Science.gov

Sample records for african countries algeria

  1. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  2. Algeria: country profile.

    PubMed

    Harding, J

    1987-12-01

    Data are presented on the economy, the people, the population's health, and the culture in this country profile of Algeria. The population numbers 21.7 million. The infant mortality rate, used as a health indicator, is 81/1000 live births. Algeria's gross national product per capita is $2410 (US$15,390). Its main imports are machinery, transport equipment, food, tobacco, and consumer goods. The primary exports include oil, petroleum products, liquified natural gas, wine, and tobacco. Algeria's traditional Berber culture has survived occupation by Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, and Europeans. The country is made up of an assortment of different social groups and ethnicities, and modern Algeria realized its unitary identity from the anti-colonial struggle. Recent laws allow freedom of association, an indication of growing pluralism in a state where opposition traditionally has been proscribed. 1987 marks the 25th anniversary of Algeria's independence, obtained after a long and bitter war with France. The victory of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) was a signal for French settlers to leave in droves, and much of the country's managerial and technical expertise left with them. Yet, the FLN inherited a sound infrastructure on which to build a modern post-colonial society. Additionally, the country also was to benefit from plentiful hydrocarbon reserves, which guaranteed good foreign exchange earnings. One of the country's goals is to feed itself by investing in a long-neglected agricultural sector, yet presently oil and gas revenues continue to be the driving force behind development. The plans for increasing food production include greater scope for private farmers. A widening gap exists between those who espouse the old values forged by the liberation struggle and a younger generation, for whom the FLN's founding precepts and the leadership's old authoritarian style mean considerably less.

  3. Algeria.

    PubMed

    1985-10-01

    Algeria is the 2nd largest state in Africa with a population of 22 million, 45% of which are urban and 57% under the age of 20. Almost all Algerians are Muslim. Education has become a real priority in Algeria and there are now more than 5 million students. Emphasis has begun to be placed on the establishment of technical institutes for training in skill areas needed to supply the nation's quickly expanding industrial sector. Presently there is a shortage of housing. The government of Algeria is centralized with guidance on fundamental issues coming from the periodic congresses of the FLN party and from its central committee between congresses. Laws remaining from the French colonial system are being amended to meet current Algerian needs. There has been relative political stability since 1965. Principal domestic objectives of the Algerian government are to achieve economic development through industrialization and increased agricultural productivity as well as raising the standard of living. The government basically controls the planning, development, and administration of the Algerian economy. The current 5-year economic development plan is financed heavily by hydrocarbon income. Despite the production of large quantities of food, Algeria must import 1/3 of its food to feed its growing population. However, at the same time, they provide a substantial amount of assistance to many of their neighbors. The armed forces are comprised of about 135,000 members and Algeria is considered a leading military power in the region. Its foreign policy is considered 1 of independence and nonalignment, and Algeria advocates the securing of a greater share of the world's wealth for developing countries by getting higher prices for the raw materials they produce. Relations with the US have improved since 1969 following the diplomatic break in realtions during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Most of the major political differences have been resolved.

  4. [Algeria].

    PubMed

    The capital of Algeria is Algiers. As of 1995, Algeria had a population of 27.9 million governed by a presidential regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $40.2 billion and $1470. Per capita income declined by 2.04% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Algeria owed $29.898 billion, then being serviced at $5.4 billion. For the same year, Algeria exported $9.698 billion in goods and services and imported $12.919 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.2% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67.1 years, the infant mortality rate was 55 per 1000 births, 88% had access to health services, and 68% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications.

  5. Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Algeria's hydrocarbon industry accounts for 98% of the nation's export earnings, 60-70% of the government's revenues, and 33% of the gross domestic product. Although oil production has declined, it will be replaced by production from Algeria's gas reserves, which rank fourth largest in the world. Official estimates put associated gas reserves at 20 trillion CF and nonassociated reserves at 99.57 TCF. By indexing the price of gas to the price of oil, Algeria plans to receive more realistic revenues for its gas exports. International trade is not the only outlet foreseen for Algerian reserves: by the year 2000, 77% of the gas output will be consumed domestically as the contribution of gas to overall energy requirements grows from 44% in 1979 to 60% in 1990, and the level of energy consumed triples during the same period, rising to 42 million tons/yr of oil equivalent.

  6. Algeria.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    The 2nd largest state in Africa, the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria is in the Northwest region of Africa along the Mediterranean. 91% of the population of 23 million are situated along the Mediterranean. The government of Algeria parallels the government of the United States in structure containing an executive, legislative and judicial branch and based on a constitution. The roles of the government are discussed as are political conditions and the founding history of the present government. Also discussed is the Algerian defense and foreign relations. The majority of Algerians are Muslim and of Arab, Berber or Arab-Berber stock. The Berbers are the indigenous people of Algeria. European influence, particularly French, is still prevalent however. Natural resources include oil, natural gas, iron ore and uranium, and the most prevalent industries are involved with the production and processing of these resources. While Algeria has made great inroads in the areas of health and education, it still faces a growing problem: housing. Conditions for travel, i.e. transportation, communication, and health, are favorable.

  7. [Assisted returns to country of origin: a study of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benattig, R

    1989-01-01

    The author analyzes trends in government-assisted return migration to Algeria. Factors considered include employment and occupational status and individual and family readjustment to the local community. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  8. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  9. Oil and economic development in OPEC countries, with case studies about Iraq and Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khalil, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of the increase in oil prices in 1973 and thereafter on economic development in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in general, and in Iraq and Algeria in particular. It attempts to investigate the extent to which these countries have succeeded in utilizing oil revenues to achieve their projected goals: diversification of their economies in order to reduce dependence on exporting crude oil which is an exhaustible resource; and acceleration of the rate of growth of the non-oil sector in order to increase its contribution to GDP and foreign-exchange earnings as well as to maintain the growth of the economy in the post-oil age. While the increase in oil revenues greatly reduced the capital constraint to growth, it did not remove all other constraints at the same time. Thus, bottlenecks in transportation, institutions, skilled labor, raw and construction materials remained important obstacles. According to the criteria used by this study to judge the performance of the Iraqi and the Algerian economies after 1973, both countries did quite well. However, one of the findings about Iraq is that while the rate of growth of real per capita GDP accelerated after 1973, the rate of growth of real per capita non-oil GDP did not. Algeria succeeded in diversifying her economy, since the rate of growth of non-oil GDP accelerated after 1973, compared to the earlier period.

  10. Mapping and discriminating the Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar (southern Algeria) using Landsat 7 ETM+ data and airborne geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerrouk, Siham; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Liégeois, Jean Paul; Boubekri, Hichem; El Khaznadji, Riad Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a multidisciplinary approach to discriminate and map different types and generations of Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar, southern Algeria, using remote sensing and airborne geophysics in close correlation with previous works and established geological maps. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) combinations of band ratios; principal component analysis (PCA) and image classification for Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), allow spatial discrimination and mapping of granitoid rocks of the studied area (200*350 km). This area extend over four contrasted Pan-African terranes (In Tedeini, Iskel, Tefedest and Laouni terranes, the two latter belong to the LATEA (Laouni-Azrou-n-Fad-Tefedest-Egéré-Aleksod-Assodé-Issalane) metacraton. The airborne magnetic intensity provides a wide range of responses from high values (youngest granitoids) to low values (volcano-sedimentary and gneissic country-rocks). Radiometric data, displaying radioelements concentration, discriminate efficiently the late alkaline granitoids (high values), the calk-alkaline granitoids (intermediate values) and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite series (low values). This study led to the establishment of a more accurate geological map where the geochemical characteristics of the Pan-African granitoids are determined, including plutons not yet studied, especially in the poorly known In Tedeini terrane, and brings new constraints for the geodynamic development of the Tuareg Shield, which includes the Hoggar.

  11. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  12. Standardised pre-competitive screening of athletes in some European and African countries: the SMILE study.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Deodato, Assanelli; Ermolao, Andrea; Andrea, Ermolao; Carre, François; François, Carré; Deligiannis, Asterios; Asterios, Deligiannis; Mellwig, Klaus; Mellwig, Klaus; Klaus, Mellwig; Tahmi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Tahmi; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Mario, Cesana Bruno; Levaggi, Rosella; Rosella, Levaggi; Aliverti, Paola; Paola, Aliverti; Sharma, Sanjay; Sanjay, Sharma

    2014-06-01

    Most of the available data on the cardiovascular screening of athletes come from Italy, with fewer records being available outside of Italy and for non-Caucasian populations. The goals of the SMILE project (Sport Medicine Intervention to save Lives through ECG) are to evaluate the usefulness of 12-lead ECGs for the detection of cardiac diseases in athletes from three European countries and one African country and to estimate how many second-level examinations are needed subsequent to the initial screening in order to classify athletes with abnormal characteristics. A digital network consisting of Sport Centres and second and third opinion centres was set up in Greece, Germany, France and Algeria. Standard digital data input was carried out through the application of 12-lead ECGs, Bethesda questionnaires and physical examinations. Two hundred ninety-three of the 6,634 consecutive athletes required further evaluation, mostly (88.4 %) as a consequence of abnormal ECGs. After careful evaluation, 237 were determined to be healthy or apparently healthy, while 56 athletes were found to have cardiac disorders and were thus disqualified from active participation in sports. There was a large difference in the prevalence of diseases detected in Europe as compared with Algeria (0.23 and 4.01 %, respectively). Our data confirmed the noteworthy value of 12-lead resting ECGs as compared with other first-level evaluations, especially in athletes with asymptomatic cardiac diseases. Its value seems to have been even higher in Algeria than in the European countries. The establishment of a digital network of Sport Centres for second/third opinions in conjunction with the use of standard digital data input seems to be a valuable means for increasing the effectiveness of screening.

  13. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  14. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    violence between January 1997 and September 2014. Almost 8,000 fatalities have occurred during this time, making it the fourteenth most fatal country in...the dataset in this regard. However, violence has escalated sharply in recent years: the majority of these events occurred since the outbreak of the...CAR) is the fifteenth most violent country in the ACLED dataset, with over 2,000 recorded events of political violence between January 1997 and

  15. Atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides across some West African countries.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Nahomi; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Oyediran, Femi; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Ayonghe, Samuel N; Fobil, Julius; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-07-31

    Most African countries have ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are expected to reduce emissions of POPs such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to the atmosphere. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that there are contemporary sources of OCPs in African countries despite the global ban on these products. This study investigated the atmospheric contamination from OCPs in four West African countries-Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon-to ascertain the emission levels of OCPs and the characteristic signatures of contamination. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in each country for ca. 55 days in 2012 and analyzed for 25 OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in the target countries, at average concentrations of 441 pg m(-3) (range 23-2718) and 403 pg m(-3) (range 91-1880), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration, ranged between 0.1 and 3.3 pg m(-3). The concentration of OCPs in rainy season was higher than in dry season in Cameroon, and presupposed inputs from agriculture during the rainy season. The concentrations of ∑25 OCPs in each country were in the following order: Cameroon > Nigeria > Benin > Togo. There was significant evidence, based on chemical signatures of the contamination that DDT, aldrin, chlordane, and endosulfan were recently applied at certain sites in the respective countries.

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  17. Enhancing collaboration between China and African countries for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Qing; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Bergquist, Robert; Sacko, Moussa; Utzinger, Jürg; Lin, Dan-Dan; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-Zhu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue, with a large number of cases reported across sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. China was once highly endemic, but has made substantial progress and is moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis. Meanwhile, despite long-term, repeated, school-based chemotherapy in many African countries, more than 90% of all schistosomiasis cases are concentrated in Africa, and hence, this continent constitutes the key challenge for schistosomiasis control. Opportunities and issues for international collaboration in the fight against schistosomiasis are outlined with a focus on China's experiences, including the role of public health authorities and intersectoral collaboration, use of new and effective snail control approaches and diagnostic tools adapted to the specific stage of control, as well as the strengthening of risk mapping and surveillance-response mechanisms. Training courses targeting African governmental officials and professionals, coupled with field visits of African scientists and control programme managers to China, and vice versa, are considered important for improved schistosomiasis control and elimination. The crucial question remains whether the Chinese experience can be translated and applied in African countries to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and scale-up.

  18. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  19. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  20. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  1. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  2. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  3. American equipment and technology can help satisfy demand for water: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-09-06

    The transfer of US equipment and technology to help North African and Middle East countries develop their water resources must include nonconventional technologies to help them augment existing water supplies. Water development in Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt to meet irrigation, sanitation, and economic development needs presents opportunities to US exporters and investors. This article summarizes the projects and needs in each of the three countries. (DCK)

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  5. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  6. Initiatives and resistances in English-speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Muito, G

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, there were 10 English-speaking African countries, plus Mozambique, with on-going population education programs within the school system. 7 other countries had programs in the planning stages. School programs were preceded after out-of-school and informal programs of the 1970s. Countries have designed population education in their own terms. The generalized goals of population education for the region were to expand awareness of population-related issues and problems; to develop skills, values, and attitudes which will enable people to make rational and timely decisions; and to behave in meaningful and socially desirable ways and improve the quality of human life. Population education has been accepted in most education curriculum in African countries, but fertility regulation in an action program is limited to a few countries. Although attention has been directed to mortality, teen pregnancy, drug use, and AIDS, there has been little discussion of the status of women, child labor, and female circumcision. Family-life education and population have been linked because of the acceptability of the term and the reality that the family is the basic unit of society. Anglophone African strategies have encompassed a central location for the population program within government, a pilot phase, an integration into other subjects, a life-long approach, and community participation; each of the aforementioned topics is discussed. Constraints in program design and implementation were identified as the lack of political support; the absence of a firm and consistent policy; the perceived conflict between population education and cultural values; the limited, sporadic financial support; the shortage of resources; poor attention to the importance of horizontal and vertical information transmission; and lack of coordination between agencies with population education programs. Future needs are for program expansion and a focus on groups at-risk, prominent policy support at the

  7. The income-climate trap of health development: a comparative analysis of African and Non-African countries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kam Ki; Petrie, Dennis; Rao, D S Prasada

    2009-10-01

    This article conducts a comparative analysis of the interrelationship between climate, life expectancy and income between African and non-African countries. To put the analysis in a broader context of development, the paper develops an income-climate trap model that explains the multi-directional interaction between income, climate and life expectancy. It is suggested that the interaction can give rise to either a virtuous cycle of prosperity or a vicious cycle of poverty. Applying the model to a data set of 158 countries, we find that climate is a more important determinant of life expectancy in African countries than in non-African countries. We provide further empirical evidence that while climate is important in determining both life expectancy and income, income can in turn moderate the adverse effects of climate on life expectancy. In the past two decades, the income level of non-African countries has grown significantly while that of African countries has largely been stagnant, implying that the future development of African countries remains highly vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. These findings have important implications in the context of climate change, as global warming is likely to create worsening climatic conditions that could see many less developed countries sinking deeper into an income-climate trap of underdevelopment in health.

  8. IDSR as a Platform for Implementing IHR in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kasolo, Francis; Yoti, Zabulon; Bakyaita, Nathan; Gaturuku, Peter; Katz, Rebecca; Fischer, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    Of the 46 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region (AFRO), 43 are implementing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines to improve their abilities to detect, confirm, and respond to high-priority communicable and noncommunicable diseases. IDSR provides a framework for strengthening the surveillance, response, and laboratory core capacities required by the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. In turn, IHR obligations can serve as a driving force to sustain national commitments to IDSR strategies. The ability to report potential public health events of international concern according to IHR (2005) relies on early warning systems founded in national surveillance capacities. Public health events reported through IDSR to the WHO Emergency Management System in Africa illustrate the growing capacities in African countries to detect, assess, and report infectious and noninfectious threats to public health. The IHR (2005) provide an opportunity to continue strengthening national IDSR systems so they can characterize outbreaks and respond to public health events in the region. PMID:24041192

  9. [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].

    PubMed

    Letourmy, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients. Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage. The impact of health insurance is, as yet, difficult to assess. If beneficiaries have a better access to health services, the financing of health sector is not significantly improved, and there is no change in professional behaviour, in particular, in public facilities. In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.

  10. Towards a Sustainable Counterbalanced Development: Educational Cooperation between China and African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddi, Ketema Meskela; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    In the last half a century an extensive cooperation between China and African countries have been launched, of which exchange and cooperation in education is one of the most important forms. In this aspect, China has played an important role in student exchange and education programs for African educational officials. However, African countries…

  11. The Africanization of Syllabuses in Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries of West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of syllabuses concludes that in West Africa English-speaking countries have made greater progress in Africanizing both the content and language of instruction than French-speaking countries. (RT)

  12. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  13. Rickettsiae in arthropods collected from the North African Hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) and the desert hedgehog (Paraechinus aethiopicus) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, Mourad; Socolovschi, Cristina; Benyettou, Meryam; Barech, Ghania; Biche, Mohamed; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Hedgehogs have become a popular pet despite their potential role in zoonotic disease transmission. We conducted an entomological study in a mountainous region of northeast Algeria in which we collected 387 fleas (Archeopsylla erinacei) and 342 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei) from Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix algirus hedgehogs. Of the hedgehogs sampled, 77.7% and 91% were infested with fleas and ticks, respectively. Significantly more ticks and fleas were collected from A. algirus than from P. aethiopicus. Rickettsia felis was detected in 95.5% of fleas and R. massiliae was detected in 6.25% of Rh. sanguineus ticks by molecular tools. A new Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group was detected in 11.25% of Rh. sanguineus and in 77% of H. erinacei ticks. Overall, we show that hedgehogs can act as hosts for ectoparasites infected with several rickettsial agents. These data justify a more detailed investigation of animal reservoirs for Rickettsiae.

  14. [Threats to and conservation of North African wetlands: the case of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (NE Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bouldjedri, Mohammed; de Bélair, Gérard; Mayache, Boualem; Muller, Serge D

    2011-10-01

    Because of their biogeographical and geomorphological context, the northeastern Algeria wetlands present high species and community richness. The vegetation study of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (Kabylia) showed the existence of four main communities, distributed along gradients of hydrology and disturbance. The obtained results reveal worrying threats on short term: overgrazing results in the lake invasion by the sand eroded from the coastal dune; agriculture induces illegal cutting, water pollution and excessive groundwater pumping; finally, hunting and fishing are illegally practiced into the Ramsar site. The awareness of public authorities is needed in order: (1) to completely protect the wetland with the aim of restoring a riparian forest belt; and (2) to initiate a campaign for increasing the local population awareness, and its involvement in conservation programs.

  15. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  16. Oil imports and the foreign debt of developing African countries

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, D.A.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    This study examines the oil transactions between 1971 and 1983 of African nations supported by the Agency for International Development, with the objective of estimating the proportion of current indebtedness attributable to crude oil price increases. A data base was constructed, drawing on information from several data series of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the United Nations. These data were examined using a series of alternative formulas that controlled for particular characteristics of nations with and without oil refineries and controlled, to some degree, for data deficiencies. The results indicate that oil price increases have played a prominent role in debt creation, though perhaps a lesser role than some had suggested. Estimates of the share of debt incurred due to oil price increases range from less than one-third to more than two-thirds. The recent decreases in oil prices may relieve some pressures for continued debt accumulation, although a reduction in pressures is likely to occur less slowly than price decreases. The vulnerability of developing countries to oil price increases underlines the attractiveness of development projects that lessen reliance on imported oil and oil products.

  17. [Leprosy in Algeria. Apropos of an autochthonous case in the Wilaya de Tlemcen, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1989-01-01

    Leprosy is not a problem for public health in Algeria. For one century (from 1888 to 1987), a maximum of 250 cases were reported, only 75 of them were Algerians and 61 caught the disease in Algeria. Hence leprosy was mainly an imported disease. Will multiple exchanges with other countries increase the magnitude of the problem?

  18. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakour, S.; Sahli, F.; Touati, A.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2014-01-01

    We report class A carbapenemase (KPC)-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in a 6-month-old child in Algeria. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the sequence type obtained corresponded to ST512, an allelic single-locus variant of the pandemic ST258 widely distributed in KPC producers from Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae ST512 in a North African country. PMID:25755890

  19. School Supervision in Four African Countries. Volume I: Challenges and Reforms. Trends in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grauwe, Anton

    Through narration and with the aid of 27 tables and 11 figures, this book reports on the school supervision system in four African countries. (The research is part of a larger series of studies sponsored by UNESCO and the International Institute for Educational Planning.) The countries studied were Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The…

  20. How can psychological theory help to promote condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries?

    PubMed

    Campbell, T

    1997-06-01

    Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence.

  1. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhike; Zhu, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries. PMID:24741366

  2. Biomass energy use in developing countries: An African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karekezi, S.; Ewagata, E.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass forms the bulk of the energy supply of the developing world with the largest share consumed in the household sector as either fuelwood or charcoal for cooking, lighting and space heating. However there are a number of constraints facing the use of biomass if it is to be sustainable. Stephen Karekezi and Esther Ewagata of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) outline these constraints and discuss the modernisation of the traditional technologies now underway.

  3. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. Methods In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. Results and discussion HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. Conclusion On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security

  4. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  5. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  6. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Sérouènout Terrane, Central Hoggar, Algeria) comprises mainly a high-pressure Neoproterozoic metamorphic formation consisting of talc-kyanite-quartz whiteschists, chlorite schists, marbles, sulphide ores, partially serpentinized peridotites and partially amphibolitized eclogites, and reminiscent of an ophiolitic mélange that was metamorphosed and strongly deformed under eclogite-facies conditions. Major and trace elements indicate that the whiteschists underwent intense hydrothermal alteration, with Mg enrichment and leaching of alkalis and Ca, prior to high-pressure metamorphism. The main talc-kyanite-quartz paragenesis is stable within a large multivariant P-T field extending from high-P amphibolite to eclogite facies; the Tschermak substitution in talc marginally constrains peak pressure conditions to P > 11 kbar and 600 < T < ~ 800 °C. The subsequent development of cordierite ± sapphirine ± corundum symplectites and coronae at the contact between talc and kyanite was due to isochemical and almost univariant reactions (Tlc + Ky + Qtz → Crd; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Crn; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Spr) which combined together to produce hybrid microstructures. These metamorphic reactions indicate a thermal overprint under granulite-facies conditions (T = 650-860 °C; P < 12 kbar). The peraluminous Mg-rich sapphirine observed in the symplectites reaches one of the highest degrees of Tschermak substitution ever reported for this mineral (with n = 3.6), intermediate between the 13:19:5 (n = 3) and 3:5:1 (n = 4) theoretical compositions. The neighbouring eclogites record a similar P-T evolution: after the eclogite-facies metamorphic peak, they underwent partial amphibolitization and a subsequent high-temperature overprint under granulite-facies conditions that led to partial dehydration. The Ti-N-Eggoleh series is interpreted as the product of the thermal alteration of oceanic rocks that were subducted prior to the continental collision that formed

  7. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  8. Hand replantation: First experience in a sub-Saharan African country (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Komla Sena; Amakoutou, Komla; Bakriga, Batarabadja; Abalo, Anani; Dossim, Assang

    2016-01-01

    Fifty years after Chen has performed the first forearm replantation, we report our first case of hand replantation in a sub-Saharan African country. The etiology of the amputation was machete due to interpersonal violence. The amputation was trans-carpal, guillotine-type, subtotal non-viable maintained with a small skin bridge. The replantation procedure was successful. At one year follow-up, the functional result according to Chen's criteria was excellent. Through this first experience, we can state that hand replantation can be performed successfully both in survival and function in a non-specialized hospital of a sub-Saharan African country. PMID:27274133

  9. [Management of beta-thalassemias in a developing country. Experience of a pediatric service in Oran (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bouhass, R A; Kabouya, E A; Smahi, C; Benaceur, S M; Aguercif, M

    1992-02-01

    The management of beta-thalassemia in a developing country faces a host of organizational, logistic, and funding problems. Experience acquired against this background of multiple deficiencies is reported here. Only 60% of children with documented beta-thalassemia were monitored more or less regularly. The remaining 40% died or were lost to follow-up. Clinical results were acceptable in terms of growth but transfusion goals (pretransfusion Hb greater than or equal to 10 g/dl) were achieved in only 7% of cases and adverse effects to transfusions proved difficult to prevent. Lastly, funding remained grossly inadequate since only 5.4% of actual costs in drugs and small equipment were covered. This lack of funds has a major impact on decision-making concerning the care of this type of patient.

  10. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  11. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers - examples from five destination countries.

    PubMed

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  12. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  13. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries.

    PubMed

    Hadziyannis, Stephanos J

    2011-07-01

    Data derived from population, case-control, and cohort studies conducted in several Euro-Mediterranean and African countries disclose impressive similarities in the age and modes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and in the prevalence, duration, and outcome of the four phases of the natural history of chronic infection. Perinatal HBV infection is rare while the vast majority of chronic infections originate from horizontal HBV transmission to infants and children. HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe occur in a few years time, usually during the second decade of life. HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB), predominates in these countries being 7-9 times more frequent than HBeAg-positive CHB. The predominance of HBeAg-negative CHB is largely linked to the molecular characteristics of HBV genotype D prevailing in European and African countries of the Mediterranean basin and of genotype E and subgenotype A1 that prevail in the other parts of Africa. The molecular characteristics of the African subgenotype A1 differ from those of European subgenotype A2 explaining the fact that patients infected subgenotype A1 demonstrate an earlier loss of HBeAg and seroconversion to anti-HBe during the natural course of HBV infection compared to those infected with subgenotype A2. It is proposed that the molecular characteristics of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes prevailing in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries acting in concert with host and environmental factors largely determine the natural history of chronic HBV infection and its significant differences from countries of HBV genotype C and B and of subgenotype Ae predominance. The knowledge of the natural history of chronic HBV infection in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries combined with wide screening programs for prompt recognition and treatment of chronic HBV infection both in its HBeAg-positive and -negative immune reactive phases can be expected to increase the efficacy of current

  14. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among school children in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2009-10-01

    An increasing trend of noncommunicable diseases is a worldwide phenomenon, also including the developing countries. Few studies focus on adolescents' substance use in relation to mental distress and protective factors in African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates (mental distress and protective factors) of substance use among school-going adolescents in six African countries. The sample included 20,765 students aged from 13 to 15 years from six African countries (Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe), chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The measure used was part of the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire, including various domains of health behaviour. Results indicate a prevalence of 12.6% tobacco use (past month), 6.6% risky alcohol use (two or more per day for at least 20 days or more in the past month), and 10.5% of illicit drug use (three or more times ever) in school-going adolescents in six African countries. School truancy, loneliness, sleeping problems, sadness, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and poverty were associated with substance use (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs), while school attendance and parental supervision and connectedness were protective factors for substance use, and peer support protective for tobacco use. It is concluded that tobacco use, risky drinking and illicit drug use were common, clustered together and were associated with school truancy, mental distress, and lack of parental and peer support among adolescent African school children. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programmes.

