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Sample records for african countries continue

  1. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  2. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  3. IDSR as a Platform for Implementing IHR in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kasolo, Francis; Yoti, Zabulon; Bakyaita, Nathan; Gaturuku, Peter; Katz, Rebecca; Fischer, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    Of the 46 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region (AFRO), 43 are implementing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines to improve their abilities to detect, confirm, and respond to high-priority communicable and noncommunicable diseases. IDSR provides a framework for strengthening the surveillance, response, and laboratory core capacities required by the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. In turn, IHR obligations can serve as a driving force to sustain national commitments to IDSR strategies. The ability to report potential public health events of international concern according to IHR (2005) relies on early warning systems founded in national surveillance capacities. Public health events reported through IDSR to the WHO Emergency Management System in Africa illustrate the growing capacities in African countries to detect, assess, and report infectious and noninfectious threats to public health. The IHR (2005) provide an opportunity to continue strengthening national IDSR systems so they can characterize outbreaks and respond to public health events in the region. PMID:24041192

  4. Opportunities for Distance Education in the Commonwealth African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INTELECON Research & Consultancy Ltd., Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The geo-demographic, economic, and infrastructural makeup of 12 African countries (Botswana. Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) were compared to determine the potential benefits to them of a Commonwealth of Learning (COL) distance education initiative. Data were collected on…

  5. Enhancing collaboration between China and African countries for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Qing; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Bergquist, Robert; Sacko, Moussa; Utzinger, Jürg; Lin, Dan-Dan; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-Zhu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue, with a large number of cases reported across sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. China was once highly endemic, but has made substantial progress and is moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis. Meanwhile, despite long-term, repeated, school-based chemotherapy in many African countries, more than 90% of all schistosomiasis cases are concentrated in Africa, and hence, this continent constitutes the key challenge for schistosomiasis control. Opportunities and issues for international collaboration in the fight against schistosomiasis are outlined with a focus on China's experiences, including the role of public health authorities and intersectoral collaboration, use of new and effective snail control approaches and diagnostic tools adapted to the specific stage of control, as well as the strengthening of risk mapping and surveillance-response mechanisms. Training courses targeting African governmental officials and professionals, coupled with field visits of African scientists and control programme managers to China, and vice versa, are considered important for improved schistosomiasis control and elimination. The crucial question remains whether the Chinese experience can be translated and applied in African countries to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and scale-up.

  6. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  7. [Health consequences of the tobacco epidemic in West African French-speaking countries and current tobacco control].

    PubMed

    da Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease due to tobacco for each country will depend on the prevalence of tobacco use and the duration of the epidemic. Given that the tobacco epidemic in West African Francophone countries is relatively recent, the burden of disease due to tobacco use is currently low. However, tobacco related burden of disease in Francophone West African countries is increasing as the number of smokers continues to increase and the population has been smoking for a longer period of time. If the current trends continue, West African countries will be suffering the massive consequences of tobacco use in two or three decades. Apart from the classical health consequences of tobacco consumption such as certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, there are some conditions of special importance in low income African countries such as the increased risk of tuberculosis infection and mortality amongst smokers, low birth weight for babies of smoking mothers, and tobacco consumption associated malnutrition especially amongst women. Furthermore, developing countries, with inadequate resources and other important health issues, cannot afford the costs of the chronic degenerating conditions caused by tobacco use, as these are very expensive to treat. Tobacco control in Francophone African countries is still deficient Human and financial resources which are often scarce in West African countries are dedicated to other health issues since tobacco is normally not amongst the public health priorities. Legislation in Francophone African countries is limited and not adequately enforced. A major reason for governments' inaction on tobacco is their fear of creating unemployment and loss of revenue from tobacco taxes. This fear is derived mainly from the arguments of the tobacco industry. Apart from lobbying governments, the tobacco industry uses all kinds of strategies to market their products in these countries and faces practically no barriers to their business in these

  8. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  9. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767

  10. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  11. Initiatives and resistances in English-speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Muito, G

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, there were 10 English-speaking African countries, plus Mozambique, with on-going population education programs within the school system. 7 other countries had programs in the planning stages. School programs were preceded after out-of-school and informal programs of the 1970s. Countries have designed population education in their own terms. The generalized goals of population education for the region were to expand awareness of population-related issues and problems; to develop skills, values, and attitudes which will enable people to make rational and timely decisions; and to behave in meaningful and socially desirable ways and improve the quality of human life. Population education has been accepted in most education curriculum in African countries, but fertility regulation in an action program is limited to a few countries. Although attention has been directed to mortality, teen pregnancy, drug use, and AIDS, there has been little discussion of the status of women, child labor, and female circumcision. Family-life education and population have been linked because of the acceptability of the term and the reality that the family is the basic unit of society. Anglophone African strategies have encompassed a central location for the population program within government, a pilot phase, an integration into other subjects, a life-long approach, and community participation; each of the aforementioned topics is discussed. Constraints in program design and implementation were identified as the lack of political support; the absence of a firm and consistent policy; the perceived conflict between population education and cultural values; the limited, sporadic financial support; the shortage of resources; poor attention to the importance of horizontal and vertical information transmission; and lack of coordination between agencies with population education programs. Future needs are for program expansion and a focus on groups at-risk, prominent policy support at the

  12. The income-climate trap of health development: a comparative analysis of African and Non-African countries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kam Ki; Petrie, Dennis; Rao, D S Prasada

    2009-10-01

    This article conducts a comparative analysis of the interrelationship between climate, life expectancy and income between African and non-African countries. To put the analysis in a broader context of development, the paper develops an income-climate trap model that explains the multi-directional interaction between income, climate and life expectancy. It is suggested that the interaction can give rise to either a virtuous cycle of prosperity or a vicious cycle of poverty. Applying the model to a data set of 158 countries, we find that climate is a more important determinant of life expectancy in African countries than in non-African countries. We provide further empirical evidence that while climate is important in determining both life expectancy and income, income can in turn moderate the adverse effects of climate on life expectancy. In the past two decades, the income level of non-African countries has grown significantly while that of African countries has largely been stagnant, implying that the future development of African countries remains highly vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. These findings have important implications in the context of climate change, as global warming is likely to create worsening climatic conditions that could see many less developed countries sinking deeper into an income-climate trap of underdevelopment in health.

  13. Towards a Sustainable Counterbalanced Development: Educational Cooperation between China and African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddi, Ketema Meskela; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    In the last half a century an extensive cooperation between China and African countries have been launched, of which exchange and cooperation in education is one of the most important forms. In this aspect, China has played an important role in student exchange and education programs for African educational officials. However, African countries…

  14. Building up indigenous technological capabilities in African developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lubunga, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    For all the vast natural resources and the praiseworthy efforts of governments and peoples, the African economy still remains basically underdeveloped. Faced with this situation, there have been increased awareness and concern in recent years among political leaders, decision-makers, and socioeconomic planners of the fact that the chronic low-level productivity in almost all spheres of economic activity in that region can be attributed, to a large extent, to the low level of indigenous capability and appropriate utilization of science and technology. Few countries in Africa, however, as yet have a science and technology policy formulated toward long-term goals and objectives, and for overall economic and social development. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop progressively the systems and methodology for identifying, selecting, and planning indigenous scientific and technological activity. International cooperation can be useful, but only within the context of a strong national capability. 14 references.

  15. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  16. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  17. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    PubMed

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU. PMID:27259545

  18. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    PubMed

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU.

  19. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  20. Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma.

