuits and wires, making the systems more efficient and cost-effective, as well as lighter and more compact. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  18. NASA Scientists Push the Limits of Computer Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA researcher Dr. Donald Frazier uses a blue laser shining through a quartz window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming optical films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed thin-films potentially useful in optical computers with fewer impurities than those formed on Earth. Patterns of these films can be traced onto the quartz surface. In the optical computers of the future, thee films could replace electronic circuits and wires, making the systems more efficient and cost-effective, as well as lighter and more compact. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  19. From Both Sides, Now: Librarians Team up with Computer Scientist to Deliver Virtual Computer-Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch, Martha Fallahay

    2011-01-01

    Two members of the library faculty at Seton Hall University teamed up with a respected professor of mathematics and computer science, in order to create an online course that introduces information literacy both from the perspectives of the computer scientist and from the instruction librarian. This collaboration is unique in that it addresses the…

  20. Big Data: An Opportunity for Collaboration with Computer Scientists on Data-Driven Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2014-12-01

    Big data technologies are evolving rapidly, driven by the need to manage ever increasing amounts of historical data; process relentless streams of human and machine-generated data; and integrate data of heterogeneous structure from extremely heterogeneous sources of information. Big data is inherently an application-driven problem. Developing the right technologies requires an understanding of the applications domain. Though, an intriguing aspect of this phenomenon is that the availability of the data itself enables new applications not previously conceived of! In this talk, we will discuss how the big data phenomenon creates an imperative for collaboration among domain scientists (in this case, geoscientists) and computer scientists. Domain scientists provide the application requirements as well as insights about the data involved, while computer scientists help assess whether problems can be solved with currently available technologies or require adaptaion of existing technologies and/or development of new technologies. The synergy can create vibrant collaborations potentially leading to new science insights as well as development of new data technologies and systems. The area of interface between geosciences and computer science, also referred to as geoinformatics is, we believe, a fertile area for interdisciplinary research.

  1. Adverse events and placebo effects: African scientists, HIV, and ethics in the 'global health sciences'.

    PubMed

    Crane, Johanna

    2010-12-01

    This paper builds on the growing literature in 'postcolonial technoscience' by examining how science and ethics travel in transnational HIV research. I use examples of two controversial US-funded studies of mother-to-child transmission in Africa as case studies through which to explore quandaries of difference and inequality in global health research. My aim is not to adjudicate the debates over these studies, but rather to raise some questions about transnational research, science, and ethics that often get lost in public controversies over the moral status of such trials. Using interviews conducted with American and Ugandan HIV researchers as well as relevant material published in the popular and medical press, I argue that debates over research practice and the conditions under which practices are deemed ethically legitimate or questionable reflect the challenges faced by African researchers seeking to participate in global health science. In doing so, I show how questions of scientific legitimacy and authority are played out in debates over who decides what constitutes 'the normal' in human biological research and who can legitimately 'speak for Africa' regarding the ethics of research design and practice. I conclude that researchers from'resource-poor settings' must often walk a tightrope between claims of difference from the global North and assertions of sameness, in which a claim too forceful in either direction can undermine the ethical--and thus scientific--legitimacy of their research.

  2. Cooperation between scientists, NGOs and industry in support of sustainable fisheries: the South African hake Merluccius spp. trawl fishery experience.

    PubMed

    Field, J G; Attwood, C G; Jarre, A; Sink, K; Atkinson, L J; Petersen, S

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the increasingly close interaction between natural and social scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and industry, in pursuit of responsible ecosystem-based management of fisheries. South Africa has committed to implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Management advice stems from multi-stakeholder representation on government-led scientific and management working groups. In the hake Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus fishery, the primary management measure is an annual total allowable catch (TAC), the level of which is calculated using a management procedure (MP) that is revised approximately every 4 years. Revision of the MP is a consultative process involving most stakeholders, and is based on simulation modelling of projected probable scenarios of resource and fishery dynamics under various management options. NGOs, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature in South Africa (WWF-SA), have played an important role in influencing consumers, the fishing industry and government to develop responsible fishing practices that minimize damage to marine ecosystems. Cooperation between industry, government and scientists has helped to improve sustainability and facilitated the meeting of market-based incentives for more responsible fisheries. Research includes ecosystem modelling, spatial analysis and ecosystem risk assessment with increasing research focus on social and economic aspects of the fishery. A four-year cooperative experiment to quantify the effect of trawling on benthic community structure is being planned. The food requirements of top predators still need to be included in the TAC-setting formulae and more social and economic research is needed. This paper also demonstrates how NGO initiatives such as Marine Stewardship Council certification and the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, a traffic light system of classifying seafood for consumers, have contributed to responsible fishing

  3. Fractal Simulations of African Design in Pre-College Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglash, Ron; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Sanchez, Jason; Woodbridge, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of fractal simulations of African design in a high school computing class. Fractal patterns--repetitions of shape at multiple scales--are a common feature in many aspects of African design. In African architecture we often see circular houses grouped in circular complexes, or rectangular houses in rectangular…

  4. The Robotic Scientist: Distilling Natural Laws from Experimental Data, from Cognitive Robotics to Computational Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Hod

    2011-10-25

    Can machines discover analytical laws automatically? For centuries, scientists have attempted to identify and document analytical laws that underlie physical phenomena in nature. Despite the prevalence of computing power, the process of finding natural laws and their corresponding equations has resisted automation. A key challenge to finding analytic relations automatically is defining algorithmically what makes a correlation in observed data important and insightful. By seeking dynamical invariants and symmetries, we show how we can go from finding just predictive models to finding deeper conservation laws. We demonstrated this approach by automatically searching motion-tracking data captured from various physical systems, ranging from simple harmonic oscillators to chaotic double-pendula. Without any prior knowledge about physics, kinematics, or geometry, the algorithm discovered Hamiltonians, Lagrangians, and other laws of geometric and momentum conservation. The discovery rate accelerated as laws found for simpler systems were used to bootstrap explanations for more complex systems, gradually uncovering the “alphabet” used to describe those systems. Application to modeling physical and biological systems will be shown.

  5. Reading ability and computer-related attitudes among African American graduate students.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathleen M T; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Jiao, Qun G

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the degree that African American graduate students' reading abilities predict their attitudes toward computers and the educational use of the Internet. A canonical correlation analysis revealed that students with the lowest levels of reading ability tended to report the least computer confidence, least positive attitudes regarding computer liking, and least positive attitudes toward the educational use of the Internet. Findings of the study provide support for the hypothesis that reading ability differentially impacts African American graduate students' computer-related attitudes. The findings also suggest that reading ability may impede African American students' acquisition of computer and Internet skills and may negatively impact their achievement levels in graduate courses requiring computer-based skills.

  6. An Online Approach for Training International Climate Scientists to Use Computer Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D.; Veldore, V.

    2013-12-01

    With the mounting evidence by the work of IPCC (2007), climate change has been acknowledged as a significant challenge to Sustainable Development by the international community. It is important that scientists in developing countries have access to knowledge and tools so that well-informed decisions can be made about the mitigation and adaptation of climate change. However, training researchers to use climate modeling techniques and data analysis has become a challenge, because current capacity building approaches train researchers to use climate models through short-term workshops, which requires a large amount of funding. It has also been observed that many participants who recently completed capacity building courses still view climate and weather models as a metaphorical 'black box', where data goes in and results comes out; and there is evidence that these participants lack a basic understanding of the climate system. Both of these issues limit the ability of some scientists to go beyond running a model based on rote memorization of the process. As a result, they are unable to solve problems regarding run-time errors, thus cannot determine whether or not their model simulation is reasonable. Current research in the field of science education indicates that there are effective strategies to teach learners about science models. They involve having the learner work with, experiment with, modify, and apply models in a way that is significant and informative to the learner. It has also been noted that in the case of computational models, the installation and set up process alone can be time consuming and confusing for new users, which can hinder their ability to concentrate on using, experimenting with, and applying the model to real-world scenarios. Therefore, developing an online version of capacity building is an alternative approach to the workshop training programs, which makes use of new technologies and it allows for a long-term educational process in a way

  7. Perceptions of high-achieving African American/Black tenth graders from a low socioeconomic community regarding health scientists and desired careers.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-08-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at increasing youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high-achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as black/African American (black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists.

  8. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  9. Charting the pipeline: Identifying the critical elements in the development of successful African American scientists, engineers, and mathematicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian Anthony

    Many educational researchers are concerned with the apparent poor performance of different racial and ethnic groups in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics in the United States. Despite improvements in the performance of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in these areas over the past decade, these groups are still less likely to enroll in advanced math and science courses or score at or above the proficient level in mathematics. Furthermore, these groups continue to be underrepresented in the nation's technical and scientific workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify the critical elements related to the success of African Americans in science, engineering, and mathematics. Specifically, this study was designed to answer the following questions as they pertained to African American graduate students: What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' initial interest in science, engineering, or mathematics? What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' decisions to continue their studies in their specific areas of interest? What factors, associated with the K--12 schooling experience, were perceived to have contributed to the students' success in science, engineering, or mathematics? The data for the study were acquired from interviews with 32 African American students (16 males and 16 females) who were engaged in graduate work in science, engineering, or mathematics. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the interview data. The first was that all students were involved in experiences that allowed a significant level of participation in science, engineering, and mathematics. Second, all of the students experienced some form of positive personal intervention by another person. Third, all students possessed perceptions of these fields that involved some sort of positive outcome. Finally, all of the of the students believed they possessed intrinsic qualities that qualified and

  10. How to Teach Residue Number System to Computer Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navi, K.; Molahosseini, A. S.; Esmaeildoust, M.

    2011-01-01

    The residue number system (RNS) has been an important research field in computer arithmetic for many decades, mainly because of its carry-free nature, which can provide high-performance computing architectures with superior delay specifications. Recently, research on RNS has found new directions that have resulted in the introduction of efficient…

  11. New European Training Network to Improve Young Scientists' Capabilities in Computational Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Heiner

    2004-07-01

    The European Commission recently funded a Marie-Curie Research Training Network (MCRTN) in the field of computational seismology within the 6th Framework Program. SPICE (Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network) is coordinated by the computational seismology group of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich linking 14 European research institutions in total. The 4-year project will provide funding for 14 Ph.D. students (3-year projects) and 14 postdoctoral positions (2-year projects) within the various fields of computational seismology. These positions have been advertised and are currently being filled.

  12. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  13. Analysis of Technological Information Transfer among Japanese Computer Scientists at a Research Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Masaya

    1986-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study that examined information flow at the technological research front by analyzing a Japanese national project in computer technology. Various formats of information dissemination are identified, and a classification of researchers and engineers by information transfer activities is presented. (4…

  14. Perceptions of Computer Science at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galpin, Vashti C.; Sanders, Ian D.

    2007-01-01

    First year students at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, were surveyed about their perceptions of Computer Science before and towards the end of their first year courses. The aim of this research was to investigate how the students' attitudes changed during these courses and to assess the impact of the innovative…

  15. Eye smarter than scientists believed: Neural computations in circuits of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Gollisch, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Summary We rely on our visual system to cope with the vast barrage of incoming light patterns and to extract features from the scene that are relevant to our well-being. The necessary reduction of visual information already begins in the eye. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the computations performed in the vertebrate retina and how they are implemented by the neural circuitry. A new picture emerges from these findings that helps resolve a vexing paradox between the retina’s structure and function. Whereas the conventional wisdom treats the eye as a simple pre-filter for visual images, it now appears that the retina solves a diverse set of specific tasks, and provides the results explicitly to downstream brain areas. PMID:20152123

  16. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  17. Preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered HIV prevention intervention for African American teenage females.

    PubMed

    Klein, Charles H; Card, Josefina J

    2011-12-01

    This study translated SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering), a 12-hour Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evidence-based group-level intervention for African American females 14-18 years of age, into a 2-hour computer-delivered individual-level intervention. A randomized controlled trial (n = 178) was conducted to examine the efficacy of the new Multimedia SiHLE intervention. Average condom-protected sex acts (proportion of vaginal sex acts with condoms, last 90 days) for sexually active participants receiving Multimedia SiHLE rose from M = 51% at baseline to M = 71% at 3-month follow-up (t = 2.06, p = .05); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. Non-sexually active intervention group participants reported a significant increase in condom self-efficacy (t = 2.36, p = .02); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. The study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of a computer-delivered adaptation of a proven HIV prevention program for African American teenage women. This is consistent with meta-analyses that have shown that computer-delivered interventions, which can often be disseminated at lower per-capita cost than human-delivered interventions, can influence HIV risk behaviors in positive fashion.

  18. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  19. Access and Success for African American Engineers and Computer Scientists: A Case Study of Two Predominantly White Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Christopher Bufford

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, three rationales have emerged for emphasizing the reinforcement of the United States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. The first rationale pertains to U.S. global competitiveness, the second revolves around the benefits of a diverse workforce, and the third argument points to social justice…

  20. Using computer technology for HIV prevention among African-Americans: development of a tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale

    2011-01-01

    New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups. PMID:21257676

  1. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  2. Employing inquiry-based computer simulations and embedded scientist videos to teach challenging climate change and nature of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Edward Charles

    Design based research was utilized to investigate how students use a greenhouse effect simulation in order to derive best learning practices. During this process, students recognized the authentic scientific process involving computer simulations. The simulation used is embedded within an inquiry-based technology-mediated science curriculum known as Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). For this research, students from a suburban, diverse, middle school setting use the simulations as part of a two week-long class unit on climate change. A pilot study was conducted during phase one of the research that informed phase two, which encompasses the dissertation. During the pilot study, as students worked through the simulation, evidence of shifts in student motivation, understanding of science content, and ideas about the nature of science became present using a combination of student interviews, focus groups, and students' conversations. Outcomes of the pilot study included improvements to the pedagogical approach. Allowing students to do "Extreme Testing" (e.g., making the world as hot or cold as possible) and increasing the time for free exploration of the simulation are improvements made as a result of the findings of the pilot study. In the dissertation (phase two of the research design) these findings were implemented in a new curriculum scaled for 85 new students from the same school during the next school year. The modifications included new components implementing simulations as an assessment tool for all students and embedded modeling tools. All students were asked to build pre and post models, however due to technological constraints these were not an effective tool. A non-video group of 44 students was established and another group of 41 video students had a WISE curriculum which included twelve minutes of scientists' conversational videos referencing explicit aspects on the nature of science, specifically the use of models and simulations in science

  3. Employing Inquiry-Based Computer Simulations and Embedded Scientist Videos To Teach Challenging Climate Change and Nature of Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Design based research was utilized to investigate how students use a greenhouse effect simulation in order to derive best learning practices. During this process, students recognized the authentic scientific process involving computer simulations. The simulation used is embedded within an inquiry-based technology-mediated science curriculum known as Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). For this research, students from a suburban, diverse, middle school setting use the simulations as part of a two week-long class unit on climate change. A pilot study was conducted during phase one of the research that informed phase two, which encompasses the dissertation. During the pilot study, as students worked through the simulation, evidence of shifts in student motivation, understanding of science content, and ideas about the nature of science became present using a combination of student interviews, focus groups, and students' conversations. Outcomes of the pilot study included improvements to the pedagogical approach. Allowing students to do 'Extreme Testing' (e.g., making the world as hot or cold as possible) and increasing the time for free exploration of the simulation are improvements made as a result of the findings of the pilot study. In the dissertation (phase two of the research design) these findings were implemented in a new curriculum scaled for 85 new students from the same school during the next school year. The modifications included new components implementing simulations as an assessment tool for all students and embedded modeling tools. All students were asked to build pre and post models, however due to technological constraints these were not an effective tool. A non-video group of 44 students was established and another group of 41 video students had a WISE curriculum which included twelve minutes of scientists' conversational videos referencing explicit aspects on the nature of science, specifically the use of models and simulations in science

  4. Glitch game testers: The design and study of a learning environment for computational production with young African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.

  5. Computer-based communication in support of scientific and technical work. [conferences on management information systems used by scientists of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallee, J.; Wilson, T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported of the first experiments for a computer conference management information system at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Between August 1975 and March 1976, two NASA projects with geographically separated participants (NASA scientists) used the PLANET computer conferencing system for portions of their work. The first project was a technology assessment of future transportation systems. The second project involved experiments with the Communication Technology Satellite. As part of this project, pre- and postlaunch operations were discussed in a computer conference. These conferences also provided the context for an analysis of the cost of computer conferencing. In particular, six cost components were identified: (1) terminal equipment, (2) communication with a network port, (3) network connection, (4) computer utilization, (5) data storage and (6) administrative overhead.

  6. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  7. Reaching into the Digital Divide: Technological Use of Computers by African American Male Youth in the American South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Antionette L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how the computer is utilized in the daily lives of seven African American male youth in the southeastern region of the United States. Critical pedagogy was selected as the theoretical framework using Paulo Freire ideas of problem-posing education to promote awareness towards using the computer…

  8. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  9. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  10. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Orlandi, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches. PMID:20589223

  11. Skills-Based, Interactive Computer Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Steven P; Orlandi, Mario A

    1990-01-01

    The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches.

  12. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  13. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  14. Employing Inquiry-Based Computer Simulations and Embedded Scientist Videos to Teach Challenging Climate Change and Nature of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Edward Charles

    2013-01-01

    Design based research was utilized to investigate how students use a greenhouse effect simulation in order to derive best learning practices. During this process, students recognized the authentic scientific process involving computer simulations. The simulation used is embedded within an inquiry-based technology-mediated science curriculum known…

  15. Computer Cache. African American Websites for Black History Month and All Year Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    February is Black History Month and time to celebrate the contributions of African Americans throughout history. This paper provides a selection of websites that can serve as starting points for learning and can be used all year long.