  15. Measures to facilitate the return and reintegration of highly skilled migrants into African countries.

    PubMed

    1986-03-01

    A very large number of skilled Africans are found to be operating in the developed industrialized countries of the West at a time when their national economies are crying out for their services. Ways must be found to return as many of these skilled Africans as possible to the African economy. This out-migration or brain drain has a number of causes, including: 1) real incomes in Africa have been on the decline in the past several years while prices were constantly rising. Professional and salaried workers seek employment in other countries that pay much higher salaries. 2) Promotion on criteria other than merit is common in Africa and diligence and high productivity are not often rewarded. 3) Political interference frustrates public services professionals; they are rendered unable to use their professional judgement in making decisions that affect the economic and social fabric. 4) The inadequacy of higher education facilities and opportunities in African countries encourages the brightest and best qualified Africans to go to Western Europe and North America for school; they tend not to return after graduation. 5) Political upheavals and general instability contribute to feelings of individual insecurity, sending Africans to seek sanctuary in more politically stable and less repressive environments. Actions needed to control this out-migration include: 1) incentive systems should be reviewed with a view to providing realistic levels of renumeration and working conditions should be made to promote job satisfaction and self-actualization. 2) Capacities and capabilities should be strengthened so as to ensure that production of goods and services becomes indigenized and that the development and operation of institutions emanates from within the continent. 3) Educational services should be expanded and improved to obviate the need for large numbers of Africans to seek educational opportunities abroad.

  16. The effects of air pollution on human mortality: does gender difference matter in African countries?

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Alhaji Jibrilla; Ismail, Normaz Wana

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and human health has long been a concern among academic researchers. We use two indicators of environmental pollution, namely particulate matter (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to examine the effects of poor air quality on human mortality. This study explores an issue that has largely been ignored, particularly in the African literature, where the effect of air pollution on human mortality could be influenced by gender specification. We analyse a panel data from 35 African countries and our result suggests that the elevated levels of PM10 and CO2 have a significant effect on the increasing mortality rates in infants, under-five children and adults. Although the effect of poor air quality on adults is found to differ between genders, such difference is not statistically significant. We conclude that the air pollution effects, on average, are similar between genders in the African countries.

  17. Language Policy and Science: Could Some African Countries Learn from Some Asian Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main…

  18. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  19. Association between Contract Teachers and Student Learning in Five Francophone African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the association between studying with a contract teacher and a student's academic outcomes, using data from five Francophone African countries for two grade levels and two subjects. Based on this analysis, the evidence for or against this form of teacher hiring is inconclusive. The results indicate that these…

  20. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  1. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  2. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  3. 19 CFR 10.178a - Special duty-free treatment for sub-Saharan African countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special duty-free treatment for sub-Saharan... for sub-Saharan African countries. (a) General. Section 506A of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2466a... eligible beneficiary sub-Saharan African country for purposes of that duty-free treatment. (b)...

  4. Can countries of the WHO African Region wean themselves off donor funding for health?

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Diarra-Nama, Alimata J

    2008-11-01

    More than 20% of total health expenditure in 48% of the 46 countries in the WHO African Region is provided by external sources. Issues surrounding aid effectiveness suggest that these countries ought to implement strategies for weaning off aid dependency. This paper broaches the following question: what are some of the strategies that countries of the region can employ to wean off donor funding for health? Five strategies are discussed: reduction in economic inefficiencies; reprioritizing public expenditures; raising additional tax revenues; increased private sector involvement in health development; and fighting corruption.

  5. Factors Associated with PMTCT Cascade Completion in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Thomas K.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis. Factors associated with cascade completion were identified using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results. Of 976 HIV-infected women, only 355 (36.4%) completed the PMTCT cascade. Although most women (69.2%) did not know their partner's HIV status; awareness of partner HIV status was associated with cascade completion (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–2.0). Completion was also associated with receiving an HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy compared with HIV diagnosis during or after pregnancy (aOR 14.1, 95% CI 5.2–38.6). Conclusions. Pregnant women with HIV infection in Africa who were aware of their partner's HIV status and who were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy were more likely to complete the PMTCT cascade. PMID:27872760

  6. [Demography and crises in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cherrad, S E

    1996-01-01

    This article argues that demographic factors are an underlying cause of the many political, economic, social, and cultural crises that Algeria has experienced over the course of the 1990s. The author suggests that although the demography of the country is generally ignored when these issues are discussed, the rapid rate of population growth, which has caused the population to double in about 20 years, and the continued dependency burden, due to the fact that over 50% of the population are under age 20, are major causes of the country's current malaise.

  7. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ogbo, Felix A.; Agho, Kingsley; Ogeleka, Pascal; Woolfenden, Sue; Page, Andrew; Eastwood, John

    2017-01-01

    Background The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children’s Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. Method The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472). Multilevel logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in these nine African countries. Results Diarrhoea prevalence was lower among children whose mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77–0.85, P<0.001 and OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.43–0.57, respectively). In contrast, introduction of complementary foods (OR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.14–1.50) and continued breastfeeding at one year (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05–1.55) were significantly associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Conclusion Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are protective of diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. To reduce diarrhoea mortality and also achieve the health-related sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan African, an integrated, multi-agency strategic partnership within each

  8. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  9. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  10. English Teaching Profile: Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A survey of the status and use of the English language in Algeria is presented. The following topics are outlined: (1) the role of English as a third language, (2) its place within the educational system at all levels and in each graduate institution, (3) the status of British expatriates teaching English in Algeria and of Algerian teachers of…

  11. The Role of Parents in the Education of Children of Pre-School Age in Tropical Africa, India and the Maghreb Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Structures, Content, Methods and Techniques of Education.

    The case studies summarized in this report are based on ethnographic surveys carried out mainly in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, and Senegal (collectively called "Tropical Africa" in the text). The surveys were also carried out in the Maghreb countries, especially Algeria and southern India. Their common objective…

  12. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    PubMed

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  13. Economic and Geopolitical Integration between Morocco and Algeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    each other; they must face the new challenges in their respective countries, as well as that poised from outside: Globalization. Morocco and Algeria...overview of the situation in Morocco and Algeria. The second chapter attempts to show the extent to which economic integration can resolve the two...presidential assassination. Economically after independence, the two countries followed different orientations. In Morocco , a more liberal stance was

  14. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  15. Vocational Training and Rural Development in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.

    1973-01-01

    Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…

  16. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  17. Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-02-11

    We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries.

  18. Increasing the number of female primary school teachers in African countries: Effects, barriers and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Caitlin S.; Klees, Steven J.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Lin, Jing; Choti, Truphena; Corneilse, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Girls' education has been a high development priority for decades. While some progress has been made, girls are often still at a great disadvantage, especially in developing countries, and most especially in African countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of primary school teachers and only a quarter of secondary school teachers are women, and enrolment figures for girls are low. One common policy prescription is to increase the number of women teachers, especially in the many countries where teaching remains a predominantly male profession. This policy prescription needs to be backed by more evidence in order to significantly increase and improve its effective implementation. The available research seems to suggest that girls are more likely to enrol in schools where there are female teachers. Moreover, increasing the number of trained teachers in sub-Saharan Africa depends on more girls completing their school education. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive literature review analysing the effects of being taught by women teachers on girls' educational experience. This paper aims to make a start on filling this gap by examining the evidence on the effects in primary schools, especially in African countries. It also identifies and examines the barriers women face in becoming and staying teachers, and considers policies to remedy their situation.

  19. Algeria schedules onshore licensing round

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-17

    This paper reports that Algeria's Sonatrach will conduct its first international onshore exploration licensing round in a move designed to triple drilling activity in the country. A second round will follow next April. Sonatrach plans to drill 200 wells during 1991-95, which will require the current level of 37/year to be almost trebled toward the end of the period. To this end foreign operators are being courted in an open exploration bidding round. Deadline for bid submittal in Nov. 30. Companies may enter singly or in groups to form partnerships with Sonatrach. Foreign licensees will be able to take a maximum 49% of production under Algerian law.

  20. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  1. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  2. Analysis and implications of the determinants of healthcare expenditure in African countries.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A

    2005-11-01

    The income elasticity of health care spending in the OECD countries tends toward luxury good values. Similar studies, based on more recent data, and capable of informing macroeconomic health policies of the African countries, do not currently exist. How the health care expenditure in Africa responds to changes in the Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Official Development Assistance (ODA), and other determinants, is also relevant for health policy because health care is a necessity in the 'basic needs' theory of economic development. This paper presents econometric model findings of the determinants of per-capita health expenditure (in PPPs) for 26 African countries, using the flexible Box-Cox model regression methods and 1995 cross-sectional data (sources: WRI, UNEP, UNDP, The World Bank). The economic and other determinants, capturing 74 percent of the variations in health expenditures, include per-capita GDP (in PPPs), ODA (US dollar), Gini income inequality index, population dependency ratio, internal conflicts, and the percentage of births attended by trained medical workers. Income inequality dampens, while the ODA and population per health personnel raise health care expenditure. The GDP elasticity of about 0.6 signals the tendency for health care to behave like a technical 'necessity'. Implications for sustainable basic health development policies are discussed.

  3. Past and Ongoing Tsetse and Animal Trypanosomiasis Control Operations in Five African Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hannah R.; Selby, Richard; Guitian, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Control operations targeting Animal African Trypanosomiasis and its primary vector, the tsetse, were covering approximately 128,000 km2 of Africa in 2001, which is a mere 1.3% of the tsetse infested area. Although extensive trypanosomiasis and tsetse (T&T) control operations have been running since the beginning of the 20th century, Animal African Trypanosomiasis is still a major constraint of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic review of the existing literature describing T&T control programmes conducted in a selection of five African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zambia, between 1980 and 2015. Sixty-eight documents were eventually selected from those identified by the database search. This was supplemented with information gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve key informants recruited in the study countries and selected based on their experience and knowledge of T&T control. The combined information from these two sources was used to describe the inputs, processes and outcomes from 23 major T&T control programmes implemented in the study countries. Although there were some data gaps, involvement of the target communities and sustainability of the control activities were identified as the two main issues faced by these programmes. Further, there was a lack of evaluation of these control programmes, as well as a lack of a standardised methodology to conduct such evaluations. Conclusions/Significance Past experiences demonstrated that coordinated and sustained control activities require careful planning, and evidence of successes, failures and setbacks from past control programmes represent a mine of information. As there is a lack of evaluation of these programmes, these data have not been fully exploited for the design, analyses and justification of future control programmes. PMID:28027299

  4. [Medical General Inspector Debenedetti and Algeria (1956-1961)].

    PubMed

    Linon, Pierre-Jean

    2005-01-01

    M.G.I. Debenedetti was appointed as director of French Military Health Service in June 1956 for seven years, during the war of Algeria where he travelled eight times. Thus, he surveyed the good organisation of the Military Health Service in Algeria from 1956 to 1961 when he had his last journey in this country. This paper tries to report his career, his survey of the French Military Health Service on the theatre of operations, of the hospitals and of the Free Medical Care of Algeria.

  5. [The population of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cote, M

    1983-01-01

    Using data from the 1977 census for Algeria, demographic developments over the preceding 10 years are analyzed. Findings are presented concerning age distribution, economic activity, spatial distribution, urbanization, and internal migration. (summary in ENG)

  6. The Pasteurization of Algeria?

    PubMed

    Strachan, John

    2006-01-01

    This essay focuses on the anti-malarial campaigns of Edmond and Etienne Sergent in colonial Algeria during the period from 1900 to 1930. This Pasteur Institute of Algeria was part of an elaborate, global network of men and institutions that constituted the scientific empire of Third Republic France. It was deeply indebted to the methods pioneered by Pasteur and to the shared foundational myth that connected the overseas Pasteur Institutes to Paris. But the Sergent brothers' work operated within a dynamic context of international public health too. Algeria's European settlers had also worked out a creolized identity that was both dependent upon and distinct from metropolitan practices. Ultimately, the Pasteur Institute of Algeria bore the mark of the settler colonialism that had given rise to it.

  7. Deoxynivalenol-producing ability of Fusarium culmorum strains and their impact on infecting barley in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yekkour, Amine; Toumatia, Omrane; Meklat, Atika; Verheecke, Carol; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence

    2015-06-01

    The cereal-pathogenic Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith), causal agent of various blights and rot diseases, is considered as a chronic fungus of economic concern worldwide including North African countries such as Algeria. This pathogen produces a wide range of mycotoxins, amongst which the type B-trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). In addition to its acute and chronic side effects in livestock and humans, DON is believed to play a determinant role in the pathogenesis toward Triticeae. However, regardless its significant occurrence and impact, little is known about trichothecenes-producing ability of F. culmorum infecting cereals in Algeria. The PCR assay based on Tri genes of 12 F. culmorum strains (designated Fc1-Fc12), which were recovered from several cropping areas of North Algeria, revealed their trichothecenes-producing ability with 3-AcDON genotype. The molecular prediction was confirmed by HPLC analysis. All strains were able to produce the toxin at detectable levels. Strains Fc1 and Fc12 were the highest producers of this mycotoxin with 220 and 230 µg g(-1), respectively. The evaluation of pathogenic ability of strains through a barley infesting experiment exhibited the significant disease impact of most strains. Significant correlation between the DON-producing ability of strains and the increase in both disease severity (r = 0.88, P = 0.05) and disease occurrence (r = 0.70, P = 0.05) was observed. Chemotyping of F. culmorum isolates and evaluation of their pathogenic ability are reported for the first time for isolates from Algeria, and highlights the important potential of F. culmorum to contaminate cultivated cereal with DON trichothecenes.

  8. School Supervision in Four African Countries. Volume II: National Diagnoses--Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Trends in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grauwe, A., Ed.

    This publication forms the second volume of a report on a study of the school supervision system in four African countries. (The research is part of a larger series of studies sponsored by UNESCO and the International Institute for Educational Planning.) The countries studied were Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The study examined the…

  9. Stall in fertility decline in Eastern African countries: regional analysis of patterns, determinants and implications

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Alex C.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Emina, Jacques O.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the patterns of stall in fertility decline in four Eastern African countries. Contrary to patterns of fertility transition in Africa that cut across various socio-economic and geographical groups within countries, we find strong selectivity of fertility stall across different groups and regions in all four countries. In both Kenya and Tanzania where fertility decline has stalled at the national level, it continued to decline among the most educated women and in some regions. While fertility has remained at pre-transition level in Uganda over the past 20 years, there are signs of decline with specific groups of women (especially the most educated, urban and those in the Eastern region) taking the lead. For Zimbabwe, although fertility has continued to decline at the national level, stall is observed among women with less than secondary education and those in some of the regions. We link these intra-country variations to differential changes in socio-economic variables, family planning programme environment and reproductive behaviour models. The results suggest that declines in contraceptive use, increases in unmet need for family planning, increasing preferences for larger families, and increases in adolescent fertility were consistently associated with stalls in subgroup fertility across all four countries. These results are consistent with models that emphasize the role of declines in national and international commitments to family planning programmes in the premature stall in sub-Saharan fertility transition. PMID:19770151

  10. Making sense of abstinence: social representations in young Africans' HIV-related narratives from six countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Beres, Laura K; Hill, Elizabeth; Mbakwem, Benjamin Chigozie; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-09-01

    Despite the prominence of abstinence promotion in HIV prevention for young Africans, there is little documentation concerning its reception and interpretation. With the purpose of informing programmatic practice, we examined how young Africans from six countries with contrasting HIV prevalence rates make sense of abstinence. 'Scenarios from Africa' scriptwriting contests invite young people to contribute ideas for short films about HIV. Using thematic narrative-based approaches, we analyzed a stratified random sample of these narratives written in 2005 by young women and men aged 10-24 years from Senegal, Burkina Faso, South-East Nigeria, Kenya, Namibia and Swaziland. Abstinence was considerably more prominent as a theme in the samples from SE Nigeria, Kenya and Swaziland. It was articulated in relation to conservative Christian sexual morality and in opposition to condom use with particular intensity in SE Nigeria, with stigmatising implications for non-abstainers. However, cross-national commonalities were more striking than differences. Examples of non-stigmatising pro-abstinence messaging highlighted the appeal of discourses of romantic love and future plans across countries and demographic characteristics. The analysis yielded contextual understanding, youth-driven ideas and recommendations to inform comprehensive HIV-prevention efforts.

  11. Household Crowding, Social Mixing Patterns and Respiratory Symptoms in Seven Countries of the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Claire F.; Trotter, Caroline L.; Nascimento, Maria C.; Jusot, Jean-François; Omotara, Babatunji A.; Hodgson, Abraham; Ali, Oumer; Alavo, Serge; Sow, Samba; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Stuart, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the variation in household crowding and social mixing patterns in the African meningitis belt and to assess any association with self-reported recent respiratory symptoms. Methods In 2010, the African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium (MenAfriCar) conducted cross-sectional surveys in urban and rural areas of seven countries. The number of household members, rooms per household, attendance at social gatherings and meeting places were recorded. Associations with self-reported recent respiratory symptoms were analysed by univariate and multivariate regression models. Results The geometric mean people per room ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 between Ghana and Ethiopia respectively. Attendance at different types of social gatherings was variable by country, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 per week. Those who attended 3 or more different types of social gatherings a week (frequent mixers) were more likely to be older, male (OR 1.27, p<0.001) and live in urban areas (OR 1.45, p<0.001). Frequent mixing and young age, but not increased household crowding, were associated with higher odds of self-reported respiratory symptoms (aOR 2.2, p<0.001 and OR 2.8, p<0.001 respectively). A limitation is that we did not measure school and workplace attendance. Conclusion There are substantial variations in household crowding and social mixing patterns across the African meningitis belt. This study finds a clear association between age, increased social mixing and respiratory symptoms. It lays the foundation for designing and implementing more detailed studies of social contact patterns in this region. PMID:24988195

  12. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development.

  13. African and classical swine fever situation in Ivory-Coast and neighboring countries, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, K V; Michaud, V; Biego, H G; Gnabro, H P G; Kouakou, A V; Mossoun, A M; Awuni, J A; Minoungou, G L; Aplogan, G L; Awoumé, F K; Albina, E; Lancelot, R; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 to determine the animal health status of Ivory Coast and neighboring countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin) for African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF), and to assess the risk factors for ASF introduction in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast had probably been free from ASF from 1998 to 2014 when it was re-introduced in this country. However, the ASF virus was found in all neighboring countries. In contrast, no evidence of CSF infection was found so far in Ivory Coast and neighboring countries. To assess the risk of ASF reintroduction in Ivory Coast, we surveyed 59 modern pig farms, and 169 pig owners in 19 villages and in two towns. For the village livestock, the major risk factor was the high frequency of pig exchanges with Burkinabe villages. In the commercial sector, many inadequate management practices were observed with respect to ASF. Their identification should enable farmers and other stakeholders to implement a training and prevention program to reduce the introduction risk of ASF in their farms.

  14. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people's narratives.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-10-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n = 586, ∼5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April 2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders ("othering") and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  15. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  16. Retrospective review of Surgical Availability and Readiness in 8 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, D A; Droti, B; Relan, P; Hobson, S; Cherian, M N; O'Neill, K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess surgical availability and readiness in 8 African countries using the WHO's Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool. Setting We analysed data for surgical services, including basic and comprehensive surgery, comprehensive obstetric care, blood transfusion, and infection prevention, obtained from the WHO's SARA surveys in Sierra Leone, Uganda, Mauritania, Benin, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo and Togo. Primary and secondary outcome measures Among the facilities that were expected to offer surgical services (N=3492), there were wide disparities between the countries in the number of facilities per 100 000 population that reported offering basic surgery (1.0–12.1), comprehensive surgery (0.1–0.8), comprehensive obstetric care (0.1–0.8) and blood transfusion (0.1–0.8). Only 0.1–0.3 facilities per 100 000 population had all three bellwether procedures available, namely laparotomy, open fracture management and caesarean section. In all the countries, the facilities that reported offering surgical services generally had a shortage of the necessary items for offering the services and this varied greatly between the countries, with the facilities having on average 27–53% of the items necessary for offering basic surgery, 56–83% for comprehensive surgery, 49–72% for comprehensive obstetric care and 54–80% for blood transfusion. Furthermore, few facilities had all the necessary items present. However, facilities that reported offering surgical services had on average most of the necessary items for the prevention of infection. Conclusions There are important gaps in the surgical services in the 8 African countries surveyed. Efforts are therefore urgently needed to address deficiencies in the availability and readiness to deliver surgical services in these nations, and this will require commitment from multiple stakeholders. SARA may be used to monitor availability and

  17. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  18. Triacylglycerol and triterpene ester composition of shea nuts from seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Katoh, Naoko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Shimizu, Naoto; Masters, Eliot T

    2011-01-01

    The compositions of the triacylglycerol (TAG) and triterpene ester (TE) fractions of the kernel fats (n-hexane extracts; shea butter) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) were determined for 36 samples from seven sub-Saharan countries, i.e., Cote d' Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad, Sudan, and Uganda. The principal TAGs are stearic-oleic-stearic (SOS; mean 31.2%), SOO (27.7%), and OOO (10.8%). The TE fractions contents are in the range of 0.5-6.5%, and contain α-amyrin cinnamate (1c; mean 29.3%) as the predominant TE followed by butyrospermol cinnamate (4c; 14.8%), α-amyrin acetate (1a; 14.1%), lupeol cinnamate (3c; 9.0%), β-amyrin cinnamate (2c; 7.6%), lupeol acetate (3a; 7.2%), butyrospermol acetate (4a; 5.8%), and β-amyrin acetate (2a; 4.9%). Shea kernel fats from West African provenances contained, in general, higher levels of high-melting TAGs such as SOS, and higher amount of TEs than those from East African provenances. No striking regional difference in the composition of the TE fractions was observed.

  19. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  20. Establishing of cancer units in low or middle income african countries: angolan experience - a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Fernando; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Bernardo, Dora; Monteiro, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, João Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The number of cancer cases and related deaths worldwide is expected to double over the next 20-30 years. African countries will be the most affected by the burden of cancer. The improving economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which by itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. Because cancer therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach, trained health professionals, satisfactory infrastructure and appropriate facilities, the availability of effective cancer therapy is a difficult task that requires support. The aim of this article is to share our experience achieved in the establishment of cancer units in Angola and to validate our checklist for this action. Methods The survey method was a questionnaire addressed to Angolan cancer units, in order to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a checklist developed by the authors - The Cancer Units Assessment Checklist for low or middle income African countries - which was used previously in the establishment of those units. Afterwards, the crucial steps taken for the establishing of the main sites of each cancer unit considering, facilities, resources and professionals, were also recorded. Results All cancer units reported that the checklist was a useful tool in the development of the cancer program for the improvement of the unit or the establishing of cancer unit sites. This instrument helped identifying resources, defining the best practice and identifying barriers. Local experts, who know the best practices in oncology and who are recognized by the local heads, are also important and they proved to be the major facilitators. Conclusion The fight against cancer has just started in Angola. The training, education, advocacy and legislation are ongoing. According to our results, the assessment checklist for the establishment of cancer units is a useful instrument. PMID:25883719

  1. Geochemical study (major, trace elements and Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes) of mantle material obducted onto the North African margin (Edough Massif, North Eastern Algeria): Tethys fragments or lost remnants of the Liguro-Provençal basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Delphine; Hammor, Dalila; Mechati, Mehdi; Fernandez, Laure; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The Maghrebides, Betics and some parts of the Calabrian, NE Sicilian and Tuscan allochtons constitute dismembered fragments of the Alpine belt that resulted from the Cenozoic collision between Africa and Eurasia and the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin. Mineral and whole-rock geochemical analyses have been performed on three distinct outcrops of mantle material from the Edough Massif of NE Algeria, namely the Bou Maiza (BM) gabbros, the La Voile Noire (LVN) amphibolites and the Sidi Mohamed (SM) peridotites. In all samples, Sr isotopes are largely affected by seawater alteration (87Sr/86Sract. > 0.70384 and up to 0.70888) and cannot be used to evaluate the nature of the source reservoirs. SM peridotites display variable depleted mantle Nd isotopic signatures (εNdact. from + 7.0 to + 12.2) and geochemical features suggesting no significant chemical depletion as a result of partial melting and melt extraction (Mg# < 90; slightly LREE-depleted patterns with La/YbN = 0.33-0.39). These rocks are interpreted as parts of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle incorporated into the crustal units of the Edough Massif during the early stages of opening of the Algerian basin. BM gabbros and LVN amphibolites show geochemical signatures indicating derivation from a common depleted mantle reservoir (εNd > + 7.9) and are likely cogenetic, but without filiation with the SM peridotites. Pb isotopes indicate a contribution of sediments in the source reservoir, which is attributed to contamination solely by hydrous fluids released from a sedimentary component. This observation, together with a LILE-enrichment, suggests a back-arc basin environment. These results indicate that BM and LVN units were obducted onto the North African margin and subsequently fragmented, probably during doming and exhumation of the lower continental crust of the Edough massif. Doming resulted in opposite movements of the overlying oceanic units, southward for the BM units and northward for LVN

  2. Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, José M.; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    North Africa is considered a distinct geographic and ethnic entity within Africa. Although modern humans originated in this Continent, studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome genealogical markers provide evidence that the North African gene pool has been shaped by the back-migration of several Eurasian lineages in Paleolithic and Neolithic times. More recent influences from sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean Europe are also evident. The presence of East-West and North-South haplogroup frequency gradients strongly reinforces the genetic complexity of this region. However, this genetic scenario is beset with a notable gap, which is the lack of consistent information for Algeria, the largest country in the Maghreb. To fill this gap, we analyzed a sample of 240 unrelated subjects from a northwest Algeria cosmopolitan population using mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, focusing on the fine dissection of haplogroups E and R, which are the most prevalent in North Africa and Europe respectively. The Eurasian component in Algeria reached 80% for mtDNA and 90% for Y-chromosome. However, within them, the North African genetic component for mtDNA (U6 and M1; 20%) is significantly smaller than the paternal (E-M81 and E-V65; 70%). The unexpected presence of the European-derived Y-chromosome lineages R-M412, R-S116, R-U152 and R-M529 in Algeria and the rest of the Maghreb could be the counterparts of the mtDNA H1, H3 and V subgroups, pointing to direct maritime contacts between the European and North African sides of the western Mediterranean. Female influx of sub-Saharan Africans into Algeria (20%) is also significantly greater than the male (10%). In spite of these sexual asymmetries, the Algerian uniparental profiles faithfully correlate between each other and with the geography. PMID:23431392

  3. Multicentric study in five African countries of antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Khalid; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Boye, Cheikh; Hammami, Adnane

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical and epidemiological problem. We report on the antibiotic susceptibility of three pathogens isolated from patients in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia during 2010-2011. In total, 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 428 Staphylococcus aureus, and 414 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected. S. pneumoniae resistance was noted against penicillin (30.2%), erythromycin (27.4%), cefpodoxime (19.1%), amoxicillin (12.0%), cefotaxime (7.4%), and levofloxacin (3.2%). All the strains were teicoplanin susceptible. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance differed between countries, from 5.0% in Senegal to 62.7% in Egypt. Levofloxacin resistance was low in all countries, and the highest rate (in Egypt) was still only 13.6% for intermediate and resistant strains combined. Most strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (99.3%) and pristinamycin (94.2%). P. aeruginosa resistance was found against levofloxacin (30.4%), ciprofloxacin (29.9%), tobramycin (19.7%), ceftazidime (19.2%), and imipenem (17.9%), but not colistin. Antibiotic susceptibility varied widely between countries, with resistance typically most prevalent in Egypt.