  1. Providing outreach continuing education in countries with limited resources.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Kaye E

    2008-10-01

    Obtaining continuing education can be difficult in countries with limited resources. Members of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) have developed a program for providing outreach continuing education courses in pediatric orthopaedics. POSNA members provide their own transportation to the host country, while the orthopaedic physicians along with the educational institutions in the host country in turn provide the support needed to carry out the courses. They also provide lodging, meals, and local transportation. Since its inception in 1998, 30 courses have been conducted in 19 countries with limited resources. The program has expanded to develop a partnership with the European Pediatric Orthopaedic Society. The protocol for organizing the courses is discussed. PMID:18663550

  2. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1993-01-01

    World fertility data were used for Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria. Estimates of marital fertility and its proportional reduction owing to the proximate determinants were computed using Fertility Exposure Analysis (FEA). Eight exposure states were identified in an interval of 3 years before the survey. Proximate determinants were estimated from an equation for subsequent regression analysis, which also included socioeconomic variables, e.g., place of residence, religion, work pattern, and husband's education. Except for the 25-29 age group in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire and the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire, age specific marital fertility was higher for women who had between 4 and 6 years of formal education than for those who had 7 or more years of schooling. Marital age specific fertility was higher for women who had 4-6 years of education than for uneducated women, except from the 2 oldest age groups in Cote d'Ivoire and the oldest age groups in Ghana. On the other hand, lower fertility also existed in poorly educated women in Cameroon, in the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and also in 20-24 and 30-34 age groups in Nigeria. Women with no education had lower fertility than those with 1-3 years and 4-6 years of education. Breastfeeding made the greatest contribution to the reduction of marital fertility for the educational categories except for the most educated women in Cote d'Ivoire. Contraception had a weak effect on fertility in Nigeria and Cameroon but a strong effect in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Postpartum abstinence had a small effect since the 1970s except in Nigeria where it depressed marital fertility by over 10%. In these 4 countries differences existed in the patterns of educational differentials in fertility-reducing impacts of the proximate determinants. The impact of maternal education on marital fertility is not uniformly predictable in all African countries.

  3. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  4. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhike; Zhu, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries. PMID:24741366

  5. Biomass energy use in developing countries: An African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karekezi, S.; Ewagata, E.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass forms the bulk of the energy supply of the developing world with the largest share consumed in the household sector as either fuelwood or charcoal for cooking, lighting and space heating. However there are a number of constraints facing the use of biomass if it is to be sustainable. Stephen Karekezi and Esther Ewagata of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) outline these constraints and discuss the modernisation of the traditional technologies now underway.

  6. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. Methods In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. Results and discussion HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. Conclusion On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security

  7. 19 CFR 10.178a - Special duty-free treatment for sub-Saharan African countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... African countries. 10.178a Section 10.178a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... for sub-Saharan African countries. (a) General. Section 506A of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2466a... designate a country listed in section 107 of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (19 U.S.C. 3706) as...

  8. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  9. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  10. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  11. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  12. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-07-08

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  13. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  14. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among school children in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2009-10-01

    An increasing trend of noncommunicable diseases is a worldwide phenomenon, also including the developing countries. Few studies focus on adolescents' substance use in relation to mental distress and protective factors in African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates (mental distress and protective factors) of substance use among school-going adolescents in six African countries. The sample included 20,765 students aged from 13 to 15 years from six African countries (Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe), chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The measure used was part of the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire, including various domains of health behaviour. Results indicate a prevalence of 12.6% tobacco use (past month), 6.6% risky alcohol use (two or more per day for at least 20 days or more in the past month), and 10.5% of illicit drug use (three or more times ever) in school-going adolescents in six African countries. School truancy, loneliness, sleeping problems, sadness, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and poverty were associated with substance use (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs), while school attendance and parental supervision and connectedness were protective factors for substance use, and peer support protective for tobacco use. It is concluded that tobacco use, risky drinking and illicit drug use were common, clustered together and were associated with school truancy, mental distress, and lack of parental and peer support among adolescent African school children. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programmes. PMID:22029616

  15. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  16. Language Policy and Science: Could Some African Countries Learn from Some Asian Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main…

  17. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-09-28

    In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories' diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to advance the

  18. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-09-28

    In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories' diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to advance the

  19. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 “Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems”—a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services—several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories’ diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to

  20. Association between Contract Teachers and Student Learning in Five Francophone African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the association between studying with a contract teacher and a student's academic outcomes, using data from five Francophone African countries for two grade levels and two subjects. Based on this analysis, the evidence for or against this form of teacher hiring is inconclusive. The results indicate that these…

  1. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  2. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  3. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  4. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  5. African Americans' Continuing Struggle for Quality Education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds, Michael; Farmer-Hinton, Raquel L.; Epps, Edgar G.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes African Americans' ongoing struggle for quality education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin by utilizing school district data and secondary sources. The historic integration effort in the Milwaukee Public Schools system is outlined and the impact of sustained segregation, in the midst of significant changes to Milwaukee's social and…

  6. Can countries of the WHO African Region wean themselves off donor funding for health?

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Diarra-Nama, Alimata J

    2008-11-01

    More than 20% of total health expenditure in 48% of the 46 countries in the WHO African Region is provided by external sources. Issues surrounding aid effectiveness suggest that these countries ought to implement strategies for weaning off aid dependency. This paper broaches the following question: what are some of the strategies that countries of the region can employ to wean off donor funding for health? Five strategies are discussed: reduction in economic inefficiencies; reprioritizing public expenditures; raising additional tax revenues; increased private sector involvement in health development; and fighting corruption.

  7. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    SciTech Connect

    Matete, Ntlibi Trois, Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  8. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    PubMed

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  9. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  10. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  11. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  12. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    PubMed

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  13. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  14. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    PubMed

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  15. The Development of Education Systems in Postcolonial Africa: A Study of a Selected Number of African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    This study traces educational policy development and implementation in the postcolonial era in eight sub-Saharan African countries. A basic premise is that the education system in any country is a result of interacting forces in the unique historical development of the country. The volume analyzes the forces in terms of their relevance and…

  16. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  17. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  18. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  19. Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  20. Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-02-11

    We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries.

  1. Increasing the number of female primary school teachers in African countries: Effects, barriers and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Caitlin S.; Klees, Steven J.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Lin, Jing; Choti, Truphena; Corneilse, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Girls' education has been a high development priority for decades. While some progress has been made, girls are often still at a great disadvantage, especially in developing countries, and most especially in African countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of primary school teachers and only a quarter of secondary school teachers are women, and enrolment figures for girls are low. One common policy prescription is to increase the number of women teachers, especially in the many countries where teaching remains a predominantly male profession. This policy prescription needs to be backed by more evidence in order to significantly increase and improve its effective implementation. The available research seems to suggest that girls are more likely to enrol in schools where there are female teachers. Moreover, increasing the number of trained teachers in sub-Saharan Africa depends on more girls completing their school education. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive literature review analysing the effects of being taught by women teachers on girls' educational experience. This paper aims to make a start on filling this gap by examining the evidence on the effects in primary schools, especially in African countries. It also identifies and examines the barriers women face in becoming and staying teachers, and considers policies to remedy their situation.

  2. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  3. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values. PMID:23512871

  4. Yellow fever: an emerging threat for Kenya and other east African countries.

    PubMed

    Sanders, E J; Tukei, P M

    1996-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a well known disease that had plagued the tropics relentlessly until an effective vaccine was developed. Although the yellow fever vaccine is relatively affordable and one dose protects for over ten years, its use has predominantly been for known endemic areas of the world and international travellers. Eastern and southern African states, have hitherto been free of epidemic yellow fever, hence routine YF vaccination is not a policy in these countries. The sudden emergence of YF in the Rift Valley in Kenya in 1992-1993, introduces new dimensions into the challenges of YF to eastern and southern African states. Isolation of a virus deemed to be native of the area is discussed in this article in the context of YF policy issues confronting the region. A case has been argued for the establishment of a network of active surveillance systems in the region backed by adequate laboratory YF expertise locally, regionally, and internationally.