  16. A computer-tailored intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Mohllajee, Anshu P.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Drake, Bettina F.; Mars, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    African-American men experience a disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (CaP) morbidity and mortality. National screening guidelines advise men to make individualized screening decisions through a process termed “informed decision making” (IDM). In this pilot study, a computer-tailored decision-aid designed to promote IDM was evaluated using a pre/post test design. African-American men aged 40+ recruited from a variety of community settings (n=108). At pre-test, 43% of men reported having made a screening decision; at post-test 47% reported this to be the case (p=0.39). Significant improvements were observed on scores (0–100%) of knowledge (54% vs 72%; p<0.001), decision self-efficacy (87% vs 89%; p<0.01), and decisional conflict (21% vs 13%; p<0.001). Men were also more likely to want an active role in decision-making after using the tool (67% vs 75%; p=0.03). These results suggest that use of a computer-tailored decision-aid is a promising strategy to promote IDM for CaP screening among African-American men. PMID:19477736

  17. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  18. Scientists at Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

    This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

  19. Evaluating the Implementation of International Computing Curricular in African Universities: A Design-Reality Gap Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasuki, Salihu Ibrahim; Ogedebe, Peter; Kanya, Rislana Abdulazeez; Ndume, Hauwa; Makinde, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Efforts are been made by Universities in developing countries to ensure that it's graduate are not left behind in the competitive global information society; thus have adopted international computing curricular for their computing degree programs. However, adopting these international curricula seem to be very challenging for developing countries…

  20. End User Computing at a South African Technikon: Enabling Disadvantaged Students To Meet Employers' Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Cecille

    A two-phase study examined the skills required of competent end-users of computers in the workplace and assessed the computing awareness and technological environment of first-year students entering historically disadvantaged technikons in South Africa. First, a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) panel of nine representatives of local business and…

  1. Incorporating Knowledge of Legal and Ethical Aspects into Computing Curricula of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Ian; Kyobe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As students in computing disciplines are introduced to modern information technologies, numerous unethical practices also escalate. With the increase in stringent legislations on use of IT, users of technology could easily be held liable for violation of this legislation. There is however lack of understanding of social aspects of computing, and…

  2. Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162265.html Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene Discovery might one day lead to drugs to ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they've identified a gene variant that dampens the desire to drink alcohol. ...

  3. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  4. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-12-22

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication.

  5. Teachers' Perceptions about their Own and their Schools' Readiness for Computer Implementation: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…

  6. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  7. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  8. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  9. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  10. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  11. Development of clinical scientists.

    PubMed

    Smith, R V

    1987-01-01

    The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.

  12. Enhancing Parental Motivation to Monitor African American Adolescents’ Diabetes Care: Development and Beta Test of a Brief Computer-Delivered Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A; Naar, Sylvie; Ondersma, Steven J; Moltz, Kathleen; Dekelbab, Baseem; Joseph, Christine LM

    2014-01-01

    Background African American youth are at increased risk for poor diabetes management. Parenting behaviors such as parental monitoring are significant predictors of youth diabetes management and metabolic control, but no intervention has targeted parental monitoring of daily diabetes care. Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop and pilot test a three-session computer-delivered intervention to enhance parental motivation to monitor African American pre-adolescents’ diabetes management. Methods The 3 Ms (Medication, Meter, and Meals) intervention was based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior change and Motivational Interviewing approaches. Five caregivers of African American youth aged 10-13 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year (ie, the target population) reviewed the intervention and provided feedback via semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Caregivers’ responses to interview questions suggest that The 3 Ms was helpful (minimum rating was 8 out of 10) and they would recommend the program to another parent of a child with diabetes (minimum rating was 9 out of 10). Three of five reported that The 3 Ms program increased the likelihood that they would talk to their child about diabetes. Thematic analysis suggested two primary themes: caregivers found the intervention to be a useful reminder of the importance of supervising their child’s diabetes care and that it evoked a feeling of shared experience with other parents. Conclusions The 3 Ms computer-delivered intervention for increasing parental monitoring of African-American youth with type 1 diabetes was well-received and highly rated by a small sample of representative caregivers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01515930; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515930 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Rm0vq9pn). PMID:25236503

  13. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  14. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  15. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  16. Minimal Key Lengths for Symmetric Ciphers to Provide Adequate Commercial Security. A Report by an Ad Hoc Group of Cryptographers and Computer Scientists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ecient approach is to employ commercially available Field Programmable Gate Array ( FPGA ) technology. For attackers prepared to make a higher initial...step in employing cryp- tography for computer and communication security. Technology readily available today (late 1995) makes brute-force attacks...investment, custom-made, special-purpose chips make such calculations much faster and signi cantly lower the amortized cost per solution. As a result

  17. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  18. A Qualitative Investigation of African Americans' Decision to Pursue Computing Science Degrees: Implications for Cultivating Career Choice and Aspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Pearson (2002), minority groups are not well represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. Among these underrepresented groups are African Americans. To ensure the economic vitality of the STEM workforce in the United States, it is imperative to broaden participation in STEM-related fields and…

  19. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  20. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  1. Developing a computer touch-screen interactive colorectal screening decision aid for a low-literacy African American population: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ruggieri, Dominique; Mora, Gabriella; Rovito, Michael J; Britto, Johnson; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Abedin, Zainab; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Pitts, Khaliah

    2013-07-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than White Americans and yet have lower rates of CRC screening. Increased screening aids in early detection and higher survival rates. Coupled with low literacy rates, the burden of CRC morbidity and mortality is exacerbated in this population, making it important to develop culturally and literacy appropriate aids to help low-literacy African Americans make informed decisions about CRC screening. This article outlines the development of a low-literacy computer touch-screen colonoscopy decision aid using an innovative marketing method called perceptual mapping and message vector modeling. This method was used to mathematically model key messages for the decision aid, which were then used to modify an existing CRC screening tutorial with different messages. The final tutorial was delivered through computer touch-screen technology to increase access and ease of use for participants. Testing showed users were not only more comfortable with the touch-screen technology but were also significantly more willing to have a colonoscopy compared with a "usual care group." Results confirm the importance of including participants in planning and that the use of these innovative mapping and message design methods can lead to significant CRC screening attitude change.

  2. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  3. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  4. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  5. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  6. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  7. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  8. Scientists and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from in-depth interviews in which respondents at a range of U.S. universities provided detailed accounts of their experience in, and identification with, academe. Studies satisfaction from the angle of the self-doubts scientists have about their work and careers, and investigates how self-doubts may systematically differ across…

  9. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  10. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  11. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  12. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  13. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  14. Postmodernism for animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

    2003-12-01

    Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society.

  15. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-02-23

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals.

  16. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  17. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  18. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  19. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  20. NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE: Report Details Spying on Touring Scientists.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-06-30

    A congressional report released this week details dozens of sometimes clumsy attempts by foreign agents to obtain nuclear secrets from U.S. nuclear scientists traveling abroad, ranging from offering scientists prostitutes to prying off the backs of their laptop computers. The report highlights the need to better prepare traveling researchers to safeguard secrets and resist such temptations, say the two lawmakers who requested the report and officials at the Department of Energy, which employs the scientists.

  1. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  2. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  3. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  4. Visualization tool for the scientist/engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appino, Perry A.; Farrell, Edward J.; Mandelman, Jack A.; Linton, Thomas D., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Continuing advances in supercomputer technology give the scientist/engineer the ability to run increasingly complex computational experiments and simulations. Gaining insight from the flood of simulation resuits is a difficult task for the scientist. This paper presents the Visual interpretation System (VIS), an easy to use, interactive, discipline-independent tool for understanding multidimensional data sets. Components of the VIS are a database manager, a user interface, and a visualization manager. The database manager facilitates discipline-independent visualization and lets the scientist manipulate data with familiar names and attributes. The visualization manager uses an optical model to generate 3D images with a variety of options including opaque and transparent structures, cutouts, and region highlighting. The effectiveness ofthe VIS is demonstrated using data from a 3D simulation of a transistor device.

  5. Taking Ownership of the ITC's Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing: A South African Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, Cheryl D.; Davies, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of computer-based and Internet-delivered testing has raised a number of ethical and legal issues. The International Test Commission's (this issue) Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing represent the most recent attempt to provide test users, publishers, and developers with guidance regarding the appropriate…

  6. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  7. Habituating field scientists.

    PubMed

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  8. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

  9. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D

    2010-01-04

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

  10. Meet EPA Scientist Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Senior exposure scientist and research environmental engineer Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D. helps build computer models and other tools that advance our understanding of how people interact with chemicals.

  11. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.

  12. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  13. Advocacy is scientists' responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstadt, Gene

    In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

  14. Planned Topaz 2 launch worries space scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.M.

    1993-02-01

    US plans to launch into orbit a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) experiment powered by a Russian-supplied Topaz 2 space reactor has raised objections from some space scientists. They say that radiation from the reactor could adversely affect about a dozen present and future scientific satellites - such as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launched in 1991 - by disrupting instruments and computers, and causing damage. In response, SDIO said it is working to address the concerns of the scientific community.

  15. Examining Key Factors that Contribute to African Americans' Pursuit of Computing Science Degrees: Implications for Cultivating Career Choice and Aspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar Jovan

    2010-01-01

    As a result of decreasing degree attainment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the United States is undergoing a shortage in the STEM workforce that it has not encountered since the mid-1950s (ACT, 2006; Gilbert & Jackson, 2007). Moreover, as computer usage cuts across diverse aspects of modern culture, the…

  16. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  17. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  18. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  19. Intellectual property law: a primer for scientists.

    PubMed

    Brown, William M

    2003-03-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors and creators of such ideas. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work, as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefiting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it a trade secret. IP impinges on almost everything scientists do. As scientists are paid to come up with ideas and aspire to patent and/or publish their work, the protection of ideas and of written works especially should be of interest and concern to all.

  20. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument

    NASA Video Gallery

    David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

  3. [Scientists in cartoons: humanizing science].

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Carlos Henrique; Andrade, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Marques, Ivan da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Published daily from 1994 to 2002 in Correio Popular, a Campinas-based newspaper, Os cientistas (The scientists) comic strips produced by Brazilian researchers and journalists presented science critically and irreverently, exposing the insecurities and frustrations of scientists, as well as the conflicts between them and their communication difficulties with other groups, like journalists. This article shows the diversity of personalities, subjects, graphic styles, and potential meanings in a sample of comic strips published in the first four years.

  4. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  5. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    on presenting what they're passionate about, not get bogged down by basic groundwork. Vlogs and short video bios showcase the enthusiasm and personality of the scientists, an important ingredient in crafting compelling videos. Featured scientists become better communicators, and learn to bring their research to life. When viewers see that genuine wonder, they can be motivated to ask questions and pursue more information about the topic, broadening community participation. The website interface opens the door to audience discussion. Digital media is a community builder, an inclusive tool that lets people continents-apart engage with compelling stories and then interact. Internet videos have become a means of supplementing face-to-face education; video reaches people, it's informal self-education from the comfort of one's own computer screen. FS uses videos and social media as part of an education outreach effort directed at lifelong learners. We feature not only scientists, but also teachers who've gone into the field to add to their own science knowledge, and to bring back new lessons for their students. Students who are exposed to FS videos see science in action in the professional world, which might inspire them in a STEM academic and career path, encouraging the next generation of researchers, as well as scientific and environmental literacy.

  6. Critical issues facing animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Friess, S L

    1983-01-01

    An important series of issues confronts the animal research scientist involved in meeting world needs for food products from animal agriculture. The major issues stem from societal pressures for improved products, for prevention of chemical pollution of the biosphere, and for wise use of animal resources in toxicological testing and research. The following issues are among those treated in the present discussion: (1) There is a need to obtain reliable dosage vs response information for chronic effects produced in the human by food additive chemicals. (2) There is a need for toxicological research on combined hazard from multiple contaminants in animal food products. (3) There is a requirement for development of methodology for proper usage and (or) disposal of chemically contaminated animal food products. (4) The public must be educated with respect to the absolute necessity for use of intact animals in biological research, to supplement information from in vitro systems. (5) Animal scientists must characterize fully each animal species and strain employed in research and testing, to guarantee reproducibility of results. (6) Animal scientists must evolve a universal set of principles for translation of animal toxicity data into prediction of human hazard. (7) Animal scientists should develop universally uniform methodology for toxicological testing of foods and food chemical residues. (8) Animal scientists should rebut national regulatory philosophies that derive from unsound science. (9) The animal scientist should assist regulatory authorities in developing sound, practical "Good Laboratory Practice" guidelines.

  7. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  8. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  9. An expert system for astronaut scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    A novel application of expert system technology is developed for real-time advice to an astronaut during the performance of a crew intensive experiment. The provision of an on-board computer expert, containing much of the reasoning base of the real Principal Investigator, will permit the astronaut to act more as a scientist co-worker in future Spacelab and Space Station missions. The long duration of flight increments and the large number of experiments envisioned for Space Station Freedom make the increase in astronaut productivity particularly valuable. A first version of the system was evaluated on the ground during the recent Spacelab SLS-1 flight.

  10. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  11. Alliance for Computational Science Collaboration HBCU Partnership at Fisk University. Final Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W. E.

    2004-08-16

    Computational Science plays a big role in research and development in mathematics, science, engineering and biomedical disciplines. The Alliance for Computational Science Collaboration (ACSC) has the goal of training African-American and other minority scientists in the computational science field for eventual employment with the Department of Energy (DOE). The involvements of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the Alliance provide avenues for producing future DOE African-American scientists. Fisk University has been participating in this program through grants from the DOE. The DOE grant supported computational science activities at Fisk University. The research areas included energy related projects, distributed computing, visualization of scientific systems and biomedical computing. Students' involvement in computational science research included undergraduate summer research at Oak Ridge National Lab, on-campus research involving the participation of undergraduates, participation of undergraduate and faculty members in workshops, and mentoring of students. These activities enhanced research and education in computational science, thereby adding to Fisk University's spectrum of research and educational capabilities. Among the successes of the computational science activities are the acceptance of three undergraduate students to graduate schools with full scholarships beginning fall 2002 (one for master degree program and two for Doctoral degree program).

  12. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  13. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  14. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  15. Marine Science and the Seas: The Next Frontier for Minority Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the U.S. develop a cadre of humanely-oriented, principally minority-American scientists and technical experts who will become a human relations, scientific/technological-developmental, ambassordorial corps to African, Caribbean, and Third World Nations. Marine science and the seas would serve as the focus for reciprocity and harmony…

  16. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  17. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  18. Meet EPA Scientist Wayne Cascio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Dr. Wayne Cascio spent over 25 years as a cardiologist helping people take care of their hearts. Now he is bringing a broader view of public health to EPA by leading research on the links between exposures to air pollution and heart health

  19. Meet EPA Scientist Jay Garland

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scientist Jay Garland Ph.D. spent twenty years at NASA trying to figure out how astronauts could stay in outer space for a long time without needing more supplies. Now he is bringing the same concepts of reusing and recovering resources to his research

  20. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  1. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  2. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  3. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  4. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  5. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  6. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  7. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  8. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  9. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  10. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  11. Alliance for Computational Science Collaboration, HBCU Partnership at Alabama A&M University Final Performance Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.T.

    2001-11-15

    The objective of this project was to conduct high-performance computing research and teaching at AAMU, and to train African-American and other minority students and scientists in the computational science field for eventual employment with DOE. During the project period, eight tasks were accomplished. Student Research Assistant, Work Study, Summer Interns, Scholarship were proved to be one of the best ways for us to attract top-quality minority students. Under the support of DOE, through research, summer interns, collaborations, scholarships programs, AAMU has successfully provided research and educational opportunities to minority students in the field related to computational science.

  12. Scientist-Centered Graph-Based Models of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Stephan, Eric G.; Gracio, Deborah K.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2005-07-01

    At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are researching and developing visual models and paradigms that will allow scientists to capture and represent conceptual models in a computational form that may linked to and integrated with scientific data sets and applications. Captured conceptual models may be logical in conveying how individual concepts tie together to form a higher theory, analytical in conveying intermediate or final analysis results, or temporal in describing the experimental process in which concepts are physically and computationally explored. In this paper, we describe and contrast three different research and development systems that allow scientists to capture and interact with computational graph-based models of scientific knowledge. Through these examples, we explore and examine ways in which researchers may graphically encode and apply scientific theory and practice on computer systems.

  13. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Contract NAS8-38785, Microgravity Experimental and Theoretical Research, is a project involving a large number of individual research programs related to: determination of the structure of human serum albumin and other biomedically important proteins; analysis of thermodynamic properties of various proteins and models of protein nucleation; development of experimental techniques for the growth of protein crystals in space; study of the physics of electrical double layers in the mechanics of liquid interfaces; computational analysis of vapor crystal growth processes in microgravity; analysis of the influence of magnetic fields in damping residual flows in directional solidification processes; crystal growth and characterization of II-VI semiconductor alloys; and production of thin films for nonlinear optics. It is not intended that the programs will be necessarily limited to this set at any one time. The visiting scientists accomplishing these programs shall serve on-site at MSFC to take advantage of existing laboratory facilities and the daily opportunities for technical communications with various senior scientists.

  14. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center pursues scientific research in the area of low-gravity effects on materials and processes. To facilitate these Government performed research responsibilities, a number of supplementary research tasks were accomplished by a group of specialized visiting scientists. They participated in work on contemporary research problems with specific objectives related to current or future space flight experiments and defined and established independent programs of research which were based on scientific peer review and the relevance of the defined research to NASA microgravity for implementing a portion of the national program. The programs included research in the following areas: protein crystal growth, X-ray crystallography and computer analysis of protein crystal structure, optimization and analysis of protein crystal growth techniques, and design and testing of flight hardware.

  15. Boolean network simulations for life scientists.

    PubMed

    Albert, István; Thakar, Juilee; Li, Song; Zhang, Ranran; Albert, Réka

    2008-11-14

    Modern life sciences research increasingly relies on computational solutions, from large scale data analyses to theoretical modeling. Within the theoretical models Boolean networks occupy an increasing role as they are eminently suited at mapping biological observations and hypotheses into a mathematical formalism. The conceptual underpinnings of Boolean modeling are very accessible even without a background in quantitative sciences, yet it allows life scientists to describe and explore a wide range of surprisingly complex phenomena. In this paper we provide a clear overview of the concepts used in Boolean simulations, present a software library that can perform these simulations based on simple text inputs and give three case studies. The large scale simulations in these case studies demonstrate the Boolean paradigms and their applicability as well as the advanced features and complex use cases that our software package allows. Our software is distributed via a liberal Open Source license and is freely accessible from http://booleannet.googlecode.com.