  4. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  5. Teaching Abroad: Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agriopoulos, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program in Algeria which included the construction of a training facility to ease the shortage of semiskilled workers, particularly construction site electricians and instrument installers. Priorities were to define training needs, implement the program, and produce graduates as soon as possible. (JOW)

  6. Morocco and Algeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Where Europe meets Africa     View Larger ... create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48°N, ... Other formats available at JPL Africa and Europe meet in this natural-color mosaic from data during 2000 - 2002. ...

  7. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  8. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.

  9. Regional variation in shea butter lipid and triterpene composition in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Di Vincenzo, Daria; Maranz, Steve; Serraiocco, Arnaldo; Vito, Raffaella; Wiesman, Zeev; Bianchi, Giorgio

    2005-09-21

    The triacylglycerol, fatty acid, and polycyclic triterpene compositions of shea butter were determined for 150 samples from the sub-Saharan countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. The compositional profiles showed high variability in all three classes of compounds. Shea butter is made up mainly of four triglycerides (TAG) differing in carbon number (CN) by two, starting from CN 50 to CN 56. The greatest source of variation was in the CN 54 TAG. Shea butter is characterized by 16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in greatly varying proportion, the major ones being the even homologues in the range of C(16)-C(20). Oleic acid is dominant in Ugandan provenances, whereas stearic acid is dominant in West African shea butter. Acetyl and cinnamyl polycyclic triterpene means for countries ranged from 3.69 to 12.57%, with the highest values found in Nigerian provenances. Statistical comparisons of fat composition show that the geographic distance between shea populations is reflected in the degree of separation of their chemical profiles.

  10. HIV and AIDS stigma violates human rights in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Kohi, Thecla W; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Holzemer, William L; Phetlhu, Deliwe René; Uys, Leana; Naidoo, Joanne; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie

    2006-07-01

    The situation and human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to human rights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The findings revealed that the human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the human rights of all people.

  11. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  12. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 “Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems”—a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services—several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories’ diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to

  13. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  14. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context.

  15. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  16. Ebola impact on African health systems entails a quest for more international and local resilience: the case of African Portuguese speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epidemics on African health systems, with a special focus on the definition of impact mitigation guidelines and the role of resilience. The example of Portuguese speaking countries is presented. Methods A combination of literature review and case study methods are used. A literature review on Ebola outbreak impact on health systems will provide information to define a set of guidelines for healthcare services response to Ebola. The role of cooperation in providing additional resilience is described. Finally a case study focusing on the Portuguese collaboration and intervention in African Portuguese Speaking Countries (PALOP) is presented, as an example how the international community can provide additional resilience. Results The existing knowledge is very helpful to guide both the preparation and the coordination of Ebola preparedness interventions. Additional resilience can be provided by international cooperation. Conclusion In addition to international concrete support in times of crisis, to have a regional strategy of creating (multi-national) teams to rapidly implement an intervention while establishing better regional capacity to have sufficient resources to support the “resilience” required of the health system. PMID:26740843

  17. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  18. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  19. Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion

  20. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.

  1. Measuring HIV Stigma for PLHAs and Nurses over Time in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Holzemer, William L.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Leana R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a one-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to affect negatively the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardized scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a one-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of PLHAs (n = 948) was 36.15 years (SD= 8.69), and 67.1% (n= 617) were female. The average age of nurses (n = 887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (n=784) were females. Eighty-four percent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV stigma event at baseline. This declined, but was still significant one year later when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV stigma events and this increased to 83.7% one year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association. PMID:19936409

  2. Community Influences on Married Men's Uptake of HIV Testing in Eight African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Multilevel models were fitted in each country for the outcome of ever receiving an HIV test. After controlling for individual and household level factors, community level factors of demographics, economics, and behavior and knowledge remain significantly associated with HIV testing among men. The results of this analysis highlight the need to recognize the impact of community influences on men's HIV test seeking behavior, and to harness these community factors in the design of programs aimed at encouraging the uptake of HIV testing among men in Africa. PMID:22677974

  3. Wastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Andualem; Leta, Seyoum; Njau, Karoli Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low.

  4. Costs of maternal health care services in three anglophone African countries.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ann; Dmytraczenko, Tania; McEuen, Mark; Ssengooba, Freddie; Mangani, Ronald; Van Dyck, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of a case study of provider and consumer costs, along with selected quality indicators, for six maternal health services provided at one public hospital, one mission hospital, one public health centre and one mission centre, in Uganda, Malawi and Ghana. The study examines the costs of providing the services in a selected number of facilities in order to examine the reasons behind cost differences, assess the efficiency of service delivery, and determine whether management improvements might achieve cost savings without hurting quality. This assessment is important to African countries with ambitious goals for improving maternal health but scarce public health resources and limited government budgets. The study also evaluates the costs that consumers pay to use the maternal health services, along with the contribution that revenues from fees for services make to recovering health facility costs. The authors find that costs differ between hospitals and health centres as well as among mission and public facilities in the study sample. The variation is explained by differences in the role of the facility, use and availability of materials and equipment, number and level of personnel delivering services, and utilization levels of services. The report concludes with several policy implications for improvements in efficiency, financing options and consumer costs.

  5. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  6. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  7. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  8. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  9. Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  10. Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Africa. A Selective Annotated Reading List of Reports and Studies Concerning 40 African Countries During the Period 1960 - 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville-Rolfe, Edmund, Comp.

    Some 1394 research studies from various African countries are annotated in this bibliography, which is divided into 37 country sections with a separate section (Africa General) for studies dealing with the continent as a whole, with geographical regions, or with groups of countries. The publications listed and summarized were published primarily…

  11. Algeria to use gas to meet energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Sonelgaz, Algeria's natural gas distribution monopoly, plans to supply all major towns in the country with natural gas for domestic energy demands by 1989. The utility uses copper tubing in residences and plastic pipe for distribution mains and services to the houses for new construction and conversion to natural gas from LPG systems.

  12. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff.

  13. Study on the Development of Museums for Improved Integration of the Cultural Heritage into the Education System in French-Speaking African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essomba, Joseph-Marie

    Objectives for establishing museums in African countries for the purpose of teaching African history, languages, literature, and art are presented. Section 1 of the report focuses on the museum as a basis for creating an awareness of history, developing cultural individuality, laying groundwork for an endogenous form of development, and serving as…

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    PubMed

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care.

  15. Maternal & Newborn Health Road Maps: a review of progress in 33 sub-Saharan African countries, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Ekechi, Christine; Wolman, Yaron; de Bernis, Luc

    2012-06-01

    The 2006 Maputo Plan of Action aimed to help African nations to achieve the Millennium Development Goals related to reducing maternal mortality, combatting HIV and AIDS, and reducing infant and child mortality within integrated sexual and reproductive health care plans. In 2008 and 2009, UNFPA worked with senior Ministry of Health officials and national UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO teams in 33 African countries to review their development of national Maternal and Newborn Health strategies and plans through a self-assessment survey. The survey showed that many key components were missing, in particular there was poor integration of family planning; lack of budgetary, infrastructure and human resources plans; and weak monitoring and evaluation provisions. The maternal and newborn health Road Map initiative has been the single most important factor for the initiation and development of the national maternal and newborn health plans for many African countries. However the deficiencies within these national plans need to be addressed before a significant reduction in maternal and newborn mortality can realistically be achieved.

  16. Emergence in Western African Countries of MDR-TB, Focus on Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ekaza, Euloge; N'Guessan, Raymond Kouassi; Kacou-N'Douba, Adèle; Aka, N'Guetta; Kouakou, Jacquemin; Le Vacon, Françoise; Altare, Fréderic; Potel, Gilles; de-La-Cochetiere, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for a high mortality rate (2.5%) worldwide, mainly in developing countries with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The emergence of multiresistant strains of TB poses an extreme risk for TB outbreaks and highlights the need for global TB control strategies. Among Western African countries, Côte d'Ivoire (CI) represents a specific example of a country with great potential to prevent TB. Specifically, CI has a promising healthcare system for monitoring diseases, including vaccination programs. However, military and political conflict in CI favors the spread of infectious diseases, TB being among the most devastating. Compilation of the studies identifying common causes of TB would be extremely beneficial for the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this comprehensive review is to evaluate the epidemiology of TB in CI, describe the factors involved in pathogenesis, and suggest simple and applicable prevention strategies. PMID:24093098

  17. Population Structure of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cholley, Pascal; Ka, Roughyatou; Guyeux, Christophe; Thouverez, Michelle; Guessennd, Nathalie; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Frank, Thierry; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs) called ‘high-risk clusters’. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA) has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa. Methodology 184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i) the sequence types (STs) of the present collection, (ii) the STs by continents, (iii) ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database. Principal Findings We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. ‘High-risk’ international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235) were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of ‘high-risk’ international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup. Conclusions ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be

  18. Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Giuseppe; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Marini, Ornella; Coppa, Alfredo; Sellitto, Daniele; Trombetta, Beniamino; Berti, Andrea; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler(®) Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1. Twenty-two diallelic and triallelic patterns observed at 13 different loci were found to be significantly over-represented (p<10(-6)) among profiles obtained from cell lines compared to those from blood and saliva. Most of the diallelic/triallelic patterns from cell lines involved recurrent mutations at rapidly mutating loci (RM Y-STRs) included in the multiplex (p<10(-2)). At haplotype level, intra-population diversity indices were found to be among the lowest so far reported for the Yfiler(®) Plus, while statistically significant differences among countries and ethnic groups were detected when considering haplotype frequencies alone (FST) or by using molecular distances among haplotypes (ΦST). The strong population subdivision observed is probably the consequence of the patrilineal social organization of most eastern African ethnic groups, and suggests caution in the use of country-based haplotype frequency distributions for forensic inferences in this region.

  19. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10-24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1(st) February to 15(th) April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10-14, 15-19, 20-24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts.

  20. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  1. Using Examinations To Improve Education: A Study in Fourteen African Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 165. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent

    A detailed description is presented of the types, functions, performance levels, governance, administration, and funding of public examinations in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries with different educational traditions, based on English, French, or other backgrounds. The countries are: (1) Kenya; (2) Lesotho; (3) Mauritius; (4) Swaziland; (5)…

  2. Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Abdellaziz, Akila; Papuchon, Jennifer; Khaled, Safia; Ouerdane, Dalila; Fleury, Hervé; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2008, no data on HIV diversity or the transmission rate of HIV resistance mutations in naive patients have been presented for Algeria, a country of MENA region. Between 2013 and 2014, we studied 152 samples including 89 naive patients. The current study describes the change in HIV diversity in Algeria with the predominance of CRF06_cpx and the huge increase of transmitted HIV resistance, which now reaches 15%.

  3. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  4. Africa Is Not a Country: Teaching African Culture through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Africa is made up of fifty-three nations and covers an area greater than the United States, China, Japan, and Europe combined. It is estimated that more than 800 languages are spoken in Africa. Some fifty African languages have more than half a million speakers each, but many others are spoken by relatively few people (Columbia Encyclopedia 2001).…

  5. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  6. Self-estimates of intelligence: a study in two African countries.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo

    2004-05-01

    Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference.

  7. Making sense of HIV testing: social representations in young Africans' HIV-related narratives from six countries.

    PubMed

    Beres, Laura K; Winskell, Kate; Neri, Elizabeth M; Mbakwem, Benjamin; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2013-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling are a critical intervention to support treatment access and prevent new infections. Despite high rates of infection, few young Africans know their HIV status. With the aim of informing initiatives that encourage HIV testing and access to testing benefits, this study seeks to understand how young Africans make sense of HIV testing. We conducted thematic narrative-based analysis of a stratified random sample (n = 586, ≈ 5%) from 11,354 narratives written in 2005 by males and females aged 10-24 from six sub-Saharan African countries for the 'Scenarios from Africa' scriptwriting contest which invites young people to contribute ideas for short films about HIV. The factors represented by the young authors as influencing testing behaviour and outcomes are complex and interactive, indicating that interventions that are not contextually appropriate are unlikely to affect a shift towards increased testing or improved post-testing outcomes. The narratives point to opportunities to increase HIV testing in this demographic.

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  9. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  10. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Tayou, Claude Tagny; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean Jacques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. RESULTS During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%–36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. CONCLUSIONS The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. PMID:22014098

  11. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts

  12. Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

  13. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  14. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people’s narratives

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n=586, ~5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”)and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  16. Imported malaria among African immigrants: is there still a relationship between developed countries and their ex-colonies?

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan Pablo; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Gascón, Joaquim; Prat, Jordi Gómez i; Treviño, Begoña; Pinazo, M Jesús; Cabezos, Juan; Muñoz, José; Zarzuela, Francesc; Caylà, Joan A

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare cases of imported malaria originating from the Spanish ex-colony of Equatorial Guinea (EG) with those originating from the rest of Africa (RA). Methods All the African cases detected in Barcelona between 1989 and 2007 were investigated in a retrospective analysis. Clinical-epidemiological variables such as sex, age, visiting friends and relatives (VFR), species, hospital admission and chemo-prophylaxis were compared. Data were analysed by logistic regression, calculating the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Results Of the 489 African patients, 279 (57,1%) had been born in EG and 210 (42,9%) in the rest of Africa. The cumulative incidence of imported malaria among those from EG was 179.6 per thousand inhabitants, while in those from the RA it was 33.7 per thousand (p < 0.001). Compliance with chemoprophylaxis (CP) was very low, but there were no differences between the two groups. Comparing those from EG to those from RA, the former were characterized by having more patients in the visiting friends and relatives (VFR) category, and more individuals younger than 15 years or older than 37 years, and more women. They also visited a traveller's health centre more often, had fewer hospital admissions and were less likely to reside in the inner city. Conclusion Cases of imported malaria originating in Africa, are more likely to come from the Spanish ex-colony of EG, and VFR are more likely to be affected. It is recommended that developed countries promote prevention programmes, such as CP advice directed at African immigrants, and develop programmes of cooperation against malaria in their ex-colonies. PMID:19463171

  17. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

    2011-04-06

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers.

  18. Availability of nutritional support services in HIV care and treatment sites in sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Zhang, Wendy; Wu, Yingfeng; Elul, Batya; Weiser, Sheri D; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio SG; El Sadr, Wafaa; Nash, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the availability of nutritional support services in HIV care and treatment sites across sub-Saharan Africa. Design In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of sites providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in nine sub-Saharan African countries. Outcomes included availability of: (i) nutritional counselling; (ii) micronutrient supplementation; (iii) treatment for severe malnutrition; and (iv) food rations. Associations with health system indicators were explored using bivariate and multivariate methods. Setting President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV treatment and care sites across nine sub-Saharan African countries. Subjects A total of 336 HIV care and treatment sites, serving 467 175 enrolled patients. Results Of the sites under study, 303 (90%) offered some form of nutritional support service. Nutritional counselling, micronutrient supplementation, treatment for severe acute malnutrition and food rations were available at 98%, 64%, 36% and 31% of sites, respectively. In multivariate analysis, secondary or tertiary care sites were more likely to offer nutritional counselling (adjusted OR (AOR): 2·2, 95% CI 1·1, 4·5). Rural sites (AOR: 2·3, 95% CI 1·4, 3·8) had increased odds of micronutrient supplementation availability. Sites providing ART for >2 years had higher odds of availability of treatment for severe malnutrition (AOR: 2·4, 95% CI 1·4, 4·1). Sites providing ART for >2 years (AOR: 1·6, 95% CI 1·3, 1·9) and rural sites (AOR: 2·4, 95% CI 1·4, 4·4) had greater odds of food ration availability. Conclusions Availability of nutritional support services was high in this large sample of HIV care and treatment sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Further efforts are needed to determine the uptake, quality and effectiveness of these services and their impact on patient and programme outcomes. PMID:21806867

  19. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners.

  20. Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries.

    PubMed

    Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. In most cases, the inflicted damage constitutes the main obstacle to health sector recovery. Interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are however fraught with difficulties of a political, technical, financial and administrative order. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made some important players aware of the cost incurred by neglecting human resource development. Several transitions from conflict to peace have been documented, even if largely in unpublished reports. This paper presents condensed descriptions of some African HRH-related recovery processes, which provide useful lessons. The technical work demanded to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is fairly well understood. In most situations, the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare. But useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success.

  1. The Impact of Internal Migration on under-Five Mortality in 27 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective The literature on the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been limited. This study examined the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality rate in 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Design The analysis used cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Information on the number of live births and the number of under-five deaths in the five years preceding the surveys in these countries was examined. Using variables from which migration data were generated, four migration statuses were computed, and the impact of each migration status on under-five mortality was analysed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 96333 live births, 7036 deaths were reported. In the unadjusted model, we found that, compared to urban non-migrant mothers, hazard of under-five mortality was 20% [HR: 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.06–1.35)], 40% [HR: 1.40; 95% CI: (1.29–1.53)], and 43% [HR: 1.43; 95% CI: (1.30–1.58)] higher among urban-rural migrant, rural non-migrant, and rural-urban migrant mothers respectively. The likelihood of children dying did not change considerably when country and demographic variables were adjusted for. However, after controlling for health care service utilization factors, the results remained consistently significant for rurality. That is, mortality rates remained significantly higher among children of rural non-migrant [(HR: 1.20; 95% CI: (1.08–1.33), P-value (p) < 0.001] and rural-urban migrant [HR: 1.29; 95% CI: (1.15–1.45), p < 0.001] mothers than those of urban non-migrant mothers. Conclusion Although under-five child mortality rate declined by 52% between 1990 and 2015 (from 179 to 86 per1000 live births) in sub-Saharan Africa, the continent still has the highest rate in the world. This finding highlights the need to consider providing education and health care services in

  2. Petroleum geology of the major producing basins of Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, A.; Chaouch, A.

    1988-08-01

    The South Atlas flexure divides Algeria into two contrasting geologic provinces: (1) the Saharan Atlas and offshore region in the north, both of which are part of the Mediterranean basin, and (2) the Saharan platform on the south, part of the North African craton. The limits of the various sedimentary basins on the Saharan platform are tied to late Paleozoic (Hercynian) crustal reactivation. Comparable structurally controlled basins in northern Algeria are the products of Mesozoic-Recent tectonism. The spatial and temporal distribution of hydrocarbons in the Algerian Sahara can be understood in terms of the geologic evolution of the region. Analysis of areas of proven hydrocarbon reserves permits the following generalizations. (1) There is a concentration of oil and gas fields northeast of a northwest-southeast-trending line connecting Hassi R'Mel with In Amenas. Production is also established in the Sbaa basin and in northern Algeria, where recent discoveries have been made in, respectively, upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic reservoirs. (2) Hydrocarbon are present throughout the entire sedimentary column, but major production currently is restricted to the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian) and Triassic reservoirs.

  3. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  6. Rehabilitation in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries: Personnel Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Elias; Jelsma, Jennifer; Maart, Soraya; Levers, Lisa Lopez; Montsi, Mercy M. R.; Tlabiwe, Pinkie; Mupawose, Anniah; Mwamwenda, Tuntufye; Ngoma, Mary Shilalukey; Tchombe,Therese Mungah S.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines rehabilitation personnel education and training in seven countries representing a geo-culturally contiguous region of sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cameroon, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It identifies and explicates practices to inform similar or parallel rehabilitation practices in the United States…

  7. A PILOT EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE STUDY OF TRANSFUSION SCREENING FOR HIV, HCV AND HBSAG IN TWELVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Evan M; Shah, Avani; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Laperche, Syria; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques; van Hasselt, James; Zacharias, Peter; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Materials and Methods Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories’ routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure. Results A total of 12 African countries and 44 laboratories participated in the study. The mean (range) sensitivities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 91.9% (14.3-100), 86.7% (42.9-100) and 90.1% (50-100), respectively. Mean specificities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 97.7%, 97% and 99.5% respectively. After adjusting for country and infrastructure, rapid tests had significantly lower sensitivity than enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for both HBsAg (p<0.0001) and HCV (p<0.05). Sensitivity also varied by country and selected infrastructure variables. Conclusion While specificity was high, sensitivity was more variable and deficient in a substantial number of testing laboratories. These findings underscore the importance of proficiency testing and quality control, particularly in Africa where TTV prevalence is high. PMID:25052195

  8. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  9. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc.) are accessible and effectively used. PMID:22840190

  10. Epidemic typhus imported from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D

    1999-01-01

    We report epidemic typhus in a French patient returning from Algeria. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic testing and the isolation of Rickettsia prowazekii in blood. Initially the patient was thought to have typhoid fever. Because body lice are prevalent in industrialized regions, the introduction of typhus to pediculosis-endemic areas poses a serious public health risk.

  11. Higher Education Institutions and International Students' Hindrances: A Case of Students from the African Portuguese-Speaking Countries at Two European Portuguese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrósio, Susana; Marques, João Filipe; Santos, Lucília; Doutor, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    We present a study to comprehend if the support given by higher education institution (HEI) to international students coming from the Portuguese-Speaking African Countries meets their academic and social hindrances. Our starting point was a set of semi-structured interviews focused on the perspectives of these students, their Professors and Course…

  12. Comparative study of meningitis dynamics across nine African countries: a global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Hélène; Philippon, Solenne; Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Courel, Marie-Françoise; Sultan, Benjamin; Guégan, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis (MM) represents an important public health problem especially in the "meningitis belt" in Africa. Although seasonality of epidemics is well known with outbreaks usually starting in the dry season, pluri-annual cycles are still less understood and even studied. In this context, we aimed at study MM cases time series across 9 sahelo-sudanian countries to detect pluri-annual periodicity and determine or not synchrony between dynamics. This global and comparative approach allows a better understanding of MM evolution in time and space in the long-term. Results We used the most adapted mathematical tool to time series analyses, the wavelet method. We showed that, despite a strong consensus on the existence of a global pluri-annual cycle of MM epidemics, it is not the case. Indeed, even if a clear cycle is detected in all countries, these cycles are not as permanent and regular as generally admitted since many years. Moreover, no global synchrony was detected although many countries seemed correlated. Conclusion These results of the first large-scale study of MM dynamics highlight the strong interest and the necessity of a global survey of MM in order to be able to predict and prevent large epidemics by adapted vaccination strategy. International cooperation in Public Health and cross-disciplines studies are highly recommended to hope controlling this infectious disease. PMID:17623084

  13. Comparative efficacy and safety of chloroquine and alternative antimalarial drugs: a meta-analysis from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, T; Makonnen, E

    1999-06-01

    A meta-analysis study evaluating the efficacy and safety of chloroquine and alternative antimalarial drugs used in six African countries including Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Cote D'Ivoire, Gambia and Nigeria is presented. Findings from the six countries showed a higher efficacy of amodiaquine and quinine (over 90%) in malaria treatment compared to chloroquine, which was found to be 70% or more effective. The efficacy of amodiaquine can also be compared to other antimalarial drugs such as mefloquine and halofantrine. Data showed that fever clearance time of these drugs was less than 2 days, but parasite clearance time ranged from 2.5 days to 1 week. Recrudescence rate also varied among the different drugs. This is a very important indicator in determining which drug can be used for prophylactic or suppressive treatment of malaria. Pharmacokinetic profile demonstrates that all these drugs have similar therapeutic effects, but differ in their adverse reactions, contraindications, and half-life. A significant difference was also noted in the cost of these antimalarial drugs; chloroquine was the cheapest, while halofantrine was the most expensive among the drugs. Based on these results, the study recommends that different aspects of antimalarial drugs have to be considered before deciding which drug is the best alternative treatment.

  14. Children's Exposure to Community and War Violence and Mental Health in Four African Countries: A Stress Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004-2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health.. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry. PMID:26497096

  15. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid assessment, like the one

  16. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307

  17. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  18. Zoom in at African country level: potential climate induced changes in areas of suitability for survival of malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predicting anopheles vectors’ population densities and boundary shifts is crucial in preparing for malaria risks and unanticipated outbreaks. Although shifts in the distribution and boundaries of the major malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis) across Africa have been predicted, quantified areas of absolute change in zone of suitability for their survival have not been defined. In this study, we have quantified areas of absolute change conducive for the establishment and survival of these vectors, per African country, under two climate change scenarios and based on our findings, highlight practical measures for effective malaria control in the face of changing climatic patterns. Methods We developed a model using CLIMEX simulation platform to estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of these malaria vectors in relation to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity). The model yielded an eco-climatic index (EI) describing the total favourable geographical locations for the species. The EI values were classified and exported to a GIS package. Using ArcGIS, the EI shape points were clipped to the extent of Africa and then converted to a raster layer using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. Generated maps were then transformed into polygon-based geo-referenced data set and their areas computed and expressed in square kilometers (km2). Results Five classes of EI were derived indicating the level of survivorship of these malaria vectors. The proportion of areas increasing or decreasing in level of survival of these malaria vectors will be more pronounced in eastern and southern African countries than those in western Africa. Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia appear most likely to be affected in terms of absolute change of malaria vectors suitability zones under the selected climate change scenarios. Conclusion The potential shifts of

  19. Timing of orphanhood, early sexual debut, and early marriage in four sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sophia

    2013-06-01

    According to a growing body of literature, some orphans are at heightened risk of early sexual debut and early marriage. This study examines a rarely explored aspect of orphanhood: the timing and type of parental death and their relationship to these outcomes. The study also explores whether education mediates orphans' risk of early sexual initiation and early marriage. The data are drawn from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, which includes interviews with 12-19-year-old adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Results from discrete-time event history analysis indicate that female double orphans, regardless of timing of orphanhood, have greater odds of early sexual debut than do nonorphans. Education explains little of their increased risk. In contrast, male orphans of any type reveal no increased vulnerability to early sexual debut. Uganda is the only country where female orphans, specifically double orphans and those who are paternal orphans before age 10, have greater odds of early marriage, with education accounting for a small portion of the risk.

  20. The East African Training Initiative. A Model Training Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine for Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W

    2016-04-01

    Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries.

  1. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    PubMed

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  2. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Watson, H. K.; Diaz-Chavez, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent ‘disequilibrium’ behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

  3. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    PubMed

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed.

  4. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations.

  5. The factors influencing transactional sex among young men and women in 12 sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Minki; Murray, Nancy; London, David; Anglewicz, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Transactional sex may put young women and young men in sub-Saharan Africa at increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. This behavior may also put young women at higher risk of pregnancy and childbearing. Policymakers and program managers need to know what factors put youth at increased risk. We investigated this issue using logistic regression analyses of data from male and female modules of Demographic and Health Surveys from 12 sub-Saharan African countries. We found that young men and young women are at greater risk of engaging in transactional sex than are older people. Unmarried young women and young men were significantly more likely to engage in transactional sex than married youth. Based on these results, our conclusions were that programs geared toward reducing the incidence of transactional sex or protecting men and women already in transactional sexual relationships should be aimed at both young women and young men. Due to our finding that unmarried young women and young men are more vulnerable to experiencing transactional sex, programs to prevent transactional sex should be specifically directed to this subgroup of young people.