  5. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    PubMed

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605750

  6. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    PubMed

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  7. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    PubMed

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  8. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  9. A comparative analysis of national HIV policies in six African countries with generalized epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Kiweewa, Francis; Dasgupta, Aisha; Mwangome, Mary; Mpandaguta, Edith; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Oti, Samuel; Todd, Jim; Wringe, Alison; Geubbels, Eveline; Crampin, Amelia; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Hayashi, Chika; Njage, Muthoni; Wagner, Ryan G; Ario, Alex Riolexus; Makombe, Simon D; Mugurungi, Owen; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) policies influencing access to HIV testing and treatment services in six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods We reviewed HIV policies as part of a multi-country study on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. A policy extraction tool was developed and used to review national HIV policy documents and guidelines published in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2013. Key informant interviews helped to fill gaps in findings. National policies were categorized according to whether they explicitly or implicitly adhered to 54 policy indicators, identified through literature and expert reviews. We also compared the national policies with World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. Findings There was wide variation in policies between countries; each country was progressive in some areas and not in others. Malawi was particularly advanced in promoting rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, no country had a consistently enabling policy context expected to increase access to care and prevent attrition. Countries went beyond WHO guidance in certain areas and key informants reported that practice often surpassed policy. Conclusion Evaluating the impact of policy differences on access to care and health outcomes among people living with HIV is challenging. Certain policies will exert more influence than others and official policies are not always implemented. Future research should assess the extent of policy implementation and link these findings with HIV outcomes. PMID:26170503

  10. High Prevalence of Biocide Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Three African Countries.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of six biocide resistance genes among 82 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 219 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from three African countries; the prevalence was very high for sepA (95.3%), mepA (89.4%), and norA (86.4%), intermediate for lmrS (60.8%) and qacAB (40.5%), and low for smr (3.7%). A significant association between biocide resistance genes and antibiotic resistance was observed, and a new cutoff MIC of ≥1 mg/liter for chlorhexidine nonsusceptibility was defined. PMID:26552979

  11. On the Mathematical Analysis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Deathly Infection Disease in West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention. PMID:25688348

  12. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Roger J.; Sangmanee, Domrongphol; Piergallini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  13. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Roger J.; Sangmanee, Domrongphol; Piergallini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR. PMID:27621994

  14. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  15. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  16. Variations in condom use by type of partner in 13 sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    de Walque, Damien; Kline, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Using nationally representative data from 13 sub-Saharan African countries, we reinforce and expand upon previous findings that men report using condoms more frequently than women do and that unmarried respondents report that they use condoms with casual partners more frequently than married individuals report using them with their spouses. Based on descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, we also demonstrate to a degree not previously shown in the current literature that married men from most countries report using condoms with extramarital partners about as frequently as unmarried men report using them with casual partners. Married women from most of the countries included in the study reported using condoms with extramarital partners less frequently than unmarried women reported using them with casual partners. This result is especially troubling because marriage usually ensures regular sexual intercourse, thereby providing more opportunities for a person to pass HIV infection from an extramarital partner to his or her spouse. These findings about high-risk behaviors can be used to better target future HIV-transmission-prevention efforts.

  17. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.

  18. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409

  19. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  20. Establishing of cancer units in low or middle income african countries: angolan experience - a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Fernando; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Bernardo, Dora; Monteiro, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, João Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The number of cancer cases and related deaths worldwide is expected to double over the next 20-30 years. African countries will be the most affected by the burden of cancer. The improving economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which by itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. Because cancer therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach, trained health professionals, satisfactory infrastructure and appropriate facilities, the availability of effective cancer therapy is a difficult task that requires support. The aim of this article is to share our experience achieved in the establishment of cancer units in Angola and to validate our checklist for this action. Methods The survey method was a questionnaire addressed to Angolan cancer units, in order to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a checklist developed by the authors - The Cancer Units Assessment Checklist for low or middle income African countries - which was used previously in the establishment of those units. Afterwards, the crucial steps taken for the establishing of the main sites of each cancer unit considering, facilities, resources and professionals, were also recorded. Results All cancer units reported that the checklist was a useful tool in the development of the cancer program for the improvement of the unit or the establishing of cancer unit sites. This instrument helped identifying resources, defining the best practice and identifying barriers. Local experts, who know the best practices in oncology and who are recognized by the local heads, are also important and they proved to be the major facilitators. Conclusion The fight against cancer has just started in Angola. The training, education, advocacy and legislation are ongoing. According to our results, the assessment checklist for the establishment of cancer units is a useful instrument. PMID:25883719

  1. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  2. HIV and AIDS stigma violates human rights in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Kohi, Thecla W; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Holzemer, William L; Phetlhu, Deliwe René; Uys, Leana; Naidoo, Joanne; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie

    2006-07-01

    The situation and human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to human rights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The findings revealed that the human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the human rights of all people.

  3. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.

  4. Ebola impact on African health systems entails a quest for more international and local resilience: the case of African Portuguese speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epidemics on African health systems, with a special focus on the definition of impact mitigation guidelines and the role of resilience. The example of Portuguese speaking countries is presented. Methods A combination of literature review and case study methods are used. A literature review on Ebola outbreak impact on health systems will provide information to define a set of guidelines for healthcare services response to Ebola. The role of cooperation in providing additional resilience is described. Finally a case study focusing on the Portuguese collaboration and intervention in African Portuguese Speaking Countries (PALOP) is presented, as an example how the international community can provide additional resilience. Results The existing knowledge is very helpful to guide both the preparation and the coordination of Ebola preparedness interventions. Additional resilience can be provided by international cooperation. Conclusion In addition to international concrete support in times of crisis, to have a regional strategy of creating (multi-national) teams to rapidly implement an intervention while establishing better regional capacity to have sufficient resources to support the “resilience” required of the health system. PMID:26740843

  5. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  6. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  7. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  8. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicevic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Goran

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, contains two papers on recent developments in Yugoslavia. The first presents the findings of a study of continuing professional education at Belgrade University in Serbia and at Titograd University in Montenegro.…

  9. Continuing Vocational Training [in Central and Eastern Europe]. Volume 1. Cross Country Analysis. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The current state of continuing vocational training in Central and Eastern European countries and its most important challenges were analyzed. The analysis found that the former continuing vocational training systems in these areas were characterized by generally low training levels and interdependence among the state-owned enterprises that…

  10. Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion

  11. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices

  12. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association. PMID:19936409

  13. Measuring HIV Stigma for PLHAs and Nurses over Time in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Holzemer, William L.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Leana R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a one-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to affect negatively the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardized scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a one-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of PLHAs (n = 948) was 36.15 years (SD= 8.69), and 67.1% (n= 617) were female. The average age of nurses (n = 887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (n=784) were females. Eighty-four percent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV stigma event at baseline. This declined, but was still significant one year later when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV stigma events and this increased to 83.7% one year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association. PMID:19936409

  14. Wastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Andualem; Leta, Seyoum; Njau, Karoli Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low.

  15. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  16. Clinical ethics in African countries and emerging nurse's role in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, A O; Adejumo, P O

    2009-12-01

    Emerging trends in nursing have broadened the traditional scope of nursing practice with growing demands for ethical considerations in clinical judgments. Nurses are experiencing more ethical dilemmas in areas such as end of life issues, organ donation and transplantation, and truth telling among others. It is expected that these challenges will continue to increase and even become more complex. Despite this, the academic and professional preparation of nurses in Africa to cope with these issues is doubtful. The myriad of peculiar socioeconomic and political problems in many African societies present potential threat to the adoption of ethical standards in health care practice. Many health care workers including nurses attach little importance to consumer rights in making informed decisions in issues related to clinical care and research participation. The alleged participation of nurses in the inhuman treatment of the children recruited during the Pfizer's clinical trial of Trovan for cerebrospinal meningitis in northern Nigeria exemplifies this. Such conducts could reduce patients' worth as persons, and at the same time an indictment of nurses' moral sanctity. This paper reviews the current ethical challenges facing professional nurses in Nigeria. The concept and critical relevance of clinical ethics in giving adequate information to patients, relatives and other health workers upon which ethically sound informed decision making is done in clinical situations were highlighted. PMID:20499623

  17. Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Africa. A Selective Annotated Reading List of Reports and Studies Concerning 40 African Countries During the Period 1960 - 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville-Rolfe, Edmund, Comp.

    Some 1394 research studies from various African countries are annotated in this bibliography, which is divided into 37 country sections with a separate section (Africa General) for studies dealing with the continent as a whole, with geographical regions, or with groups of countries. The publications listed and summarized were published primarily…

  18. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

  19. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff.