  16. Scientists conduct largest coastal experiment on record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Julie

    Duck, N.C.—Something out of the ordinary has been happening near this quiet, resort town on the Outer Banks. More than 100 coastal scientists, students, and technicians have descended on the Army Corps of Engineer's Waterways Experiment Station primarily to study movement of sediment in the surf zone. In fact, a large percentage of the U.S. near-shore research community has flooded the Duck area to execute the largest coastal experiment ever undertaken. The researchers have brought with them more than 80 computers and an array of exotic gadgets to carry out “DUCK94,” an unprecedented project that has been three years in the making.

  17. Give Young Scientists a Break

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  19. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  20. Computing Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Computer advances now let researchers quickly search through DNA sequences to find gene variations that could lead to disease, simulate how flu might spread through one's school, and design three-dimensional animations of molecules that rival any video game. By teaming computers and biology, scientists can answer new and old questions that could…

  1. I, Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    What child hasn't chatted with friends through a computer? But chatting with a computer? Some Danish scientists have literally put a face on their latest software program, bringing to virtual life storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, who engages users in actual conversations. The digitized Andersen resides at the Hans Christian Andersen Museum in…

  2. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in…

  3. Scientists Talking to Students through Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos…

  4. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  5. Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he…

  6. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  7. Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George

    2004-01-01

    Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

  8. Bangladesh women scientists' association honours ICDDR,B scientist.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Ayesha Molla, an ICDDR,B biochemist-nutritionist, was awarded a gold medal by the Bangladesh Women Scientists' Association and named Best Woman Scientist of the Year. She was honored for outstanding achievements in diarrhea/nutrition research especially in her classic studies on nutrient absorption during diarrhea. Her recent work has focused on the diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism in children. Her findings indicate that eating during acute diarrhea should be encouraged to reduce post-diarrhea malnutriton in vulnerable developing country children. In another study in collaboration with her husband, a pediatrician and gastroenterologist, it was found that diarrhea has a negligible effect on secretion of digestive enzymes which partially explains why significant digestion and absorption continue during diarrhea. Dr. Molla was also honored for related studies on the vitamin A/diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism. This is of immense importance in developing countries since repeated diarrheal infections in children aggravate malnutrition and lead to vitamin A deficiency blindness. Most blindness seems to be associated with or preceded by recurrent diarrheal infections. Dr. Molla found that water-soluble vitamin A administrated orally was associated with rapid improvement of deteriorating eye conditions. A brief outline of her background is given and her current work discussed. She is presently involved in seeking the best possible diet for children suffering from severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). This problem results in coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and energy. Dr. Molla is attempting to determine the fastest, most tolerable, low cost, readily available and culturally acceptable diet. Maternal training in feeding practices will be provided. In collaboration with her husband, Dr. Molla is also studying the 2nd generation Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). They are working to substitute rice or other staples for the traditional sugar in ORS.

  9. Computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Veladiano, Irene A; Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Montani, Alessandro; Catania, Salvatore; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections. Frozen cross sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. Anatomic structures within each head were identified with the aid of the available literature, labeled first on anatomic photographs, and then matched to and labeled on corresponding CT images. The best CT reconstruction filter, window width, and window level for obtaining diagnostic images of each structure were also identified. RESULTS Most of the clinically relevant structures of the head were identified in both the cross-sectional photographs and corresponding CT images. Optimal visibility of the bony structures was achieved via CT with a standard soft tissue filter and pulmonary window. The use of contrast medium allowed a thorough evaluation of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled CT images and photographs of anatomic structures of the heads of common pet parrot species created in this study may be useful as an atlas to aid interpretation of images obtained with any imaging modality.

  10. Insights from computational analysis of full-length β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II cDNA isolated from American and African oil palms

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Cha, Thye S.; Amelia, Kassim; Shah, Farida H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palm oil derived from fruits (mesocarp) of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) and American oil palm (E. oleifera) is important for food industry. Due to high yield, Elaeis guineensis (Tenera) is cultivated on commercial scale, though its oil contains high (~54%) level of saturated fatty acids. The rate-limiting activity of beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II (KAS-II) is considered mainly responsible for the high (44%) level of palmitic acid (C16:0) in the oil obtained from E. guineensis. Objective: The objective of this study was to annotate KAS-II cDNA isolated from American and African oil palms. Materials and Methods: The full-length E. oleifera KAS-II (EoKAS-II) cDNA clone was isolated using random method of gene isolation. Whereas, the E. guineensis KAS-II (EgTKAS-II) cDNA was isolated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique; and missing ends were obtained by employing 5’and 3’ RACE technique. Results: The results show that EoKAS-II and EgTKAS-II open reading frames (ORFs) are of 1689 and 1721 bp in length, respectively. Further analysis of the both EoKAS-II and EgTKAS-II predicted protein illustrates that they contains conserved domains for ‘KAS-I and II’, ‘elongating’ condensing enzymes, ‘condensing enzymes super-family’, and ‘3-oxoacyl-[ACP] synthase II’. The predicted protein sequences shows 95% similarity with each other. Consecutively, the three active sites (Cys, His, and His) were identified in both proteins. However, difference in positions of two active Histidine (His) residues was noticed. Conclusion: These insights may serve as the foundation in understanding the variable activity of KAS-II in American and African oil palms; and cDNA clones could be useful in the genetic engineering of oil palms. PMID:24678202

  11. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  12. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  13. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  14. Implicit Theories of Creativity in Computer Science in the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Chaoying; Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    To study implicit concepts of creativity in computer science in the United States and mainland China, we first asked 308 Chinese computer scientists for adjectives that would describe a creative computer scientist. Computer scientists and non-computer scientists from China (N = 1069) and the United States (N = 971) then rated how well those…

  15. Rejuvenating clinician-scientist training.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Cahoon, Judd

    2014-03-28

    Clinician-scientists are becoming increasingly rare in medicine as a whole, but especially in ophthalmology. There is a structural gap between MD-PhD training and K-series awards where interested candidates go through residency and fellowship without any structured research exposure or involvement. Furthermore, the success rate of the MD-PhD and K awards leaves much to be desired. The authors propose a redeployment of training resources to reconfigure residency and fellowship training programs for interested candidates with sufficient additional time for a credible research project, augmented salary, and sound mentoring. Opportunities for research training in nontraditional pathways to diversify skill sets and build interdisciplinary teams also would be a prime objective of this novel "Learn-and-Earn" approach.

  16. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  17. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  18. Data scientist: the sexiest job of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Patil, D J

    2012-10-01

    Back in the 1990s, computer engineer and Wall Street "quant" were the hot occupations in business. Today data scientists are the hires firms are competing to make. As companies wrestle with unprecedented volumes and types of information, demand for these experts has raced well ahead of supply. Indeed, Greylock Partners, the VC firm that backed Facebook and LinkedIn, is so worried about the shortage of data scientists that it has a recruiting team dedicated to channeling them to the businesses in its portfolio. Data scientists are the key to realizing the opportunities presented by big data. They bring structure to it, find compelling patterns in it, and advise executives on the implications for products, processes, and decisions. They find the story buried in the data and communicate it. And they don't just deliver reports: They get at the questions at the heart of problems and devise creative approaches to them. One data scientist who was studying a fraud problem, for example, realized it was analogous to a type of DNA sequencing problem. Bringing those disparate worlds together, he crafted a solution that dramatically reduced fraud losses. In this article, Harvard Business School's Davenport and Greylock's Patil take a deep dive on what organizations need to know about data scientists: where to look for them, how to attract and develop them, and how to spot a great one.

  19. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  20. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  1. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  2. Meet the Scientist: The Value of Short Interactions between Scientists and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Christodoulou, Andri; Rietdijk, Willeke; Byrne, Jenny; Griffiths, Janice B.; Grace, Marcus M.

    2016-01-01

    Students have been reported to have stereotypical views of scientists as middle-aged white men in lab coats. We argue that a way to provide students with a more realistic view of scientists and their work is to provide them with the opportunity to interact with scientists during short, discussion-based sessions. For that reason, 20 scientists from…

  3. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  4. Computing the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of computing as a science and profession examines the chasm between computer scientists and users, barriers to the use and growth of computing, experimental computer science, computational science, software engineering, professional identity, professional practices, applications of technology, innovation, field boundaries, and…

  5. Aestivation and brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Chew, Shit F; Hiong, Kum

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have long been fascinated by animals undergoing aestivation, a state of torpor at high temperature, due to its great potential in fields ranging from medicine to space travel. The brain of the African lungfish is able to coordinate a whole-body response to induce aestivation and to arouse from aestivation.

  6. African American Men, Inequality and Family Structure: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuberi, Tukufu

    Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…

  7. Walter sutton: physician, scientist, inventor.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gregory J; Hulston, Nancy J; Kovac, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Walter S. Sutton (1877-1916) was a physician, scientist, and inventor. Most of the work on Sutton has focused on his recognition that chromosomes carry genetic material and are the basis for Mendelian inheritance. Perhaps less well known is his work on rectal administration of ether. After Sutton's work on genetics, he completed his medical degree in 1907 and began a 2-year surgical fellowship at Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, NY, where he was introduced to the technique of rectal administration of ether. Sutton modified the work of others and documented 100 cases that were reported in his 1910 landmark paper "Anaesthesia by Colonic Absorption of Ether". Sutton had several deaths in his study, but he did not blame the rectal method. He felt that his use of rectal anesthesia was safe when administered appropriately and believed that it offered a distinct advantage over traditional pulmonary ether administration. His indications for its use included (1) head and neck surgery; (2) operations when ether absorption must be minimized due to heart, lung, or kidney problems; and (3) preoperative pulmonary complications. His contraindications included (1) cases involving alimentary tract or weakened colon; (2) laparotomies, except when the peritoneal cavity was not opened; (3) incompetent sphincter or anal fistula; (4) orthopnea; and (5) emergency cases. Sutton wrote the chapter on "Rectal Anesthesia" in one of the first comprehensive textbooks in anesthesia, James Tayloe Gwathmey's Anesthesia. Walter Sutton died of a ruptured appendix in 1916 at age 39.

  8. Hot, Hot, Hot Computer Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the increasing need for electrical, electronic, and computer engineers; and scientists. Provides current status of the computer industry and average salaries. Considers computer chip manufacture and the current chip shortage. (MVL)

  9. What Is the (ethical) Role of Scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many scientists are reluctant to speak out on issues of broad societal importance for fear that doing so crosses into territory that is not the scientists' domain. Others fear that scientists lose credibility when they address ethical and moral issues. A related concern is that discussing social or ethical questions runs the risk of politicizing science. Yet history shows that in the past, scientists often have spoken out on broad issues of societal concern, often (although not always) effectively. This paper explores the conditions under which scientists may be effective spokesmen and women on ethical and moral choices, and suggests some criteria by which scientists might decide when and whether it is appropriate for them to speak out beyond the circles of other technical experts.

  10. Handbook of applied mathematics for engineers and scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, M.

    1991-12-31

    This book is intended to be reference for applications of mathematics in a wide range of topics of interest to engineers and scientists. An unusual feature of this book is that it covers a large number of topics from elementary algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to computer graphics and cybernetics. The level of mathematics covers high school through about the junior level of an engineering curriculum in a major univeristy. Throughout, the emphasis is on applications of mathematics rather than on rigorous proofs.

  11. Fundamental Fortran for Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.

    An introduction to Fortran programming specifically for social science statistical and routine data processing is provided. The first two sections of the manual describe the components of computer hardware and software. Topics include input, output, and mass storage devices; central memory; central processing unit; internal storage of data; and…

  12. Associate ISS Program Scientist Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Associate ISS Program Scientist Pete Hasbrook participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek S...

  13. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  14. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  15. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  16. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

  17. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Lin, C.; Clarac, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 12 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  18. Young Engineers and Scientists: a Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Wuest, Martin; Marilyn, Koch B.

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world research experiences in physical sciences and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics computers and the Internet careers science ethics and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year students publicly present and display their work acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college several have worked for SwRI and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors.

  19. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  20. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  1. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation…

  2. Scientists' Views about Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besley, John C.; Dudo, Anthony; Storksdieck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses how scientists think about science communication training based on the argument that such training represents an important tool in improving the quality of interactions between scientists and the public. It specifically focuses on training related to five goals, including views about training to make science messages…

  3. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  4. Scientists' and Teachers' Perspectives about Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.; Martz, Marti Ann; Shimek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is resulting in more opportunities for scientists and teachers to collaborate. The relationships can result in failed collaborations or success. We recently completed a 6-year regional project that used several approaches to develop scientist-teacher relationships.…

  5. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  6. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  7. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  8. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  9. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  10. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…

  11. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  12. Successful scientist: What's the winning formula?

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Ciappio, Eric D

    2014-11-01

    What does it take to become a successful scientist? This question is usually asked or thought about at some point in a young scientist's career. The early stages of a scientific career are fraught with many hardships, and achieving success can seem impossible and daunting. After encountering many obstacles, it becomes easy to focus on failures and lose sight of career goals. The journey to success can seem so simple when looked upon from the outside, but even the best scientists have endured many hardships, which are often not communicated. This educational symposium featured a diverse panel of 5 accomplished scientists representing different work environments, such as government, industry, and academia. They discussed tips on how to have a successful career journey and the key qualities of a successful scientist. Also, they revealed the secret to what's in the winning formula for success.

  13. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  14. The Virtual Scientist: Connecting University Scientists to the K-12 Classroom through Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Glenn B.; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Shepherd, Virginia L.

    2007-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as…

  15. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  16. Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the

  17. Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

    2005-09-22

    We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the

  18. LHC Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-07-28

    The LHC is the world’s highest energy particle accelerator and scientists use it to record an unprecedented amount of data. This data is recorded in electronic format and it requires an enormous computational infrastructure to convert the raw data into conclusions about the fundamental rules that govern matter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln gives us a sense of just how much data is involved and the incredible computer resources that makes it all possible.

  19. Scientist volunteers: Doing science with children

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The number of scientists who are volunteering to visit school classrooms is growing. Unfortunately, scientists have a tendency to cram too much information into their presentation. The result is almost always disastrous. The best thing a scientist can do is provide students with a positive science experience that may cause them to re-evaluate their attitude toward science. One of the best ways to do this is to involve students in a novel hands-on activity that engages and maintains their interest. Guidelines for developing such activities are provided.

  20. Attracting, Retaining, and Engaging Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan; Heal, Kate; Pringle, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Young Scientists Event, IUGG XXIV General Assembly; Perugia, Italy, 10 July 2007 This young scientists event was organized to engage younger scientists with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and to provide a specific forum to express their views at the General Assembly. It comprised a panel discussion chaired by Kate Heal and with three young geosciences panelists (Masaki Hayashi, University of Calgary, Canada; Kalachand Sain, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India; and Simona Stefanescu, National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest). The group, which had identified several topics relevant to young geoscientists, presented their views in open discussion session. Thirty IUGG conference attendees were present.

  1. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Winham, Stacey J.; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Milic, Natasa M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students’ fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  2. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists.

  3. Calgary Girls' School: 600 Computers for 600 Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features Calgary Girls' School (CGS), a charter school including grades four through nine that opened with 188 students in 2003. The school was aligned with Alberta Education's charter-school mandate at that time to offer parents a broad range of school choices. Today the Alberta charter school mandate is to focus on innovation and…

  4. Why Mathematical Computer Simulations Are the New Laboratory for Scientists.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new powerful scientific paradigm to understand natural and cultural processes. This new paradigm is based on two fundamental keywords: Data, as representative sample of the process we need to analyze, and Artificial Adaptive Systems, as a new mathematical technique able to make explicit the nonlinearity embedded in the process. We will try to make explicit these concepts analyzing how the distribution of events into the physical space may reveal the hidden logic connecting these events together.

  5. Robotics for Computer Scientists: What's the Big Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touretzky, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Modern robots, like today's smartphones, are complex devices with intricate software systems. Introductory robot programming courses must evolve to reflect this reality, by teaching students to make use of the sophisticated tools their robots provide rather than reimplementing basic algorithms. This paper focuses on teaching with Tekkotsu, an open…

  6. Robotics for computer scientists: what's the big idea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touretzky, David S.

    2013-12-01

    Modern robots, like today's smartphones, are complex devices with intricate software systems. Introductory robot programming courses must evolve to reflect this reality, by teaching students to make use of the sophisticated tools their robots provide rather than reimplementing basic algorithms. This paper focuses on teaching with Tekkotsu, an open source robot application development framework designed specifically for education. But, the curriculum described here can also be taught using ROS, the Robot Operating System that is now widely used for robotics research.

  7. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    high densities," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Pulsars are neutron stars whose strong magnetic fields channel lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that whirl around as the star spins. Typical pulsars spin a few times a second, but some, like PSR J1903+0327, are much faster, rotating hundreds of times a second. They are called millisecond pulsars. Astronomers think most millisecond pulsars are sped up by material falling onto them from a companion star. This requires the pulsar to be in a tight orbit around its companion that becomes more and more circular with time. The orbits of some millisecond pulsars are the most perfect circles in the Universe, so the elongated orbit of the new pulsar is a mystery. "What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star," Champion said. "Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." The scientists are considering three possibilities. The first, that the pulsar simply was born spinning quickly, seems unlikely to them. Another possibility, they say, is that the pulsar was formed in a tight group of stars known as a globular cluster, where it had a companion that spun it up. Later, a close encounter with another star in the cluster stripped it of its companion and flung it out of the cluster. For several reasons, including the fact that they don't see a nearby cluster from which it could have come, they don't like that explanation either. A third scenario says the pulsar may be part of a triple, not a double, star system. In this case, the pulsar's 95-day orbit is around a neutron star or white dwarf, not the Sun-like star seen in the infrared image. The Sun-like star would then be in a more-distant orbit around the pulsar and its close companion. "We've found about 50 pulsars in binary systems. We may now have found our first pulsar in a stellar triple system," Ransom said. The international research

  8. American Astronomical Society Honors NRAO Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    built in the late 1970s. Work on the package began in 1978 in Charlottesville. Now including nearly a million lines of program code and almost a half-million lines of documentation, AIPS is used at more than 500 sites around the world. The package is a mainstay and a daily tool for most of the world's radio astronomers, and also has been used by scientists in such other fields as fluid-dynamics simulation and medical imaging. Over the years, Greisen and his colleagues at NRAO have revised the AIPS package numerous times and expanded its capabilities as new astronomical and computing hardware was developed. The software has been kept independent of specific computing hardware and operating systems, and so has been successfully used on a wide variety of computing equipment. "We are extremely proud of Eric's work and congratulate him on receiving this award," said NRAO Director Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo. "He has shown extraordinary dedication to making AIPS a valuable and effective tool for the world astronomical community, and this award is well-deserved recognition." The AAS citation reads, "The 2005 Van Biesbroeck Prize is awarded to Dr. Eric Greisen of NRAO for the initiation, development, and maintenance for twenty-five years of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). Virtually every VLA and VLBA program relies on AIPS for calibration and image reconstruction, and it has been exported to more than 500 sites worldwide. Greisen, as its principal architect and tireless custodian, has provided an invaluable service to astronomy. Moreover, AIPS represented a new paradigm for the processing of massive astronomical datasets, i.e., a comprehensive software package that was rigorously independent of particular operating systems, which supported portability and adaptability to evolving hardware designs. Beyond the call of duty, Greisen has generously responded to individual queries about the code from users at all levels, sometimes in real time at odd hours to support

  9. Meet EPA Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch is currently the Superfund and Technology Liaison in EPA’s Region 10, where she uses her expertise in characterizing environmental contamination to help evaluate and clean up hazardous waste sites.