  6. AISAT-1: the First Step into Space for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oussedik, A.; Bekhti, M.; Sun, W.; Sweeting, M. N., , Sir

    2002-01-01

    AlSat-1, the first Algerian national satellite of seven microsatellites in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), will be launched in September 2002. Micro satellites for Nigeria, United Kingdom, Turkey and Thailand will be launched into the same orbit by the second DMC launch in April 2003, whilst microsatellites for China and Vietnam will be launched into the same orbit by the third DMC launch in January 2004. In a constellation with six other satellites, Algeria will be able to access global images for daily global disaster mitigation, national remote sensing applications, commercial space exploitation and international co-operation with both developed and developing countries. A team of eleven (11) Algerian engineers has been trained at Surrey through the AlSat-1 project. They have covered the following disciplines: System Engineering, ADCS, Power, RF, OBDH, Mechanical and Launch Interface, Earth Observation Payload, GPS, Operation, TTC and Propulsion. AlSat-1, the first space asset of the country, provides indigenous national space capability, unique independent Earth observation and international co-operation opportunities. The country has received this first step into space very well. Following the success of the AlSat-1 programme, a National Space Agency is under construction in Algeria with all the necessary facilities, and the government has approved the budget for a second earth observation microsatellite, AlSat-2. This 2.5m high-resolution remote sensing satellite will be used essentially for mapping and environmental applications. The team trained at Surrey will build the majority of AlSat-2 in the National Space Centre in Algeria using the technologies acquired from Surrey. A further technology transfer and training programme will be carried out through this more demanding mission. The paper will present the AlSat-1 programme and its benefits to Algeria. The proposed AlSat-2 project and the establishment of a national space agency, based on the

  7. La langue etrangere: reflexion sur le statut de la langue francaise en Algerie (Foreign Language: Reflections on the Status of the French Language in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsly, Dalila

    1984-01-01

    The unstable linguistic situation in Algeria resulting from official "normalization" in a country in which French has strong colonial roots is discussed, as well as its effects on the status of French instruction. (MSE)

  8. What Future for Berber Languages in Algeria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houcine, Samira

    2011-01-01

    After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, the government newly formed decided to achieve Arabization. Standard Arabic became thus the official language of Algeria and the complete Arabization of all public institutions was voted in January 1991. Actually, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism where Algerian…

  9. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  10. Improving health information systems for decision making across five sub-Saharan African countries: Implementation strategies from the African Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weak health information systems (HIS) are a critical challenge to reaching the health-related Millennium Development Goals because health systems performance cannot be adequately assessed or monitored where HIS data are incomplete, inaccurate, or untimely. The Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnerships were established in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze advances in strengthening district health systems. Interventions were tailored to the setting in which activities were planned. Comparisons across strategies All five PHIT Partnerships share a common feature in their goal of enhancing HIS and linking data with improved decision-making, specific strategies varied. Mozambique, Ghana, and Tanzania all focus on improving the quality and use of the existing Ministry of Health HIS, while the Zambia and Rwanda partnerships have introduced new information and communication technology systems or tools. All partnerships have adopted a flexible, iterative approach in designing and refining the development of new tools and approaches for HIS enhancement (such as routine data quality audits and automated troubleshooting), as well as improving decision making through timely feedback on health system performance (such as through summary data dashboards or routine data review meetings). The most striking differences between partnership approaches can be found in the level of emphasis of data collection (patient versus health facility), and consequently the level of decision making enhancement (community, facility, district, or provincial leadership). Discussion Design differences across PHIT Partnerships reflect differing theories of change, particularly regarding what information is needed, who will use the information to affect change, and how this change is expected to manifest. The iterative process of data use to monitor and assess the health system has been heavily communication

  11. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.

  12. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some

  13. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  14. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  18. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  19. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the…

  20. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2016-06-28

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  1. Algeria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Algeria is positioned to achieve important, new natural gas markets. Over half of its hydrocarbon income is from exports of gas and derived products, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and condensates, which are not subject to Opec quotas. Officials are moving away from inflexible past policies and are becoming vastly more realistic now that foreign investment laws have been liberalized and there is a need to attract foreign investors. Sonatrach must address three key issues to consolidate recent progress. Sales to existing customers in Europe, like Italy, must be expanded; new customers and markets need to found: and U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG) markets must be revived.

  2. [Pediatric cancerology in Algeria. Current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Aguercif, M; Meziane, F

    1988-01-01

    Pediatric oncohematology represents 40% of our daily activity. Its management is analyzed and conditions of its development discussed. In underdeveloped countries, financial, human and management health resources are severely limited. Far less than 8.5% of national product (estimated necessary for a health service to meet population requirements) are spent in Algeria. Then rationing health services is implicit and eventually left to physicians. Limited access to hospitals is more drastic to children than to adults. Paediatricians have therefore to manage their activity to get best value for money spent on health care, training and research.

  3. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  4. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  5. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  6. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  7. Regulatory Advances in 11 Sub-Saharan Countries in Year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC).

    PubMed

    Dynes, Michelle; Tison, Laura; Johnson, Carla; Verani, Andre; Zuber, Alexandra; Riley, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders ("Quads") received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects. Four countries advanced a full stage on the Regulatory Function Framework (RFF), a staged capability maturity model used to evaluate progress in key regulatory functions. While the remaining countries did not advance a full stage on the RFF, important gains were noted. The year-3 evaluation highlighted limitations of the ARC evaluation strategy to capture nuanced progress and provided insight into how the RFF might be adapted for future use.

  8. Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Algeria: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Samy; Abbas, Abdelmalek; Ben Ammar, Amina; Kebaili, Djemaa; Ali, El Hadi; Rahal, Fadia; Khamari, Mohamed Choukri; Baltache, Ayada; Khider, Imene; Chiheub, Riad; Khelif, Khireddine; Akbi, Sabrina; Rahmani, Salima; Dahou-Makhloufi, Chafia; Brahimi-Mazouni, Nadjia; Abtroun-Benmadi, Sabira; Ladjouze-Rezig, Aicha

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in North Africa to that of Western countries. We have enrolled in a cross-sectional study all consecutive patients presenting with the diagnosis of RA according to the 1987 ACR criteria, and during a 5-month period, patients were included in 11 centers across northern Algeria. Demographics, clinical data, and health assessment questionnaires (HAQ) were collected for each patient. We have estimated means, standard deviations, and 95 % confidence intervals for all parameters. Of the 249 patients (213 females and 36 males) enrolled in the study, 10 (4 %) had juvenile onset of the disease. The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.5 years, and the mean duration of RA was 8.4 ± 7.8 years. In terms of comorbidities, 18.9 % of patients reported hypertension and 5.2 % had diabetes. The mean DAS28 at inclusion was 4.3 (95 % CI 4.1-4.5); 14.0 % were in remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6). The mean HAQ score was 0.81 ± 0.82. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.5 % of cases, and anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, when measured, was positive in 69.0 % of cases. Seronegative patients were older and had a relatively less severe disease. For treatment, 89.7 % of patients were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and only 4 % were taking biologics (rituximab); 90.8 % of patients were taking glucocorticoids, and none of the patients satisfied the recommended calcium intake guidelines. RA in Algeria is more common in women. Compared to reports from Western countries, RA in Algeria appears to be less aggressive, with more dominant seronegative oligoarthritis forms. The remission rate is comparable to that of Western populations.

  9. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    as critical human resources development, must be quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions. PMID:25120913

  10. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  11. Cerescope: Algeria Seeks Better Training in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Recent changes and developments in Algeria's agricultural education program to meet the future needs for expertise at all levels in the rural sector are described. Training targets established in the national plan are detailed. (BT)

  12. Special Education through Neighbourhood Centers in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucebci, Mahfoud

    1981-01-01

    The article provides a survey of special education needs in Algeria with emphasis on the role of neighborhood centers which involve parents in the education of mentally handicapped children. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (DB)

  13. Allocation of Students in North African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marie Thourson

    1981-01-01

    Student bodies at public universities in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia have grown rapidly, outside the direct control of university authorities. How the three North African nations differ in their policies regulating which students may study which subjects, and the implications of these policies for the goals of higher education are discussed.…

  14. [An unusual genital ulcer in Algeria: soft chancre].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of soft chancre have been observed in the service of Dermato-Venereology, CHU Tlemcen. Three were contracted in Morroco and one in Algeria. This affection which no long existed in Algeria, has reappeared through tourism.

  15. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-04-06

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO2), fossil fuel, and CH4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  16. [Status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yisheng

    2015-10-01

    The development of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria and realistic working status in recent years is in- troduced. From five aspects, including general condition of acupuncture in Algeria, clinical application and analysis, of acupuncture, promotion and publicity of acupuncture, existing problem and deficiency, and awards and honor, the status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria are discussed in detail.

  17. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (1) priority areas for ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was created to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. Its main strategy is community directed treatment with ivermectin. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. The present article reports the mapping of high risk areas where onchocerciasis was a public health problem. The companion article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods REMO consists of three stages: exclusion of areas that are unsuitable for the vector, selection of sample villages to be surveyed in each river basin, and examination of 30 to 50 adults for the presence of palpable onchocercal nodules in each selected village. The survey results and other relevant information were processed in a geographical information system. A panel of experts interpreted the data taking the river-based sampling into account and delineated high risk areas where the prevalence of nodules is greater than 20%. Results Unsuitable areas were identified in eight countries. In the remaining areas surveys were done in a total of 14,473 sample villages in which more than half a million people were examined. High-risk areas were identified in 18 APOC countries, ranging from small isolated foci to a vast contiguous endemic area of 2 million km2 running across seven countries. In five countries the high risk area covered more than 48% of the total surface area, and 31% to 48% of the population. It is estimated that 86 million people live in high risk areas in the APOC countries. Conclusions The REMO maps have played a significant role in onchocerciasis control in the 20 APOC countries. All high-risk areas where onchocerciasis used to be a serious public

  18. Cost-effectiveness of pre-participation screening of athletes with ECG in Europe and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Levaggi, Rosella; Carré, François; Sharma, Sanjay; Deligiannis, Asterios; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Tahmi, Mohamed; Vinetti, Giovanni; Aliverti, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG in combination with family and personal history and physical examination in order to detect cardiovascular diseases that might cause sudden death in athletes. The study was conducted on a cohort of 6,634, mainly young professional and recreational athletes, 1,071 from Algeria and 5,563 from Europe (France, Germany and Greece). Each athlete underwent medical history, physical examination, and resting 12-lead ECG. 293 athletes (4.4 %), 149 in Europe (2.7 %) and 144 in Algeria (13.4 %) required further tests, and 56 were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and thus disqualified. The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) was calculated as the ratio between the cost of screening and the number of statistical life-years saved by the intervention. The estimated reduced risk of death deriving from treatment or disqualification resulted in the saving of 79.1 statistical life-years in Europe and 136.3 in Algeria. CER of screening was 4,071 purchasing-power-parity-adjusted US dollars ($PPP) in Europe and 582 $PPP in Algeria. The results of this study strongly support the utilisation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes, especially in countries where secondary preventive care is not highly developed.

  19. Use of the World Health Organization’s Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use Guidance in sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Melissa J; Gaffield, Mary E; Kiarie, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given recent updates to the postpartum contraception recommendations in the fifth edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which national family planning policies in sub-Saharan African countries are in agreement with the WHO MEC, particularly with regard to postpartum contraceptive use. WHO headquarters sent questionnaires to country-level focal points to complete with their Ministry of Health counterparts. Between February and May 2016, 23 of 32 (72%) surveys were completed. All respondents reported that their countries had used the MEC document in the past, with most reporting that they had used the guidance as a reference (n = 20, 87%), for training purposes (n = 19, 83%), to change clinical practices (n = 17, 74%), and to develop national policies (n = 16, 70%). While many respondents (16, 70%) indicated their countries already include immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion among breastfeeding women in their family planning policies, few reported currently allowing use of progestogen-only pills (n = 8, 35%) or implants (n = 8, 35%) during the immediate postpartum period (i.e., less than 48 hours after delivery) for breastfeeding women. A higher percentage of respondents indicated their countries allowed breastfeeding women the option of progestogen-only pills (n = 16, 70%) and implants (n = 13, 57%) between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Findings from this baseline assessment suggest that many countries may benefit from training and policy formulation support to adapt both new WHO MEC updates as well as existing recommendations from previous MEC revisions into national family planning guidelines. PMID:27688720

  20. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  1. Record of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908 and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) chadlii Rioux, Juminer & Gibily, 1966 female in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Berdjane-Brouk, Z.; Charrel, R.N.; Bitam, I.; Hamrioui, B.; Izri, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time the presence of Phlebotomus mascittii and the female of Phlebotomus chadlii in Algeria. These two species were collected during an entomological study conducted in endemic visceral leishmaniasis focus from the north part of the country, Kabylia. PMID:22091465

  2. New data on aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laamari, Malik; d'Acier, Armelle Coeur; Jousselin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    A survey of aphids was carried out during the period 2008-2011 in different regions of Algeria by collecting and identifying aphids and their host plants. Aphids were collected from 46 host plants. Forty-six species were reported including thirty-six species which were recorded for the first time in this country and thirty species which were recorded for the first time in the Maghreb (North Africa). This study extends the number of known Algerian aphid to 156 species.

  3. PEPFAR Funding Associated With An Increase In Employment Among Males in Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Zachary; Barofsky, Jeremy; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided billions of US tax dollars to expand HIV treatment, care, and prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa. This investment has generated significant health gains, but much less is known about PEPFAR's population-level economic effects. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare employment trends between ten countries that received a large amount of PEPFAR funding (focus countries) and eleven countries that received little or no funding (control countries). We found that PEPFAR was associated with a 13 percent differential increase in employment among males in focus countries, compared to control countries. However, we observed no change in employment among females. In addition, we found that increasing PEPFAR per capita funding by $100 was associated with a 9.1-percentage-point increase in employment among males. This rise in employment generates economic benefits equal to half of PEPFAR's cost. These findings suggest that PEPFAR's economic impact should be taken into account when making aid allocation decisions.

  4. Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Auld, Andrew F; Agolory, Simon G; Shiraishi, Ray W; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Asadu, Emeka; Tuho, Moise Zanga; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mbofana, Francisco; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Denison, Julie A; Tsui, Sharon; Koole, Olivier; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Bicego, George; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy; Dukes Hamilton, Carol; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Baughman, Andrew L; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Marlink, Richard; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2014-11-28

    Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (p<0.001), employed (p<0.001), and married, (p<0.05 in five countries). Compared with older adults, adolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.

  5. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis.

  7. Oil and development: The case of agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the oil-boom of the 1970s and development outcomes and the prospects in two African OPEC states. The theoretical framework is provided by the political-economy literatures, both domestic and international. The research is carried out as a limited comparative study with a loosely constructed (before-during-after) interrupted time-series design. Algeria's greater success in managing it soil economy suggests further evidence supporting the promise of a mixed political-economy state model. State and societal complexions are identified, with a primarily qualitative methodology, to explain Nigerian and Algerian development outcomes on the heels of the oil decade.

  8. The Impact of Taking or Not Taking ARVs on HIV Stigma as Reported by Persons Living with HIV Infection in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Makoae, Lucy N.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Uys, Leana R.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne; Mullan, Joseph; Wantland, Dean; Durrheim, Kevin; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This study examined the impact of taking or not taking antiretroviral (ARV) medications on stigma, as reported by people living with HIV infection in five African countries. Design A two group (taking or not taking ARVs) by three (time) repeated measures analysis of variance examined change in reported stigma in a cohort sample of 1,454 persons living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Participants self-reported taking ARV medications and completed a standardized stigma scale validated in the African context. Data were collected at three points in time, from January 2006 to March 2007. Participants taking ARV medications self-reported a mean CD4 count of 273 and those not taking ARV self-reported a mean CD4 count of 418. Results Both groups reported significant decreases in total HIV stigma over time; however, people taking ARVs reported significantly higher stigma at Time 3 compared to those not taking ARVs. Discussion This study documents that this sample of 1,454 HIV infected persons in five countries in Africa reported significantly less HIV stigma over time. In addition, those participants taking ARV medications experienced significantly higher HIV stigma over time compared to those not taking ARVs. This finding contradicts some authors’ opinions that when clients enroll in ARV medication treatment it signifies that they are experiencing less stigma. This work provides caution to health care providers to alert clients new to ARV treatment that they may experience more stigma from their families and communities when they learn they are taking ARV medications. PMID:20024711

  9. Evaluating a LARC Expansion Program in 14 Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Service Delivery Model for Meeting FP2020 Goals.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thoai D; Nuccio, Olivia; Pereira, Shreya K; Footman, Katharine; Reiss, Kate

    2016-05-06

    Objectives In many sub-Saharan African countries, the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is low while unmet need for family planning (FP) remains high. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LARC access expansion initiative in reaching young, less educated, poor, and rural women. Methods Starting in 2008, Marie Stopes International (MSI) has implemented a cross-country expansion intervention to increase access to LARCs through static clinics, mobile outreach units, and social franchising of private sector providers. We analyzed routine service statistics for 2008-2014 and 2014 client exit interview data. Indicators of effectiveness were the number of LARCs provided and the percentages of LARC clients who had not used a modern contraceptive in the last 3 months ("adopters"); switched from a short-term contraceptive to a LARC ("switchers"); were aged <25; lived in extreme poverty; had not completed primary school; lived in rural areas; and reported satisfaction with their overall experience at the facility/site. Results Our annual LARC service distribution increased 1037 % (from 149,881 to over 1.7 million) over 2008-2014. Of 3816 LARC clients interviewed, 46 % were adopters and 46 % switchers; 37 % were aged 15-24, 42 % had not completed primary education, and 56 % lived in a rural location. Satisfaction with services received was rated 4.46 out of 5. Conclusions The effectiveness of the LARC expansion in these 14 sub-Saharan African FP programs demonstrates vast untapped potential for wider use of LARC methods, and suggests that this service delivery model is a plausible way to support FP 2020 goals of reaching those with an unmet need for FP.

  10. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  11. A feasibility analysis of implementing interventions for discordant couples in 14 African countries: implications for epidemic control.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2012-09-24

    We find interventions targeting serodiscordant couples (SDC) may not be feasible in countries where HIV prevalence is less than 5%, because only 3-19/1000 individuals are HIV-positive/negative and in SDC. Interventions may be feasible in countries where prevalence is greater than 10%, because 34-48/1000 individuals are HIV-positive/negative and in SDC. We calculated that 20-27% of all HIV-positive individuals, but less than 6% of all HIV-negative individuals, are in SDC. Consequently, targeting HIV-positive partners could significantly reduce transmission, whereas targeting HIV-negative partners may have little impact.

  12. Documentation and Development. Experience in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchuigoua, J. Founou

    1972-01-01

    A description of the activities of the Documentation, Library and Archives Department of the Algiers Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which is run by a small staff on a modest budget, provides documentation services for the staff of the Chamber of Commerce and also assists other centers in Algeria. (Author)

  13. Library-Information Education in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumarafi, B. B.; Haythornthwaite, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the development of educational programs for library technicians, librarians, and information professionals in Algeria and describes the current educational structure. Topics discussed include the need for improvements in curriculum development, teaching staff development, library facilities, and the use of information technologies. (CLB)

  14. [Demography and social problems in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benissad, M E

    1982-01-01

    A review of current population trends in Algeria is presented. Sections are included on fertility, mortality, projections, spatial distribution, employment and economic development, and the development of emigration. Some social problems associated with demographic factors are also considered, such as education, housing, and food supplies.

  15. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  16. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope L.; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality. PMID:25647663

  17. Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants - One Caribbean and Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Karidia; Kim, Andrea A; Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Beard, R Suzanne; Dale, Helen; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Rivadeneira, Molly; Fonjungo, Peter N; Broyles, Laura N; Zhang, Guoqing; Sleeman, Katrina; Nguyen, Shon; Jadczak, Steve; Abiola, Nadine; Ewetola, Raimi; Muwonga, Jérémie; Fwamba, Franck; Mwangi, Christina; Naluguza, Mary; Kiyaga, Charles; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Varough, Deyde; Wysler, Domercant; Lowrance, David; Louis, Frantz Jean; Desinor, Olbeg; Buteau, Josiane; Kesner, Francois; Rouzier, Vanessa; Segaren, Nat; Lewis, Tessa; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Chipungu, Geoffrey; Gupta, Sundeep; Singer, Daniel; Mwenda, Reuben; Kapoteza, Hilary; Chipeta, Zawadi; Knight, Nancy; Carmona, Sergio; MacLeod, William; Sherman, Gayle; Pillay, Yogan; Ndongmo, Clement B; Mugisa, Bridget; Mwila, Annie; McAuley, James; Chipimo, Peter J; Kaonga, Wezi; Nsofwa, Dailess; Nsama, Davy; Mwamba, Fales Zulu; Moyo, Crispin; Phiri, Clement; Borget, Marie-Yolande; Ya-Kouadio, Leonard; Kouame, Abo; Adje-Toure, Christiane A; Nkengasong, John

    2016-11-25

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3). Since 2011, the annual number of HIV-infected children has declined by 50%. Despite this gain, in 2014, only 42% of HIV-exposed infants received a diagnostic test for HIV (2), and in 2015, only 51% of children living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (1). Access to services for early infant diagnosis of HIV (which includes access to testing for HIV-exposed infants and clinical diagnosis of HIV-infected infants) is critical for reducing HIV-associated mortality in children aged <15 years. Using data collected from seven countries supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), progress in the provision of HIV testing services for early infant diagnosis was assessed. During 2011-2015, the total number of HIV diagnostic tests performed among HIV-exposed infants within 6 weeks after birth (tests for early infant diagnosis of HIV), as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) increased in all seven countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia); however, in 2015, the rate of testing for early infant diagnosis among HIV-exposed infants was <50% in five countries. HIV positivity among those tested declined in all seven countries, with three countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda) reporting >50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included

  18. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  19. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  20. Nutrition Planning and Policy for African Countries. Summary Report of a Seminar Held at the Institute for Development Studies (Nairobi, Kenya, June 2-19, 1976). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 5 (1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Michael C., Ed.; Westley, Sidney B., Ed.

    This paper is the summary report of a seminar which was held in Kenya at the Institute for Development Studies of the University of Nairobi from June 2-19, 1976. The seminar was sponsored by USAID through a contract to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Ten English-speaking African countries, whose responsibilities are related to nutrition…

  1. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  2. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  3. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (2) pre-control endemicity levels and estimated number infected

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The original aim of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed to achieve control, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO involved spatial sampling of villages to be surveyed, and examination of 30 to 50 adults per village for palpable onchocercal nodules. REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. A companion article reports the delineation of high risk areas based on expert analysis. The present article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods A model-based geostatistical analysis of the REMO data was undertaken to generate high-resolution maps of the predicted prevalence of nodules and of the probability that the true nodule prevalence exceeds the high risk threshold of 20%. The number infected was estimated by converting nodule prevalence to microfilaria prevalence, and multiplying the predicted prevalence for each location with local data on population density. The geostatistical analysis included the nodule palpation data for 14,473 surveyed villages. Results The generated map of onchocerciasis endemicity levels, as reflected in the prevalence of nodules, is a significant advance with many new endemic areas identified. The prevalence of nodules was > 20% over an area of 2.5 million km2 with an estimated population of 62 million people. The results were consistent with the delineation of high risk areas of the expert analysis except for borderline areas where the prevalence fluctuated around 20%. It is estimated that 36 million people would have been infected in the APOC countries by 2011 if there had been no ivermectin treatment. Conclusions The map of onchocerciasis endemicity levels has proven very valuable for

  4. Familial cluster of exposure to a confirmed rabid dog in travelers to Algeria.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Sylvie; Parola, Philippe; Sow, Doudou; Sornin, Victoria; Henrion, Maxime; Gautret, Philippe

    2017-01-09

    A 10 person-family originating from Algeria traveled in rural Algeria for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives without seeking pre-travel advice, did not received pre-travel rabies immunization, and were exposed to a confirmed rabid dog including 8 within less than 4 days of arrival. Three received suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine although WHO strongly recommends that its production and administration be discontinued and seven received insufficient doses of equine rabies immune globulin abroad. Rabies treatment was completed on returning to France. This reports underline the fact that travelers visiting friends and relatives in dog rabies endemic country are at high risk of rabies exposure and unaware of such a risk in most instances. Rabies risk warning should be reinforced and rabies pre-exposure vaccination should be considered in all individuals traveling to North Africa (and to sub-Saharan Africa) whatever the duration of stay.

  5. Routine prenatal ultrasound anomaly screening program in a Nigerian university hospital: Redefining obstetrics practice in a developing African country

    PubMed Central

    Akinmoladun, J.A.; Ogbole, G.I.; Lawal, T.A.; Adesina, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies are among the leading causes of fetal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prenatal ultrasound (US) screening has become an essential part of antenatal care in the developed world. Such practice is just evolving in the developing countries such as Nigeria. The aim of this article is to present our initial experience and demonstrate the effectiveness of a prenatal US screening program in detecting congenital malformation in a developing country. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective evaluation of the prenatal US screenings conducted at a major referral hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic for mid-trimester screening during the period of study were assessed. Results: Two hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women (5 with twin gestations) were presented for fetal anomaly scan during the study period. Twenty-nine anomalies (9.9%) were detected among the scanned population. Sixteen of the anomalies were followed to delivery/termination with a specificity of 93.5%. The commonest malformations were demonstrated in the genitourinary tract (34.5%) followed by malformations within the central nervous system (27.6%). Six (20.6%) of the anomalies were lethal. Five of the anomalies were surgically correctable. Conclusion: Institutions and hospitals across Nigeria and other low- and middle-income countries need to develop policies and programs that would incorporate a standardized routine screening prenatal US in order to improve feto-maternal well-being and reduce the high perinatal mortality and morbidity in developing nations. PMID:26759511

  6. Measuring Wellbeing in Developing Countries: The Case of Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiliouine, Habib; Cummins, Robert A.; Davern, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    The International Wellbeing Index (IWI) has been developed as a complementary measure to already well-known economic measures, and as a tool for cross-cultural comparisons. It comprises two subscales: the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) and the National Wellbeing Index (NWI). The aims of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, to test the psychometric…

  7. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Conclusion

  8. Strategies to improve male involvement in PMTCT Option B+ in four African countries: a qualitative rapid appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Besada, Donela; Rohde, Sarah; Goga, Ameena; Raphaely, Nika; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Ramokolo, Vundli; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Noveve, Nobuntu; Doherty, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends that antiretroviral therapy be started as soon as possible, irrespective of stage of HIV infection. This ‘test and treat’ approach highlights the need to ensure that men are involved in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). This article presents findings from a rapid appraisal of strategies to increase male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire in the context of scale-up of Option B+ protocol. Design Data were collected through qualitative rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during field visits to the four countries. Interviews were conducted in the capital city with Ministry of Health staff and implementing partners (IPs) and at district level with district management teams, facility-based health workers and community health cadres in each country. Results Common strategies were adopted across the countries to effect social change and engender greater participation of men in maternal, child and women's health, and PMTCT services. Community-based strategies included engagement of community leaders through dialogue and social mobilization, involving community health workers and the creation and strengthening of male peer cadres. Facility-based strategies included provision of incentives such as shorter waiting time, facilitating access for men by altering clinic hours, and creation of family support groups. Conclusions The approaches implemented at both community and facility levels were tailored to the local context, taking into account cultural norms and geographic regional variations. Although intentions behind such strategies aim to have positive impacts on families, unintended negative consequences do occur, and these need to be addressed and strategies adapted. A consistent definition of ‘male involvement’ in PMTCT services and a framework of indicators would be helpful to capture the impact

  9. Depositional systems and stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic rocks in outcrop, Tassili region, southwest Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Hertig, S.P.; Tye, R.S.; Coffield, D.Q.; Howes, J.V.C. ); Ferhati, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Paleozoic to Lower Mesozoic strata of the southeastern Algerian Tassili are traditionally subdivided by regionally extensive unconformities such as the Pan African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian. Using outcrop data from southeastern Algeria, this classic approach is modified by reinterpreting the genesis of these unconformities and rock sequences. Five prominent sequences, defined within the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic section, usually consist of a succession of lowstand, transgressive, and highstand system tracts separated by sequence boundaries or transgressive surfaces. The Pan-African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian unconformities are sequence boundaries. Important sequence boundaries also occur within the Ordovician and Silurian sections. These sequences correlate with subsurface data in the Illizi basin and provide a framework for renewed exploration in the subsurface of the Algerian Sahara, where more than 30 billion bbl of recoverable oil and oil equivalent have been generated and trapped.