  20. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses M; Seddoh, Anthony; Gatwiri, Doris; Muthuri, Lenity HK; Seddoh, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT) and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i) explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs), telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii) to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i) the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test) positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii) the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii) the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv) similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v) there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and low income

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    PubMed

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. PMID:26808336

  2. Inequalities in Maternal Health Care Utilization in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Multiyear and Multi-Country Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC), facility based delivery (FBD), and modern contraception (MC) in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda) had <350 MMR in 2010 with >4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda), ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in

  3. Country, sex, and parent occupational status: moderators of the continuity of aggression from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Katja; Simonton, Sharon; Dubow, Eric; Lansford, Jennifer E; Olson, Sheryl L; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Pulkkinen, Lea; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Using data from two American and one Finnish long-term longitudinal studies, we examined continuity of general aggression from age 8 to physical aggression in early adulthood (age 21-30) and whether continuity of aggression differed by country, sex, and parent occupational status. In all samples, childhood aggression was assessed via peer nominations and early adulthood aggression via self-reports. Multi-group structural equation models revealed significant continuity in aggression in the American samples but not in the Finnish sample. These relations did not differ by sex but did differ by parent occupational status: whereas there was no significant continuity among American children from professional family-of-origin backgrounds, there was significant continuity among American children from non-professional backgrounds.

  4. HIV-Related Discrimination among Grade Six Students in Nine Southern African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Spaull, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. Methods We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. Results The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would “avoid or shun” an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. Conclusions Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer

  5. Population Structure of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cholley, Pascal; Ka, Roughyatou; Guyeux, Christophe; Thouverez, Michelle; Guessennd, Nathalie; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Frank, Thierry; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs) called ‘high-risk clusters’. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA) has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa. Methodology 184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i) the sequence types (STs) of the present collection, (ii) the STs by continents, (iii) ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database. Principal Findings We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. ‘High-risk’ international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235) were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of ‘high-risk’ international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup. Conclusions ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be

  6. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  7. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10-24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1(st) February to 15(th) April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10-14, 15-19, 20-24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts.

  8. Africa Is Not a Country: Teaching African Culture through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Africa is made up of fifty-three nations and covers an area greater than the United States, China, Japan, and Europe combined. It is estimated that more than 800 languages are spoken in Africa. Some fifty African languages have more than half a million speakers each, but many others are spoken by relatively few people (Columbia Encyclopedia 2001).…

  9. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  10. Self-estimates of intelligence: a study in two African countries.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo

    2004-05-01

    Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference.

  11. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  12. Self-estimates of intelligence: a study in two African countries.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo

    2004-05-01

    Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference. PMID:15264443

  13. Using Examinations To Improve Education: A Study in Fourteen African Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 165. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent

    A detailed description is presented of the types, functions, performance levels, governance, administration, and funding of public examinations in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries with different educational traditions, based on English, French, or other backgrounds. The countries are: (1) Kenya; (2) Lesotho; (3) Mauritius; (4) Swaziland; (5)…

  14. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H.; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K.; Mannino, David M.; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Background The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation), contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient. Results The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea) to $9,981 (USA), with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries) and home oxygen therapy (3 countries) being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy) to 52% (USA and UK) with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia) to $30,826 (USA) but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease) and a greater number of comorbidities. Conclusions The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs. PMID:27092775

  15. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    PubMed

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth.

  16. Price control survey, continued: Five countries: A South-South perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-24

    Among the developing countries, there are multiple strata today, from star performers to those seemingly stuck in self-deepening poverty. Domestic energy-pricing policy, as it will continue to play its key role in economic development, is scrutinized in this issue featuring five developing nations. They make up some of the world's have not and have little peoples, striving to participate in the world economy. The nations examined are Thailand, South Korea, Chile, Venezuela, and Bolivia. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Dec. 20, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, December 1991 edition.

  17. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abdu, Aliyu; Naidoo, Sagren; Malgas, Shirin; Naicker, Jocelyn T; Paget, Graham; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2015-01-01

    Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V). Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin (Hb) and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy. PMID:26178569

  18. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts

  19. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  20. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502

  1. Removing user fees for facility-based delivery services: a difference-in-differences evaluation from ten sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S; Bergevin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have recently adopted policies that remove user fees for facility-based delivery services. There is little rigorous evidence of the impact of these policies on utilization of delivery services and no evaluations have examined effects on neonatal mortality rates (NMR). In this article, we estimate the causal effect of removing user fees on the proportion of births delivered in facilities, the proportion of births delivered by Caesarean section, and NMR. Methods We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 10 African countries between 1997 and 2012. Kenya, Ghana and Senegal adopted policies removing user fees for facility-based deliveries between 2003 and 2007, while seven other countries not changing user fee policies were used as controls. We used a difference-in-differences (DD) regression approach to control for secular trends in the outcomes that are common across countries and for time invariant differences between countries. Results According to covariate-adjusted DD models, the policy change was consistent with an increase of 3.1 facility-based deliveries per 100 live births (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 5.2) and an estimated reduction of 2.9 neonatal deaths per 1000 births (95% CI: −6.8, 1.0). In relative terms, this corresponds to a 5% increase in facility deliveries and a 9% reduction in NMR. There was no evidence of an increase in Caesarean deliveries. We examined lead and lag-time effects, finding evidence that facility deliveries continued to increase following fee removal. Conclusions Our findings suggest removing user fees increased facility-based deliveries and possibly contributed to a reduction in NMR. Evidence from this evaluation may be useful to governments weighing the potential benefits of removing user fees. PMID:24816570

  2. NI Continuing Education: Replicating a U.S. Model in Other Countries?

    PubMed

    Bickford, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    The need for nursing informatics continuing education is ongoing as informatics nurses and informatics nurse specialists are expected to be lifelong learners. This tutorial will explore how a very successful U.S. model, Weekend Immersion in Nursing Informatics (WINI), might be considered for replication in other countries. Details about the initial course design, presentation content outline, and sustainability will be shared. Participant input and discussion will be an integral component of this tutorial. The target audience includes informatics nurses, professional development and academic faculty, and those interprofessional informatics education programs. PMID:27332302

  3. A note on the determinants of breastfeeding durations in an African country.

    PubMed

    Mott, S H

    1984-01-01

    This paper utilizes data from the 1977-78 Kenya Fertility Survey, 1 component of the World Fertility Survey, to analyze the determinants of breastfeeding durations for women 15 to 50 years old who had their last-but-1 live birth between 3 and 15 years prior to the interview. Comparisons are made with the findings fro m the World Fertility Surveys in 8 other developing countries in Asia and Latin America. Findings indicate that literacy, urban residence, secondary school education, and modern employment reduce the duration of breastfeeding in Kenya. In addition, the subgroups of women who appear to be curtailing breastfeeding are growing in proportional size or are composed of women may be innovators or leaders. A continuation of this pattern into the future may increase levels of infant morbidity and mortality and, in the absence of increased modern contraceptive practice, may increase the societal level of fertility. The death of the infant curtails the period of breastfeeding. Although there is a pronounced preference for male children in Kenya, this preference does not lead to differential durations of breastfeeding by sex of child. About 10% of Kenyan women used contraception in the last closed interval. Parity and age explain less than 1% of the variation in duration of breastfeeding in Kenya. Kenyan women are among the least likely to have attended secondary school, to have worked since marriage, and to have used modern contraception. The most traditional groups of Kenyan women, those who are Muslim or who are in polygamous unions, breastfeed for the longest durations. The Kenya Fertility Survey suggests that the subgroup of women with some secondary school education is growing considerably. Kikuyu women may be regarded as innovators in many respects. In addition to having shorter breastfeeding durations, they are the least likely to be in polygamous unions or to want more children, and they are the most likely to be using contraception.

  4. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  5. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions.