  10. Meet EPA Physical Scientist Lukas Oudejans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lukas Oudejans, Ph.D. is a physical scientist working in EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center. His research focuses on preparing cleanup options for the agency following a disaster incident.

  11. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  12. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163019.html Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus Hope is to eventually make the bugs ... say they have created mosquitoes resistant to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread ...

  13. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2016-07-12

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  14. The Physical Scientist in an Interdisciplinary Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes interdisciplinary team teaching of an environmental studies course at Dickinson College which involves a physicist, a philosopher, an anthropologist, a theologian, and 15 community members. Physical scientist's roles and students' responses to the course are discussed. (CC)

  15. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  16. A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, J.

    2012-12-01

    Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

  17. Students as Citizen Scientists - Earth Conservation Corps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document has an overview of the student workshops on water quality monitoring used to generate citizen scientists. It also includes the main components of the curriculum and contact information for the Earth Conservation Corps to interested parties.

  18. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  19. Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162368.html Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering MRI shows involvement of brain areas controlling speech, ... speech, attention and emotion are all linked to stuttering. Stuttering is characterized by involuntarily repeating certain sounds, ...

  20. NASA Planetary Scientist Profile Emily Wilson

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA scientist Emily Wilson discusses her work developing miniaturized instruments that measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Her latest instrument, the mini-LHR, works in tandem with AERONET...

  1. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  2. Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

    1997-08-01

    The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

  3. Social scientist's viewpoint on conflict management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ertel, Madge O.

    1990-01-01

    Social scientists can bring to the conflict-management process objective, reliable information needed to resolve increasingly complex issues. Engineers need basic training in the principles of the social sciences and in strategies for public involvement. All scientists need to be sure that that the information they provide is unbiased by their own value judgments and that fair standards and open procedures govern its use.

  4. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-02-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

  5. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  6. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  7. Computers, the future and you.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, B A

    1993-08-01

    Computers are no longer like rocket ships: complicated, expensive and requiring a "rocket scientist" to operate. Computers are now like telephones: you can practice without them, but do you really want to?

  8. New modalities for scientific engagement in Africa - the case for computational physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, N.

    2011-09-01

    Computational physics as a mode of studying the mathematical and physical sciences has grown world-wide over the past two decades, but this trend is yet to fully develop in Africa. The essential ingredients are there for this to happen: increasing internet connectivity, cheaper computing resources and the widespread availability of open source and freeware. The missing ingredients centre on intellectual isolation and the low levels of quality international collaborations. Low level of funding for research from local governments remains a critical issue. This paper gives a motivation for the importance of developing computational physics at the university undergraduate level, graduate level and research levels and gives suggestions on how this may be achieved within the African context. It is argued that students develop a more intuitive feel for the mathematical and physical sciences, that they learn useful, transferable skills that make our graduates well-sought after in the industrial and commercial environments, and that such graduates are better prepared to tackle research problems at the masters and doctoral levels. At the research level, the case of the African School Series on Electronic Structure Methods and Applications (ASESMA) is presented as a new multi-national modality for engaging with African scientists. There are many novel aspects to this School series, which are discussed.

  9. The GLOBE International Scientist Network: Connecting Scientists and Schools to Promote Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessendorf, S. A.; Andersen, T.; Mackaro, J.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBE Program has a rich history of connecting scientists and schools around the world on issues related to Earth System Science. Science teams developed the program's core science protocols, and these and other scientists use the data collected by GLOBE students, following these protocols, in their research projects. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with scientists, teachers, and students in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has recently initiated a focus on climate science, as well as unveiled a new technological infrastructure (website, database, online collaboration tools, etc.). These recent technological advances provide new opportunities to increase scientist participation in the program. To better facilitate scientist involvement in GLOBE, The GLOBE International Scientist Network (GISN) was developed. This network aims to connect scientists, teachers, and students around the world to promote Earth System Science. It provides a venue for scientists seeking to engage in education and outreach to connect with schools willing to collaborate, as well as to connect with one another. Via the GLOBE website, scientists in the GISN are provided a profile page to display their bio and interests, the ability to make online "friends" thereby connecting with other registered GLOBE community members (i.e. scientists, teachers), and the ability to participate in online discussions. All interested candidates' credentials are reviewed to ensure that they meet designated criteria to maintain the quality of individuals who work with GLOBE schools. The GLOBE Program Office staff scientists facilitate the network, by creating online accounts for approved new members and responding to inquiries. This presentation will provide an overview of the GISN, including how the network is maintained, the process for membership approval, and a few examples of how scientists in the network are working with GLOBE.

  10. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  11. Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In November 2009, the fifth Pan African Malaria conference was held in Nairobi. Thirteen years after the founding initiative in Dakar, the first African Secretariat based in Africa (TANZANIA) organized this major event for the malaria community. Looking back, it has been a long way: changes in the research landscape, new funding opportunities came out and establishment of new partnerships between Europe, America and Africa. Goals identified in 1997 have not all been achieved because the critical mass of scientists has not been reached yet. However a new generation of African scientists have emerged through MIM/TDR funding and advocacy for more support remains on the agenda. Could it be rightly stated today that the MIM concept reflects the africanization of malaria research? PMID:21144087

  12. Africanizing scientific knowledge: the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria as a model?

    PubMed

    Ntoumi, Francine; Priebe, Gunilla

    2010-12-13

    In November 2009, the fifth Pan African Malaria conference was held in Nairobi. Thirteen years after the founding initiative in Dakar, the first African Secretariat based in Africa (TANZANIA) organized this major event for the malaria community. Looking back, it has been a long way: changes in the research landscape, new funding opportunities came out and establishment of new partnerships between Europe, America and Africa. Goals identified in 1997 have not all been achieved because the critical mass of scientists has not been reached yet. However a new generation of African scientists have emerged through MIM/TDR funding and advocacy for more support remains on the agenda. Could it be rightly stated today that the MIM concept reflects the africanization of malaria research?

  13. An overlooked source of physician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia

    2007-12-01

    A shortage of physician-scientists in the United States is an ongoing problem. Various recommendations have been made to address this issue; however, none of them have ameliorated the situation. Foreign medical school graduates with postdoctoral training in the United States are an overlooked and untapped resource for combating the dearth of physician-scientists. Evaluation of the scientific staff at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center revealed that 11% of all postdoctoral fellows were international medical graduates. Interestingly, a survey taken by these individuals revealed a lack of institutional and/or mentor support for career development and preparation for becoming physician-scientists. Foreign postdoctoral fellows with medical degrees are not even eligible for physician-scientist grants and awards since they are not US citizens. Although physicians educated in the United States usually matriculate from medical school with high educational debt that prevents most of them from entering into scientific careers, doctors trained outside the United States generally have minimal, if any, debt. Furthermore, many of them have a keen interest in remaining in the United States once they complete their postdoctoral training. Thus, foreign-trained medical professionals who have pursued scientific training in the United States can be one of the solutions for the current dearth of physician-scientists.

  14. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p < 0.05). The results suggest that NA students who practise cultural traditions at home are more able to function fluidly between indigenous knowledge and modern western science than their non-practising counterparts. Overall, these NA students do not see themselves as scientists, which may influence their educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  15. The fifth generation computer

    SciTech Connect

    Moto-Oka, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The leader of Japan's Fifth Generation computer project, known as the 'Apollo' project, and a young computer scientist elucidate in this book the process of how the idea came about, international reactions, the basic technology, prospects for realization, and the abilities of the Fifth Generation computer. Topics considered included forecasting, research programs, planning, and technology impacts.

  16. An attractive remedy: Matching scientists with teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.D.

    1994-12-31

    In too many of today`s precollege classrooms, little hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction can be found and much of the content-based science curricula is out of date and irrelevant. We purpose an intervention strategy to renew the science teacher who is unflagging in dedication and commitment. It is a strategy also to revitalize the science teacher clearly flagging, disillusioned, and out of touch. The strategy is to provide teachers with the opportunity to become full-share partners in the scientific community through scientific work experience in a laboratory setting. Characterized by intensive immersion in the day-to-day world of the scientist, the experience frees teachers from their classroom persona and lets them be scientists engaged in uncovering knowledge and solving problems. By matching teachers with scientists in laboratories for extended research experiences, we couple science education with ongoing research.

  17. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-08

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  18. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  19. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  20. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  1. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  2. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  3. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  4. The Evolution of the Data Scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    When did the data scientist come into being? The National Science Board formally defined the term in 2005. Prior to that, the term was used sporadically, but typically to refer to statisticians or analysts. Nevertheless, the data scientist function has existed for a long time. Those who performed the function were called data managers or librarians or curators. Their role with digital data was critical but ill defined and poorly understood, especially by outsiders. Today, the tem data scientist is gaining currency and the discipline is gaining prominence, but it is a very dynamic field. And while it may be better defined, the term is still poorly understood. This lack of understanding can partly be attributed to the dynamic and evolutionary nature of the field. Domain scientists have developed new expectations for technology and services that enhance their ability to handle massive and complex data and present new challenges to data scientists. In response, data scientists are redefining and adapting their role to these rapidly changing demands of data-driven science and the fourth paradigm. In this paper, I explore the recent evolution of the field of data science as a socio-technical discipline. I discuss what has changed as well as what has remained the same and how some things that seem new may be a recasting of old problems. I take the view that data science is necessarily an evolutionary field that will need to continue to adapt in response to known and unknown challenges in order to ensure a healthy data ecosystem.

  5. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  6. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  7. Media and the making of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  8. Why scientists should cooperate with journalists.

    PubMed

    Rensberger, B

    2000-10-01

    Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author's view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly believed among scientists. In fact, the increasing visibility of science in the mass media correlates with a slow, steady improvement in public understanding of science in recent years.

  9. What is a scientist-practitioner anyway?

    PubMed

    Stricker, George

    2002-10-01

    The scientist-practitioner model is the dominant approach to training in clinical psychology, but it is more readily realized in theory than in practice. The articles in this series consider ways to make research more accessible to the practitioner in a realistic and helpful manner, and to allow practitioners to influence the course of research. Many innovative models are described, and they converge on a high value placed on methodological pluralism. Many of the authors, explicitly or implicitly, endorse psychotherapy integration, and also portray a practitioner who bears resemblance to the local clinical scientist.

  10. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  11. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored.

  12. Investigating How the Biographies of Today's Scientists Affect 8th Graders' Scientist Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how a poster study focusing on the biographies of today's scientists affected 8th graders' scientist images. The study utilized a mixed model which combined qualitative and quantitative research techniques. 142 8th graders from a secondary school in Ankara Province Keçiören District participated in the study.…

  13. Images of Science and Scientists: A Study of School Teachers' Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampal, A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines trends in teachers' beliefs about scientists and the nature of science. Discusses teachers' questionnaire responses on the following qualities of scientists: minimum educational qualifications; creativity; temperament; stereotyped image; and personal beliefs about indigenous systems of medicine and astrology. (Contains 63 references.)…

  14. The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered

  15. Mentorship: Strategically Leveling the Playing Field for African American Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-10

    voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).

  16. Accessible microscopy workstation for students and scientists with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Duerstock, Bradley S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for undergraduate science courses to graduate-level research. An accessible microscope is necessary for students and scientists with mobility impairments to be able to use a microscope independently to better understand microscopical imaging concepts and cell biology. This knowledge is not always apparent by simply viewing a catalog of histological images. The ability to operate a microscope independently eliminates the need to hire an assistant or rely on a classmate and permits one to take practical laboratory examinations by oneself. Independent microscope handling is also crucial for graduate students and scientists with disabilities to perform scientific research. By making a personal computer as the user interface for controlling AccessScope functions, different upper limb mobility impairments could be accommodated by using various computer input devices and assistive technology software. Participants with a range of upper limb mobility impairments evaluated the prototype microscopy workstation. They were able to control all microscopy functions including loading different slides without assistance.

  17. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  18. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  19. African science contributes to the fight against cancer in the world: reflections after the 10th AORTIC conference, 18–22nd November 2015, Marrakesh, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, DC

    2016-01-01

    AORTIC (OAREC), the Pan – African organization aiming to unite African scientists in the fight against cancer on the continent, held its 2015 conference in November, in Marrakesh. It was an opportunity to evaluate the progress made, to strengthen scientific collaborations and to draw the future battle lines against cancer on the continent. PMID:26913074

  20. US congressman questions funding for climate scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Supporters of academic freedom have criticized Arizona congressman Raúl Grijalva after he sent letters to US universities requesting information about the sources of funding for research carried out by the minority of scientists who are sceptical of climate change.

  1. New initiative links scientists and entertainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The US National Academy of Sciences has teamed up with Hollywood to improve the quality of science portrayed in films, TV shows and video games. The new Science and Entertainment Exchange (SEE) aims to create better links between entertainment-industry professionals and scientists to improve the credibility of programming related to science.

  2. Biographies of Women Scientists for Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Catherine; Smith, Walter S.

    The participation of women in the physical sciences and engineering woefully lags behind that of men. One significant vehicle by which students learn to identify with various adult roles is through the literature they read. This annotated bibliography lists and describes biographies on women scientists primarily focusing on publications after…

  3. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  4. Russian scientists decry savage job cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-09-01

    More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.

  5. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  6. Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

  7. The Physician-Scientist: An Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legato, Marianne, J.

    1983-01-01

    The number of physician-scientists in training decreased below the recommended level in 1976. Reasons young doctors are not attracted to research training and why these academic physicians are needed are discussed. The demise of the academic medical community will begin an ice age in American medicine. (SR)

  8. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  9. Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

    The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

  10. Philanthropies team up to fund young scientists.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Simons Foundation announced an initiative to support talented, early-career scientists working in biology and biomedical research. They plan to invest $148 million in the program over the next 5 years.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  12. Publication Productivity among Scientists: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Frank

    1983-01-01

    Assesses research productivity through publication among scientists by (1) scrutinizing literature on correlates and determinants of publication productivity; (2) providing an overview and organization of that knowledge; (3) indicating shortcomings in the research; and (4) examining the answered/unanswered questions and issues. Researcher…

  13. Writing for Non-Scientists about Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    Physicists should communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." This article discusses what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from working on my physics…

  14. Does A Scientist Need Foreign Languages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Glenn A.

    1987-01-01

    A scientist asserts that, while foreign language knowledge may not be needed for strictly scientific pursuits, such knowledge is critical in order to empathize with those who are rooted in other cultures and speak other tongues. Foreign language educators must take pride in their mission and carry their message and much-needed knowledge into the…

  15. Career Patterns of Distinguished Male Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Seventy-four male eminent social scientists provided career stage data by which adult development theory was tested. All were born between 1893 and 1903 and met the criteria of a distinguished (and for several still active) scholarly career. The subjects were separated into four groups on the basis of their degree of productivity as of age 60.…

  16. High School Students as Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Edward; And Others

    This paper describes an informal, two-year collaboration of high school students, a teacher, and a psychologist; offered as an optional part of an elective, experimental psychology course. The goal was to help students begin to adopt the perspectives, tools, and research skills of the social scientist. The school has a student body of 2400; more…

  17. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  18. What Scientists Who Study Emotion Agree About.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the field of emotion has grown enormously-recently, nearly 250 scientists were identified who are studying emotion. In this article, I report a survey of the field, which revealed high agreement about the evidence regarding the nature of emotion, supporting some of both Darwin's and Wundt's 19th century proposals. Topics where disagreements remain were also exposed.

  19. Scientist and Engineer Shortage: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Jan F.

    2006-01-01

    With clockwork regularity, the real or perceived shortage of scientists and engineers in the US pops up as a topic of debate in academic and industry circles. Discussions of an imminent shortage have deep impact for education, career prospects, immigration, and "The American Dream." The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it poses a…

  20. Developing the next generation of nurse scientists.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Patricia V; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate nursing research internship program in which students are engaged in research with a faculty mentor. Since 2002, more than 130 undergraduate nursing students have participated. Interns coauthored publications, presented papers and posters at conferences, and received awards. This highly successful program provides a model that can be easily replicated to foster the development of future nurse scientists.

  1. "The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bernard C.

    Although social scientists are often adjured to become more "scientific," they might well remember a phenomenon described by Arthur Lovejoy as "metaphysical pathos" or the set of sentiments with which every theory is associated and which are congruent with the mood or deep lying sentiment of its adherents. Examples from the past include the Social…

  2. Ranking of Scientists: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, B. K.; Pandalai, T. A.; Karanjai, Aruna

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a formula for the ranking of scientists based on diachronous citation counts. Generalizes the fact that the citation-generation potential is not the same for all papers, and states that the proposed method of ranking does not replace peer review, but rather acts as an aid for them. (Author/LRW)

  3. Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

  4. Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

  5. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  6. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping

  7. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  8. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center will host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, and walks of life. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We plan to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of the International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by under-represented minorities in scientific and engineering careers.