  10. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  11. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  12. Decentralization of CD4 testing in resource-limited settings: 7 years of experience in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, F; Medina-Moreno, S; Paterniti, A D; Wattleworth, M; Redfield, R R

    2011-05-01

    Improving access to CD4 testing in resource-limited settings can be achieved through both centralized and decentralized testing networks. Decentralized testing models are more suitable for countries where the HIV epidemic affects a large portion of rural populations. Timely access to accurate CD4 results is crucial at the primary level of the health system. For the past 7 years, the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has implemented a flexible and sustainable three-phase model: (1) site assessment and improvement, (2) appropriate technology selection with capacity building through practical training and laboratory mentoring, and (3) quality management system strengthening and monitoring, to support accessibility to reliable CD4 counting at the point of service. CD4 testing capacity was established in 122 of 229 (53%) laboratories supported in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Among those in rural settings, 46% (69/151) had CD4 testing available at site level, with a functioning flow cytometer installed at 28% (8/29) and 50% (61/122) of level 1 and level 2 sites, respectively. To strengthen local capacity, a total of 1,152 laboratory technicians were trained through 188 training sessions provided both on-site and at central locations. The overall quality of CD4 total testing procedure was assessed at 76% (92/121) of the laboratories, with 25% (23/92), 34% (31/92), and 33% (30/92) of them reporting excellent, good, and satisfactory performance. Balancing country-specific factors with the location of the clinic, number of patients, and the expected workload, was crucial in adapting this flexible model for decentralizing CD4 testing. The close collaboration with local governments and private vendors was key to successfully expanding access to CD4 testing within the framework of HIV care and treatment programs and for the sustainability of medical laboratories in resource-limited settings.

  13. Paediatric Pharmacovigilance: Use of Pharmacovigilance Data Mining Algorithms for Signal Detection in a Safety Dataset of a Paediatric Clinical Study Conducted in Seven African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kajungu, Dan K.; Erhart, Annette; Talisuna, Ambrose Otau; Bassat, Quique; Karema, Corine; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Tinto, Halidou; Kremsner, Peter; Meremikwu, Martin; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children. Methods We used paediatric safety data from a multi-site, multi-country clinical study conducted in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique). Each site compared three out of four ACTs, namely amodiaquine-artesunate (ASAQ), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or chlorproguanil/dapsone and artesunate (CD+A). We examine two pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, namely proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network on the clinical safety dataset. Results Among the 4,116 children (6–59 months old) enrolled and followed up for 28 days post treatment, a total of 6,238 adverse events were reported resulting into 346 drug-event combinations. Nine signals were generated both by proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network. A review of the manufacturer package leaflets, an online Multi-Drug Symptom/Interaction Checker (DoubleCheckMD) and further by therapeutic area experts reduced the number of signals to five. The ranking of some drug-adverse reaction pairs on the basis of their signal index differed between the two methods. Conclusions Our two data mining methods were equally able to generate suspected signals using the pooled safety data from a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial. This analysis demonstrated the possibility of utilising clinical studies safety data for key

  14. [The occurrence of animal sarcocystiosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Nedjari, M

    2003-01-01

    Investigations to occurrence of Sarcocystiosis of domestic animals in Algeria were carried out by different methods--Immunofluorescence (IFAT), macroscopic and microscopic examinations of muscle, coproscopia. Positive results could be found in intermediate hosts--362 of 537 cattle, 188 of 292 sheep, 13 of 57 horses and in the final hosts dogs and cats. Muscle-probes from cattle contained S. cruzi (58.7 respectively 61.0%), S. hirsuta (48.9 respectively 35.0%), from sheep S. tenella (61.0 respectively 59.6%, S. arieticanis (38.8 respectively 40.3%), from horses S. bertrami (24.5%). IFAT-data of extensy: 64.5% in cattle, 60.5% in sheep. First time in Algeria could be found S. hominis (2.3 respectively 3.9%).

  15. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  16. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  17. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  18. Compliance With Referral Advice After Treatment With Prereferral Rectal Artesunate: A Study in 3 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Siribié, Mohamadou; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Sanou, Armande K.; Jegede, Ayodele S.; Afonne, Chinenye; Falade, Catherine O.; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. Children aged <5 years were enrolled in a large study in 3 countries of sub-Saharan Africa because they had danger signs preventing them from being able to take oral medications. We examined compliance and factors associated with compliance with referral advice for those who were treated with rectal artesunate. Methods. Patient demographic data, speed of accessing treatment after danger signs were recognized, clinical symptoms, malaria microscopy, treatment-seeking behavior, and compliance with referral advice were obtained from case record forms of 179 children treated with prereferral rectal artesunate in a multicountry study. We held focus group discussions and key informant interviews with parents, community health workers (CHWs), and facility staff to understand the factors that deterred or facilitated compliance with referral advice. Results. There was a very high level of compliance (90%) among patients treated with prereferral rectal artesunate. Age, symptoms at baseline (prostration, impaired consciousness, convulsions, coma), and malaria status were not related to referral compliance in the analysis. Conclusions. Teaching CHWs to diagnose and treat young children with prereferral rectal artesunate is feasible in remote communities of Africa, and high compliance with referral advice can be achieved. PMID:27941106

  19. Sexual behavior, knowledge and information sources of very young adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Biddlecom, Ann; Guiella, Georges; Singh, Susheela; Zulu, Eliya

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents are a key target group for HIV and pregnancy prevention efforts, yet very little is known about the youngest adolescents: those under age 15. New survey data from 12-14 year olds in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda are used to describe their sexual activity, knowledge about HIV, STIs and pregnancy prevention, and sources of sexual and reproductive health information, including sex education in schools. Results show that very young adolescents are already beginning to be sexually active and many believe their close friends are sexually active. They have high levels of awareness but little in-depth knowledge about pregnancy and HIV prevention. Multiple information sources are used and preferred by very young adolescents. Given their needs for HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention information that is specific and practical and considering that the large majority are attending school in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, school-based sex education is a particularly promising avenue for reaching adolescents under age 15.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Meningococcal Isolates from Countries in the African Meningitis Belt before Introduction of a Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Caugant, Dominique A.; Kristiansen, Paul A.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Kandolo, Denis; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Sow, Samba; Bonte, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background The serogroup A conjugate meningococcal vaccine, MenAfriVac, was introduced in mass vaccination campaigns in December 2010 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In the coming years, vaccination will be extended to other African countries at risk of epidemics. To document the molecular characteristics of disease-causing meningococcal strains circulating in the meningitis belt of Africa before vaccine introduction, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers on Meningococci in Europe and United States established a common strain collection of 773 isolates from cases of invasive meningococcal disease collected between 2004 and 2010 from 13 sub-Saharan countries. Methodology All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, and 487 (62%) were also analyzed for genetic variation in the surface antigens PorA and FetA. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for part of the collection. Principal Findings Only 19 sequence types (STs) belonging to 6 clonal complexes were revealed. ST-5 clonal complex dominated with 578 (74.8%) isolates. All ST-5 complex isolates were remarkably homogeneous in their PorA (P1.20,9) and FetA (F3-1) and characterized the serogroup A strains which have been responsible for most epidemics during this time period. Sixty-eight (8.8%) of the 773 isolates belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex which was mainly represented by serogroup W135, while an additional 38 (4.9%) W135 isolates belonged to the ST-175 complex. Forty-eight (6.2%) serogroup X isolates from West Africa belonged to the ST-181 complex, while serogroup X cases in Kenya and Uganda were caused by an unrelated clone, ST-5403. Serogroup X, ST-181, emerged in Burkina Faso before vaccine introduction. Conclusions In the seven years preceding introduction of a new serogroup A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A of the ST-5 clonal complex was identified as the predominant disease-causing strain. PMID:23029368

  1. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  2. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  3. Malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among travellers of African ethnicity living in Paris and visiting their country of origin in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pistone, T; Guibert, P; Gay, F; Malvy, D; Ezzedine, K; Receveur, M C; Siriwardana, M; Larouzé, B; Bouchaud, O

    2007-10-01

    An observational prospective cohort study assessed malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among individuals of African ethnicity living in Paris and travelling to their country of origin to visit friends or relatives (VFR). The study compared two groups of VFR who had visited a travel clinic (TC; n=122) or a travel agency (TA; n=69) before departure. Of the 47% of VFR citing malaria as a health concern, 75% knew that malaria is mosquito-borne and that bed nets are an effective preventive measure. Perception of high malaria risk was greater in the TA group (33%) than in the TC group (7%). The availability of a malaria vaccine was mentioned by 35% of VFR, with frequent confusion between yellow fever vaccine and malaria prevention. Twenty-nine percent took adequate chemoprophylaxis with complete adherence, which was higher among the TC group (41%) than the TA group (12%). Effective antivector protection measures used were bed nets (16%), wearing long clothes at night (14%) and air conditioning (8%), with no differences between the study groups except in the use of impregnated bed nets (11% of the TC group and none of the TA group). Media coverage, malaria chemoprophylaxis repayment and cultural adaptation of preventive messages should be improved to reduce the high rate of inadequate malaria prophylaxis in VFR.

  4. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  5. Persons living with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy also consulting traditional healers: a study in three African countries.

    PubMed

    Wanyama, Jane N; Tsui, Sharon; Kwok, Cynthia; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Denison, Julie A; Koole, Olivier; van Praag, Eric; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon P; Colebunders, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Traditional healers provide healthcare to a substantial proportion of people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) in high HIV burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the impact on the health of retained patients visiting traditional healers is unknown. In 2011, a study to asses adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) performed in 18 purposefully selected HIV treatment centers in Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda showed that 'consulting a traditional healer/herbalist because of HIV' was an independent risk factor for incomplete ART adherence. To identify characteristics of PLHIV on ART who were also consulting traditional healers, we conducted a secondary analysis of the data from this study. It was found that 260 (5.8%) of the 4451 patients enrolled in the study had consulted a traditional healer during the last three months because of HIV. In multivariable analysis, patients with fewer HIV symptoms, those who had been on ART for >5.3 years and those from Tanzania were more likely to have consulted a traditional healer. However, at the time of the study, there was a famous healer in Manyara district, Loliondo village of Tanzania who claimed his herbal remedy was able to cure all chronic diseases including HIV. HIV treatment programs should be aware that patients with fewer HIV symptoms, those who have been on ART for five or more years, and patients attending ART centers near famous traditional healers are likely to consult traditional healers. Such patients may need more support or counseling about the risks of both stopping ART and poor adherence. Considering the realities of inadequate human resources for health and the burden of disease caused by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, facilitating a collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners is recommended.

  6. [News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to β-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country.

  7. Possible spread of African horse sickness on the wind

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, R. F.; Pedgley, D. E.; Tucker, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of outbreaks of African horse sickness showed that movement of infected Culicoides midges on the wind was most likely responsible for the spread of the disease over the sea from Morocco to Spain in 1966, from Turkey to Cyprus in 1960, and from Senegal to the Cape Verde Islands in 1943. The pattern of spread of the epidemic in the Middle East in 1960 could have been laid down by the infected midges carried on spells of south-east winds, and analyses of outbreaks in Algeria in 1965 and India in 1960 also suggested windborne spread of the disease. Each spread occurred when the presence of virus, host and vector coincided either with a spell of winds unusual for a particular time of year (Spain, Cyprus, Cape Verde Islands and Algeria) or with a series of disturbances usual at that time of the year (Middle East and India). Inferred flight endurance of the midge varied up to at least 20 h and flight range from 40 to 700 km. Flight occurred when temperatures were likely to have been in the range of 15-25 °C if it was at night or 20 to about 40 °C if it was by day. It is suggested that likely movements of midges on the wind can be estimated from synoptic weather charts, and should be taken into account when planning control of the disease in the face of an outbreak. Such control includes a ban on movement of horses, vaccination and spraying of insecticide. The risk of spread to countries outside the endemic areas should be assessed by reference to possible wind dispersal of infected midges. PMID:269203

  8. Possible spread of African horse sickness on the wind.

    PubMed

    Pedgley, D E; Tucker, M R

    1977-10-01

    Analyses of outbreaks of African horse sickness showed that movement of infected Culicoides midges on the wind was most likely responsible for the spread of the disease over the sea from Morocco to Spain in 1966, from Turkey to Cyprus in 1960, and from Senegal to the Cape Verde Islands in 1943. The pattern of spread of the epidemic in the Middle East in 1960 could have been laid down by the infected midges carried on spells of south-east winds, and analyses of outbreaks in Algeria in 1965 and India in 1960 also suggested windborne spread of the disease. Each spread occurred when the presence of virus, host and vector coincided either with a spell of winds unusual for a particular time of year (Spain, Cyprus, Cape Verde Islands and Algeria) or with a series of disturbances usual at that time of the year (Middle East and India). Inferred flight endurance of the midge varied up to at least 20 h and flight range from 40 to 700 km. Flight occurred when temperatures were likely to have been in the range of 15-25 degrees C if it was at night or 20 to about 40 degrees C if it was by day.It is suggested that likely movements of midges on the wind can be estimated from synoptic weather charts, and should be taken into account when planning control of the disease in the face of an outbreak. Such control includes a ban on movement of horses, vaccination and spraying of insecticide.The risk of spread to countries outside the endemic areas should be assessed by reference to possible wind dispersal of infected midges.

  9. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Malaria Microscopy for Guiding Malaria Treatment of Uncomplicated Fevers in Nigeria and Prereferral Cases in 3 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Catherine O.; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Siribié, Mohamadou; Diarra, Amidou; Sermé, Luc; Afonne, Chinenye; Yusuf, Oyindamola B.; Gansane, Zakaria; Jegede, Ayodele S.; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment be based on demonstration of the infecting Plasmodium parasite specie. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended at community points of care because they are accurate and rapid. We report on parasitological results in a malaria study in selected rural communities in 3 African countries. Methods. In Nigeria, community health workers (CHWs) performed RDTs (SD-Bioline) and thick blood smears on all children suspected to have malaria. Malaria RDT-positive children able to swallow received artemisinin-based combination therapy (Coartem). In all countries, children unable to take oral drugs received prereferral rectal artesunate irrespective of RDT result and were referred to the nearest health facility. Thick blood smears and RDTs were usually taken at hospital admission. In Nigeria and Burkina Faso, RDT cassettes and blood smears were re-read by an experienced investigator at study end. Results. Trained CHWs enrolled 2148 children in Nigeria. Complete parasitological data of 1860 (86.6%) enrollees were analyzed. The mean age of enrollees was 30.4 ± 15.7 months. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia in the study population was 77.8% (1447/1860), 77.6% (1439/1855), and 54.1% (862/1593) by RDT performed by CHWs vs an expert clinical research assistant vs microscopy (gold standard), respectively. Geometric mean parasite density was 6946/µL (range, 40–436 450/µL). There were 49 cases of RDT false-negative results with a parasite density range of 40–54 059/µL. False-negative RDT results with high parasitemia could be due to non-falciparum infection or result from a prozone effect. Sensitivity and specificity of SD-Bioline RDT results as read by CHWs were 94.3% and 41.6%, respectively, while the negative and positive predictive values were 86.1% and 65.6%, respectively. The level of agreement in RDT reading by the CHWs and experienced research staff was 86.04% and κ

  10. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  11. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  12. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  13. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    PubMed

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  14. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith GB

    2016-01-01

    Recently, South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N=17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV positive compared to all other marital status groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouse compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socioeconomic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships. PMID:26551532

  15. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  16. Cooking and Season as Risk Factors for Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in African Children: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Hannes; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use. Methods We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437), 9 (n = 23,139) and 6 countries (n = 14,561) respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels. Results Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001), with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034). During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71), coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97), wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51) and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35). In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95), coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72) and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66) but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66). Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070) determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50). Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation. Conclusions We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season. PMID:26042802

  17. New data on aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Laamari, Malik; d’Acier, Armelle Coeur; Jousselin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A survey of aphids was carried out during the period 2008-2011 in different regions of Algeria by collecting and identifying aphids and their host plants. Aphids were collected from 46 host plants. Forty-six species were reported including thirty-six species which were recorded for the first time in this country and thirty species which were recorded for the first time in the Maghreb (North Africa). This study extends the number of known Algerian aphid to 156 species. PMID:24039520

  18. Petroleum resources of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Foreign energy supply assessment series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Part 1 of the report is a synopsis of each country's location, its exploration and development history, crude oil field production history, and markets. Part 2 discusses the production and reserve characteristics of the oil fields and status of the known crude oil resources. Part 3 provides an assessment of the ultimately recoverable crude oil and the possible future rate of availability of the crude oil. Part 4 discusses the status of the known and undiscovered natural gas resources, production, and markets. Part 5 is an overview of the petroleum geology of the three countries and the physical characteristics of their crude oils. Appendix A presents an annual resume of historical production by field and by basin for Libya; Appendix B shows the historical production by field and by basin for Algeria; Appendix C shows the historical production by field and by basin for Egypt; Appendix D provides production tables for each country. Data presented in Appendixes A through D are derived mostly from the April 1982 publication, Libya, Algeria and Egypt-Crude Oil Potential From Known Deposits DOE/EIA-0338, by William D. Dietzman, Naim R. Rafidi, and Thomas A. Ross. Appendix E is a geologic timetable.

  19. The M w 5.0 Hammam Melouane Earthquake (North Central Algeria) of 17 July 2013 in the Context of the Tellian Atlas Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, A. K.; Haned, A.; Aidi, C.; Beldjoudi, H.; Kherroubi, A.; Semmane, F.; Benabdeloued, B. Y. N.; Larbes, Y.; Alili, A.; Khelif, M. F.; Belheouane, A.

    2017-02-01

    On 17 July 2013 (03:00 GMT) a new moderate earthquake of magnitude 5.0 happened in the Tell belts of northern Algeria, more precisely near the village of Hammam Melouane (Algeria), 30 km south of Algiers, the Capital of Algeria. The main shock parameters and aftershocks activity analysis, reveal that the earthquake occurred on a 5 km long dextral strike-slip fault oriented N114°E, a conjugate strike-slip fault of the major NE-SW reverse fault system of the neogene Mitidja basin. This event caused damage to houses and social infrastructures but no fatalities were reported. Onland the earthquake triggered rock falls and minor landslides along the Hammam Melouane river. The occurrence of the Hammam Melouane in the northern limit of the Tell belts is representative of the African-Eurasiatic interplate seismicity of northern Algeria where major seismic events could occurred as the previous Boumerdes event of May 21st, 2003 (M w 6.8).

  20. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  1. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    PubMed Central

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  2. The North African sawfly genus Prionomeion (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae), with a key to the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Diprioninae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hideho

    2016-06-24

    The diagnostic characters are discussed for the North African genus Prionomeion Benson, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae, Diprioninae). The type species, Prionomeion gaullei (Konow, 1906), is redescribed based on the holotype (female) and one male, both from Algeria. The second species of the genus, P. maghrebense sp. nov. is described based on one female from Morocco and one male from Algeria. A key to the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Diprioninae is given.

  3. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 4, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    Ninety-six English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in five North African countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials primarily published during 1975 through 1976, the bibliography examines all aspects of education in those countries. Organized by country, the…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    Ninety English-language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in five north African countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published during the early months of 1976, the bibliography examines all aspects of education in those countries. Organized by country, the bibliography…

  6. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Doudja; Clifford, Gary M; Pallardy, Sophie; Ayyach, Ghassan; Chékiri, Asma; Boudrich, Arab; Snijders, Peter J F; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bouhadef, Anissa; Zitouni, Zahia; Habib, Djamila; Ikezaren, Nadia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-05-01

    No data exist on the population prevalence of, nor risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the predominantly Muslim countries of Northern Africa. Cervical specimens were obtained from 759 married women aged 15-65 years from the general population of Algiers, Algeria. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection, using a GP5+/6+-based polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 44 HPV types, were performed according to the standardized protocol of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys. HPV prevalence in the general population was 6.3% (4.0% of high-risk types), with no significant variation by age. The prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 3.6%. HPV positivity was significantly higher among divorced women, women in polygamous marriages and those reporting husband's extramarital sexual relationships. HPV16/18 accounted for only 15% of HPV-positive women in the general population, compared with 77% of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the same city. In conclusion, we report that HPV infection among married women in Algeria is much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa and also lower than in the majority of high-resource countries.

  8. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population.

  9. [The reappearance of chancroid in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A; Aissa-Mamoun, A

    1992-01-01

    After 35 observations of the chancroid observed in the department of dermato-venereology of the University Hospital of Tlemcen (West Algeria) from August 1988 to December 1991, we are led to analyze the flare of this sexual transmitted disease. The principal affected subjects are single male no older than 30 years, having had sexual intercourse with prostitutes (30/35). Less than 10 days (19/29) after the sexual contacts, the ulcer appears, and most often unique (25/35), mildly painful, accompanied frequently by adenopathies (31/35). The contamination took place mainly in Bel Abbès--city located at 90 km from Tlemcen--(12 cases), in Tlemcen (4 cases) and Morocco (5 cases). The treatment based on sulfonamides, erythromycin and tetracycline or doxycycline, has been constantly efficient. No concomitant HIV infection has been revealed. The chancroid is the first STD observed in our department in 1991, and also, the first cause for genital ulcer.

  10. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  11. Predictive Factors of Obesity and their Relationships to Dietary Intake in Schoolchildren in Western Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Saker, Meriem; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid A; Ahmed, Samira Baba; Narce, Michel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions world-wide. Its risk factors are poorly studied, especially among children in developing countries such as Algeria. Objectives: The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence and risk factors of obesity in Algerian schoolchildren 6 to 8 years aged by conducting a school-site retrospective cohort study in Tlemcen Department (western Algeria). Material and Mthods: From 2008 to 2010, socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), physical activity categories, lifestyle and nutritional habits of 1520 children (839 boys and 681 girls), at entrance into primary school, were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among the 1520 participants, 99 (6.5%) were obese. Birthweight ≤ 2.5 kg and ≥ 4 kg, early introduction of solid foods and low physical activity were significantly associated with obesity (p<0.001). Additionally, mother's and grandmother's BMI ≥30 kg/m2, fewer children in the household, higher parental education, household income and the presence of familial obesity may predispose significantly to childhood obesity (p<0.001). Furthermore, child's BMI was significant positively correlated with total energy, fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intakes (p<0.01). Mother's and grandmother's BMI were significant positively correlated with child total energy, fat and SFA intakes. Physical activity score was significant negatively correlated with child total energy, fat and SFA (p<0.01) intakes in obese children. Conclusions: Mother's and grandmother's obesity, excess energy and fat intakes and low physical activity are the strong predictors of childhood obesity in Algeria. Preventive measures should focus on the promotion of physical activity and maternal and children nutritional education. PMID:22205890

  12. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in north eastern Algeria: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Samir; Sadelaoud, Mourad; Chaabna-Mokrane, Karima; Toumi, Wided; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of various hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes present in patients from north eastern Algeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 435 HCV infected patients from northeast Algeria, detected in the Sadelaoud laboratory and diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2012. The patients were diagnosed with HCV infection in their local hospitals and referred to be assessed for HCV genotype before the antiviral treatment. Demographic information (sex, age and address), genotype, subtype and viral load were retrieved from the patient medical records. The serum samples were tested by the type-specific genotyping assay. RESULTS: The majority of the patients (82.5%) were from the central part of the examined region (P = 0.002). The mean age of the patients studied was 53.6 ± 11.5 years. HCV genotype 1 was the most frequent (88.7%), followed by genotypes 2 (8.5%), 4 (1.1%), 3 (0.9%) and 5 (0.2%). Genotype 6 was not detected in these patients. Mixed infection across the HCV subtypes was detected in twenty patients (4.6%). The genotype distribution was related to age and region. Genotype 1 was significantly less frequent in the ≥ 60 age group than in the younger age group (OR = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1-0.5, P < 0.001). Furthermore, genotype 1 was more frequent in the central part of the examined region than elsewhere (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The HCV genotype (type 1b was dominant) distribution in Algeria is different from those in other northern countries of Africa. PMID:23898373

  13. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients’ opinions. Results and Conclusion: At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by

  14. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N.; Ziane, H.; Bekhoucha, S.; Guechi, Z.; Azzam, A.; Touati, D.; Naim, M.; Azrou, S.; Hamidi, M.; Mertani, A.; Laraba, A.; Annane, T.; Kermani, S.; Tazir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  15. On-board emission measurement of high-loaded light-duty vehicles in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A sample of eight private gasoline and diesel conventional light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in use with various ages, carrying a load of 460 kg, were tested on a representative trip in the traffic flow of the city of Blida to obtain emission factors representing the actual use conditions of Algerian LDVs. The gas sampling system (mini-constant volume sampling) as well as the analyzers are carried on-board the vehicle. Around 55 tests were conducted during 3 months covering more than 480 km under various real driving conditions. The mean speed downtown is about 16.1 km/hr with a rather low acceleration, an average of 0.60 m/sec2. For each test, kinematics are recorded as well as the analysis of the four emitted pollutants carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbons. Emission factors were evaluated according to speed for each category of gasoline and diesel engines. The influence of some parameters such as cold/hot start, age of vehicle and its state of maintenance are discussed. Results are compared with the European database ARTEMIS for comparable vehicles. These measurements contribute to the development of unit emission of the vehicles used in Algeria, which are necessary for the calculation of emission inventory of pollutants and greenhouse gases from the road transportation sector. The unit emissions constitute a tool of decisionmaking aid regarding the conception of new regulations of vehicle control and inspection in Algeria and even in similar developing countries.