  6. Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

  7. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  8. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people’s narratives

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n=586, ~5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”)and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  9. Scale-up of HIV Viral Load Monitoring--Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    PubMed

    Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Kim, Andrea A; Fonjungo, Peter N; Agolory, Simon; Borget, Marie Yolande; Broyles, Laura; Carmona, Sergio; Chipungu, Geoffrey; De Cock, Kevin M; Deyde, Varough; Downer, Marie; Gupta, Sundeep; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kiyaga, Charles; Knight, Nancy; MacLeod, William; Makumbi, Boniface; Muttai, Hellen; Mwangi, Christina; Mwangi, Jane W; Mwasekaga, Michael; Ng'Ang'A, Lucy W; Pillay, Yogan; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Singer, Daniel; Stevens, Wendy; Toure, Christiane Adje; Nkengasong, John

    2015-11-27

    To achieve global targets for universal treatment set forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS), viral load monitoring for HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) must become the standard of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (1). CDC and other U.S. government agencies, as part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to change from the use of CD4 cell counts for monitoring of clinical response to ART to the use of viral load monitoring, which is the standard of care in developed countries. Viral load monitoring is the preferred method for immunologic monitoring because it enables earlier and more accurate detection of treatment failure before immunologic decline. This report highlights the initial successes and challenges of viral load monitoring in seven countries that have chosen to scale up viral load testing as a national monitoring strategy for patients on ART in response to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Countries initiating viral load scale-up in 2014 observed increases in coverage after scale-up, and countries initiating in 2015 are anticipating similar trends. However, in six of the seven countries, viral load testing coverage in 2015 remained below target levels. Inefficient specimen transport, need for training, delays in procurement and distribution, and limited financial resources to support scale-up hindered progress. Country commitment and effective partnerships are essential to address the financial, operational, technical, and policy challenges of the rising demand for viral load monitoring. PMID:26605986

  10. Scale-up of HIV Viral Load Monitoring--Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    PubMed

    Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Kim, Andrea A; Fonjungo, Peter N; Agolory, Simon; Borget, Marie Yolande; Broyles, Laura; Carmona, Sergio; Chipungu, Geoffrey; De Cock, Kevin M; Deyde, Varough; Downer, Marie; Gupta, Sundeep; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kiyaga, Charles; Knight, Nancy; MacLeod, William; Makumbi, Boniface; Muttai, Hellen; Mwangi, Christina; Mwangi, Jane W; Mwasekaga, Michael; Ng'Ang'A, Lucy W; Pillay, Yogan; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Singer, Daniel; Stevens, Wendy; Toure, Christiane Adje; Nkengasong, John

    2015-11-27

    To achieve global targets for universal treatment set forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS), viral load monitoring for HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) must become the standard of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (1). CDC and other U.S. government agencies, as part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to change from the use of CD4 cell counts for monitoring of clinical response to ART to the use of viral load monitoring, which is the standard of care in developed countries. Viral load monitoring is the preferred method for immunologic monitoring because it enables earlier and more accurate detection of treatment failure before immunologic decline. This report highlights the initial successes and challenges of viral load monitoring in seven countries that have chosen to scale up viral load testing as a national monitoring strategy for patients on ART in response to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Countries initiating viral load scale-up in 2014 observed increases in coverage after scale-up, and countries initiating in 2015 are anticipating similar trends. However, in six of the seven countries, viral load testing coverage in 2015 remained below target levels. Inefficient specimen transport, need for training, delays in procurement and distribution, and limited financial resources to support scale-up hindered progress. Country commitment and effective partnerships are essential to address the financial, operational, technical, and policy challenges of the rising demand for viral load monitoring.

  11. Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries.

    PubMed

    Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. In most cases, the inflicted damage constitutes the main obstacle to health sector recovery. Interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are however fraught with difficulties of a political, technical, financial and administrative order. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made some important players aware of the cost incurred by neglecting human resource development. Several transitions from conflict to peace have been documented, even if largely in unpublished reports. This paper presents condensed descriptions of some African HRH-related recovery processes, which provide useful lessons. The technical work demanded to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is fairly well understood. In most situations, the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare. But useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success.

  12. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners.

  13. Factors associated with declining under-five mortality rates from 2000 to 2013: an ecological analysis of 46 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Aaron M; Blevins, Meridith; Haley, Connie A; Mwinga, Kasonde; Habimana, Phanuel; Shepherd, Bryan E; Aliyu, Muktar H; Ketsela, Tigest; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inadequate overall progress has been made towards the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Progress has been variable across African countries. We examined health, economic and social factors potentially associated with reductions in under-five mortality (U5M) from 2000 to 2013. Setting Ecological analysis using publicly available data from the 46 nations within the WHO African Region. Outcome measures We assessed the annual rate of change (ARC) of 70 different factors and their association with the annual rate of reduction (ARR) of U5M rates using robust linear regression models. Results Most factors improved over the study period for most countries, with the largest increases seen for economic or technological development and external financing factors. The median (IQR) U5M ARR was 3.6% (2.8 to 5.1%). Only 4 of 70 factors demonstrated a strong and significant association with U5M ARRs, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher ARRs were associated with more rapidly increasing coverage of seeking treatment for acute respiratory infection (β=0.22 (ie, a 1% increase in the ARC was associated with a 0.22% increase in ARR); 90% CI 0.09 to 0.35; p=0.01), increasing health expenditure relative to gross domestic product (β=0.26; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41; p=0.02), increasing fertility rate (β=0.54; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.02; p=0.07) and decreasing maternal mortality ratio (β=−0.47; 95% CI −0.69 to −0.24; p<0.01). The majority of factors showed no association or raised validity concerns due to missing data from a large number of countries. Conclusions Improvements in sociodemographic, maternal health and governance and financing factors were more likely associated with U5M ARR. These underscore the essential role of contextual factors facilitating child health interventions and services. Surveillance of these factors could help monitor which countries need additional support in reducing U5M

  14. The Impact of Internal Migration on under-Five Mortality in 27 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective The literature on the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been limited. This study examined the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality rate in 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Design The analysis used cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Information on the number of live births and the number of under-five deaths in the five years preceding the surveys in these countries was examined. Using variables from which migration data were generated, four migration statuses were computed, and the impact of each migration status on under-five mortality was analysed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 96333 live births, 7036 deaths were reported. Adjusting for internal migration status revealed a 20% increase in under-five mortality rate among urban-rural migrant mothers [HR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.06–1.35)], a 40% increase in under-five mortality rates among rural non-migrant mothers, [HR = 1.40; 95% CI: (1.29–1.53)] and a 43% increase in under-five deaths among rural-urban migrant mothers [HR = 1.43; 95% CI: (1.30–1.58)]. Whilst under-five mortality rate did not change considerably when we adjusted for country and demographic variables, there were significant decreases among rural non-migrant and rural-urban migrant mothers when health care service utilization factors were adjusted for [HR = 1.20; 95% CI: (1.07–1.33) and [HR = 1.29; 95% CI: (1.14–1.45)]. The decreased risk of under-five deaths was not significant among rural non-migrant and rural-urban migrant mothers when socio-economic factors were adjusted for. Other factors for which there were significant risks of under-five deaths included household poverty, lack of health care services Conclusion Although under-five child mortality rate declined by 52% between 1990 and 2015 (from 179 to 86 per1000 live

  15. Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Karen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Addei, Sheila; Kalage, Rose; Maredza, Mandy; Sankoh, Osman; Bangha, Martin; Kahn, Kathleen; Becher, Heiko; Haafkens, Joke; Kinsman, John

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH), and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. Objective As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries – Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa – as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. Methods SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. Results SDH-relevant training is available, but 1) the number of places available for students is limited; 2) the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3) insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the

  16. Rehabilitation in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries: Personnel Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Elias; Jelsma, Jennifer; Maart, Soraya; Levers, Lisa Lopez; Montsi, Mercy M. R.; Tlabiwe, Pinkie; Mupawose, Anniah; Mwamwenda, Tuntufye; Ngoma, Mary Shilalukey; Tchombe,Therese Mungah S.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines rehabilitation personnel education and training in seven countries representing a geo-culturally contiguous region of sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cameroon, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It identifies and explicates practices to inform similar or parallel rehabilitation practices in the United States…

  17. SURVEY OF MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDS AND FACILITIES IN SOME AFRICAN COUNTRIES 1964. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT SERIES, 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Human Resources Dept.