  9. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    PubMed

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the "storybook image of the scientist" is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one's own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists' willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science.

  10. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  11. Interdisciplinary Educational Collaborations: Chemistry and Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Ronald S.; Woo, Daniel T.; Hudson, Benjamin T.; Mori, Joji C.; Ngan, Evey S. M.; Pak, Wing-Yee

    2007-01-01

    Research collaborations between chemists and other scientists resulted in significant outcomes such as development of software. Such collaboration provided a realistic learning experience for computer science students.

  12. H3Africa and the African life sciences ecosystem: building sustainable innovation.

    PubMed

    Dandara, Collet; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-12-01

    Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political science

  13. H3Africa and the African Life Sciences Ecosystem: Building Sustainable Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Chirikure, Shadreck; Okpechi, Ikechi; Warnich, Louise; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interest in genomics research in African populations is experiencing exponential growth. This enthusiasm stems in part from the recognition that the genomic diversity of African populations is a window of opportunity for innovations in postgenomics medicine, ecology, and evolutionary biology. The recently launched H3Africa initiative, for example, captures the energy and momentum of this interest. This interdisciplinary socio-technical analysis highlights the challenges that have beset previous genomics research activities in Africa, and looking ahead, suggests constructive ways H3Africa and similar large scale science efforts could usefully chart a new era of genomics and life sciences research in Africa that is locally productive and globally competitive. As independent African scholars and social scientists, we propose that any serious global omics science effort, including H3Africa, aiming to build genomics research capacity and capability in Africa, needs to fund the establishment of biobanks and the genomic analyses platforms within Africa. Equally they need to prioritize community engagement and bioinformatics capability and the training of African scientists on these platforms. Historically, the financial, technological, and skills imbalance between Africa and developed countries has created exploitative frameworks of collaboration where African researchers have become merely facilitators of Western funded and conceived research agendas involving offshore expatriation of samples. Not surprisingly, very little funding was allocated to infrastructure and human capital development in the past. Moving forward, capacity building should materialize throughout the entire knowledge co-production trajectory: idea generation (e.g., brainstorming workshops for innovative hypotheses development by African scientists), data generation (e.g., genome sequencing), and high-throughput data analysis and contextualization. Additionally, building skills for political

  14. From Scientist to Data Scientist: What Students and Educators Need to Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Institutions have found while it is relatively easy to collect large heterogenous datasets, it is often difficult to gain insight from these collections. In response, the career of the data scientist has emerged to acquire, process, and analyze datasets for a wide range of problems. The relatively recent introduction of data scientists and the diversity of the tasks they perform present challenges for educators who want to prepare students for that role. In this contribution, I will describe the skillsets and expertise data scientist candidates should have when searching for a position. I will also discuss how educators should foster these skillsets and expertise in their students.

  15. Retaining clinician-scientists: nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Culican, Susan M; Rupp, Jason D; Margolis, Todd P

    2014-05-27

    In their IOVS article "Rejuvenating Clinician-Scientist Training" (published March 28, 2014), Balamurali Ambati and Judd Cahoon rightly point out the dearth of new clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Within the context of their suggestions for increasing the number of successful clinician-scientists, they claim that the traditional MD-PhD training programs and K awards have failed to produce individuals who will carry on the important work of clinically relevant research that will improve patients' lives and sight. In this response we present data, including information on the career paths of graduates of the Washington University ophthalmology residency, that call into question the presumed failure of MD-PhD and K award programs and show that, in fact, graduates of these programs are more likely to succeed as clinician-scientists than are their peers who have not trained in such scientifically rigorous environments. We propose that, rather than a failure of early training programs, it may be obstacles that arise later in training and among junior faculty that prevent promising careers from reaching maturity. Funding, one rather large obstacle, takes the form of imbalanced start-up monies, less National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding awarded to young investigators, and study section composition that may work against those with clinically driven questions. We also explore the challenges faced in the culture surrounding residency and fellowship training. We agree with Ambati and Cahoon that there needs to be more innovation in the way training programs are structured, but we believe that the evidence supports supplementing the current model rather than scrapping it and starting over with unproven initiatives. The data on training programs supports the contention that those who have already made substantial investment and commitment to the clinician-scientist pathway through participation in MSTP or K training programs are the most likely to succeed on this

  16. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520

  17. LHC Computing

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The LHC is the world’s highest energy particle accelerator and scientists use it to record an unprecedented amount of data. This data is recorded in electronic format and it requires an enormous computational infrastructure to convert the raw data into conclusions about the fundamental rules that govern matter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln gives us a sense of just how much data is involved and the incredible computer resources that makes it all possible.

  18. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  19. Trials and tribulations of an African-led research and capacity development programme: the case for EDCTP investments.

    PubMed

    Zumla, A; Huggett, J; Dheda, K; Green, C; Kapata, N; Mwaba, P

    2010-04-01

    We describe the initiation and establishment of The University of Zambia - University College London Medical School (UNZA-UCLMS) Research and Training Project, an entirely African scientist-led, south-north partnership. In its 16 year existence, the project, by successfully obtaining competitive grant funding, has transformed itself into one of Africa's most productive African-led R&D programmes with training and visible research outputs. The project serves as a role model and now networks R&D and training activities with six southern African (10 institutions) and six European countries. This project case study illustrates that deep commitment is essential for success and that the factors which facilitate success in R&D in Africa need to be evaluated. The long-term prospects for sustaining the UNZA-UCLMS Project appear bright and are dependent on several factors: the ability to retain trained African scientists; obtaining continued competitive or donor grant funding support; and serious investment by the African governments involved. The recent 255 million Euros EDCTP investment in sub-Saharan Africa through south-north partnerships is expected to enhance existing African-led R&D programmes. African governments and scientists must rise to the challenge.

  20. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  2. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    PubMed

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  3. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  4. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  5. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2002-01-01

    The long-term goal of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) is to recruit the highest quality visiting scientists in the ice research community for the broad purpose of strengthening the relationship between the operational and research communities in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research supports the scientific community by creating, conducting, and coordinating projects that strengthen education and research in the atmospheric, oceanic and earth sciences. UCAR accomplishes this mission by building partnerships that are national or global in scope. The goal of UCAR is to enable researchers and educators to take on issues and activities that require the combined and collaborative capabilities of a broadly engaged scientific community.

  6. Collective Computation of Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    Sciences, Beijing ABSTRACT Computational neuroscience is a new branch of neuroscience originating from current research on the theory of computer...scientists working in artificial intelligence engineering and neuroscience . The paper introduces the collective computational properties of model neural...vision research. On this basis, the authors analyzed the significance of the Hopfield model. Key phrases: Computational Neuroscience , Neural Network, Model

  7. The flip side: scientists who rock.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Many scientists play music. I'm one. I'm the rhythm guitar player, song writer, and singer in The Amygdaloids. We play original music about mind and brain and mental disorders. The songs are inspired by research that I do, as well as general ideas in the brain and cognitive sciences, and the philosophy of mind. For me, playing music is not a distraction to other life obligations. It makes me better at everything else I do.

  8. Credentialing Data Scientists: A Domain Repository Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Furukawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    A career in data science can have many paths: data curation, data analysis, metadata modeling - all of these in different commercial or scientific applications. Can a certification as 'data scientist' provide the guarantee that an applicant or candidate for a data science position has just the right skills? How valuable is a 'generic' certification as data scientist for an employer looking to fill a data science position? Credentials that are more specific and discipline-oriented may be more valuable to both the employer and the job candidate. One employment sector for data scientists are the data repositories that provide discipline-specific data services for science communities. Data science positions within domain repositories include a wide range of responsibilities in support of the full data life cycle - from data preservation and curation to development of data models, ontologies, and user interfaces, to development of data analysis and visualization tools to community education and outreach, and require a substantial degree of discipline-specific knowledge of scientific data acquisition and analysis workflows, data quality measures, and data cultures. Can there be certification programs for domain-specific data scientists that help build the urgently needed workforce for the repositories? The American Geophysical Union has recently started an initiative to develop a program for data science continuing education and data science professional certification for the Earth and space sciences. An Editorial Board has been charged to identify and develop curricula and content for these programs and to provide input and feedback in the implementation of the program. This presentation will report on the progress of this initiative and evaluate its utility for the needs of domain repositories in the Earth and space sciences.

  9. Plant biotechnology. Italian scientists blast GMO restrictions.

    PubMed

    Frank, L

    2000-12-15

    While plant scientists around the world celebrate the complete sequence of the genome of the mustardlike plant Arabidopsis thaliana (see p. 2054), embattled colleagues in Italy are protesting new rules that bar all field trials involving genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The researchers hope to turn the prevailing tide by bringing their plight to the attention of colleagues around the world and exerting pressure on their government through a petition drive.

  10. Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships: Reimagining Scientists in the Classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Terwilliger, Michael; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships Team

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our work to reimagine Teacher-Scientist partnerships to improve relationships and outcomes. We describe our work in implementing Teacher-Scientist partnerships that are expanded to include a communicator, and the learners themselves, as genuine members of the partnership. Often times in Teacher-Scientist partnerships, the scientist can often become more easily described as a special guest into the classroom, rather than a genuine partner in the learning experience. We design programs that take the expertise of the teacher and the scientist fully into account to develop practical and meaningful partnerships, that are further enhanced by using an expert in communications to develop rich experiences for and with the learners. The communications expert may be from a broad base of backgrounds depending on the needs and desires of the partners -- the communicators include, for example: public speaking gurus; journalists; web and graphic designers; and American Sign Language interpreters. Our partnership programs provide online support and professional development for all parties. Outcomes of the program are evaluated in terms of not only learning outcomes for the students, but also attitude, behavior, and relationship outcomes for the teachers, scientists, communicators and learners alike.

  11. Scientists in the public sphere: Interactions of scientists and journalists in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa; Peters, Hans P

    2016-06-07

    In order to map scientists' views on media channels and explore their experiences interacting with journalists, the authors conducted a survey of about 1,000 Brazilian scientists. Results indicate that scientists have clear and high expectations about how journalists should act in reporting scientific information in the media, but such expectations, in their opinion, do not always seem to be met. Nonetheless, the results show that surveyed scientists rate their relation with the media positively: 67% say that having their research covered by media has a positive impact on their colleagues. One quarter of the respondents expressed that talking to the media can facilitate acquisition of more funds for research. Moreover, 38% of the total respondents believe that writing about an interesting topic for release on media channels can also facilitate research publication in a scientific journal. However, 15% of the respondents outright agree that research reported in the media beforehand can threaten acceptance for publication by a scientific journal. We hope that these results can foster some initiatives for improving awareness of the two cultures, scientists and journalists; increasing the access of journalists to Brazilian scientific endeavors; stimulating scientists to communicate with the public via social networks.

  12. Women scientists in Taiwan: an update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel Floyd

    2010-06-01

    This paper reflects upon issues of gender and science in Taiwan. Its starting point is the first academic paper on the subject published in Taiwan in 1996 by Fu and Wang, and then it draws upon the biographical accounts of 20 women scientists. We emphasize the importance of focusing on the specific contexts of the history of science and women in Taiwan. Partly as a result of Taiwan's colonial past and women's limited access to education, women scientists did not emerge in Taiwan until the second half of the 20(th) century when higher education became available to women. The gender issues with which women scientists in Taiwan have had to cope include the ways in which women have been excluded or included, their marital and career status, the local and global politics of scientific knowledge, and negotiating social networks. These issues have remained largely the same since the Fu and Wang study, but they have certainly gained wider attention and understanding, and greater articulation, both within academia and society.

  13. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  14. Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-29

    To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  16. Biography Today: Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers. Scientists & Inventors Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.

    This book, a special volume focusing on computer-related scientists and inventors, provides 12 biographical profiles of interest to readers ages 9 and above. The Biography Today series was created to appeal to young readers in a format they can enjoy reading and readily understand. Each entry provides at least one picture of the individual…

  17. The Draw a Scientist Test: A Different Population and a Somewhat Different Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark D.; Henley, Tracy B.; Snell, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined Draw-a-Scientist-Test (DAST) images solicited from 212 undergraduate students for the presence of traditional gender stereotypes. Participants were 100 males and 112 females enrolled in psychology or computer science courses with a mean age of 21.02 years. A standard multiple regression generated a model that accounts for the…

  18. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  19. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  20. Evolutionary Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Cui, Xiaohui; Jiao, Yu; Potok, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    The rate at which information overwhelms humans is significantly more than the rate at which humans have learned to process, analyze, and leverage this information. To overcome this challenge, new methods of computing must be formulated, and scientist and engineers have looked to nature for inspiration in developing these new methods. Consequently, evolutionary computing has emerged as new paradigm for computing, and has rapidly demonstrated its ability to solve real-world problems where traditional techniques have failed. This field of work has now become quite broad and encompasses areas ranging from artificial life to neural networks. This chapter focuses specifically on two sub-areas of nature-inspired computing: Evolutionary Algorithms and Swarm Intelligence.

  1. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities.

  2. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    PubMed Central

    Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Hartgerink, Chris H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the scientist” is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one’s own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists’ willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science. PMID:28001440

  3. Human genome and the african personality: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Mickel, Elijah; Miller, Sheila D

    2011-01-01

    The integration of the human genome with the African personality should be viewed as an interdependent whole. The African personality, for purposes of this article, comprises Black experiences, Negritude, and an Africa-centered axiology and epistemology. The outcome results in a spiritual focused collective consciousness. Anthropologically, historically (and with the Human Genome Project), genetically Africa has proven to be the source of all human life. Human kind wherever they exist on the planet using the African personality must be viewed as interconnected. Although racism and its progeny discrimination preexist the human genome project (HGP), the human genome provides an evidence-based rationale for the end to all policy and subsequent practice based on race and racism. Policy must be based on evidence to be competent practice. It would be remiss if not irresponsible of social work and the other behavioral scientist concerned with intervention and prevention behaviors to not infuse the findings of the HCPs. The African personality is a concept that provides a wholistic way to evaluate human behavior from an African worldview.

  4. Computational chemistry at Janssen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  5. Computational chemistry at Janssen.

    PubMed

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-19

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  6. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Alice

    2008-05-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center is hoping to host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, walks of life, and branches of science. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We hope to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by underrepresented minorities in scientific and engineering careers. In this session I will present our preliminary plan for creating the photographs and working with the Discovery Corps youth, which will be available to other institutions interested in creating a similar project. I will also present more detail on the distribution plan for the photographs, so interested members and institutions can discuss contributing images to the project, or learn how they could receive copies of the photographs during IYA and beyond.

  7. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school science curriculum reform to promote scientific innovation and inquiry through an integration of advanced science and technology in high school science curricula through partnership between high school teachers and higher education scientists and science educators. This study, as part of this governmental effort, a scientist-teacher collaborative model (STCM) was constructed by 8 scientists and 4 teachers to drive an 18-week high school science curriculum reform on environmental education in a public high school. Partnerships between scientists and teachers offer opportunities to strengthen the elements of effective science teaching identified by Shulman and ultimately affect students' learning. Mixed methods research was used for this study. Qualitative methods of interviews were used to understand the impact on the teachers' and scientists' science teaching. A quasi-experimental design was used to understand the impact on students' scientific competency and scientific interest. The findings in this study suggest that the use of the STCM had a medium effect on students' scientific competency and a large effect on students' scientific individual and situational interests. In the interviews, the teachers indicated how the STCM allowed them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the scientists indicated an increased knowledge of learners, knowledge of curriculum, and PCK.

  8. The Virtual Scientist: connecting university scientists to the K-12 classroom through videoconferencing.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Glenn B; Ufnar, Jennifer A; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2007-03-01

    The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as research faculty members, clinicians, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students, and professional staff, participate through conventional volunteer recruitment and program announcements as well as outreach partnership efforts with other Vanderbilt centers. These experts present 30- to 45-min long, grade-appropriate content sessions from the CSO IVC studio or their own laboratory. Teachers register for sessions via an on-line application process. After the session, teachers, students, and experts are requested to complete an anonymous on-line evaluation that addresses both technical- and content-associated issues. Results from 2003 to the present indicated a favorable assessment for a promising program. Results showed that 69% of students (n = 335) and 88% of teachers (n = 111) felt that IVC improved access to scientists, whereas 97% of students (n = 382) and teachers (n = 126) and 100% of scientists (n = 23) indicated that they would participate in future videoconferences. Students and teachers considered that the Virtual Scientist program was effective [76% (n = 381) and 89% (n = 127), respectively]. In addition, experts supported IVC as effective in teaching [87% (n = 23)]. Because of the favorable responses from experts, teachers, and students, the CSO will continue to implement IVC as a tool to foster interactions of scientists with K-12 classrooms.

  9. Working with Scientists Who Interact with Public Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, D.; Witzel, L.; Gurton, S.; McCann, S. E.

    2015-11-01

    President Obama has called for all STEM-based federal employees to share their expertise and passion with the public. Alan Leshner, Executive Director of AAAS, has advocated the same for all scientists. But what are the best ways to prepare scientists as effective science communicators? How do scientists find resources to become better science communicators? How do scientists connect with other scientists interested in education and outreach? This panel, with representatives from an informal science education institution, a university, and a professional association, offered insights to answer these questions from their experience of working with scientists engaged with public audiences.

  10. Inductive Queries for a Drug Designing Robot Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ross D.; Schierz, Amanda; Clare, Amanda; Rowland, Jem; Sparkes, Andrew; Nijssen, Siegfried; Ramon, Jan

    It is increasingly clear that machine learning algorithms need to be integrated in an iterative scientific discovery loop, in which data is queried repeatedly by means of inductive queries and where the computer provides guidance to the experiments that are being performed. In this chapter, we summarise several key challenges in achieving this integration of machine learning and data mining algorithms in methods for the discovery of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs). We introduce the concept of a robot scientist, in which all steps of the discovery process are automated; we discuss the representation of molecular data such that knowledge discovery tools can analyse it, and we discuss the adaptation of machine learning and data mining algorithms to guide QSAR experiments.