  16. [Chancroid in Algeria: the status of this sexually transmitted disease in 1995].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1997-01-01

    Absent for several decades, the chancroid reappeared in Algeria in 1988. In the unique department of Dermatology and Venereology of the University Hospital of the country of Tlemcen (more than 700,000 inhabitants), we wanted to know the state of this STD seven years after the report of the first cases. The file of the consulting patients were examined. We looked for the principal characteristics of this STD: age, sex, incubation period, place infection contact, type of relation, clinical presentation, evolution without and with treatment, other associated STD (syphilis, HIV). From August 1988 (1st case) to December 1995, 144 cases of chancroid were collected = 1988: 6, 1989: 5, 1990: 7, 1991: 18, 1992: 11, 1993: 33, 1994: 48, 1995: 16. The presentation is quite stereotyped; it concerns males only, singles in must cases, having had sexual relations with prostitutes. The incubation period is short (less than 10 days), the characteristic ulceration presents, very often, some adenopathies. The treatment by cotrimoxazole is efficient. They are no concomitant syphilis or HIV infection. The chancroid is the first cause of genital ulceration in the world. Since 1991, it is the principal STD in our department. It spreads within a male population, young singles associated with prostitutes. It is well installed in Algeria, and its role, although minor, in the transmission of the HIV infection, should not be neglected.

  17. Ecological Status of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Rural Communities of Northeastern Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabbout, Nacira; Merzoug, Djemoi; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Algeria is among the most affected Mediterranean countries by leishmaniasis due to its large geographic extent and climatic diversity. The current study aimed to determine the ecological status (composition and diversity) of phlebotomine sandfly populations in the region of Oum El Bouaghi (Northeast Algeria). Methods: An entomological survey was conducted during the period May–October 2010 in rural communities of Oum El Bouaghi. Catches of sandflies were carried out using sticky traps in both domestic and peri-domestic environments of 16 sites located beneath two bioclimatic areas, sub-humid and semi-arid. Most of these sites have visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis cases. Results: A total of 1,363 sandflies were captured and identified. They belong to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, and five species. The species Phlebotomus perniciosus, P. perfiliewi and Sergentomyia minuta were constants. Phlebotomus longicuspis was common and P. papatasi was accidental in the study sites. P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi are the two possible species that contribute in leishmaniasis transmission across the study area due to their high densities (96 and 49 specimens/m2/night, respectively); these two species dominate other species in all study sites. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the key-role played by P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi and S. minuta in outlining site similarities based on sandfly densities. The study confirms that the more susceptible sites to leishmaniasis, which hold high densities of these sandflies, were located south of the study area under a semi-arid climate. PMID:27047969

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 3, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    The bibliography contains 94 English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in selected North African countries. Most of the entries were published during the period July-September 1976. Organized by country, the bibliography presents sources relating to educational philosophy and theory, teacher…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 2, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography contains 92 English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in selected North African countries. All entries were published during 1976. Organized by country, the bibliography presents sources relating to educational philosophy and theory, educational administration, adult education,…

  20. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  1. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci. PMID:23347743

  2. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria.

  3. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  4. Earliest known simian primate found in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Godinot, M; Mahboubi, M

    1992-05-28

    The record of early fossil Simiiformes (Anthropoidea) from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has increased dramatically in recent years. We report here the discovery of a new, diminutive and much older (Early or Middle Eocene) simian from an Algerian locality, Glib Zegdou. This species is smaller than any other living or fossil African simiiform. Derived similarities shared with Aegyptopithecus suggest that the new genus is more closely related to propliopithecines than to oligopithecines, implying that these two subfamilies differentiated during the Early Eocene. The new discovery confirms predictions about the great antiquity of Simiiformes and emphasizes a long and endemic African history for higher primates.

  5. Incidence, clinical features and para-clinical findings of achalasia in Algeria: Experience of 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Tebaibia, Amar; Boudjella, Mohammed Amine; Boutarene, Djamel; Benmediouni, Farouk; Brahimi, Hakim; Oumnia, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence of achalasia in Algeria and to determine its clinical and para-clinical profile. To evaluate the impact of continuing medical education (CME) on the incidence of this disease. METHODS From 1990 to 2014, 1256 patients with achalasia were enrolled in this prospective study. A campaign of CME on diagnosis involving different regions of the country was conducted between 1999 and 2003. Annual incidence and prevalence were calculated by relating the number of diagnosed cases to 105 inhabitants. Each patient completed a standardized questionnaire, and underwent upper endoscopy, barium swallow and esophageal manometry. We systematically looked for Allgrove syndrome and familial achalasia. RESULTS The mean annual incidence raised from 0.04 (95%CI: 0.028-0.052) during the 1990s to 0.27/105 inhabitants/year (95%CI: 0.215-0.321) during the 2000s. The incidence of the disease was two and half times higher in the north and the center compared to the south of the country. One-hundred-and-twenty-nine (10%) were children and 97 (7.7%) had Allgrove syndrome. Familial achalasia was noted in 18 different families. Patients had dysphagia (99%), regurgitation (83%), chest pain (51%), heartburn 24.5% and weight loss (70%). The lower esophageal sphincter was hypertensive in 53% and hypotensive in 0.6%. CONCLUSION The mean incidence of achalasia in Algeria is at least 0.27/105 inhabitants. A good impact on the incidence of CME was noted. A gradient of incidence between different regions of the country was found. This variability is probably related to genetic and environmental factors. The discovery of an infantile achalasia must lead to looking for Allgrove syndrome and similar cases in the family. PMID:27784974

  6. An overview on the origin of post-collisional Miocene magmatism in the Kabylies (northern Algeria): Evidence for crustal stacking, delamination and slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazot, Gilles; Abbassene, Fatiha; Maury, René C.; Déverchère, Jacques; Bellon, Hervé; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bosch, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Miocene (17-11 Ma) magmatic activity in the Kabylies emplaced K-rich (and minor medium-K) calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks in five zones, delineating a ∼450 km long EW trending strip located along the northern coast of Algeria, between Annaba and Algiers. Their most likely source is the Kabylian subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously metasomatized during the Paleogene subduction of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere. Our preferred tectono-magmatic model involves a Tethyan slab detachment combined with African mantle delamination and crustal stacking, leading to the superimposition of the African continental crust over the Kabylian metasomatized lithospheric mantle. At ca. 17 Ma, the asthenospheric upwelling arising from lithospheric delamination and Tethyan slab tear triggered the thermal erosion of the latter mantle, inducing its partial melting. The corresponding mafic medium-K calc-alkaline magmas interacted with the African basement units during their ascent, generating intermediate to felsic K-rich calc-alkaline melts that display a characteristic trace element and isotopic crustal signature. Later on, slab tears propagated eastward and westward, promoting slab rollback perpendicular to plate convergence and inducing the emplacement of magmatic rocks of decreasing ages from central-eastern Algeria towards Tunisia and Morocco.

  7. STR-based genetic structure of the Berber population of Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and its relationships to various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Amir, Nadir; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Chikhi, Lounes; Atmani, Djebbar

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations have been described for decades. However, North Africa has received little attention and Algeria, in particular, is poorly studied, Here we genotyped a Berber-speaking population from Algeria using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA from the commercially available AmpF/STR Identifiler kit. Altogether 150 unrelated North Algerian individuals were sampled across 10 administrative regions or towns from the Bejaia Wilaya (administrative district). We found that all of the STR loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, after Bonferroni correction and that the Berber-speaking population of Bejaia presented a high level of observed heterozygosity for the 15 STR system (>0.7). Genetic parameters of forensic interest such as combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) showed values higher than 0.999, suggesting that this set of STRs can be used for forensic studies. Our results were also compared to those published for 42 other human populations analyzed with the same set. We found that the Bejaia sample clustered with several North African populations but that some geographically close populations, including the Berber-speaking Mozabite from Algeria were closer to Near-Eastern populations. While we were able to detect some genetic structure among samples, we found that it was not correlated to language (Berber-speaking versus Arab-speaking) or to geography (east versus west). In other words, no significant genetic differences were found between the Berber-speaking and the Arab-speaking populations of North Africa. The genetic closeness of European, North African and Near-Eastern populations suggest that North Africa should be integrated in models aiming at reconstructing the demographic history of Europe. Similarly, the genetic proximity with sub-Saharan Africa is

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  9. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  10. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  11. Algerian orphans and colonial Christianity in Algeria, 1866-1939.

    PubMed

    Taithe, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the exceptional fate of the orphan survivors of the great Algerian demographic crisis of the late 1860s who subsequently converted to Catholicism. Using a prosopographical approach, this study seeks to highlight the complexities of national identity in France and to explore some of the racial tensions emerging in Algeria in the late nineteenth century.

  12. [The necessity of controlling population growth in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Sari, D

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for controlling Algeria's rapid rate of population growth. The author notes that at the present rate of growth the population is doubling every 20 years. The decline in the labor market and increases in unemployment and underemployment are also examined. The need for strong population policies and programs is stressed.

  13. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  14. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  15. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  16. A global framework convention on health: would it help developing countries to fulfil their duties on the right to health? A South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Mark; Shija, John

    2010-01-01

    This article argues from a South African perspective that national experience in attempting to fulfil the right to health supports the need for an international framework. Secondly, we suggest that this framework is not just a matter of good choice or even of justice but of a direct legal duty that falls on those states that have consented to operate within the international human rights framework by ratifying key treaties such as the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). States can either accept this duty or face with growing pressure from those who believe in global social justice to find lasting solutions to the terrible inequities in global health standards.

  17. A first-language-first multilingual model to meet the quality imperative in formal basic education in three `francophone' West African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikièma, Norbert

    2011-12-01

    This paper documents the new trend towards a first-language-first multilingual model in formal education in three former French colonies of West Africa, namely Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It compares the sociolinguistic situations, the conditions of the development of multilingual education and the achievements of mother-tongue-medium education in all three countries. The evidence is that, contrary to common discourse in francophonie, a strong first-language-first model in formal education is the best guarantee of a good mastery of French and, more generally, of quality education in francophone countries.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of ‘Fixed Dose’ versus ‘Loose’ Drug Regimens for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Two High TB-Burden African Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the performance of the use of fixed-dose combination (FDC) TB drugs when used under programmatic settings in high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC versus loose formulation (LF) TB treatment regimens for treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB) in the context of actual medical practice in prevailing conditions within programmatic settings in five sites in two high TB-burden African countries. Methods A two-arm, single-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing FDCs with separate LFs involving 1000 adults newly diagnosed with culture positive PTB was conducted at five sites in two African countries between 2007 and 2011. Participants were randomized to receive daily treatment with anti-TB drugs given as either FDC or separate LFs for 24 weeks (intensive phase– 8 weeks of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide; continuation phase– 16 weeks of rifampicin and isoniazid). Primary outcome measures were microbiological cure and safety at the end of six months’ treatment; pre-specified non-inferiority margin for difference in cure rate was 4%. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the modified intent to treat (mITT) cohort comprising all randomized patients with a positive baseline culture result for TB and who received at least one dose of study treatment. Patients missing end of treatment culture results were considered failures. Further analyses were done in which mITT patients without an end of treatment (EOT) culture were excluded in a complete case analysis (mITTcc) and a per protocol cohort analysis defined as mITTcc patients who received at least 95% of their intended doses and had an EOT culture result. Results In the mITT analysis, the cure rate in the FDC group was 86.7% (398/459) and in the LF group 85.2% (396/465) (difference 1.5-% (90% confidence interval (CI) (-2.2%– 5.3%)). Per Protocol analysis showed similar results: FDC 98.9% (359/363) versus LF 96.9% (345

  19. First GNSS results in the Oran area (northwestern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bougrine, amina; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkarim; Lammali, Kamel; Bacha, Wahab; Terki, Toufik

    2016-04-01

    Sparse results along northern Algeria are so far available to better understand how Nubia/Eurasia convergence is accommodated in the western Mediterranean and quantitatively assess seismic potential in that area. In this study, we show new GNSS results in the Tellian atlas in western Algeria. The studied area encompasses the Mleta basin bordered in the north by the Murdjadjo range, which is thought to be the locus of the large 1790 earthquake (estimated magnitude 7.5 Bouhadad, 2001). This area includes the city of Oran, the second most populated city of Algeria. The GNSS network includes 18 sites, spanning 180km East-West along the coast of Algeria and 40 km inland, with inter-site distance of 15 km. It has been observed in 2008, 2012 and 2013 for enabling velocity to be estimated at the 1 mm/yr. GNSS Data have been processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software, together with 04 permanent sites in Algeria and 87 IGS sites surrounding the area of study. Uncertainties on campaign results have been rescaled according to the analysis of the nearby CGPS time series. The recorded seismicity and the obtained GNSS velocity field from the three campaigns with a five years span, indicate that this region is tectonically active and subjected to significant horizontal motions. A regional NW displacement of 2-4mm/yr in the Eurasia stable reference frame is consistent with the expected Nubia-Eurasia motion. The obtained velocity field in the Nubian fixed reference frame gives a slow strain rate less than 2mm/yr representing the strain rate accommodated across the Murdjadjo range and the different features around the Mlena basin.

  20. [The extension of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria. Apropos of 25 cases observed in Wilaya de Tlemcen (West Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1991-01-01

    Following 25 observations, 19 of which are autochtonous, the authors bring to attention the problem of the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria. Actually, this affection touches all the regions. The west part, supposed sofar untouched, has seen the hatching of a foyer in Tlemcen.

  1. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  2. Oral and injectable contraceptive use and HIV acquisition risk among women in 4 African countries: a secondary analysis of data from a microbicide trial

    PubMed Central

    Balkus, Jennifer E.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Coletti, Anne; Ramjee, Gita; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Makanani, Bonus; Reid, Cheri; Martinson, Francis; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Chirenje, Zvavahera M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of oral and injectable contraceptive use compared to non-hormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition among Southern African women enrolled in a microbicide trial. Study Design Prospective cohort study using data from women enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) protocol 035. At each quarterly visit, participants were interviewed about self-reported contraceptive use and sexual behaviors and underwent HIV testing. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of injectable and oral hormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition. Results The analysis included 2,830 participants, of whom 106 became HIV infected (4.07 per 100 person-years.) At baseline, 1,546 (51%) participants reported using injectable contraceptives and 595 (21%) reported using oral contraceptives. HIV incidence among injectable, oral and non-hormonal contraceptive method users was: 4.72, 2.68 and 3.83 per 100 person-years, respectively. Injectable contraceptive use was associated with a non-statistically significant increased risk of HIV acquisition (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 1.96), while oral contraceptive use was associated with a non-statistically significant decreased risk of HIV acquisition (aHR=0.76; 95% CI 0.37,1.55). Conclusion In this secondary analysis of randomized trial data, a marginal, but non-statistically significant, increase in HIV risk among women using injectable hormonal contraceptives was observed. No increased HIV risk was observed among women using oral contraceptives. Our findings support the World Health Organization’s recommendation that women at high risk for acquiring HIV, including those using progestogen-only injectable contraception, should be strongly advised to always use condoms and other HIV prevention measures. PMID:26519646

  3. Surgery for rheumatic mitral valve disease in sub-saharan African countries: why valve repair is still the best surgical option.

    PubMed

    Mvondo, Charles Mve; Pugliese, Marta; Giamberti, Alessandro; Chelo, David; Kuate, Liliane Mfeukeu; Boombhi, Jerome; Dailor, Ellen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic valve disease, a consequence of acute rheumatic fever, remains endemic in developing countries in the sub-Saharan region where it is the leading cause of heart failure and cardiovascular death, involving predominantly a young population. The involvement of the mitral valve is pathognomonic and mitral surgery has become the lone therapeutic option for the majority of these patients. However, controversies exist on the choice between valve repair or prosthetic valve replacement. Although the advantages of mitral valve repair over prosthetic valve replacement in degenerative mitral disease are well established, this has not been the case for rheumatic lesions, where the use of prosthetic valves, specifically mechanical devices, even in poorly compliant populations remains very common. These patients deserve more accurate evaluation in the choice of the surgical strategy which strongly impacts the post-operative outcomes. This report discusses the factors supporting mitral repair surgery in rheumatic disease, according to the patients' characteristics and the effectiveness of the current repair techniques compared to prosthetic valve replacement in developing countries.

  4. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Equine cryptosporidial infection associated with Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Aissi, Miriem; Rost, Michael; Kváč, Martin

    2013-10-18

    Faecal samples from two horse farms in Algeria keeping Arabian, Thoroughbred, and Barb horses were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2010-2011. A total of 138 faecal samples (16 from a farm keeping 50 animals and 122 from a farm with 267 horses) were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. infection using molecular tools. DNA was extracted from all samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify fragments of the SSU rDNA and gp60 genes to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Sequence analyses of SSU and gp60 genes revealed four animals positive for the presence of subtype XIIIa A22R9 of the Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype. The infections were not associated with diarrhoea. This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Algeria and the first occurrence of the hedgehog genotype in horses. These findings support the potential role of infected horses in sylvatic-domestic transmission of Cryptosporidium.

  6. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  7. A long way to go – Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990–2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016–2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. Methods The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for ‘improved’ access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for ‘basic’ access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Results Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but

  8. Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence FORMAT : Strategy Research Project DATE: 23 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 7,820 PAGES: 32...James D Le Sueur after the party‟s victory in the first round of parliamentary elections, stated: Democracy is one of the numerous nefarious...democratic model , dealing with man‟s spiritual element besides his human and social aspects. For Ben Nabi the development of democracy in Islam needs not

  9. First insights on the molybdenum-copper Bled M'Dena complex (Eglab massif, Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagraa, Karima; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Debat, Pierre; Kolli, Omar

    2017-03-01

    Molybdenum-Copper showings in the Eglab massif (eastern part of the Reguibat rise of Algeria), are found in quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite of the Bled M'Dena complex, a Paleoproterozoic circular structure of ∼5 km in diameter, comprising volcanic and intrusive suites. The latter consist of quartz-diorite, quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite with a metaluminous normative composition. They display an "adakitic character" with moderate light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment, minor Eu anomalies, high Sr/Y ratio and low Yb concentration, suggestive of a hydrous, arc magma of volcanic-arc affinity. The mineralization occurs mostly in quartz + molybdenite + chalcopyrite stockwork veins marked by widespread propylitic alteration along the selvages. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with calcite, which precipitated at relatively late stages of the hydrothermal alteration. Fluid inclusions related to the mineralization stage, range from aqueous to aqueous-carbonic to solid bearing. The latter inclusions have the highest homogenization temperature (up to ∼400 °C), are salt saturated, and commonly contain molybdenite and/or chalcopyrite crystals. The petrology and geochemistry of the host rocks, the style of the hydrothermal alteration, the ore mineral associations, and the characteristics of the fluid inclusions, are all coherent in indicating that the Bled M'Dena represents a Paleoproterozoic porphyry style Mo mineralization, which is far unreported in the African continent.

  10. Progress and Challenges in Astronomical Research in Developing Countries of Sub-Saharan African: Nigeria as a Case Study by Prof. F.E. Opara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Fidelix

    ABSTRCT: The Centre for Basic Space Science and Astronomy (CBSS) is an activity Centre for Space Research and development in Nigeria mandated to pursue capacity building (manpower and infrastructural development) that can sufficiently address the developmental needs of the country in several areas through studies, research and development in Basic Space Science such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, Cosmology and origin of life, Atmospheric Science, Geomagnetism, Rocketry and Satellite Science and Technology. In this study, we highlight the progress made by the centre in the area of capacity and infrastructural building. The challenges faced by the Centre were also highlighted while successful researches on Near Earth Objects that fell in Nigeria and their impact craters have been simulated.

  11. Implementation of an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for Hepatitis B virus quantification in West African countries.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Sow, A; Guillot, C; Jeng, A; Ndow, G; Njie, R; Toure, S; Diop, M; Mboup, S; Kane, C T; Lemoine, M; Thursz, M; Zoulim, F; Mendy, M; Chemin, I

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HBV infection is diagnosed by serological tests, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays are used to quantify viral load, which is a crucial parameter to determine viral replication and to monitor antiviral treatments. However, measuring viral load in resource-limited countries remains nonsystematic, due to the high cost of commercial kits. Here, we describe the development, validation and implementation of a low-cost, in-house qRT-PCR assay to monitor HBV viral load in chronic carriers enrolled in the PROLIFICA programme in the Gambia and Senegal. Over 1500 HBsAg-positive patients, including 210 chronically infected HBV patients, who were given antiviral treatment (tenofovir), were monitored by qRT-PCR using the SYBR Green- and HBV-specific primers. Twenty-four tenofovir-treated patients were followed up and their viral load was tested every 3 months over the 12-month experimental time course. Compared to commercial assays, our in-house assay was shown to be (i) highly reliable, with good intra- and interassay reproducibility over a wide range (45-4.5 × 10(8) copies mL(-1) ), (ii) very similar in the viral loads detected (R(2 ) = .90), (iii) highly sensitive, as it detected loads as low as 30 copies mL(-1) (~5 IU mL(-1) ), (iv) cheaper (2- to 3-fold), (v) easier to implement and (vi) more rapid. Based on our experience, we recommend this assay as a reliable alternative to commercial assays, for monitoring HBV viraemia in resource-limited, highly endemic countries to reduce the cost and technical obstacles associated with commercial kits.

  12. What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:24345343

  13. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 7, Number 3, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This bibliography includes English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans (1) to raise the consciousness of their Islamic and Arabic heritages and (2) to adapt education to the problems of the multilingual population. Citations are categorized by country. Within…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 6, No. 3. 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    English language annotations of articles from 13 French language periodicals covering educational materials of interest to North Africans are included in this annotated bibliography. Citations are categorized by country. Topics touch on philosophy and theory of education, educational statistics, education organization by grade and type, adult…

  16. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    PubMed

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  17. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  18. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore women’s perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. Methods The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Results Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. Conclusions IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative. PMID:25104971

  19. Widespread geographical disparities in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Narjes, Hihi; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Soltani, Mahdia; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Berkane, Saadi; Debzi, Nabil

    2017-02-24

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, with a population of 40 million inhabitants living in disparate environments from the Sahara to the large cities of the Mediterranean coast. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants has been partially described, but variations in the seroprevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) throughout the Algerian territories are still poorly described. We analyzed demographic features of new cases of chronic infection collected in 41 administrative regions (covering 92% of the population) in 2013. The mean age of the 1876 HBsAg(+) patients was 36.8 ± 14.2 years, with a slight excess of males (54%). The seroprevalence of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) was 9.3%, and the mean virus load was 3.2 ± 1.8 log IU/ml. A subset of 15.2% of patients was already cirrhotic at disease discovery. An important heterogeneity was observed throughout the country, with nine regions displaying a significant excess of cases. These regions formed four distinct foci located in distant parts of the country: Adrar-Bechar (southwest), El-Oued-Tebessa (east), M'Sila-Sétif (north central) and Oran-Aïn Temouchent (northwest). An excess of cases was found as well in the national capital Algiers. Patients from southern regions with an excess of cases (Bechar, Adrar, El Oued) were significantly younger (32.0 ± 10.7 years), as were patients from the regions of Bejaia and Bouira (32.1 ± 10.6). The southwestern regions were also marked by a significant imbalance of the sex ratio (58 vs 39% of female cases, P = 4.5 E-5). The highest HBeAg seroprevalence was observed in Setif (26.4 vs. 7.6%, OR = 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-6.5, P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) in accordance with the higher virus loads observed in the patients (3.9 ± 2.3 vs. 3.1 ± 1.6, P = 0.0002). In conclusion, we observed heterogeneity in HBsAg seroprevalence, demographic traits, and disease evolution in Algeria. Further studies are now warranted to shed light on these

  20. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  1. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano J.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women’s overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Methods Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) data (2006–2007) from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=6,305), Swaziland (n=2,786), and Zambia (n=4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. Results OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women’s caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). Conclusions OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers’ overweight status in Namibia. PMID:25630405

  2. [A population ready to explode: Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cote, M

    1995-01-01

    "During the last four decades, the Algerian population has shown strong transformations: threefold increase, saturation of the countrysides, multiplication and growth of the cities, which have converted the country to an urban one. The effect of the growth of the population and of its large spatial redistribution have been enhanced during the last decade by a sharp drop in the quality of life. It is therefore not surprising that the Algerian population has now become a kind of powder-keg." (EXCERPT)

  3. Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Family History on the Incidence of Diabetes in an Adult Diabetic Population from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    FERDI, Nour El Houda; ABLA, Khalida; CHENCHOUNI, Haroun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem worldwide and particularly in developing countries. In Algeria, this metabolic disorder occurs with a wide variety or atypical forms that linked to multiple risk factors including local habits and traditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of risk factors (metabolic syndrome, social, cultural, physical activity, family history and the treatment used) on the incidence of diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on a random sample from a resident population in Tebessa, Northeast Algeria, which underwent a significant expanding of diabetes prevalence conditioned by profound socioeconomic changes. The survey included 200 subjects, randomly selected; with 100 controls and 100 diabetic patients, (26 diabetic subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus ‘T1DM’ and 74 subjects with type two diabetes mellitus ‘T2DM’). Results: Diabetic subjects were significantly affected by all these risk factors, including metabolic syndrome that was higher in women. The most common treatment among surveyed T1DM subjects was insulin, whereas T2DM patients used metformin. In addition, the duration from T1DM onset in the surveyed subjects is older than T2DM onset. The incidence of diabetes is significantly in close relationship between the majorities of these factors of risk. Conclusion: Subjects with a high socioeconomic status can afford a healthier way of life to avoid the risk of developing diabetes compared to subjects with lower social level. PMID:28053930

  4. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Masters in Public Health (MPH) programme with a focus on health workforce development by four academic institutions from East and Southern Africa and the building of a joint teaching platform. Methods Data were obtained through interviews and group discussions with stakeholders, direct and participant observations, and reviews of publications and project documents. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Case description The institutions developed and collaboratively implemented a ‘Masters Degree programme with a focus on health workforce development’. It was geared towards strengthening the leadership capacity of Health ministries to develop expertise in health human resources (HRH) planning and management, and simultaneously build capacity of faculty in curriculum development and innovative educational practices to teach health workforce development. The initiative was configured to facilitate sharing of experience and resources. Discussion The implementation of this initiative has been complex, straddling multiple and changing contexts, actors and agendas. Some of these are common to postgraduate programmes with working learners, while others are unique to this particular partnership, such as weak institutional capacity to champion and embed new programmes and approaches to teaching. Conclusions The partnership, despite significant inherent challenges, has potential for providing real opportunities for building the field and community of practice, and strengthening the

  5. Deterioration and spoilage of peanuts and desiccated coconuts from two sub-Saharan tropical East African countries due to the associated mycobiota and their degradative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M A

    2001-01-01

    A broad variety of fungi (84 species belonging to 36 genera) were identified with more taxa infesting peanut seed samples from two tropical countries (29 genera and 61 species) compared to those found in desiccated coconuts (20 genera and 55 species) on both DRBC and DG18 media. This may be due to the higher moisture levels in peanuts (5.07-7.97%) compared with coconuts (1.5-4.17%). More taxa and propagules were recovered on DG18 in both cases. The dominant fungi from both substrates on both isolation media were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with other fungi from only one substrate/medium. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus) dominated Kenyan samples more so than Ugandan samples on both substrates. However only 71.5% and 87.5% of the peanut kernels, on DRBC and DG18, respectively, were found to be infested with fungi. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus/parasiticus) were found in 75% of the samples, however only 15.75% and 13% of the kernels analyzed were infested. The most frequently isolated species from peanuts were A. niger followed by A. flavus and M. phaseolina. E. repens, E. amstelodami, E. rubrum and E. chevalieri dominated peanut seeds on DG18, and R. stolonifer, A. parasiticus, F. solani, L. theobromae and P. chrysogenum on DRBC. The mean count of fungal propagules in coconut samples were approximately 0.7 x 10(3) and 0.8 x 10(3) on DRBC and DG18, respectively, with a high proportion of those propagules recorded for the aflatoxigenic species (about 0. 17 x 10(3) and 0.25 x 10(3) colonies/g). The mycobiota of desiccated coconut was dominated by A. niger, A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Also A. ochraceus, P. waksmanii, Paecilomyces variotii, P. islandicum and R. mucilaginosa were more frequent on DRBC, while, species of Cladosporium. Chrysosporium and Eurotium were more frequent on DG18. Enzyme indices (or the activities) for each specific strain, when determined after 5 and 8 days of incubation, proved to be similar. A recommendation is given. The

  6. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries.