    THIS IS THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE REPORT OF THE INVESTIGATION OF MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDS AND FACILITIES IN AFRICA. THE DISCUSSION OF NEEDS AND PROBLEMS REPRESENTS A CONSENSUS OF THE MOST INFORMED OPINION AVAILABLE TO THE INDUSTRIALIST WHO WAS ENGAGED AS EXPERT AND SPENT UP TO FOUR WEEKS IN EACH OF 13 COUNTRIES--ETHIOPIA, UGANDA, MALAWI,…

  18. Challenges associated with tracking resources allocation for reproductive health in sub-Saharan African countries: the UNFPA/NIDI resource flows project experience.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Beatrice W

    2015-01-01

    Universal access to reproductive health services entails strengthening health systems, but requires significant resource commitments as well as efficient and effective use of those resources. A number of international organizations and governments in developing countries are putting efforts into tracking the flow of health resources in order to inform resource mobilization and allocation, strategic planning, priority setting, advocacy and general policy making. The UNFPA/NIDI-led Resource Flows Project ("The UNFPA/NIDI RF Project") has conducted annual surveys since 1997 to monitor progress achieved by developing countries in implementing reproductive health financial targets. This commentary summarizes the Project experiences and challenges in gathering data on allocation of resources for reproductive health at the domestic level in sub-Saharan African countries. One key lesson learnt from the Project experience is the need for strengthening tracking mechanisms in sub-Saharan African countries and making information on reproductive health resources and expenditures available, in particular the private sector resources. PMID:26012472

  19. Challenges associated with tracking resources allocation for reproductive health in sub-Saharan African countries: the UNFPA/NIDI resource flows project experience.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Beatrice W

    2015-05-05

    Universal access to reproductive health services entails strengthening health systems, but requires significant resource commitments as well as efficient and effective use of those resources. A number of international organizations and governments in developing countries are putting efforts into tracking the flow of health resources in order to inform resource mobilization and allocation, strategic planning, priority setting, advocacy and general policy making. The UNFPA/NIDI-led Resource Flows Project ("The UNFPA/NIDI RF Project") has conducted annual surveys since 1997 to monitor progress achieved by developing countries in implementing reproductive health financial targets. This commentary summarizes the Project experiences and challenges in gathering data on allocation of resources for reproductive health at the domestic level in sub-Saharan African countries. One key lesson learnt from the Project experience is the need for strengthening tracking mechanisms in sub-Saharan African countries and making information on reproductive health resources and expenditures available, in particular the private sector resources.

  20. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  1. A PILOT EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE STUDY OF TRANSFUSION SCREENING FOR HIV, HCV AND HBSAG IN TWELVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Evan M; Shah, Avani; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Laperche, Syria; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques; van Hasselt, James; Zacharias, Peter; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Materials and Methods Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories’ routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure. Results A total of 12 African countries and 44 laboratories participated in the study. The mean (range) sensitivities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 91.9% (14.3-100), 86.7% (42.9-100) and 90.1% (50-100), respectively. Mean specificities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 97.7%, 97% and 99.5% respectively. After adjusting for country and infrastructure, rapid tests had significantly lower sensitivity than enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for both HBsAg (p<0.0001) and HCV (p<0.05). Sensitivity also varied by country and selected infrastructure variables. Conclusion While specificity was high, sensitivity was more variable and deficient in a substantial number of testing laboratories. These findings underscore the importance of proficiency testing and quality control, particularly in Africa where TTV prevalence is high. PMID:25052195

  2. The Competency-Based Approach to Curriculum Reform in Five African Countries: What Can We Learn from the 2008-2009 Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Roger-François

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical reflection on the results of a study that the French International Center for Pedagogical Studies (CIEP) piloted in 2008-2009 in five sub-Saharan African countries which were implementing curriculum reforms adopting the "competency-based approach". The article refers to a seminar on this process and the ideas expressed…

  3. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  4. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-Saharan African country

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, J. P.; Wilkinson, R.; Basavaraju, S. V.; von Finckenstein, B.; Sibinga, C. Smit; Marfin, A. A.; Postma, M. J.; Mataranyika, M.; Tobias, J.; Lowrance, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not been described. Materials and Methods Nine years of data on blood requests and issues from Namibia were stratified by region to describe temporal and spatial changes in the number and type of blood components issued to Namibian healthcare facilities nationally. Results Between 2004 and 2007 (early years of PEPFAR support) and 2008–2011 (peak years of PEPFAR support), the average number of red cell units issued annually increased by 23.5% in seven densely populated but less-developed regions in northern Namibia; by 30% in two regions with urban centres; and by 35.1% in four sparsely populated rural regions. Conclusion Investments in blood safety and a policy decision to emphasize distribution of blood to underserved regions improved blood availability in remote rural areas and increased the proportion of units distributed as components. However, disparities persist in the distribution of blood between Namibia’s urban and rural regions. PMID:26478742

  5. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307

  6. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    PubMed

    Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  7. Prevalence of diabetes in Northern African countries: the case of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although diabetes is recognized as an emerging disease in African and Middle East, few population-based surveys have been conducted in this region. We performed a national survey to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to evaluate the relationship between this diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic variables. Methods The study was conducted on a random sample of 6580 households (940 in each region). 7700 subjects adults 35–70 years old were included in the analyses. T2D was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire and fasting blood glucose level according to the WHO criteria. Access to health care and diabetes management were also assessed. Results Overall, the prevalence of T2D was 15.1%. There were sharp urban vs. rural contrasts, the prevalence of diabetes being twice higher in urban area. However, the ratio urban/rural varied from 3 in the less developed region to 1.6 in the most developed ones. A sharp increase of prevalence of T2D with economic level of the household was observed. For both genders those with a family history of T2D were much more at risk of T2D than those without. Awareness increase with age, economic level and were higher amongst those with family history of T2D. Drugs were supplied by primary health care centers for 57.7% with a difference according to gender, 48.9% for men vs. 66.0% women (p < 0.001) and area, 53.3% on urban area vs. 75.2% on rural one (p < 0.001). Conclusions Through its capacity to provide the data on the burden of diabetes in the context of the epidemiological transition that North Africa is facing, this survey will not only be valuable source for health care planners in Tunisia, but will also serve as an important research for the study of diabetes in the region where data is scarce. In this context, NCDs emerge as an intersectoral challenge and their social determinants requiring social, food and environmental health policy. PMID:24472619

  8. Zoom in at African country level: potential climate induced changes in areas of suitability for survival of malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predicting anopheles vectors’ population densities and boundary shifts is crucial in preparing for malaria risks and unanticipated outbreaks. Although shifts in the distribution and boundaries of the major malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis) across Africa have been predicted, quantified areas of absolute change in zone of suitability for their survival have not been defined. In this study, we have quantified areas of absolute change conducive for the establishment and survival of these vectors, per African country, under two climate change scenarios and based on our findings, highlight practical measures for effective malaria control in the face of changing climatic patterns. Methods We developed a model using CLIMEX simulation platform to estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of these malaria vectors in relation to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity). The model yielded an eco-climatic index (EI) describing the total favourable geographical locations for the species. The EI values were classified and exported to a GIS package. Using ArcGIS, the EI shape points were clipped to the extent of Africa and then converted to a raster layer using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. Generated maps were then transformed into polygon-based geo-referenced data set and their areas computed and expressed in square kilometers (km2). Results Five classes of EI were derived indicating the level of survivorship of these malaria vectors. The proportion of areas increasing or decreasing in level of survival of these malaria vectors will be more pronounced in eastern and southern African countries than those in western Africa. Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia appear most likely to be affected in terms of absolute change of malaria vectors suitability zones under the selected climate change scenarios. Conclusion The potential shifts of

  9. Antenatal Syphilis Screening Using Point-of-Care Testing in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuznik, Andreas; Lamorde, Mohammed; Nyabigambo, Agnes; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Methods and Findings The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86%) and specificity (99%) reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2–US$48). Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%–14.0%) to 0.038% (range: 0.002%–0.113%). Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and

  10. Timing of orphanhood, early sexual debut, and early marriage in four sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sophia

    2013-06-01

    According to a growing body of literature, some orphans are at heightened risk of early sexual debut and early marriage. This study examines a rarely explored aspect of orphanhood: the timing and type of parental death and their relationship to these outcomes. The study also explores whether education mediates orphans' risk of early sexual initiation and early marriage. The data are drawn from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, which includes interviews with 12-19-year-old adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Results from discrete-time event history analysis indicate that female double orphans, regardless of timing of orphanhood, have greater odds of early sexual debut than do nonorphans. Education explains little of their increased risk. In contrast, male orphans of any type reveal no increased vulnerability to early sexual debut. Uganda is the only country where female orphans, specifically double orphans and those who are paternal orphans before age 10, have greater odds of early marriage, with education accounting for a small portion of the risk.