  11. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound

  12. Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Douglass, Kimberly; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Wu, Lei; Read, Eleanor; Manoff, Maribeth; Frame, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data

  13. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  14. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IAVCEI SubcommitteeCrisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Barry; Newhall, Chris

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  15. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Wimpy

    1999-01-01

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  16. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  17. Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

  18. Pragmatism: a practical philosophy for environmental scientists.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Challenges to the credibility of the scientific community make it particularly important for environmental scientists to understand the bases for the authority of their science. We argue that pragmatism provides a defensible and effective scientific philosophy. It provides a transparent basis for justifying belief and a set of practices and concepts for inference. It makes the scientific community the author of scientific truth, which has implications for the opening of science in the age of social media and the communication of consensus positions on important issues. We describe how pragmatism acknowledges the social aspect of science without losing the scientific tradition of critical thinking.

  19. New visiting scientists in NSF's Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Ian

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Earth Sciences has hired two new rotators to serve as program directors, as part of the ongoing visiting scientists program. The new directors are Jonathan Fink in Geochemistry and Petrology, and L. Douglas James in Hydrological Sciences.Fink has exchanged roles for 1 year with NSF's John Snyder, who is on sabbatical at Arizona State University. Fink's current research includes studies of how the Theological properties of magma govern the emplacement of volcanic domes and lava flows, and the gravitational control on their mass movements. This research extends to the mechanisms of igneous intrusion and interpretation of volcanic features in extraterrestrial and submarine environments.

  20. Scientists share breakthroughs in karst systems research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Janet S.

    An international symposium on Breakthroughs in Karst Geomicrobiology and Redox Geochemistry held in Colorado Springs in February 1994 allowed scientists to cross traditional disciplinary boundaries to discuss the role of microorganisms in karst processes. Through 3 days of oral, poster, and field sessions, the 110 participants explored the mechanisms of the complex interactive biological, chemical, and physical processes acting in karst, a landscape dominated by soluble carbonate rocks and underlain by dissolution features such as caves. The meeting was organized by the Karst Waters Institute with funding from the National Science Foundation and in cooperation with the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs.

  1. Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation

    ScienceCinema

    Negri, Cristina

    2016-07-12

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

  2. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  3. Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including

  4. Dealing with the Data Scientist Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hart; Troy Hiltbrand

    2014-06-01

    Few areas in the economy have generated as much attention as big data and advanced analytics in recent years due to its potential of revolutionizing the way that business function in the coming years. One of the major challenges that organizations face in implementing analytics that have the potential of providing them a competitive advantage in the market is that of finding the elusive data scientist needed to execute on big data strategy. This article addresses what some business are doing to bridge that gap between vision and reality.

  5. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  6. Status of pharmaceuticals in African water bodies: Occurrence, removal and analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Tavengwa, Nikita Tawanda; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-02-18

    In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism. Therefore, large amounts of pharmaceuticals are being discharged continuously from wastewater treatment plants into African rivers due to inefficiency of employed sewage treatment processes. Large portions of African communities do not even have proper sanitation systems which results in direct contamination of water resources with human waste that contains pharmaceutical constituents among other pollutants. Therefore, this article provides the overview of the recent studies published, mostly from 2012 to 2016, that have focused on the occurrence of different classes of pharmaceuticals in African aqueous systems. Also, the current analytical methods that are being used in Africa for pharmaceutical quantification in environmental waters are highlighted. African Scientists have started to investigate the materials and remediation processes for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from water.

  7. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  8. Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163262.html Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo One goal of this stem cell research is ... have successfully used human stem cells to create embryos that are part-human, part-pig. Scientists said ...

  9. Meet EPA Scientist Mehdi S. Hazari, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Mehdi S. Hazari is a recipient of the 2011 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. This award was for his work demonstrating how breathing in low levels of air pollutants can increase susceptibility to heart attacks

  10. EPA Scientists Receive Highest Honor from the White House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - President Obama has named two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientists as recipients of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award, which is being given to EPA's Dr. Alex Marten and

  11. Interview With Steve Platts, Lead Scientist, Cardiovascular Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Steven Platts, a lead scientist for cardiovascular research at the Johnson Space Center where scientists are studying the effects of long-duration...

  12. Interview With Stuart Lee, Lead Scientist, Cardiovascular Lab

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Stuart Lee, one of the lead scientists for the Cardiovascular Lab at the Johnson Space Center where scientists are studying the effects of long-du...

  13. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  14. A data model for environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapeljushnik, O.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental science encompasses a wide range of disciplines from water chemistry to microbiology, ecology and atmospheric sciences. Studies often require working across disciplines which differ in their ways of describing and storing data such that it is not possible to devise a monolithic one-size-fits-all data solution. Based on our experiences with Consortium of the Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Observations Data Model, Berkeley Water Center FLUXNET carbon-climate work and by examining standards like EPA's Water Quality Exchange (WQX), we have developed a flexible data model that allows extensions without need to altering the schema such that scientists can define custom metadata elements to describe their data including observations, analysis methods as well as sensors and geographical features. The data model supports various types of observations including fixed point and moving sensors, bottled samples, rasters from remote sensors and models, and categorical descriptions (e.g. taxonomy) by employing user-defined-types when necessary. It leverages ADO .NET Entity Framework to provide the semantic data models for differing disciplines, while maintaining a common schema below the entity layer. This abstraction layer simplifies data retrieval and manipulation by hiding the logic and complexity of the relational schema from users thus allows programmers and scientists to deal directly with objects such as observations, sensors, watersheds, river reaches, channel cross-sections, laboratory analysis methods and samples as opposed to table joins, columns and rows.

  15. Reanalyzing Tropical Cyclone Intensities with Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, C. J.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K.; Stevens, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive weather phenomena. Whenever possible, the intensities of these storms have been determined from in situ data or aircraft reconnaissance. More often, however, they are estimated subjectively from satellite data using the Dvorak technique. Heterogeneities are introduced into the historical record with the evolution of operational procedures, personnel, and observing platforms. In some cases, multiple agencies even arrive at different estimates for the same storm. These uncertainties impede our ability to identify the relationship between tropical cyclone intensities and climate change. NOAA's NCDC has produced a 30-year (1979-2008) homogeneous dataset (HURSAT) of tropical cyclone imagery from geostationary satellites. This dataset has the potential to address some of the uncertainties in the recent tropical cyclone record. However, it would take nearly 40 years for a trained expert, working nonstop, to apply the Dvorak technique to all 200,000 images. Harnessing the power of thousands of Citizen Scientists, the same task can be completed in a matter of months. This presentation will explain how the Dvorak technique was adapted for Citizen Scientists, and how their skill will be evaluated relative to the operational analyses by trained experts.

  16. Don't Be Such a Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.

    2006-12-01

    Academics are bad enough at communication. Science academics are worse. They think too much, they don't care about their image, they assume audiences cherish every word they say, and when the general public fails to embrace them, they blame it on the audience. This is the message of my recent documentary feature film, "Flock of Dodos: the evolution-intelligent design circus." I'm not alone with this message -- others are saying it as well. The world has changed. We live in a new media environment, and changed environments bring about new selective forces. Academic scientists are being challenged as never before, as documented in part in Chris Mooney's bestselling book, "The Republican War on Science." And they must now consider whether they need to adapt, or run the risk of going the way of the dodo. In this talk I will offer up my ten suggestions on how to more effectively reach a broader audience, and then wait for all the scientists to tell me I'm wrong.

  17. Kristian Birkeland, The First Space Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, A.; Burke, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell's newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland's ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth's atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway's largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demonstrate what we now call the solar wind, Birkeland moved to Egypt in 1913. Isolated from his friends by the Great War, Birkeland yearned to celebrate his 50th birthday in Norway. The only safe passage home, via the Far East, brought him to Tokyo where in the late spring of 1917 he passed away. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-10100-22-39144987-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

  18. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the work done by Dr. Kim Partington were to manage NASA's polar research program, including its strategic direction, research funding and interagency and international collaborations. The objectives of the UCAR Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) are to: (1) Manage a visiting scientist program for the NIC Science Center in support of the mission of the NIC; (2) Provide a pool of researchers who will share expertise with the NIC and the science community; (3) Facilitate communications between the research and operational communities for the purpose of identifying work ready for validation and transition to an operational environment; and (4) Act as a focus for interagency cooperation. The NIC mission is to provide worldwide operational sea ice analyses and forecasts for the armed forces of the US and allied nations, the Departments of Commerce and Transportation, and other US Government and international agencies, and the civil sector. The NIC produces these analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions to support customers with global, regional, and tactical scale interests. The NIC regularly deploys Naval Ice Center NAVICECEN Ice Reconnaissance personnel to the Arctic and Antarctica in order to perform aerial ice observation and analysis in support of NIC customers. NIC ice data are a key part of the US contribution to international global climate and ocean observing systems.

  19. REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-05-01

    This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

  20. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  1. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists.

  2. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World12

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists. PMID:27180382

  3. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  4. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  5. Investigation of the Secondary School Students' Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Abuzer

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to explore secondary school students' images of scientists. In addition to this comprehensive purpose, it is also investigated that if these students' current images of scientists and those in which they see themselves as a scientist in the near future are consistent or not. The study was designed in line with…

  6. Turkish Elementary and Secondary Students' Views about Science and Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine elementary and secondary students' views concerning science and scientists. Data gathered from Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and essays written by students were used to analyze their views. The study involved 359 students in grades 5 through 11. The results indicate that student's perceived scientists as to be…

  7. Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences That Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists.…

  8. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any product in which he is directly or indirectly...

  9. Reaching Out to the Next Generation of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudio, Luz

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for research scientists to come out of their labs and establish links with communities and the need for scientists of color who can better gain access to the communities most often affected by problems such as environmental hazards. Describes ways to encourage this reaching out and breaking of stereotypes about scientists among…

  10. Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

  11. Mathematical computer programs: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Computer programs, routines, and subroutines for aiding engineers, scientists, and mathematicians in direct problem solving are presented. Also included is a group of items that affords the same users greater flexibility in the use of software.

  12. Fibonacci Numbers and Computer Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, John; Geist, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The Fibonacci Sequence describes a vast array of phenomena from nature. Computer scientists have discovered and used many algorithms which can be classified as applications of Fibonacci's sequence. In this article, several of these applications are considered. (PK)

  13. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  14. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  15. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  16. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors That Impact the Retention and Completion of African-American Male and Female High School Students in the Pre-Engineering Program: Project Lead the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Patrice Tolbert

    2012-01-01

    African Americans have a long and very important history in the engineering fields. With a tradition that includes accomplished scientists such as George Washington Carver, Norman Buknor, and Mark Dean, African Americans have been very important to the development of new products, technology, inventions, and innovations (Gordon, 2008). The…

  17. Engaging Students and Scientists through ROV Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zande, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center's network of regional and national remotely operated vehicle (ROV) competitions for students provide a unique and exciting way for the scientific community to get involved in education and outreach and meet broader impact requirements. From Hawaii to New England, MATE's ROV competitions also facilitate collaborations among the scientific community, professional societies, government agencies, business and industry, and public aquaria. Since 2001, the MATE Center and organizations such as the Marine Technology Society (MTS), NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration, and the Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, among others, have challenged 1,000+ students to design and build ROVs for underwater tasks based on science and exploration missions taking place in the real world. From the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), more than 60 scientists, engineers, and their organizations have supported the students participating in these events and, in doing so, have contributed to E&O and increased the awareness and impact of their work. What does it take to get involved with this E&O effort? That depends on the time, technical expertise, facilities, equipment, building materials, and/or funds that you can afford to contribute. Examples of how scientists and their institutions have and continue to support MATE's ROV competitions include: -Serving as technical advisors, judges, and competition-day technical assistants. -Sharing time and technical expertise as mentors. -Providing access to facilities and equipment. -Donating building materials and supplies. -Hosting the event at your institution. In addition to helping you to become involved in E&O and meet broader impact requirements, benefits to you include: -Exposing yourself to technologies that could support your science. -Getting ideas for creative and inexpensive solutions to challenges that you may face

  18. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  19. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  20. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  1. Developing School-Scientist Partnerships: Lessons for Scientists from Forests-of-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry; Trewern, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concept of partnerships between schools and practicing scientists came to prominence in the United States in the mid 1980s. The call by government for greater private sector involvement in education to raise standards in science achievement saw a variety of programmes developed, ranging from short-term sponsorships through to longer-term,…

  2. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school…

  3. Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach: Tools for Scientist Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Meinke, B. K.; Hsu, B.; Shupla, C.; Grier, J. A.; E/PO Community, SMD

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community through a coordinated effort to enhance the coherence and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present tools and resources to support astronomers’ engagement in E/PO efforts. Among the tools designed specifically for scientists are a series of one-page E/PO-engagement Tips and Tricks guides, a sampler of electromagnetic-spectrum-related activities, and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker). Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org), and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share teaching resources for the undergraduate Earth and space sciences classroom. Learn more about the opportunities to become involved in E/PO and to share your science with students, educators, and the general public at http://smdepo.org.

  4. What Scientists Say: Scientists' Views of Nature of Science and Relation to Science Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Renee; Lederman, Norman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine practicing scientists' views of nature of science (NOS) and explore possible relationships between these views and science context. Science educators emphasize teaching NOS through inquiry-based learning experiences throughout science disciplines. Yet aspects of NOS that are agreed upon as relevant to…

  5. Using Videoconferencing in a School-Scientist Partnership: Students' Perceptions and Scientists' Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    This research studied a series of videoconference teaching workshops and virtual labs, which formed a component of a school-scientist partnership involving a New Zealand science research institute and year 13 students at a Wellington high school. It explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the videoconferences as an interactive…

  6. Involving Research Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S.; Andrews, E.; Laursen, S.

    2001-12-01

    A recurring question arises when discussing scientist roles in K-14 education: "How can we encourage scientists to engage in these opportunities?". The Outreach Program of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is very concerned with this question as we strive to involve CIRES research scientists and science in education. Lessons learned through NSF-supported social science research conducted at CIRES will be described, such as factors that are important in recruiting and retaining scientist involvement, factors that hinder scientist involvement, and implications for project design. Examples will be drawn from diverse CIRES projects, including education projects initiated through sponsored geoscience research.

  7. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  8. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  9. African Literature: Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Martin O.; Waters, Harold A.

    This bibliography of resources for the teaching of African literature includes over 100 citations of books, textbooks, anthologies, plays, novels, short stories, and periodicals in French and English. Publishing house addresses, audiovisual aids, professional organizations, and a course list are also cited. The books are listed under the following…

  10. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  11. Strategic career planning for physician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu

    2015-05-01

    Building a successful professional career in the physician-scientist realm is rewarding but challenging, especially in the dynamic and competitive environment of today's modern society. This educational review aims to provide readers with five important career development lessons drawn from the business and social science literatures. Lessons 1-3 describe career strategy, with a focus on promoting one's strengths while minimizing fixing one's weaknesses (Lesson 1); effective time management in the pursuit of long-term goals (Lesson 2); and the intellectual flexibility to abandon/modify previously made decisions while embracing emerging opportunities (Lesson 3). Lesson 4 explains how to maximize the alternative benefits of English-language fluency (i.e., functions such as signaling and cognition-enhancing capabilities). Finally, Lesson 5 discusses how to enjoy happiness and stay motivated in a harsh, zero-sum game society.

  12. Susan Lindquist: Visionary scientist and peerless mentor.

    PubMed

    Bevis, Brooke J

    2017-01-02

    The science universe is dimmer after one of our brightest stars, Susan Lee Lindquist, was taken by cancer on October 27, 2016. Sue was an innovative, creative, out-of-the-box scientific thinker. She had unique biological intuition-an instinct for both the way things worked and the right questions to ask to uncover new research insights. Her wide-ranging career began with the study of protein folding and molecular chaperones, and she went on to show that protein folding can have profound and unexpected biological effects on such diverse processes as cancer, evolution, and neurodegenerative disease. As Sue's laboratory manager, I would like to offer a ground-floor perspective on what made her an exceptional scientist, mentor, and leader. She created a harmonious, collegial environment where collaborative synergy fueled meaningful progress that will impact science for decades to come.

  13. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  14. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  15. Scientists' Letter Supports Climate Change Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, Kaitlin

    2010-03-01

    Recent media coverage about climate change has focused on errors in the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and other concerns. In light of this media coverage, an open letter sent on 12 March to members of the U.S. Congress and various U.S. federal agencies in support of the IPCC has been signed (at Eos press time) by more than 250 U.S. scientists. The letter lays out the IPCC process and also examines climate science findings since the publication of AR4. “Our goal with this letter is to demonstrate the strong support that exists within the scientific community for the IPCC and its main findings,” Gary Yohe of Wesleyan University noted in a press release issued about the letter.

  16. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  17. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  18. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  19. Cell scientist to watch--Melina Schuh.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Melina; Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Melina Schuh received her diploma degree in biochemistry from the University of Bayreuth, Germany, where she completed her Diploma thesis with Stefan Heidmann and Christian Lehner. She went on to do her PhD with Jan Ellenberg at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. In 2009, after a bridging postdoc with Jan, Melina started her own group at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK. Since January 2016, she is a Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany, and will establish a new department focussing on meiosis. She is an EMBO Young Investigator and a recipient of the 2014 Lister Institute Research Prize, the 2014 Biochemical Society Early Career Award and the 2015 John Kendrew Young Scientist Award. Her lab is studying meiosis in mammalian oocytes, including human oocytes.

  20. Scientists assess impact of Indonesia fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The fires burning in Indonesia over the past several months are setting aflame the biomass and wildlife habitat of the tropical forests, spreading a dangerously unhealthy haze across the populous country and nearby nations in southeast Asia, causing transportation hazards, and sending plumes of smoke up into the troposphere.Most of the fires have been set—by big landowners, commercial loggers, and small farmers—in attempts to clear and cultivate the land, as people have done in the past. But this year a drought induced by El Niño limited the rainfall that could help extinguish the flames and wash away the smoke and haze. In addition, some scientists say that smoke could even delay the monsoon, which usually arrives in early November.