  7. Hercynian Granite and Related Mineralisation in Beni Snouss, Western Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacera, Hadj Mohamed; Abdelhak, Boutaleb

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the mineralisation related to the Hercynian granite located in western Algeria by combining geologic, tectonic, mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies. Quartz veins bearing sulphides occur in close spatial association with granitoids, which, representing hydrothermal activities associated with them. Visible but rare gold occurs in a very small quantity connected with arsenopyrite. Barite veins and stock works are developed in the granites where are observed at Mallal and Bouabdous. The vein varies in thickness from a few centimetres up to 2 meters, and their length varies from 10 up to up 100 m. Most of veins are N50 - N75 and 60 to 90 dip.

  8. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  9. Bioactive phenylpropanoids from Daucus crinitus Desf. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, Don-Antoine; Laouer, Hocine; El Kolli, Meriem; Prado, Soizic; Maulay-Bailly, Christine; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-24

    The volatile constituents of Daucus crinitus Desf. from Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, The main constituent was isochavicol isobutyrate (39.0%), an uncommon phenylpropanoid. By synthesis of a series of homologous esters, it was also possible to determine the presence of small amounts of isochavicol propionate, which has never been described previously as a natural product. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the whole essential oil, of these two esters, and of isochavicol itself were investigated against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Additionally, their antimalarial and antiradical properties were also evaluated, showing an interesting antiplasmodial activity of isochavicol.

  10. Payload Bay and Great Western Sand Sea, Algeria, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of yellow and orange dunes of the Great Western Sand Sea of Algeria (29.5N, 1.5W) contrast with the black folded sedimentary rocks in the central Sahara Desert. A small dry riverbed, along the line between the thick sands and the black rocks brings in sediment from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Southwest winds blow sand from the bed to form a thick sand sheet on the downwind side of the river to contrast with the thin upwind dune strips.

  11. International Library Manpower; Education and Placement in North America (ALA Preconference Institute. Detroit, Michigan; June 26-27, 1970). Education for Librarianship: Country Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Office for Library Education.

    Fact sheets on the general education system and education for librarianship are presented for 49 countries. The following countries are represented: Algeria, Australia, Austria, Burma, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Kuwait,…

  12. Students' misconceptions about light in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blizak, D.; Chafiqi, F.; Kendil, D.

    2009-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students have difficulties in learning essential optics concepts. Therefore, in this present work we deal with student's conceptions in geometrical optics field. Our objective is to show the Algerian students misconceptions. We proposed to 246 students in first year university (aged 18-21) a closed questionnaire where most of its questions were already used by other researchers. The misunderstandings identified were compared with those in literature. The results show that our students have the same misconceptions, related to the propagation of the light, the vision, the refraction and the reflexion, as the students in other countries (Andersson, Çiğdem ŞAHİN, Galili, Goldberg, Viennot). We investigate new students "misconception" concerning the propagation of the light in the vacuum.

  13. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health.

  14. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  15. The Process of Africanizing the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Tlou, Josiah

    1995-01-01

    Investigates social studies curriculum reform in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. Reports on each country contain a brief overview of the historical situation and current syllabus, and a discussion of the ongoing "Africanization" process. Concludes with a definition of "Africanization," its purpose, and…

  16. LL and E awarded E and D contract area in eastern Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that a Louisiana Land and Exploration Co. unit has been awarded on exploration and production contract in Algeria by state oil company Enterprise Nationale Sonatrach. LL and E Algeria Ltd.'s contract covers two blocks in the central Ghadames oil basin of eastern Algeria. LL and E said the contract, yet to be submitted for government approval, calls for a minimum investment of $33 million during a 5 year work program that includes seismic acquisition and drilling a minimum of three wildcats.

  17. Algeria. From demographic explosion to social rupture.

    PubMed

    Fargues, P

    1994-01-01

    Large families were the rule 20-30 years ago in the Maghrib and less than ten years ago in the Mashriq, with couples typically bearing 7-9 children over the course of their reproductive lives. The overall rate of total fertility, however, declined by more than 50% by the beginning of the 1990s. Rates of population growth in all Mediterranean Arab countries have actually started to decline. This stabilization of actual population growth does not, however, mean that the demand for social services will level off. Demand for health and education services increases with the decrease in the number of infants and children per family. In the years ahead, there will also be more jobs to create and houses to build, with additional future costs attributed less to an increase in numbers than to rising aspirations. The author discusses rural-urban and regional differentials in fertility, the political economy of fertility, social change and women's status, the rapid and wide-scale diffusion of formal education, and how demographic change has set the stage for horizontal competition between peers and vertical competition among generations.

  18. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff.

  19. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least.

  20. Ionizing radiations, underground world and nuclear tests in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, Allel

    2010-05-01

    Today, the exposure to ionizing radiations, is still a real great physical hazard in the world at various levels until the nuclear tests which led to a rich and lawful debate, and needs the installation of preventive rules through technical and medical aspects during the use of the radioactive sources, (theradioprotection). Concerning the occupational health, the pathology of the ionizing radiations is repaired under occupational disease. Our interest is to highlight this physical hazard, which represents an important chapter of the occupational pathology in its effects and prevention of the workers exposed in Algeria. The second aim of the paper is to highlight the historical aspect of the risk of ionizing radiations and consequences causes by the French nuclear tests in In Eker (underground galleries of the mountain of Hoggar in the south of Algeria in 1961), whose effects present a great damage on the health of the Algerian captive, and "workers", indigenous population and environment until now. This event deserves its place as much as that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).

  1. Fuelwood consumption and deforestation in african countries

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Fishwick, R.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of recent reports (mostly unpublished) on the rate of fuelwood consumption in Africa and its growth, and on the ecological, economic and possible micro-climatic effects of consequent deforestation. A discussion is given of the economic and operational aspects of policies open to governments: (a) to encourage fuelwood conservation; (b) to facilitate the substitution of commercial energy for fuelwood, where desirable on grounds of relative costs; (c) in developing the traditional functions of the forestry services in maintaining the forest reserves and undertaking plantings in watersheds and shelterbelts; and (d) in promoting the practice of agro-forestry, i.e. the planting and maintenance of trees in copses and around farms by the farm families themselves. Policy (d) is considered particularly promising, and the research, education, training and other requirements of this policy are discussed. 55 references.

  2. Prospects of labour migration pressure in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Groenewold, W G F George; de Beer, J A A Joop; de Valk, H A G Helga

    2016-01-01

    Gaining control over refugee flows and undocumented migrants currently dominate the media and political arenas in Europe. Underlying driving and enduring forces, such as employment-related migration pressure, tend to be relegated to the background. In this article, we explore migration pressure prospects up to 2035 in four countries with a tradition of emigration to Europe: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. More specifically, we first derive a simple decomposition model based on the relationship between working-age population (WAP) growth and growth of gross domestic production (GDP) and worker productivity (GDP/W). From this model, we derive an indicator of migration pressure: size of the non-employed population in a country. This model is then used as framework for deriving storylines for three different scenarios of economic and demographic change up to 2035. Subsequently, storylines are operationalized, leading to scenario estimates of migration pressure up to 2035. The implications of the results are then discussed. Time series of macro-level economic and demographic data are used to underpin scenario assumptions. Scenario results suggest that in all countries employment ratios are expected to increase, but only in Tunisia is the size of the non-employed population-our indicator of migration pressure-expected to decline, irrespective of the scenario. Depending on the scenario, migration pressure remains high in Turkey and Morocco and may even become somewhat higher. The general conclusion is that in the long term, after 2035, labour migration pressure can be expected to decrease because the growth and size of the working-age population is decreasing while employment ratios are rising.

  3. African dust outbreaks over the western Mediterranean Basin: 11-year characterization of atmospheric circulation patterns and dust source areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, P.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Pey, J.; Artíñano, B.; de Bustos, J. J.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence of African dust outbreaks over different areas of the western Mediterranean Basin were identified on an 11-year period (2001-2011). The main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of African air masses were characterized by means of an objective classification methodology of atmospheric variable fields. Next, the potential source areas of mineral dust, associated to each circulation pattern were identified by trajectory statistical methods. Finally, an impact index was calculated to estimate the incidence of the African dust outbreaks produced during each circulation pattern, in the areas of study. Four circulation types were obtained (I-IV) and three main potential source areas of African dust were identified (Western Sahara and Morocco; Algeria; northeastern Algeria and Tunisia). The circulation pattern I (24% of the total number of episodic days) produced the transport of dust mainly in summer from Western Sahara, southern Morocco and Tunisia. The circulation pattern IV (33%) brings dust mainly from areas of northern and southern Algeria in summer and autumn, respectively. The circulation pattern II (31%) favored the transport of dust predominantly from northern Algeria, both in spring and summer. Finally, the circulation type III was the less frequently observed (12%). It occurred mainly in spring and with less intensity in winter, carrying dust from Western Sahara and southern Morocco. Our findings point out that the most intense episodes over the western Mediterranean Basin were produced in the summer period by the circulation type I (over the western side of the Iberian Peninsula) and the circulation type IV (over the central and eastern sides of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands).

  4. Serological and molecular evidence of Q fever among small ruminant flocks in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Khaled, H; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Merdja, S; Dufour, P; Dahmani, A; Thiéry, R; Rousset, E; Bouyoucef, A

    2016-08-01

    Q fever, a commonly reported zoonosis worldwide, is caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium. The infection is often asymptomatic in ruminants, but it can lead to reproductive disorders with bacterial shedding into the environment. Between 2011 and 2013, a study was undertaken in small ruminant flocks in different regions of Algeria. A total of 35 flocks were visited and 227 sera and 267 genital swabs were collected from females after abortions or the lambing period to investigate Q fever infection. Indirect ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies against C. burnetii and real-time PCR for detecting bacterial DNA. Our survey indicated that 58% (95% CI=40-76%) of flocks had at least one positive animal (17 seropositive flocks) and individual seroprevalence was estimated at 14.1% (95% CI=11.8-16.4%) (32 seropositive animals). Bacterial excretion was observed in 21 flocks (60%), and 57 females showed evidence of C. burnetii shedding (21.3%). These results suggest that C. burnetii distribution is high at the flock level and that seropositive and infected (shedder) animals can be found all over the country. Further studies are needed in other regions and on different animal species to better understand the distribution and incidence of Q fever, as well as human exposure, and to develop an adequate prophylaxis program.

  5. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  6. Tin Bider: A Complex Impact Crater in the Central Saharan Platform (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhai, D. B.; Sahoui, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    The circular structure of Tin Bider is located in the northeast of the Tadmaït (Algeria), This structure about 6000 m in diameter, shows three main concentric rings and a central peak in cretaceous target rocks.

  7. Muslim teachers' conceptions of evolution in several countries.

    PubMed

    Clément, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Using a questionnaire validated by the project Biohead-Citizen, where 15 questions are dedicated to evolution, we analyse Muslim teachers' conceptions of evolution in several countries. The first part compares nine francophone countries, with varying degrees of Muslim or Christian culture: France, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Gabon, and shows a strong contrast between France and the eight other countries. The second part compares Muslim and Christian teachers in the countries where the comparison is possible, finding no difference, or a few differences in Lebanon. The third part analyses the data related to the 2130 Muslim teachers sampled to identify the controlled parameters that can be correlated to their variations. The discussion is structured by three questions: Are Muslim countries, and Muslim teachers, more creationist than other ones? Is the teachers' knowledge related to their more or less creationist conceptions? Are Muslim teachers more creationist in European countries?

  8. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  9. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  10. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  11. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-08-31

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14).

  12. Analysis of drought areas in northern Algeria using Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazri, Mourad; Ameur, Soltane; Brucker, Jean Michel; Lahdir, Mourad; Sehad, Mounir

    2015-02-01

    The present work studies the trends in drought in northern Algeria. This region was marked by a severe, wide-ranging and persistent drought due to its extraordinary rainfall deficit. In this study, drought classes are identified using SPI (standardized precipitation index) values. A Markovian approach is adopted to discern the probabilistic behaviour of the time series of the drought. Thus, a transition probability matrix is constructed from drought distribution maps. The trends in changes in drought types and the distribution area are analyzed. The results show that the probability of class severe/extreme drought increases considerably rising from the probability of 0.2650 in 2005 to a stable probability of 0.5756 in 2041.

  13. Sbaa basin: A new oil-producing regino in Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdadli, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    Discovery of a paraffinic oil in 1980 in the Adrar area, the west part of the Algerian Sahara within the Sbaa half-graben depression, opens a new oil- and gas-bearing region in Algeria. The oil and gas fields are located on highly faulted structures generated by differential movements of basement blocks. Oil deposits are connected with tidal sandy sediments of Strunian and Tournaisian age and occur at depths of 500 to 1,000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Gas and wet gas deposits are related to sandstone reservoirs of Cambrian-Ordovician age at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,920 to 6,562 ft).

  14. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  15. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  16. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Responsible for Clinical Disease in Algeria in 2011.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Lecouturier, F; Amelot, G; Gaudaire, D; Mamache, B; Laugier, C; Legrand, L; Zientara, S; Hans, A

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in Algeria between May and July, 2011. The outbreak started in Tiaret, in west province of Algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost 900 horses in many provinces. The population studied was composed of 325 horses from different groups of age. Clinical sign expression was age dependent. Indeed, a morbidity rate of 14.9% was observed in horses under 15 months old and a rate of 4.95% in horses over 8 years old. Interestingly, the morbidity rate raised sharply to reach 100% in horses aged between 18 months and 7 years. The virus (H3N8) was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 11) from non-vaccinated horses using a qRT-PCR targeting a portion of the gene encoding the matrix protein (M). The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by sequencing the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and were named from A/equine/Tiaret/1/2011 to A/equine/Tiaret/10/2011. Alignment of HA1 amino acid sequence confirmed that viruses belong to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in the American lineage. Moreover, they are closely related to A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, A/equine/Eyragues/1/2010, A/equine/Bokel/2011 and A/equine/Lichtenfeld/2012. Our data indicate that this strain was also circulating in the European horse population in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

  17. Identifying African dust sources that contribute to the seasonal cycles of dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.; Ginoux, P. A.; Molinie, J.

    2014-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Recently Prospero et al. (Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014) presented 10 years (2002 - 2011) of aerosol measurements made at Cayenne, French Guiana, along with concurrent dust measurements on Barbados. The Cayenne study, coupled with satellite products and other evidence, shows that during spring African dust is carried to a broad region of northeastern South America in quantities comparable to, or greater than, those measured at Barbados in summer. Various lines of evidence suggest that the sources that impact on Cayenne in spring are mainly in the Sahel region, including the Bodélé Depression. In summer transport to Barbados is believed to be most affected by emissions that lie in more northerly regions. Thus the record of measurements at Cayenne and Barbados provide a data set that could be used to test the ability of dust transport models to replicate the seasonal shift of dust sources and the consequent impact on transport to these two sites. Here we attempt to link the measurements at Cayenne and Barbados to specific source regions using the GFDL global climate model (Donner et al., 2011) which simulates aerosol mass distributions for dust and other aerosol components. Winds are nudged with the NCEP re-analysis as in Li et al. (2008). The model is run repeatedly over the years 1999-2010, activating dust sources in only one North African country in each run (e.g., Mali, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, etc.). The model accurately depicts the strong seasonal contrast in dust transport to Barbados and Cayenne and shows the changing impact of African sources over the course of the year. In our presentation we will discuss the model results and compare them to the measurements at the receptor sites. It is notable that during the dust seasons at

  18. Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes

  19. 3D structural cartography based on magnetic and gravity data inversion - Case of South-West Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hichem, Boubekri; Mohamed, Hamoudi; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Ivan, Priezzhev; Karim, Allek

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of 3D aeromagnetic and gravity data inversion across the West African Craton (WAC) in South West Algeria. Although the used data have different origins and resolutions, the performed manual and automatic interpretation for each dataset shows a good correlation with some earlier geological studies of the region, major structural aspects of the locality, as well as other new structural features. Many curved faults parallel to the suture zone indicate the presence of terranes or the metacratonization of the WAC and a related fault network of great importance with NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The mega shear zones from north to south, which are visible at the surface in the Hoggar, are also observed along the Saharan Platform. The fact that these faults are observed since the Cambro-Ordovician in all crust (including the Saharan Basins) indicates that this area, which is situated on the border of the WAC, remained active during the entire period of time.

  20. Adult Illiteracy: The Root of African Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogwu, C. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    All African Nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. UNDP Human Development Index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. This paper uses Nigeria, a typical…

  1. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  2. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  3. Travelers' diarrhea in children visiting tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipe Glória; Figueiredo, António; Varandas, Luis

    2009-01-01

    We studied a group of 174 Portuguese children (aged 2 mo-16 y) who mostly traveled to tropical Portuguese-speaking countries and found an attack rate of 21.8% for travelers' diarrhea, much lower than previously described. We also showed that African rate analysis by region may hide significant differences between countries.

  4. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli in husbandry animals. the african perspective.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carla Andrea; Zarazaga, Myriam; Ben Sallem, Rym; Jouini, Ahlem; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2017-02-16

    In the last years different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in Northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data shows a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys, being CTX-M-15 the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among E. coli from poultry. Certain blaCTX-M-15 -harboring clones (ST131/B2 or ST405/D) are mainly identified in humans but they have also been reported in livestock species from Tanzania, Nigeria or Tunisia. Moreover, several reports suggest an inter-host circulation of specific plasmids (e.g. blaCTX-M-1 -carrying IncI1/ST3 in Tunisia, IncY and Inc-untypeable replicons co-harboring qnrS1 and blaCTX-M-15 in Tanzania and the worldwide distributed blaCTX-M-15 -carrying IncF-type plasmids). International trade of poultry meat seems to have contributed to the spread of other ESBL variants, such as CTX-M-14, and clones. Worryingly, first descriptions of OXA-48 and OXA-181-producing E. coli have been recently documented in cattle from Egypt, and the emergent plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-1 gene has been also identified in chickens from Algeria, Tunisia and South Africa. These data reflect the urgent need of a larger regulation in the use of veterinary drugs and the implementation of surveillance programmes in order to decelerate the advance of antimicrobial resistance in this continent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. [Population trends in the Mediterranean region: socioeconomic problems associated with the situation in the countries of North Africa].

    PubMed

    Baldi, S

    1990-01-01

    The impact of current rates of population growth on the economies of the countries of North Africa is assessed. The author notes that the countries of the region had agreed in January 1990 to implement as soon as possible a policy of free circulation of migrants among Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya in order to reduce levels of emigration from the region and to help resolve labor-supply problems within the region.

  6. Metropolitan population growth in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1977-01-01

    A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.

  7. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  8. African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

  9. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  10. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

  11. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  12. Seroprevalence, distribution and risk factor for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kardjadj, Moustafa; Kouidri, Brahim; Metref, Djamil; Luka, Pam Dachung; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind

    2015-11-01

    Peste des petit ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and infectious viral disease of small ruminants with severe socio-economic implications. The disease was first reported in the Southern part of Algeria in 2011 and by February 2012 it has reached the central part of the country. Estimating national prevalence, distribution and identification of risk factors remains a key component in understanding the epidemiology and control of the disease. The present study was carried out between January and June 2014, to include a detailed description of flock and within-flock seroprevalence and risk association between PPR seropositivity and various flock management factors in Algeria. A total of 150 flocks randomly sampled across the country were investigated and 4552 serum samples were collected from 3336 sheep and 1216 goats, respectively. C-ELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in small ruminant animals as an indicator of PPRV exposure. The results showed an overall true flock seroprevalence of 30.45% [95% CI 23.76-37.14] with a mean of the true within-flock prevalence as 29.87%±2.11. The mean of the true within-flock prevalence in mixed flocks (12.93%±1.85) was however found to be significantly higher than sheep flocks (5.74%±1.06). Also the mean of the true within-flock prevalence was found to be significantly higher in adult (35.36%±3.13) compared to young animals (21.83%±2.47) and in females (33.11%±2.87) compared to males (22.14%±2.31). The univariate analysis revealed that PPR overall flock seroprevalence was significantly higher (P<0.20) in large flock (50.61%) than in small flock (33.33%), in mixed flock (56.7%) than in sheep flock (35.35%) and in the flocks that had contact with other flocks (46.5%) compared to those who had not (30.6%). However the differences among studied regions and grazing system were not statistically significant. For the risk factor analysis, univariate analysis of variables followed by a multiple logistic

  13. Aetiological factors of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Afredj, Nawel; Guessab, Nawal; Nani, Abdelbasset; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Ouled Cheikh, Ibtissem; Kerbouche, Rafik; Hannoun, Djouhar; Amir, Zine Charef; Ait Kaci, Hayet; Bentabak, Kamel; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Valerie; Denninger, Marie-Hélène; Boucekkine, Tadjeddine; Debzi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical presentation of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and identify the aetiologies of this disease in Algeria. METHODS: Patients with BCS, hospitalised in our unit from January 2004 until June 2010 were included and the aetiological factors were assessed. Patients presenting a BCS in the setting of advanced-stage cirrhosis or a liver transplantation were excluded from the study. The diagnosis was established when an obstruction of hepatic venous outflow (thrombosis, stenosis or compression) was demonstrated. We diagnosed myeloproliferative disease (MPD) by bone marrow biopsy and V617F JAK2 mutation. Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS) was detected by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein antibodies and Lupus anticoagulant. We also detected paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) by flow cytometry. Celiac disease and Behçet disease were systematically investigated in our patients. Hereditary anticoagulant protein deficiencies were also assessed. We tested our patients for the G20210A mutation at Beaujon Hospital. Imaging procedures were performed to determine a local cause of BCS, such as a hydatid cyst or a liver tumour. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Mean follow up: 32.12 mo. Mean age: 34.41 years, M/F = 0.64. Chronic presentation was frequent: 63.5%. The revealing symptoms for the BCS were ascites (74.8%) and abdominal pain (42.6%). The most common site of thrombosis was the hepatic veins (72.2%). Involvement of the inferior vena cava alone was observed in 3 patients. According to the radiological investigations, BCS was primary in 94.7% of the cases (n = 109) and secondary in 5.2% (n = 6). An aetiology was identified in 77.4% of the patients (n = 89); it was multifactorial in 27% (n = 31). The predominant aetiology of BCS in our patients was a myeloproliferative disease, observed in 34.6% of cases. APLS was found in 21.7% and celiac disease in 11.4%. Other acquired conditions were: PNH (n

  14. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  15. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  16. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  17. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  18. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  19. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  20. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria.

  1. [Antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetale isolated from the lagoon in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Alliouch-Kerboua, Chérifa; Gacemi Kirane, Djamila; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of the study of the taxonomy and the antimicrobial activity, a strain of actinomycete SM2/2GF which was isolated from sediment of the lagoon El-Mellah which is situated in the city of El-Kala in the Northeast of Algeria, was tested against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila which was isolated from water of the lagoon El-Mellah. The phenotypic and the molecular characteristics show that the isolate SM2/2GF belongs to the kind Streptomyces. This strain showed an antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila and the positive-Gram bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. It has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interesting antimicrobial activity of the strain SM2/2GF against the pathogenic microorganisms could encourage further researches on one or several bioactive molecules which it secretes.

  2. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Guelma's urban wastewater, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined.

  3. First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Oran, West of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benallal, K E; Allal-Ikhlef, A; Benhamouda, K; Schaffner, F; Harrat, Z

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected. This is the first observation of that invasive mosquito in the west of Algeria which confirms its presence and establishment in Mediterranean Africa.

  4. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  5. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  6. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  7. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  8. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  9. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  10. The African Institutions Initiative: Insights from the First Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gavin; Robin, Enora; Marjanovic, Sonja; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Hanlin, Rebecca; Kryl, David; Muchova, Lucia; Yaqub, Ohid; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Wellcome Trust launched a research capacity strengthening programme known as the "African Institutions Initiative" (AII). The AII is innovative in its methods and organization. The Initiative funded networked consortia (7 consortia involving 54 institutions in 18 African countries, and Northern partners). RAND Europe was…

  11. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated in Algiers, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Rahal, Kheira

    2003-01-01

    There are few data on antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Algeria. Among 309 strains, 34.6% were penicillin G-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains (25.2% were intermediate and 9.4% were resistant). Serotypes 1, 5, 14, and 6 were the most frequent in invasive child infections. A multicenter study to standardize the national guidelines is needed. PMID:12543703

  12. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  19. Helping to Meet Today's Energy Demands: Natural Gas Technician Training in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    The training program, located in Arzew, Algeria, is designed to train technicians in all phases of gas technology. The program provides classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and language instruction. The different phases involved in the training program are described. (EC)

  20. Vocational Education in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco: The Crisis and its Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1990-01-01

    Examines developments in vocational and technical education systems in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco. Argues each system faces critical problems resulting from demographic pressures, educational demand, lack of funding, and job placement difficulties. Recommends programs should reflect industry's needs, urging integration between general and…

  1. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L. 112-74) (``the Act''), and Department...

  2. Issues in Strategic Planning for Vocational Education: Lessons from Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1991-01-01

    Although Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco have followed substantially different development strategies, they exhibit similar signs of crisis in vocational education. An integrated approach to planning that acknowledges social, financial, technological, and economic constraints could help coordinate general and vocational education and specialized…

  3. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L.112-74) (``the Act''), as carried forward...

  4. 75 FR 14479 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub. L. 111-117) (``the Act''), and...