  11. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously. PMID:22236097

  12. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    PubMed

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  13. The East African Training Initiative. A Model Training Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine for Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W

    2016-04-01

    Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries. PMID:26991950

  14. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Watson, H. K.; Diaz-Chavez, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent ‘disequilibrium’ behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

  15. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the central roles of two African countries in the evolution and worldwide spread of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Wang, Jun; Tang, Shuang; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified in previous studies. However, in this study, three lineages were identified based on a phylogenetic analysis of all virus sequences from GenBank, including those of the envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) coding regions. The spatial and temporal distributions of the three identified ZIKV lineages and the recombination events and mechanisms underlying their divergence and evolution were further elaborated. The potential migration pathway of ZIKV was also characterized. Our findings revealed the central roles of two African countries, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, in ZIKV evolution and genotypic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggested that the outbreaks in Asia and the Pacific islands originated from Africa. The results provide insights into the geographic origins of ZIKV outbreaks and the spread of the virus, and also contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV evolution, which is important for the prevention and control of ZIKV infections.

  16. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    de Fouchier, Capucine; Blanchet, Alain; Hopkins, William; Bui, Eric; Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Jehel, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to this population. Method The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95). Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83). At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Conclusion Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ. PMID:23233870

  17. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations.

  18. Improving health information systems for decision making across five sub-Saharan African countries: Implementation strategies from the African Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weak health information systems (HIS) are a critical challenge to reaching the health-related Millennium Development Goals because health systems performance cannot be adequately assessed or monitored where HIS data are incomplete, inaccurate, or untimely. The Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnerships were established in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze advances in strengthening district health systems. Interventions were tailored to the setting in which activities were planned. Comparisons across strategies All five PHIT Partnerships share a common feature in their goal of enhancing HIS and linking data with improved decision-making, specific strategies varied. Mozambique, Ghana, and Tanzania all focus on improving the quality and use of the existing Ministry of Health HIS, while the Zambia and Rwanda partnerships have introduced new information and communication technology systems or tools. All partnerships have adopted a flexible, iterative approach in designing and refining the development of new tools and approaches for HIS enhancement (such as routine data quality audits and automated troubleshooting), as well as improving decision making through timely feedback on health system performance (such as through summary data dashboards or routine data review meetings). The most striking differences between partnership approaches can be found in the level of emphasis of data collection (patient versus health facility), and consequently the level of decision making enhancement (community, facility, district, or provincial leadership). Discussion Design differences across PHIT Partnerships reflect differing theories of change, particularly regarding what information is needed, who will use the information to affect change, and how this change is expected to manifest. The iterative process of data use to monitor and assess the health system has been heavily communication

  19. The discrimination of discrete and continuous amounts in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Aïn, Syrina Al; Giret, Nicolas; Grand, Marion; Kreutzer, Michel; Bovet, Dalila

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of research in infants and animals demonstrates discrimination of quantities, in some cases nonverbal numerical perception, and even elementary calculation capacities. We investigated the ability of three African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) to select the largest amount of food between two sets, either discrete food items (experiment 1) or as volume of a food substance (experiment 2). The two amounts were presented simultaneously and were visible at the time of choice. Parrots were tested several times for all possible combinations between 1 and 5 seeds or 0.2 and 1 ml of food substance. In both conditions, subjects performed above chance for almost all combinations. Accuracy was negatively correlated with the ratio, that is performance improved with greater differences between amounts. Therefore, these results with both individual items and volume discrimination suggest that parrots use an analogue of magnitude, rather than object-file mechanisms to quantify items and substances.

  20. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some

  1. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  2. Under the Sun or in the Shade? Jua Kali in African Countries. National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. A Subregional Seminar for Eastern and Southern African Countries (Nairobi, Kenya, September 15-19, 1997). International project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is a comprehensive report a subregional seminar for eastern and southern African countries on the Jua Kali movement. (Jua Kali, "hot sun" in Swahili, refers to the informal or nonformal sector of the economy.) Section 1 explains the role of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) in the development of…

  3. Determinants of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-07-14

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3-5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant's age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  4. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early. PMID:25025297

  5. Forecasting Human African Trypanosomiasis Prevalences from Population Screening Data Using Continuous Time Models

    PubMed Central

    Hasker, Epco; Lumbala, Crispin; Lutumba, Pascal; de Vlas, Sake J.; van de Klundert, Joris

    2016-01-01

    To eliminate and eradicate gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), maximizing the effectiveness of active case finding is of key importance. The progression of the epidemic is largely influenced by the planning of these operations. This paper introduces and analyzes five models for predicting HAT prevalence in a given village based on past observed prevalence levels and past screening activities in that village. Based on the quality of prevalence level predictions in 143 villages in Kwamouth (DRC), and based on the theoretical foundation underlying the models, we consider variants of the Logistic Model—a model inspired by the SIS epidemic model—to be most suitable for predicting HAT prevalence levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applicability of this model to predict the effects of planning policies for screening operations. Our analysis yields an analytical expression for the screening frequency required to reach eradication (zero prevalence) and a simple approach for determining the frequency required to reach elimination within a given time frame (one case per 10000). Furthermore, the model predictions suggest that annual screening is only expected to lead to eradication if at least half of the cases are detected during the screening rounds. This paper extends knowledge on control strategies for HAT and serves as a basis for further modeling and optimization studies. PMID:27657937

  6. Paediatric cardiac surgery in low-income and middle-income countries: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Leon-Wyss, Juan; Iyer, Krishna S; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in surgical and catheter-based treatment for congenital heart disease (CHD), there remain wide disparities across the globe. Ongoing international humanitarian and in-country programmes are working to address these issues with the ultimate goal to increase the quality and quantity of paediatric cardiac care, particularly in under-served regions of the world. This review aims to illustrate the reasons for these inequalities and suggests novel ways of improving access and sustainability of CHD programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26359507

  7. Brief Continuing Medical Education (CME) Module Raises Knowledge of Developing Country Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr S.; Samadi, Shahed; Banerjee, Mousumi; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Aziz, Zeba

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence in Pakistan is the highest reported in any South-Central Asian country. It is the most frequent malignancy in women, where it accounts for 38.5% of all female cancers. About half (43.7%) of all breast cancers are locally advanced. We recruited 183 primary care physicians in Pakistan and invited them to attend educational…

  8. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  9. SSA 05-1 HYPERTENSION, STEADY BUT CONTINUING CHANGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Albertino

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension, previously almost unknown, is now a major risk factor. A paper recently published showed that mean systolic blood pressure is higher in all regions of Africa compared with other parts of the world, and, most important and contrary to what is happening in the rest of the world, it is increasing in the last years. Another important issue that characterises hypertension in Africa is its extremely low level of awareness and consequently low level of control. As a consequence, there is a high incidence of stroke, characterized by an almost 10 year's younger age of incidence and a relatively high percentage of haemorrhagic strokes with a high intra hospital mortality. New and innovative ways of increasing the levels of hypertension awareness are needed as well as a regular provision of anti-hypertensive generic drugs of good quality to face this enormous burden of the African health. PMID:27643377

  10. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  11. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    as critical human resources development, must be quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions. PMID:25120913

  12. Regulatory Advances in 11 Sub-Saharan Countries in Year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    Dynes, Michelle; Tison, Laura; Johnson, Carla; Verani, Andre; Zuber, Alexandra; Riley, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders (“Quads”) received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects. Four countries advanced a full stage on the Regulatory Function Framework (RFF), a staged capability maturity model used to evaluate progress in key regulatory functions. While the remaining countries did not advance a full stage on the RFF, important gains were noted. The year-3 evaluation highlighted limitations of the ARC evaluation strategy to capture nuanced progress and provided insight into how the RFF might be adapted for future use. PMID:27086189