  1. Flexible workflow sharing and execution services for e-scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacsuk, Péter; Terstyanszky, Gábor; Kiss, Tamas; Sipos, Gergely

    2013-04-01

    The sequence of computational and data manipulation steps required to perform a specific scientific analysis is called a workflow. Workflows that orchestrate data and/or compute intensive applications on Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs) recently became standard tools in e-science. At the same time the broad and fragmented landscape of workflows and DCIs slows down the uptake of workflow-based work. The development, sharing, integration and execution of workflows is still a challenge for many scientists. The FP7 "Sharing Interoperable Workflow for Large-Scale Scientific Simulation on Available DCIs" (SHIWA) project significantly improved the situation, with a simulation platform that connects different workflow systems, different workflow languages, different DCIs and workflows into a single, interoperable unit. The SHIWA Simulation Platform is a service package, already used by various scientific communities, and used as a tool by the recently started ER-flow FP7 project to expand the use of workflows among European scientists. The presentation will introduce the SHIWA Simulation Platform and the services that ER-flow provides based on the platform to space and earth science researchers. The SHIWA Simulation Platform includes: 1. SHIWA Repository: A database where workflows and meta-data about workflows can be stored. The database is a central repository to discover and share workflows within and among communities . 2. SHIWA Portal: A web portal that is integrated with the SHIWA Repository and includes a workflow executor engine that can orchestrate various types of workflows on various grid and cloud platforms. 3. SHIWA Desktop: A desktop environment that provides similar access capabilities than the SHIWA Portal, however it runs on the users' desktops/laptops instead of a portal server. 4. Workflow engines: the ASKALON, Galaxy, GWES, Kepler, LONI Pipeline, MOTEUR, Pegasus, P-GRADE, ProActive, Triana, Taverna and WS-PGRADE workflow engines are already

  2. An example of woman scientist in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A.

    2002-12-01

    Although the presence of women in sciences has been increasing in the past few decades in Europe, it remains incredibly low at the top levels. Recent statistics from the European Commission indicate that now women represent 50 per cent of first degree students in many countries. However, the proportion of women at each stage of the scientific career decreases almost linearly, reaching less than 10 per cent at the highest level jobs. From my own experience, I don't think that this results from sexism nor discrimination. Rather, I think that this is a result of complex cultural factors making women subconsciously persuaded that top level jobs are destined to male scientists only. Many women scientists drop the idea of playing a role at high-level research, considering it is a way of exerting power (a matter reserved to men). Others give up the possibility of combining childcare and high level commitments in research. And too many (married women) still find only natural to sacrifice their own scientific ambitions to the benefit of their spouse's career. In this poster, I briefly present my personal experience. I chose to prioritize scientific productivity and expertise versus hierarchical responsibilities. Besides I tried to keep a satisfactory balance between family demand and research involvement. This was indeed facilitated by the French system, which provides substantial support to women's work (nurseries, recreation centers during school holidays, etc.). To my point of view, the most promising way of increasing the number of women at top levels in research is through education and mentality evolution

  3. Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to

  4. Long live the Data Scientist, but can he/she persist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the fourth paradigm of data intensive science has slowly taken hold as the increased capacity of instruments and an increasing number of instruments (in particular sensor networks) have changed how fundamental research is undertaken. Most modern scientific research is about digital capture of data direct from instruments, processing it by computers, storing the results on computers and only publishing a small fraction of data in hard copy publications. At the same time, the rapid increase in capacity of supercomputers, particularly at petascale, means that far larger data sets can be analysed and to greater resolution than previously possible. The new cloud computing paradigm which allows distributed data, software and compute resources to be linked by seamless workflows, is creating new opportunities in processing of high volumes of data to an increasingly larger number of researchers. However, to take full advantage of these compute resources, data sets for analysis have to be aggregated from multiple sources to create high performance data sets. These new technology developments require that scientists must become more skilled in data management and/or have a higher degree of computer literacy. In almost every science discipline there is now an X-informatics branch and a computational X branch (eg, Geoinformatics and Computational Geoscience): both require a new breed of researcher that has skills in both the science fundamentals and also knowledge of some ICT aspects (computer programming, data base design and development, data curation, software engineering). People that can operate in both science and ICT are increasingly known as 'data scientists'. Data scientists are a critical element of many large scale earth and space science informatics projects, particularly those that are tackling current grand challenges at an international level on issues such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development of our natural resources

  5. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students’ Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    PubMed Central

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856

  6. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class.

    PubMed

    Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms.

  7. Enhancing collaboration between China and African countries for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Qing; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Bergquist, Robert; Sacko, Moussa; Utzinger, Jürg; Lin, Dan-Dan; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-Zhu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue, with a large number of cases reported across sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. China was once highly endemic, but has made substantial progress and is moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis. Meanwhile, despite long-term, repeated, school-based chemotherapy in many African countries, more than 90% of all schistosomiasis cases are concentrated in Africa, and hence, this continent constitutes the key challenge for schistosomiasis control. Opportunities and issues for international collaboration in the fight against schistosomiasis are outlined with a focus on China's experiences, including the role of public health authorities and intersectoral collaboration, use of new and effective snail control approaches and diagnostic tools adapted to the specific stage of control, as well as the strengthening of risk mapping and surveillance-response mechanisms. Training courses targeting African governmental officials and professionals, coupled with field visits of African scientists and control programme managers to China, and vice versa, are considered important for improved schistosomiasis control and elimination. The crucial question remains whether the Chinese experience can be translated and applied in African countries to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and scale-up.

  8. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers.

  9. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  10. How do middle school students depict science and scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsoulin, Walter B., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions that middle school students have of science and scientists. The study described focused on the gender, race, and socioeconomic status of subjects and their depictions of science and scientists. The Draw A Scientist Test Checklist (DAST-C), developed by Beaver, Crammond, and Finson (1995), was used to rate drawings according to particular characteristics present or absent in the drawings. This allowed the researcher to determine the images of science and scientists children hold. The participants for this study consisted of 353 middle grades (7 and 8) students in Starkville, Mississippi Public Schools. In the analysis of this descriptive comparative design, a Chi-square Test of Independence was used to test for statistically significant differences between gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic groups. From the results of this study, it is concluded that middle school students still depict stereotypic images of science and scientists. First, the middle school students in this study depicted scientists as mates, white, wearing lab coats, and wearing eyeglasses. The participants depicted science as an indoor occupation. Second, male students depicted scientists as males, but females depicted scientists as both male and female. Third, examination of the ethnic groups revealed that non-minority and minority students depicted scientists as white. Fourth, the examination of the socioeconomic groups revealed that the high socioeconomic group depicted more detailed images of scientists and science than the other socioeconomic groups. It is recommended, based on the results of this study, that students be exposed to a variety of experiences of science and scientists. Field trips, hands-on activities, guest speakers representing different genders and ethnicities, and reference material including technology should be provided as methods of instructions. The goal should be to make science and scientists real to students

  11. Communicating uncertainty to agricultural scientists and professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Models of agricultural systems often aim to predict the impacts of weather and soil nutrients on crop yields and the environment. These models are used to inform scientists, policy makers and farmers on the likely effects of management. For example, a farmer might be interested in the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on his yield, whilst policy makers might be concerned with the possible polluting effects of fertilizer. There are of course uncertainties related to any model predictions and these must be communicated effectively if the end user is to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. We searched the literature and found several methods for expressing the uncertainty in the predictions produced by models. We tested six of these in a formal trial. The methods we considered were: calibrated phrases, such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely', similar to those used by the IPCC; probabilities that the true value of the uncertain quantity lay within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. We held a series of three workshops at which the participants were invited to assess the six different methods of communicating the uncertainty. In total 64 individuals took part in our study. These individuals were either scientists, policy makers or those who worked in the agricultural industry. The test material comprised four sets of results from models. These results were displayed using each of the six methods described above. The participants were asked to evaluate the methods by filling in a questionnaire. The questions were intended to test how straightforward the content was to interpret and whether each method displayed sufficient information. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to

  12. Communicating uncertainty to agricultural scientists and professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Models of agricultural systems often aim to predict the impacts of weather and soil nutrients on crop yields and the environment. These models are used to inform scientists, policy makers and farmers on the likely effects of management. For example, a farmer might be interested in the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on his yield, whilst policy makers might be concerned with the possible polluting effects of fertilizer. There are of course uncertainties related to any model predictions and these must be communicated effectively if the end user is to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. We searched the literature and found several methods for expressing the uncertainty in the predictions produced by models. We tested six of these in a formal trial. The methods we considered were: calibrated phrases, such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely', similar to those used by the IPCC; probabilities that the true value of the uncertain quantity lay within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. We held a series of three workshops at which the participants were invited to assess the six different methods of communicating the uncertainty. In total 64 individuals took part in our study. These individuals were either scientists, policy makers or those who worked in the agricultural industry. The test material comprised four sets of results from models. These results were displayed using each of the six methods described above. The participants were asked to evaluate the methods by filling in a questionnaire. The questions were intended to test how straightforward the content was to interpret and whether each method displayed sufficient information. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to

  13. Maximizing the potential of scientists in Japan: promoting equal participation for women scientists through leadership development.

    PubMed

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Motohashi, Reiko; Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-07-01

    In order to examine the current status of gender equality in academic societies in Japan, we inquired about the number of women involved in leadership activities at society conferences and annual meetings, as these activities are critical in shaping scientific careers. Our findings show a clear bias against female scientists, and a need to raise consciousness and awareness in order to move closer to equality for future generations.

  14. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part

  15. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  16. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  17. Material Scientist holds SUBSA sample vial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the first materials science experiments on the International Space Station -- the Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) -- will be conducted during Expedition Five inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The glovebox is the first dedicated facility delivered to the Station for microgravity physical science research, and this experiment will be the first one operated inside the glovebox. The glovebox's sealed work environment makes it an ideal place for the furnace that will be used to melt semiconductor crystals. Astronauts can change out samples and manipulate the experiment by inserting their hands into a pair of gloves that reach inside the sealed box. Dr. Aleksandar Ostrogorsky, a materials scientist from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., and the principal investigator for the SUBSA experiment, uses the gloves to examine an ampoule like the ones used for his experiment inside the glovebox's work area. The Microgravity Science Glovebox and the SUBSA experiment are managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  18. Professor Thomas Lehner: archetypal translational scientist.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, S J

    2013-05-01

    Professor Thomas Lehner is one of the most distinguished oral and dental researchers to have come out of the UK. Over the past 40 years, he has made an astonishing number of discoveries which have had an impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of a variety of mucosal diseases. He has consistently practiced both basic and clinical research and built an integrated group of clinical and non-clinical researchers, which allowed him easy transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Tom Lehner was among the early scientists studying mucosal immunology, initially exploring oral diseases, with special emphasis on the immunobiology of Streptococcus mutans, leading to active and passive vaccination against dental caries. He was the first to demonstrate cellular immunity as the immunopathological basis of periodontal diseases, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and candidiasis. Over the past 20 years, his expertise in mucosal immunobiology has been applied to the immunology of HIV/SIV infections. His seminal contributions include regional innate mucosal immunity, prevention of SIV infection in macaques by secretory IgA antibodies, up-regulation of CC chemokines, and the first demonstration of protective CCR5 antibodies. Arguably, his leadership, his students, and the establishment of immunology applied to oral mucosal diseases will be his greatest legacy. His contributions continue unabated.

  19. Training the next generation of protein scientists.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael F

    2011-11-01

    Carl Brändén made significant contributions in areas of protein X-ray crystallography and science education. As the 2011 recipient of the Protein Society award honoring Carl's contributions, I had the opportunity to reflect on the undergraduate educational activities that have been practiced in my own laboratory over the past 24 years at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, an institution that emphasizes both research and undergraduate education. A system has been developed that attempts to minimize the tension that can exist between conflicting graduate research and undergraduate mentoring goals. The outcomes, as measured not only by subsequent activities of the participating undergraduates, but also by the activities of the graduate students and postdocs that worked with the undergraduates, indicate a general overall benefit for all participants, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities who are traditionally poorly retained in the sciences. Greater participation of undergraduates in research activities of active scientists who often focus primarily on graduate and postdoctoral training could have a positive impact on the leaky undergraduate science pipeline.

  20. What scientists can learn from Plato's Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Conferences and scientific meetings are as old as science itself. The ancient Greeks where (in)famous for organizing so-called symposiums. During a symposium (from Greek, drinking together), attendees followed a program that contained both social and scientific aspects, focused around a certain topic. Whilst drinking and eating, all participants were expected to share their vision on the topic of interest by giving an oral presentation. The goal of these meetings was to arrive at a new common understanding and to come closer to the truth. Plato et al. knew very well how to organize an effective scientific conference, which should make use overthink the way we are organizing present-day conferences. Scientific meetings aim to connect researchers, share research and unravel the truth. The question is now: how do we get this done effectively? Plato knew that discussing science with strangers is difficult and he believed that talking about heavy matter could be done best when combined with social events. What if we try to go back to the times of Plato and model our conferences after the ancient symposiums? We might drop laying on couches and covering ourselves in ivy and flowers. However, a mix of social and scientific events will contribute to achieving the ultimate goal of why scientists go to conferences: to connect, to share and to unravel the truth.

  1. Training the next generation of protein scientists

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Carl Brändén made significant contributions in areas of protein X-ray crystallography and science education. As the 2011 recipient of the Protein Society award honoring Carl's contributions, I had the opportunity to reflect on the undergraduate educational activities that have been practiced in my own laboratory over the past 24 years at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, an institution that emphasizes both research and undergraduate education. A system has been developed that attempts to minimize the tension that can exist between conflicting graduate research and undergraduate mentoring goals. The outcomes, as measured not only by subsequent activities of the participating undergraduates, but also by the activities of the graduate students and postdocs that worked with the undergraduates, indicate a general overall benefit for all participants, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities who are traditionally poorly retained in the sciences. Greater participation of undergraduates in research activities of active scientists who often focus primarily on graduate and postdoctoral training could have a positive impact on the leaky undergraduate science pipeline. PMID:21910149

  2. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  3. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  4. How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Science Biographies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Ford, Danielle J.

    The goal of this study is to analyze the images of science and scientists in science biographies written for children. We examined 12 biographies of historic and contemporary scientists written for primary/middle school children in relation to three dimensions: characteristics of scientists, nature and process of scientific knowledge, and social processes of science. Biographies of historic scientists were characterized by a relative absence of description of how scientists arrived at their knowledge especially in books addressing younger readers. Biographies of contemporary scientists showed richer descriptions of experimental science with limited attention to connections between evidence and theory. Findings reinforce the need for teachers to guide students in their critical reading of biographies and provide additional resources to help them construct a richer understanding of the nature of science

  5. Ectoparasites of African Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    This study consisted of ectoparasites from approximately 100,000 African small mammals, representing probably more than 500 species of which many are...study of ectoparasites may provide information concerning interactions among animal reservoirs of disease, and (3) an understanding of ecological...parameters for ectoparasites and their hosts may enhance understanding of epidemiological patterns. Of the four major groups dealt with, considerably more

  6. Engaging Scientists in Educator Professional Development Workshops: Lessons Learned from E/PO Professionals, and Tips for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists are often asked to speak at workshops for educators, because Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) professionals and other facilitators who organize and lead professional development workshops really like to include them. Scientists are an incredibly valuable asset to workshops - when they come prepared. We will present tips for E/PO professionals who would like to include scientists in their next workshop, and tips for scientists who have been asked or would like to give presentations at educator workshops, in order to make sure the science presentations are as valuable and enjoyable to both the scientist and the audience as possible. These recommendations come from lessons learned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) E/PO team after years of including scientists and engineers in the highly successful teacher professional development program, the Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs). Talks by scientists and engineers are consistently reported as a highlight of the workshops in participant surveys. We will present tips along with examples and relevant evaluation data from the LWEs, which we will use as a case study for how scientists can be effectively integrated into educator workshops. Noah Petro, an Associate Project Scientist for LRO, discusses the formation and evolution of the Moon with middle school science teachers participating in LRO's Lunar Workshops for Educators. John Keller, LRO's Project Scientist, discusses the latest science results from LRO with LWE teachers.

  7. The Computer Revolution and Adult Education. Growth Prospects in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire

    Most African countries are presently overburdened by their debts, declining economies, and quality of living as well as abiding struggles for the restoration of democracy. However, they have noted the global revolution in the development and application of computers. Most Africans believe that computers and intensive and relevant education for all…

  8. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  10. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one

  11. A visiting scientist program in atmospheric sciences for the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    A visiting scientist program was conducted in the atmospheric sciences and related areas at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. Research was performed in mathematical analysis as applied to computer modeling of the atmospheres; development of atmospheric modeling programs; analysis of remotely sensed atmospheric, surface, and oceanic data and its incorporation into atmospheric models; development of advanced remote sensing instrumentation; and related research areas. The specific research efforts are detailed by tasks.

  12. Increasing the visibility, voice, and clout of medical laboratory scientists.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J Michele

    2005-09-27

    Medical laboratory science professionals are represented by several national certifying agencies, yet few promote a common professional identity. People outside the profession seldom recognize that medical laboratory scientists (MLSs) perform a myriad of complex laboratory tests. Among medical laboratory scientists, there exists a perceived lack of power, prestige, and autonomy. By identifying and supporting common issues and promoting the profession, medical laboratory scientists can gain professional visibility, voice, clout, and unification.

  13. 20th International Conference for Students and Young Scientists: Modern Techniques and Technologies (MTT'2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    The active involvement of young researchers in scientific processes and the acquisition of scientific experience by gifted youth currently have a great value for the development of science. One of the research activities of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, aimed at the preparing and formation of the next generation of scientists, is the International Conference of Students and Young Scientists ''Modern Techniques and Technologies'', which was held in 2014 for the twentieth time. Great experience in the organization of scientific events has been acquired through years of carrying the conference. There are all the necessary resources for this: a team of organizers - employees of Tomsk Polytechnic University, premises provided with modern office equipment and equipment for demonstration, and leading scientists - professors of TPU, as well as the status of the university as a leading research university in Russia. This way the conference is able to attract world leading scientists for the collaboration. For the previous years the conference proved itself as a major scientific event at international level, which attracts more than 600 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS and other countries. The conference provides oral plenary and section reports. The conference is organized around lectures, where leading Russian and foreign scientists deliver plenary presentations to young audiences. An important indicator of this scientific event is the magnitude of the coverage of scientific fields: energy, heat and power, instrument making, engineering, systems and devices for medical purposes, electromechanics, material science, computer science and control in technical systems, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, physical methods in science and technology, control and quality management, design and technology of artistic materials processing. The main issues considered by young researchers at the conference were related to the analysis of contemporary

  14. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  15. ISS Update: Becoming an International Space Station Program Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Tara Ruttley, Associate International Space Station Program Scientist, about her educational path and her career activities at NASA. She also discuss...