  5. Political economy of Maghribi oil: Change and development in Algeria and Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewalle, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the wake of rapidly growing oil and natural gas revenues, Algeria and Libya during the 1970s adopted a state capitalist strategy in order to minimize the dislocations caused by continued reliance on the international economy and, in the long run, to move toward more self-reliant local economies. International political economy theories until now have paid relatively little attention to the impact of the state in the development process, assuming that state formation and bureaucratic development go hand in hand. But in Libya and Algeria they remained disjointed. This was further exacerbated by the rentier nature of their economies which allowed for the distribution of assets without real political participation. In Algeria a techno-bureaucratic elite, to which the state quickly lost control during the 1970s, was put in charge of development. By 1976 the inefficiencies of the public sector and the alignment of the techno-bureaucratic elite with an expanding private sector led Algeria back toward a more market-oriented development strategy. In Libya a much smaller population and larger revenues have allowed the Qadhdhafi government to prolong the state capitalists experiment without paying serious attention to either economic or political development.

  6. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  7. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  8. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  9. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  10. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  11. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  12. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  13. Controls on gold deposits in Hoggar, Tuareg Shield (Southern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Djamal-Eddine; Marignac, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The Hoggar shield belongs to the 3000 km-long Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt that was formed in the Neoproterozoic, between 750 and 500 Ma by continental collision between the converging West African craton, Congo craton and Saharan Metacraton. More than 600 gold occurrences have been identified by ORGM, which are confined along North-South Pan-African megashear zones stretching some hundreds of kilometres long. Until now, no global classification and mineral paragenesis characterisation have been proposed for the Hoggar's gold mineralization. In this paper, we briefly review the main gold mineralization, in order to classify them and to highlight their characteristics and controls. According to field work, spectral, microscopic and microthermometric studies, these mineralization can be globally classified asorogenic type shear zone, which can subdivided into three main sub-types according to the degree of their relationships with the major Pan-African shear zones: (i) Ultramylonite-mylonite hosted including Tirek and Amesmessa, world class deposits; (ii) Granite hosted, including Tekouyat occurrence (iii) Volcano-sediment hosted including Tiririne and In Abbegui deposits. All the deposits are coeval and were formed at the end of the post-collisional stage (530-520 Ma). InHoggar, gold mineralization depend on a double control, first order giant sub-meridian shear zone control and the gold districts disposed in N40°-50°E corridors that may be interpreted as extensional. Indeed, the Hoggar gold province appears to have been controlled at all scales by the late transtensive reactivation of the Pan-African mega-shear zones, and by the correlative heat flux associated with the linear lithospheric delamination processes accompanying this reactivation; which are also responsible for the very lateHoggar magmatic events. At Amesmessa, gold deposition was promoted by the mixing of metamorphic fluids issued from the In Ouzzal Archean-Proterozoic basement with magmatic

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  15. Country Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    The reports from five countries participating at a seminar on teacher training in environmental education for Asia are compiled in this document. The objectives of the seminar were: (1) to familiarize teacher educators with the contents of the series of teacher training modules in environmental education prepared by the International Environmental…

  16. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    PubMed

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed.

  17. In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic…

  18. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  19. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in…

  20. Implementing Information Technology Projects in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamugire, Athanase B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the problems of implementing information technology in developing countries and cites examples from African projects. The use of CD-ROM for access to information is examined, and experiences at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia in introducing CD-ROM search services are described. (Contains five references.)…

  1. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  2. The Iraqization of Africa? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Esterhuyse.indd 111 2/7/08 8:25:12 AM The Iraqization of Africa ? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective Abel Esterhuyse...Introduction The South African government has openly expressed its opposition towards the creation of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM).1 What’s more...South Africa presents its position on AFRICOM as representative of the country as a whole, but particularly on behalf of a group of African countries

  3. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  4. Setting in evidence of the new climatic tendency in Algeria by the analysis of the main variables of the climate : Survey of the chronological sets on more of 50 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeineddine, N.

    2009-09-01

    Setting in evidence of the new climatic tendency in Algeria by the analysis of the main variables of the climate : Survey of the chronological sets on more of 50 years. In the present conditions of the global climatic changes, North Africa and Maghreb, observe these last years of the distresses without precedent. This new tendency expresses itself by a rise of the temperatures confirmed in several countries. In the same way to this rise, one also notes an intensification of the climatic cycles (more and more humid humid periods, more and more dry dry periods). So, after the long droughts observed in the years four - twenty and ninety, the a lot more humid period bootjack is noted in the whole region. These phases are punctuated however sometimes of stern droughts, that been the case in 2000 to Morocco and in Algeria. The humid phases are as for them more and more frequent and are characterized henceforth by very intense rainy episodes. Repeatedly, serious floodings touched these countries. In 2002 in Algeria, it is the capital that has been touched, the districts of Bab - El Wadi was heavily damaged. In the valley of the Soummam, the town of Bejaïa was the theater of important phenomena of urban flooding in 2007. In the Algerian Sahara, heavy rains provoked the rise in the water level of the wadi M' Zab and the submersion of the city of Ghardaïa. All as Algeria, Tunisia has also been touched by these phenomena. The city of Tunis knew a tragic episode thus in 2007. To the west extreme of North Africa in 2002, Morocco has been hit by important floodings that made 35 deaths.. Progressively, the climatic conditions become unusual. The signs of the changes prove to be even more meaningful with the records of rain for the agricultural year 2008 / 2009 in the under region from the Maghreb (Morocco - Algeria). Qualified of exceptional and historic, rains have generously supplied the watertables, carrying the water security margin to close to two years in drinking water

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  6. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  7. [The population explosion in Algeria: the causes, the effects, and the solutions].

    PubMed

    Muller, H

    1990-01-01

    "For decades Algeria has had one of the highest population growth rates in the world, arising directly from a steady gap between deathrates and birthrates. The reasons are of a complex social, economic and cultural kind, such as high infant mortality, traditionally early marriage, family models largely determined by religion, the common practice of child labour and other factors. As a consequence of the mismatch between economic and demographic growth the society is confronted by growing mass unemployment, underemployment, food supply problems, housing shortages and ecological crises. The critical economic situation in the eighties reduced the prospects for constraining the population explosion by quickly conquering socioeconomic underdevelopment. Nowadays Algeria is deliberately following a programme for family planning, which is also supported to a certain extent by the Islamic clergy." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri.

  9. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri. PMID:26979770

  10. Decision support for sustainable urban drainage system management: a case study of Jijel, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benzerra, Abbas; Cherrared, Marzouk; Chocat, Bernard; Cherqui, Frédéric; Zekiouk, Tarik

    2012-06-30

    This paper aims to develop a methodology to support the sustainable management of Urban Drainage Systems (UDSs) in Algeria. This research is motivated by the various difficulties that the National Sanitation Office (ONA) has in managing this complex infrastructure. The method mainly consists of two approaches: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The former facilitates the identification of factors related to a sustainable UDS, the development priorities and the criteria available to managers. The latter assesses UDS performance using the weighted sum method to aggregate indicators or criteria weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is demonstrated through its application to the UDS in the city of Jijel, Algeria.

  11. Performances and failure of field-aged PV modules operating in Saharan region of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, M.; Benyoucef, B.; Othmani, M.; Mehdaoui, A.

    2016-07-01

    This article deals with behaviour of PV modules, of different technologies and manufacturers, exposed for long periods in Saharan region of Algeria. These modules are exposed in Adrar in the south-western part of Algeria. The study uses experimental I-V curves of PV modules for determining their performances. The datasheet information of modules will be useful in determination of degradation rates of the modules. Three types of modules have been tested: Photowatt (PWX 500), UDTS-50 and Isofoton (I-75 and I-100 serials). Results showed that Isofoton I-100 modules present the highest degradation rate while the lowest degradation rate was reached with I-75 serial. However, these rates tallies with other studies. The visual inspection of the modules has revealed various kinds of failures and defects responsible of performances drop (EVA browning, delamination, burn marks,…).

  12. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes.

  13. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit.

  14. [African population in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations.

  15. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  16. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  17. Uranium-series disequilibrium data for tooth fragments from the fossil hominid site at Ternifine, Algeria.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    I report here analyses of elephant molar-tooth fragments that were submitted by the late K.P.Oakley for uranium-series dating. The tooth fragments were collected by the late C. Arambourg from Pleistocene sand in association with the hominid fossils of Ternifine Man, Algeria. Of the results reported the minimum age of over 360 000 yr BP for the enamel appears to be the most reliable. -Authors

  18. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  19. [Edmond Sergent (1876-1969) and the Pasteur Institute of Algeria].

    PubMed

    de la Tribonnière, X

    2000-01-01

    Edmond Sergent, supported by a distinguished team of colleagues, directed the Pasteur Institute of Algeria for over 60 years, from 1900 to 1963. As a student of Emile Roux, Sergent had received a Pasteurian training. His institute devoted extensive study to malaria. Sergent defined the concept of prevention and extended it to other pathologies. For many years, the Institute persevered in carrying out successful antimalarial campaigns such that Algeria was freed of the disease. In 1916-1917, Sergent and his brother were called upon to organise anti-malarial efforts for the Armée d'Orient. By way of systematic and energetic curative and prophylactic measures, they were able to eradicate the disease. In 1908, the Sergent brothers were the first to discover the role of the louse in the transmission of another disease, relapsing fever. The Pasteur Institute team also discovered the sand fly vector which transmits the parasite causing leishmaniasis. The Sergents found a new form of oculonasal myiasis, called "Thimni". In addition, they led effective campaigns against tuberculosis based on BCG vaccination administered throughout Algeria. The Pasteur Institute of Algeria conducted important research in plant and animal diseases. For example, they detected a trypanosome agent causing dromedary "debab", as well as its vector, the horsefly. They also studied in depth bovine piroplasmosis, which causes widespread and destructive disease, and demonstrated the role of the tick in promoting transmission generally. Their work in botany included the discovery that a Fusarium-type fungus was the causal agent for "baïoudh", the main disease of date palms. They also demonstrated the basic role of the fruit fly in alcoholic grape fermentation.

  20. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  1. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  2. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries.

    PubMed

    Trape, Jean-François; Baldé, Cellou

    2014-12-23

    We present here the results of a study of 4,906 snakes from Guinea belonging to 95 species collected from 2002 to 2013 at 54 localities in all administrative regions of the country. We resurrect Dipsadoboa guineensis from the synonymy of D. brevirostris and consider the latter species a junior synonym of D. duchesnei. In addition we resurrrect Philothamnus pobeguini and P. belli from the synonymy of P. heterodermus. 19 species were not previously collected in this country, including Letheobia coecata, Tricheilostoma bicolor, Myriopholis rouxestevae, Rhinoleptus koniagui, Python regius, Grayia tholloni, Natriciteres fuliginoides, Philothamnus heterolepidotus, Thrasops aethiopissa, Amblyodipsas unicolor, Gonionotophis granti, Mehelya crossi, Prosymna gregeirti, Prosymna meleagris, Rhamphiophis oxyrhynchus, Elapsoidea trapei, Naja katiensis, Naja senegalensis and Echis jogeri. Based on a critical review of literature and our own data, we compare the currently known snake fauna of Guinea (104 species) with that of Sierra Leone (65 species), Liberia (63 species), Ivory Coast (101 species), Ghana (102 species), Togo (93 species), Benin (72 species) and Nigeria (118 species). 

  3. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  4. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  5. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E.; Macko, S. Engel, M.

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  6. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E. ); Macko, S. ) Engel, M. )

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  7. Ebola virus disease in nonendemic countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease was unprecedented in its scale and has resulted in transmissions outside endemic countries. Clinicians in nonendemic countries will most likely face the disease in returning travelers, either among healthcare workers, expatriates, or visiting friends and relatives. Clinical suspicion for the disease must be heightened for travelers or contacts presenting with compatible clinical syndromes, and strict infection control measures must be promptly implemented to minimize the risk of secondary transmission within healthcare settings or in the community. We present a concise review on human filoviral disease with an emphasis on issues that are pertinent to clinicians practicing in nonendemic countries.

  8. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  9. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  10. UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean : A tale of a Tethys fragment (Edough Massif, NE Algeria) and its geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Fernandez, Laure; Abdallah, Nachida; Arnaud, Nicolas; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Mechati, Medhi; Monié, Patrick; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Toubal, Abder

    2016-04-01

    The Edough Massif of NE Algeria is part of the Maghrebides, a peri-Mediterranean Alpine belt that extends from Morocco to Tunisia. The belt resulted mainly from the eastward retreat of the Tethyan slab and from the drift of continental fragments, some of which finally collided with the north African margin. In this study we report the recent discovery of metamorphic diamonds (5-30 μm in size) included in a garnet megacryst and identified by Raman spectroscopy and the characteristic sharp band at 1332 cm-1 for crystalline diamond. The studied megacryst was taken from a weathered actinolitite horizon inserted within a major mylonite-ultramylonite band, which outcrops at the base of an allochtonous oceanic unit thrust onto the African paleomargin. The host garnet is almandine-dominant with a sharp increase in grossular component in the rim and is rich in exsolution of small acicular rutile needles. Major and trace elements show a gradual but significant zonation from core to rim characterized by a decrease in HREE, Y and Mn, typical of a prograde growth in a closed system. Trace element analyses of large prismatic rutile (up to 300 μm) indicate that the host metamorphic rock was a mafic protolith of MORB affinity and the Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicates a temperature range of 724-778°C for rutile growth. U-Pb analyses of these large rutile crystals provide an age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Minute zircons (≤ 30μm), disseminated in the garnet, display a multifaceted appearance and low Th/U ratios consistent with a metamorphic origin. The lack of HREE depletion in these zircons indicates that their metamorphic growth was not coeval with garnet. U-Pb analyses and Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicate they nucleated at 20.9 ± 2.2 Ma during near isothermal decompression related to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean to the

  11. Biotyping of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates from France and Algeria Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Berrazeg, Meryem; Diene, Seydina M.; Drissi, Mourad; Kempf, Marie; Richet, Hervé; Landraud, Luce; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial outbreaks worldwide. Epidemiological analyses are useful in determining the extent of an outbreak and in elucidating the sources and the spread of infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological spread of K. pneumoniae strains using a MALDI-TOF MS approach. Methods Five hundred and thirty-five strains of K. pneumoniae were collected between January 2008 and March 2011 from hospitals in France and Algeria and were identified using MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic resistance patterns were investigated. Clinical and epidemiological data were recorded in an Excel file, including clustering obtained from the MSP dendrogram, and were analyzed using PASW Statistics software. Results Antibiotic susceptibility and phenotypic tests of the 535 isolates showed the presence of six resistance profiles distributed unequally between the two countries. The MSP dendrogram revealed five distinct clusters according to an arbitrary cut-off at the distance level of 500. Data mining analysis of the five clusters showed that K. pneumoniae strains isolated in Algerian hospitals were significantly associated with respiratory infections and the ESBL phenotype, whereas those from French hospitals were significantly associated with urinary tract infections and the wild-type phenotype. Conclusions MALDI-TOF was found to be a promising tool to identify and differentiate between K. pneumoniae strains according to their phenotypic properties and their epidemiological distribution. This is the first time that MALDI-TOF has been used as a rapid tool for typing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. PMID:23620754

  12. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  13. Ordovician ironstone sedimentation in Ougarta Ranges: North Western Sahara (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrak, S.

    The distribution of oolitic ironstones (OIS) of the Sahara Platform allows the distinction of two types of deposits: "Extensive Ironstone Deposition" type (EXID) and "Local Ironstone Deposition type" (LOID). Within Ordovician Formations of Ougarta ranges (Western Sahara) twelve oolitic ironstone beds of EXID type occur. The nature of ironstones within the sedimentary succession allows the distinction of two degrees of "Relative Oolitic Sedimentation Rates" (ROSR I and ROSR II), linked successively to the thickness and to the duration of the deposition. Markov chain analysis applied to the sedimentological study, suggests that ironstones are located at the bottom of fining-upward sequences and therefore, deposited in shallow shelf environments under transgressive conditions. The ironstones grouped into three facies types: a micro-conglomeratic facies (FMC), a facies with ooliths scattered in a quartz-rich matrix (detrital facies: FOD), and a facies with ooliths scattered in a quartz-poor groundmass (non-detrital facies: FOND). The mineralogy is mainly composed of hematite, chamosite, geothite, siderite and quartz. Sedimentological facts and petrographical features suggest for the oolitization, an intrasedimentary process of accretion developed in a quiet environment. Ordovician oolitic ironstones of the Ougarta region are included in a "Paleozoic North African Ironstone Belt" extending from the Oro to Libya and developed along the margin of Gondwana craton. This belt may be compared to the peri-Atlantic "North american Ironstone Belt" of Ordovician and Silurian age, but developed in a foreland basin bordered by the Taconic Orogen.

  14. Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  15. Imperialism, colonial identity, and race in Algeria, 1830-1870. The role of the French Medical Corps.

    PubMed

    Lorcin, P M

    1999-12-01

    During the military administration of Algeria, which lasted for forty years, the foundation of the French colony was laid. Indispensable to the military in Algeria was its sizable medical corps. While the ostensible reason for its presence was to maintain the soldiers' health and thus the army's efficiency, it role extended beyond this primary objective. Starting from the intellectual and political influences that shaped the training in France of the members of the medical corps, this essay examines the ways in which they contributed to the creation of a French colonial space in Algeria. It traces how their involvement in the intellectual, cultural, and political life of the colony enabled them both to further their own ambitions and to influence wider developments. It explores how colonial physicians and surgeons, deemed to be among the most efficient agents of the civilizing mission owing to their humane contacts with the indigenous population, in fact contributed to that population's categorization and marginalization.

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to…

  17. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  18. Purification of the Alpha Glycerophosphate Oxidase from African Trypanosomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-28

    development of several African and South American countries. African trypanosomiasis is ranked among the top six tropical diseases selected for scientific...This enzyme is therefore of interest as a possible target for drug chemotherapy . At present only suramin and organic arsenicals remain as the mainstay...of chemotherapy , despite their many dangerous disadvantages. With the use of a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system and a Mono Q anion

  19. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  20. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  1. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  2. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from

  3. Tick infestations (Acari: Ixodidae) on three lizard species from Seraidi (Annaba District), northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Soualah-Alila, Hana; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair; Bani Hani, Rihan

    2015-09-01

    Parasitism of Ixodes ricinus on three species of lizards (Psammodromus algirus, Podarcis vaucheri and Timon pater) in northeastern Algeria was studied. Psammodromus algirus was the most preferred host, T. pater was least preferred. Nymphs of I. ricinus were found attached to lizards from March to August in various numbers. Most nymphs were collected during March, April and June for P. algirus, and most larvae from April until August. Larval stages were found to be mostly associated with P. vaucheri during the study period, with the highest number of recovered larvae in June.

  4. Moho depth derived from gravity and magnetic data in the Southern Atlas Flexure (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, O.; Bourmatte, A.; Hamoudi, M.; Haddoum, H.; Quesnel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Existing aeromagnetic and gravity data were used to study the structure of the Southern Atlas Flexure (SAF) in Algeria. Forward and inverse numerical modelings were applied, giving access to the depth of the Moho and the Curie depth in this area. Our results suggest a maximum crustal thickness of about 48 km, and a Curie depth of about 20 km. We then discuss the implications of those results on the regional structure of the SAF, also using cross-sections built using 2D-geological modeling.

  5. A multi-gene analysis of diversity of Bartonella detected in fleas from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Nicolas, Violaine; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Parola, Philippe; Gundi, Vijay A K B; Chomel, Bruno B; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We report the molecular detection of several Bartonella species in 44 (21.5%) of 204 fleas from Algeria collected from 26 rodents and 7 hedgehogs. Bartonella elizabethae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in the fleas collected on hedgehogs. Bartonella tribocorum and B. elizabethae were detected in fleas collected from rats and mice, and sequences similar to an unnamed Bartonella sp. detected in rodents from China were detected in rats as well as a genotype of Bartonella closely related to Bartonella rochalimae detected in fleas collected on brown rats (Rattus norvegicus).

  6. Border Interdiction in Counterinsurgency: A Look at Algeria, Rhodesia, and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    15Shrader, The First Helicopter War, 201. 16Horne, A Savage War of Peace Algeria, 130. 17Bernard Estival , “The French Navy and the Algerian War,” trans...22Bernard Estival , “Origines et Évolution du Barrage Électrifié à la Frontière Algéro-Marocaine, l’Exemple du 3e Bataillon de la Demi Brigade de...and Guerre Revolutionaire in the Algerian War.” Parameters 36, no 2 (summer 2006): 63-76. Estival , Bernard. “The French Navy and the Algerian War

  7. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  8. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  9. Linking national and global population agendas: case studies from eight developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Walt, G

    1995-06-01

    This comparative study of the determinants of family planning policy initiation and implementation focuses on four pairs of countries: Zambia/Zimbabwe, Algeria/Tunisia, Pakistan/Bangladesh, and Philippines/Thailand. The conclusion is drawn that global efforts had an influence on national policy makers and on putting family planning issues on the policy agenda. Global impacts were affected by national economic and social conditions and the broader political and economic relations with Western countries. The absolute level of economic development was found to be unrelated to the timing of initiation of family planning on national policy agendas. Stronger national family planning programs occurred in countries where policy makers linked economic development at whatever level with the need to limit population growth. Pakistan and Thailand in the 1960s illustrated this commitment to family planning programs, and Zambia and Algeria illustrated the lack of connection between development and population growth at the policy level and the lack of family planning on the policy agenda. Affiliation with the West during the 1960s meant early initiation of family planning in Pakistan/Bangladesh and Philippines/Thailand. Stronger commitment to program implementation occurred only in Thailand during the 1970s and Zimbabwe during the 1980s. Commitment lessened in the Philippines and Pakistan. Program implementation and national support of family planning were viewed as also dependent upon domestic factors, such as sufficient resources. Algeria/Tunisia and Zambia/Zimbabwe were countries that promoted family planning only after national political ideology shifted and anti-imperialist sentiments subsided. The impact of the international Cairo conference on these countries was minimal in terms of policy change. Most of the countries however desired greater support from donors. Even objections from the Vatican and internal domestic pressures were insufficient to prevent countries such as

  10. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  11. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  12. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  13. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  14. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  15. The African Pediatric Fellowship Training Program in Pediatric Pulmonology: A Model for Growing African Capacity in Child Lung Health.

    PubMed

    Zar, Heather J; Vanker, Aneesa; Gray, Diane; Zampoli, Marco

    2017-01-26

    Childhood respiratory diseases are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in African children. However, there is limited expertise in pediatric pulmonology in Africa. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program (APFP) was developed in the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town in partnership with African academic institutions beyond South Africa to promote training of African child health professionals and build capacity. From 2008 to 2016, 11 fellows have completed APFP training in pediatric pulmonology. Fellows have come from Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda. All but one returned to his or her home institution, where they are building academic departments, improving clinical service delivery, growing research, and advancing advocacy and policies to improve child lung health. In parallel, training of South African pediatric pulmonologists has been strengthened with a further 9 South African fellows trained during this period. The African Pediatric Pulmonology program provides a highly successful model, with high retention of graduates in their home countries. The long-term goal is to grow African clinical capacity and strengthen services, research, training and advocacy for child lung health in Africa.

  16. Educational Development in Africa: II -- Costing and Financing. IIEP African Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains three monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. This book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  17. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  18. High-Level Primary Clarithromycin Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Algiers, Algeria: A Prospective Multicenter Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Djennane-Hadibi, Fazia; Bachtarzi, Mohamed; Layaida, Karim; Ali Arous, Nassima; Nakmouche, Mhamed; Saadi, Berkane; Tazir, Mohamed; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaptation for the choice of the optimal first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Clarithromycin is a key component of the standard triple therapy largely used worldwide and, more particularly, in Algeria. Clarithromycin resistance is the main risk factor for treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Algeria, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin. We conducted a prospective study (2008-2014) that included 195 Algerian patients referred for gastroduodenal endoscopy to two University Hospitals, one General Hospital, and several private gastroenterologists in Algiers (Algeria). One gastric biopsy was collected for the molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin with a quadruplex real-time PCR using Scorpion primers. The Scorpion PCR detected H. pylori DNA in 91 biopsies (47%). A mutation conferring resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 32 of the 91 positive patients (35%) and in 29 of the 88 positive patients never previously treated for an H. pylori infection (33%). The prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 33% in the Algerian population being studied. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Algerian population that we report leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Algeria.

  19. Recovery in river country.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, P J

    1988-07-01

    As the 3rd largest sub-Saharan African country with a highly developed and diversified economy, Zairian's life expectancy rose from 43.5 to 51.5 years between 1965-85. A larger medical staff which in 1980 equated 1 doctor/15,000 people contributed to an increase in health care. Zaire's Project SIPA, one of the largest AIDS programs in Africa, uses, e.g., TV messages to publicize public health messages to the population. Food production increased by 10% into the 1980s; 1982 marked the beginning of an upward trend in per capita income. Between 1984-85, the gross national product (GNP) of US $5.7 billion increased by 2.5%, or US $170/capita. Rich natural resources contributed to exports of US $1.87 billion in 1986 and imports of US $1.5 billion. But, hyperinflation abounds with a family of 6 in 1982 requiring US $330 dollars/month when minimum wage was US $70/month for unskilled workers and US $104 for skilled workers. Basic reforms in 1982 to deal with the foreign-debt of US $5 billion reduced inflation to 30% in 1985 from 76% in 1983 and created aa 1% GNP surplus. However, 50% of the government's annual budget was required recently to meet debt repayment schedules. New investment codes protect foreign investment and efforts are underway to channel this into timber (250 million acres), horticulture, and aquaculture. Favorable assets include low labor costs, well-run air cargo transport, and fertile land. Population data are limited, at present, to un demographic projections.

  20. [Physicochemical quality of drinking water in Southern Algeria: study of excess mineral salts].

    PubMed

    Djellouli, H M; Taleb, S; Harrache-Chettouh, D; Djaroud, S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical composition of water intended for human consumption in several regions of Southern Algeria. Excess minerals in drinking water, including magnesium, calcium, sulfates and fluorides play a fundamental role in the prevention of urinary calculi, which are formed mainly from calcium oxalate. The ever-increasingly prevalence of this disorder and its recurrence make it a real public health problem in Algeria. The most elementary preventive treatment, recommended to all subjects with lithiasis, is to drink 2 to 3 L water distributed throughout the (24-hour) day. This study began by conducting a physicochemical analysis of the principal components of water from several sources. We will subsequently test it to examine the effects of its mineral salts on the crystallization kinetics of the principal component of calculi (calcium oxalate). The results indicate that 77.5 % of the samples had magnesium concentrations ([Mg 2+] > 50 mg/L), 95 % were sulfated, with sulfate ion concentrations exceeding the standard recommended by WHO ([SO4 2-] > 250 mg/L). Moreover, 57.5 % had excess fluoride levels, [F-] > 1.5 mg/L, and 65 % excessive calcium concentrations, with Ca 2+ > 150 mg/L.