  16. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  17. Meet EPA Scientist Richard Zepp, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Senior Research Scientist Dr. Richard Zepp's research interests include nanomaterials transformation in the environment, keeping recreational waters safe, and how climate change might affect ecosystems.

  18. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-05-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in the literature generally took into consideration NOS views of only natural scientists. This study primarily proposes to explore the views of scientists in both the natural and social sciences regarding the seven target aspects of NOS. The second aim of the study is to find out the similarities and dissimilarities between the views of scientists who majored in social sciences and those who majored in natural sciences in terms of the target aspects of NOS. The sample was 69 scientists representing 5 scientific disciplines from natural and social sciences. Interviews were employed for obtaining data. The data were analyzed by means of cognitive maps. This study revealed that the scientists in the sample have neither completely informed views nor completely naïve views according to contemporary scientific understanding. Their views were a blend of the two in terms of almost all the target aspects of NOS. The views of the scientists in natural science and in social science were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally had similar viewpoints. This situation suggested that the scientists' views about NOS are not related to their scientific disciplines.

  19. Science Enhancements by the MAVEN Participating Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J.; Fast, K.; Talaat, E.; Combi, M.; Crary, F.; England, S.; Ma, Y.; Mendillo, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Seki, K.; Stevens, M.; Withers, P.

    2015-12-01

    NASA implemented a Participating Scientist Program and released a solicitation for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) proposals on February 14, 2013. After a NASA peer review panel evaluated the proposals, NASA Headquarters selected nine on June 12, 2013. The program's intent is to enhance the science return from the mission by including new investigations that broaden and/or complement the baseline investigations, while still addressing key science goals. The selections cover a broad range of science investigations. Included are: a patching of a 3D exosphere model to an improved global ionosphere-thermosphere model to study the generation of the exosphere and calculate the escape rates; the addition of a focused study of upper atmosphere variability and waves; improvement of a multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model that will be adjusted according to MAVEN observations to enhance the understanding of the solar-wind plasma interaction; a global study of the state of the ionosphere; folding MAVEN measurements into the Mars International Reference Ionosphere under development; quantification of atmospheric loss by pick-up using ion cyclotron wave observations; the reconciliation of remote and in situ observations of the upper atmosphere; the application of precise orbit determination of the spacecraft to measure upper atmospheric density and in conjunction with other Mars missions improve the static gravity field model of Mars; and an integrated ion/neutral study of ionospheric flows and resultant heavy ion escape. Descriptions of each of these investigations are given showing how each adds to and fits seamlessly into MAVEN mission science design.

  20. Science Enhancements by the MAVEN Participating Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J.; Fast, K.; Talaat, E.; Combi, M.; Crary, F.; England, S.; Ma, Y.; Mendillo, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Seki, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA implemented a Participating Scientist Program and released a solicitation for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) proposals on February 14, 2013. After a NASA peer review panel evaluated the proposals, NASA Headquarters selected nine on June 12, 2013. The program's intent is to enhance the science return from the mission by including new investigations that broaden and/or complement the baseline investigations, while still addressing key science goals. The selections cover a broad range of science investigations. Included are: a patching of a 3D exosphere model to an improved global ionosphere-thermosphere model to study the generation of the exosphere and calculate the escape rates; the addition of a focused study of upper atmosphere variability and waves; improvement of a multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model that will be adjusted according to MAVEN observations to enhance the understanding of the solar-wind plasma interaction; a global study of the state of the ionosphere; folding MAVEN measurements into the Mars International Reference Ionosphere under development; quantification of atmospheric loss by pick-up using ion cyclotron wave observations; the reconciliation of remote and in situ observations of the upper atmosphere; the application of precise orbit determination of the spacecraft to measure upper atmospheric density and in conjunction with other Mars missions improve the static gravity field model of Mars; and an integrated ion/neutral study of ionospheric flows and resultant heavy ion escape. Descriptions of each of these investigations are given showing how each adds to and fits seamlessly into MAVEN mission science design.

  1. Making open data work for plant scientists.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Moore, Jonathan; Cook, Charis; Bastow, Ruth

    2013-11-01

    Despite the clear demand for open data sharing, its implementation within plant science is still limited. This is, at least in part, because open data-sharing raises several unanswered questions and challenges to current research practices. In this commentary, some of the challenges encountered by plant researchers at the bench when generating, interpreting, and attempting to disseminate their data have been highlighted. The difficulties involved in sharing sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data are reviewed. The benefits and drawbacks of three data-sharing venues currently available to plant scientists are identified and assessed: (i) journal publication; (ii) university repositories; and (iii) community and project-specific databases. It is concluded that community and project-specific databases are the most useful to researchers interested in effective data sharing, since these databases are explicitly created to meet the researchers' needs, support extensive curation, and embody a heightened awareness of what it takes to make data reuseable by others. Such bottom-up and community-driven approaches need to be valued by the research community, supported by publishers, and provided with long-term sustainable support by funding bodies and government. At the same time, these databases need to be linked to generic databases where possible, in order to be discoverable to the majority of researchers and thus promote effective and efficient data sharing. As we look forward to a future that embraces open access to data and publications, it is essential that data policies, data curation, data integration, data infrastructure, and data funding are linked together so as to foster data access and research productivity.

  2. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity.

  3. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity. PMID:28154625

  4. Scientists Track Collision of Powerful Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have tracked the motion of a violent region where the powerful winds of two giant stars slam into each other. The collision region moves as the stars, part of a binary pair, orbit each other, and the precise measurement of its motion was the key to unlocking vital new information about the stars and their winds. WR 140 Image Sequence Motion of Wind Collision Region Graphic superimposes VLBA images of wind collision region on diagram of orbit of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star and its giant (O) companion. Click on image for larger version (412K) CREDIT: Dougherty et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF In Motion: Shockwave File Animated Gif File AVI file Both stars are much more massive than the Sun -- one about 20 times the mass of the Sun and the other about 50 times the Sun's mass. The 20-solar-mass star is a type called a Wolf-Rayet star, characterized by a very strong wind of particles propelled outward from its surface. The more massive star also has a strong outward wind, but one less intense than that of the Wolf-Rayet star. The two stars, part of a system named WR 140, circle each other in an elliptical orbit roughly the size of our Solar System. "The spectacular feature of this system is the region where the stars' winds collide, producing bright radio emission. We have been able to track this collision region as it moves with the orbits of the stars," said Sean Dougherty, an astronomer at the Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics in Canada. Dougherty and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The supersharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the motion of the wind collision region and then to determine the details of the stars' orbits and an accurate distance to the system. "Our new calculations of the orbital details and the distance are vitally important to understanding the nature of these

  5. The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) mentorship program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Clarac, T.

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 11 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors.

  6. The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Clarac, T.; Lin, C.

    2004-11-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 11 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  7. Computing Logarithms by Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    How can old-fashioned tables of logarithms be computed without technology? Today, of course, no practicing mathematician, scientist, or engineer would actually use logarithms to carry out a calculation, let alone worry about deriving them from scratch. But high school students may be curious about the process. This article develops a…

  8. Mobilizing the GLOBE at Night Citizen-Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, M. A.; Walker, C. E.; Boss, S. K.; Hennig, A. J.

    2013-04-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution. Citizen-scientists around the world measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations to a website from a computer. In the last two years a webapp was developed to enable reporting from mobile devices. Nearly 80,000 data points have been submitted by people in 115 countries during the last 7 years. Our poster will examine the effect of enabling real-time data reporting via mobile devices, and how the Adopt-a-Street pilot project has impacted data collection in two U.S. cities. Recognizing the increasing popularity of smartphones, in late 2010 NOAO staff built a webapp to take advantage of the GPS capabilities built into mobile devices to get an automated and accurate report of the user's location. Refinements to the application have enabled an order of magnitude reduction in the number of erroneous data points due to incorrect location. During the 2011 campaign a pilot program called Adopt-a-Street was created to further take advantage of the ability to report data in real-time via mobile devices. For the 2012 campaign the program continued in Tucson and expanded to Fayetteville, Arkansas. Both of these sub-campaigns encouraged more participation, and resulted in more meaningful results. For example, in prior years Fayetteville averaged three data points in the three years any points were submitted in that area. In 2012, due to the Adopt-a-Street program, there were 98 points submitted, clearly matching the map on their Adopt-a-Street page. Adding support for mobile devices has increased the accuracy and relevance of the data submitted via both mobile devices and desktop computers, as well as enabled new programs. We plan to expand the Adopt-a-Street program next year and find an easier way to accommodate multiple measurements.

  9. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  10. Computer Models of Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Marc Pusey (seated) and Dr. Craig Kundrot use computers to analyze x-ray maps and generate three-dimensional models of protein structures. With this information, scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center can learn how proteins are made and how they work. The computer screen depicts a proten structure as a ball-and-stick model. Other models depict the actual volume occupied by the atoms, or the ribbon-like structures that are crucial to a protein's function.

  11. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  12. Scientist-Image Stereotypes: The Relationships among Their Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine primary school students' scientist-image stereotypes by considering the relationships among indicators. A total of 877 students attending Grades 6 and 7 in Düzce, Turkey participated in this study. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) was implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year to determine students' images…

  13. Hypatia's Sisters: Biographies of Women Scientists - Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacher, Susan

    This booklet gives two- or three-page biographies of seventeen women scientists. They range in history from Agnodice (physician, 300 B.B.) to Jane Goodall (born 1934). In addition, brief sketches are given of twenty-three other women scientists. This anthology is intended to fill a need for curriculum materials and literature that provide positive…

  14. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  15. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  16. You'll be a clinician-scientist, my son.

    PubMed

    Smeesters, Pierre R

    2015-11-04

    Opinion-based commentary about the complex reality of being a clinician-scientist in today's modern biomedical environment. The essay uses the beautiful, but old, poem "If" from Rudyard Kipling to draw a parallel with the ambitions, dreams and limits of being a clinical-scientist today.

  17. Children's Images of Scientists: Does Grade Level Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's images of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) and to determine if differences in these images exist between grade levels. The DAST was administered to 243 children who were enrolled in kindergarten (aged 6) and grade 3 and 5 (aged 9 and 11). Findings obtained from the study…

  18. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  19. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  20. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  1. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No...

  2. The professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Paul

    2009-12-01

    In nineteenth-century America, there was no such person as a "professional scientist". There were professionals and there were scientists, but they were very different. Professionals were men of science who engaged in commercial relations with private enterprises and took fees for their services. Scientists were men of science who rejected such commercial work and feared the corrupting influences of cash and capitalism. Professionals portrayed themselves as active and useful members of an entrepreneurial polity, while scientists styled themselves as crusading reformers, promoters of a purer science and a more research-oriented university. It was this new ideology, embodied in these new institutions, that spurred these reformers to adopt a special name for themselves--"scientists". One object of this essay, then, is to explain the peculiar Gilded Age, American origins of that ubiquitous term. A larger goal is to explore the different social roles of the professional and the scientist. By attending to the particular vocabulary employed at the time, this essay tries to make clear why a "professional scientist" would have been a contradiction in terms for both the professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

  3. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program: impact and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining National Institutes of Health funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well-developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. We describe the original and revised structure of the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 yrs of training.

  4. Supply and Demand for Scientists and Engineers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    This report, which includes 51 tables and charts, examines past, present, and future imbalances in the supply of and demand for scientists and engineers. The supply is assessed by source and by field, and compared with current and short-range demand for new graduates and for experienced scientists and engineers, including assessment of the…

  5. Environmental Scientists' Perceptions of the Science-Policy Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Leslie R.; Simon, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Describes the criticisms coming from scientists on the assessment report on acid rain released by the National Acid Preparation Assessment Program (NAPAP) with the purpose of providing relevant information to policy makers about acid rain. Investigates n=129 scientists' point of view on the linkage of science to policy. (YDS)

  6. Internet Links for Science Education: Student-Scientist Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Karen C., Ed.

    This volume focuses on Student-Scientist Partnerships (SSPs) and illustrates the workings and effectiveness of this new paradigm and growing force in science education. The chapters are: chapter 1, "Student-Scientist Partnerships: Shrewd Maneuvers" (Robert F. Tinker); chapter 2, "The GLOBE Program: A Model for International Environmental…

  7. "Star Wars" on Campus: Scientists Debate the Wisdom of SDI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Jean

    1987-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative is opposed by many university scientists, but government officials have no problem placing research contracts. Specific arrangements and personal opinions are cited, and the text of the Star Wars Petition signed by 6,500 faculty and graduate student scientists is included. (MSE)

  8. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Scientists: Images and Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The masculine image of scientists as elderly men wearing white coats and glasses, working alone in the laboratory has been documented since the 1950s. Because it is important that teacher candidates have a scientifically literate image of scientists due to the impact they have on their future students, this investigation is salient. This study…

  9. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  10. How Do Students Really View Science and Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a description of a project using a draw-a-scientist test to probe students' perceptions of who does science under what conditions. Details are provided regarding the methodology with research instruments included. Instructions for participating in a national study using the draw-a-scientist test are provided. (DDR)

  11. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach.

  12. Practical Ways to Assess and Change Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyehouse, Melissa; Detwiler, Jillian T.; Li, Jianming; Bandy, Krystal Madden; Bennett, Deborah; Childress, Amy; Harbor, Jon

    2010-01-01

    One exercise that challenges students' stereotypical perception of scientists is the Scientist Match-Up Activity. In this interactive lesson, students are asked to match a person to a profession based on three sets of clues. These clues include a picture, a description of particular skills, and personality traits/accomplishments. A wide array of…

  13. On advocacy by environmental scientists: what, whether, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael P; Vucetich, John A

    2009-10-01

    Debate about the nature and appropriateness of advocacy by environmental scientists is important--it represents understanding the role of these citizens in our society. Much has been written about advocacy by scientists, and that literature describes substantial diversity in reasons why advocacy by scientists is or is not appropriate. Despite the nature of this literature there has been no comprehensive, systematic review of why some favor and others oppose advocacy by environmental scientists. Through a literature review we catalogued, categorized, and critiqued the arguments used for and against the appropriateness of advocacy by environmental scientists. Most arguments, whether for or against advocacy, are characterized by some significant deficiency. From our analysis of the literature an argument emerges that to date has never been fully articulated: that advocacy is nearly unavoidable, and that scientists, by virtue of being citizens first and scientists second, have a responsibility to advocate to the best of their abilities, to improve their advocacy abilities, and to advocate in a justified and transparent manner. We also discuss the meaning and relevance of advocacy being justified and transparent. We suggest scientists expend their efforts to better understand what constitutes appropriate advocacy and spend less effort pondering whether they should advocate.

  14. Collaborating with Scientists in Education and Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    The Education and Public Engagement team at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is developing a scientific advisory board, to gather input from planetary scientists for ways that LPI can help them with public engagement, such as connecting them to opportunities, creating useful resources, and providing training. The advisory board will assist in outlining possible roles of scientists in public engagement, provide feedback on LPI scientist engagement efforts, and encourage scientists to participate in various education and public engagement events.LPI's scientists have participated in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, and communication workshops. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves.This poster will share the status and current findings of the scientist advisory board, and the lessons learned regarding planetary scientists' needs, abilities, and interests in participating in education and public engagement programs.

  15. Of Science and Scientists an Anthology of Anecdotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothare, A. N.

    Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.

  16. One More Legacy of Paul F. Brandwein: Creating Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of Paul F. Brandwein, author, scientist, teacher and mentor, publisher, humanist, and environmentalist, on gifted youngsters who later became scientists, based primarily on information gathered from surveys completed by 25 of his students and one colleague. It also traces his profound interactions with science…

  17. Prieto receives 2010 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berozar, Gregory C.; Prieto, Germán A.

    2011-06-01

    Germán Prieto received the 2010 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes the scientific accomplishments of a young scientist who makes outstanding contributions to the advancement of seismology.

  18. Scientists vs. Vesuvius: limits of volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Italian newspapers reported the statements of Japanese and American volcanologists which declared the high hazard related to the future occurrence of catastrophic eruption at Vesuvius. Is this a reliable picture from scientific point of view? The evaluation of volcanic hazard is based on a general statistical law for which the chances of an eruptive event increase when energy decreases. This law is constructed on the basis of empirical data. Thus, the possibility that a plinian-like eruption occurs, for each volcano, is rare and further reduced for worst-case scenario. However, empirical data are not supported by a robust scientific theory, experimentally verifiable through an exact forecast of a long-term eruption, both in time limits and in energy. Today, the lack of paradigms able to predict in a deterministic way such a complex phenomena, limit the field of the scientists that cannot go further evaluations of a purely probabilistic nature. From this point of view volcanology cannot be considered an hard quantitative Science. The declaration according to which Vesuvius, sooner or later, will produce a catastrophic eruption, yet apparently obvious if we consider the very high degree of urbanization, is not supported by any experimentally verifiable theory. Therefore, the statement according to which Vesuvius next eruptive event will be catastrophic is false. In probabilistic terms, it is actually the least possible scenario. Recognizing the cognitive limits in this research field means to encourage research itself towards the determination of more solid paradigms, in order to get more exact forecasts about such complex phenomena. The scientific compromise of defining risk scenarios, rather than deterministic evaluations about future eruptive events, precisely reflects the limits of research that have to be contemplated even by Civil Protection. Having considered these limits, every risk scenario, even the most conservative, will be ineffective in

  19. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  20. Know Your Discipline: Teaching the Philosophy of Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and interdisciplinarity of computer science and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it hard to define computer science and to prescribe how computer science should be carried out. The diversity of computer science also causes friction between computer scientists from different branches. Computer science curricula, as…