  13. Prevalence, determinants and impact of unawareness about the health consequences of tobacco use among 17 929 school personnel in 29 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess prevalence, determinants and impact of unawareness about the health consequences of tobacco use among school personnel in Africa. Design Cross-sectional surveys. Setting Twenty-nine African countries. Participants Representative samples of school personnel from 29 African countries (n=17 929), using data from the 2006–2011 Global School Personnel Surveys. Outcome We assessed if school personnel were aware of the following five facts about tobacco use: (1) tobacco use is addictive; (2) secondhand smoke exposure is harmful; (3) smoking causes lung cancer; (4) smoking causes heart disease and (5) smoking does not cause malaria. Using multivariate logistic regression, we measured the impact of unawareness of the health consequences of tobacco use on behaviour and attitudes towards tobacco control. Results A median of 62.6% of school personnel were unaware of at least one health consequence of tobacco use. School personnel in countries with mandatory cigarette health warning labels had lower odds of being unaware of any health consequence of tobacco use than countries where health warning labels were not mandatory (adjusted OR [aOR]=0.51; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.71). A significant dose–response relationship was seen between being ignorant of 1; 2; or ≥3 tobacco use health consequences respectively (compared with not being ignorant of any), and the odds of the following outcomes: non-support of bans on tobacco industry sponsorship of school or extracurricular activities (aOR=1.47; 1.91; and 2.98); non-support of bans on all tobacco advertisements (aOR=1.24; 1.78; and 2.68) and non-support of policies prohibiting tobacco use by school personnel on campus (aOR=1.79; 4.45; and 4.56). Conclusions Unawareness of the health consequences of tobacco use was associated with poor support for tobacco control policies. Intensified efforts are needed in African countries to warn about the dangers of tobacco use. PMID:25164538

  14. Challenges and difficulties in assessing the environmental status under the requirements of the Ecosystem Approach in North African countries, illustrated by eutrophication assessment.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Maialen; Borja, Ángel; Breton, Françoise; Butenschön, Momme; Marín, Anna; Miller, Peter I; Morisseau, François; Xu, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems provide many ecosystem goods and services. However, these ecosystems and the benefits they create for humans are subject to competing uses and increasing pressures. As a consequence of the increasing threats to the marine environment, several regulations require applying an ecosystem-based approach for managing the marine environment. Within the Mediterranean Sea, in 2008, the Contracting Parties of the Mediterranean Action Plan decided to progressively apply the Ecosystem Approach (EcAp) with the objective of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES) for 2018. To assess the environmental status, the EcAp proposes 11 Ecological Objectives, each of which requires a set of relevant indicators to be integrated. Progress towards the EcAp entails a gradual and important challenge for North African countries, and efforts have to be initiated to propose and discuss methods. Accordingly, to enhance the capacity of North African countries to implement EcAp and particularly to propose and discuss indicators and methods to assess GES, the aim of this manuscript is to identify the practical problems and gaps found at each stage of the environmental status assessment process. For this purpose, a stepwise method has been proposed to assess the environmental status using Ecologic Objective 5-Eutrophication as example.

  15. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (1) priority areas for ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was created to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. Its main strategy is community directed treatment with ivermectin. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. The present article reports the mapping of high risk areas where onchocerciasis was a public health problem. The companion article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods REMO consists of three stages: exclusion of areas that are unsuitable for the vector, selection of sample villages to be surveyed in each river basin, and examination of 30 to 50 adults for the presence of palpable onchocercal nodules in each selected village. The survey results and other relevant information were processed in a geographical information system. A panel of experts interpreted the data taking the river-based sampling into account and delineated high risk areas where the prevalence of nodules is greater than 20%. Results Unsuitable areas were identified in eight countries. In the remaining areas surveys were done in a total of 14,473 sample villages in which more than half a million people were examined. High-risk areas were identified in 18 APOC countries, ranging from small isolated foci to a vast contiguous endemic area of 2 million km2 running across seven countries. In five countries the high risk area covered more than 48% of the total surface area, and 31% to 48% of the population. It is estimated that 86 million people live in high risk areas in the APOC countries. Conclusions The REMO maps have played a significant role in onchocerciasis control in the 20 APOC countries. All high-risk areas where onchocerciasis used to be a serious public

  16. Use of the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use Guidance in sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Melissa J; Gaffield, Mary E; Kiarie, James

    2016-09-28

    Given recent updates to the postpartum contraception recommendations in the fifth edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which national family planning policies in sub-Saharan African countries are in agreement with the WHO MEC, particularly with regard to postpartum contraceptive use. WHO headquarters sent questionnaires to country-level focal points to complete with their Ministry of Health counterparts. Between February and May 2016, 23 of 32 (72%) surveys were completed. All respondents reported that their countries had used the MEC document in the past, with most reporting that they had used the guidance as a reference (n = 20, 87%), for training purposes (n = 19, 83%), to change clinical practices (n = 17, 74%), and to develop national policies (n = 16, 70%). While many respondents (16, 70%) indicated their countries already include immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion among breastfeeding women in their family planning policies, few reported currently allowing use of progestogen-only pills (n = 8, 35%) or implants (n = 8, 35%) during the immediate postpartum period (i.e., less than 48 hours after delivery) for breastfeeding women. A higher percentage of respondents indicated their countries allowed breastfeeding women the option of progestogen-only pills (n = 16, 70%) and implants (n = 13, 57%) between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Findings from this baseline assessment suggest that many countries may benefit from training and policy formulation support to adapt both new WHO MEC updates as well as existing recommendations from previous MEC revisions into national family planning guidelines. PMID:27688720

  17. Use of the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use Guidance in sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Melissa J; Gaffield, Mary E; Kiarie, James

    2016-09-28

    Given recent updates to the postpartum contraception recommendations in the fifth edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which national family planning policies in sub-Saharan African countries are in agreement with the WHO MEC, particularly with regard to postpartum contraceptive use. WHO headquarters sent questionnaires to country-level focal points to complete with their Ministry of Health counterparts. Between February and May 2016, 23 of 32 (72%) surveys were completed. All respondents reported that their countries had used the MEC document in the past, with most reporting that they had used the guidance as a reference (n = 20, 87%), for training purposes (n = 19, 83%), to change clinical practices (n = 17, 74%), and to develop national policies (n = 16, 70%). While many respondents (16, 70%) indicated their countries already include immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion among breastfeeding women in their family planning policies, few reported currently allowing use of progestogen-only pills (n = 8, 35%) or implants (n = 8, 35%) during the immediate postpartum period (i.e., less than 48 hours after delivery) for breastfeeding women. A higher percentage of respondents indicated their countries allowed breastfeeding women the option of progestogen-only pills (n = 16, 70%) and implants (n = 13, 57%) between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Findings from this baseline assessment suggest that many countries may benefit from training and policy formulation support to adapt both new WHO MEC updates as well as existing recommendations from previous MEC revisions into national family planning guidelines.

  18. Use of the World Health Organization’s Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use Guidance in sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Melissa J; Gaffield, Mary E; Kiarie, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given recent updates to the postpartum contraception recommendations in the fifth edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which national family planning policies in sub-Saharan African countries are in agreement with the WHO MEC, particularly with regard to postpartum contraceptive use. WHO headquarters sent questionnaires to country-level focal points to complete with their Ministry of Health counterparts. Between February and May 2016, 23 of 32 (72%) surveys were completed. All respondents reported that their countries had used the MEC document in the past, with most reporting that they had used the guidance as a reference (n = 20, 87%), for training purposes (n = 19, 83%), to change clinical practices (n = 17, 74%), and to develop national policies (n = 16, 70%). While many respondents (16, 70%) indicated their countries already include immediate postpartum intrauterine device insertion among breastfeeding women in their family planning policies, few reported currently allowing use of progestogen-only pills (n = 8, 35%) or implants (n = 8, 35%) during the immediate postpartum period (i.e., less than 48 hours after delivery) for breastfeeding women. A higher percentage of respondents indicated their countries allowed breastfeeding women the option of progestogen-only pills (n = 16, 70%) and implants (n = 13, 57%) between 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Findings from this baseline assessment suggest that many countries may benefit from training and policy formulation support to adapt both new WHO MEC updates as well as existing recommendations from previous MEC revisions into national family planning guidelines. PMID:27688720

  19. Comparative Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 from Five Sub-Saharan African Countries Using Various Phenotypic and Genotypic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bidjada, Bawimodom; Miwanda, Berthe N.; Saliou, Diallo M.; N’Douba, Adèle Kacou; Langa, José P.; Ismail, Husna; Tau, Nomsa; Sooka, Arvinda

    2015-01-01

    We used standardized methodologies to characterize Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Togo, Côte d’Ivoire and Mozambique. We investigated 257 human isolates collected in 2010 to 2013. DRC isolates serotyped O1 Inaba, while isolates from other countries serotyped O1 Ogawa. All isolates were biotype El Tor and positive for cholera toxin. All isolates showed multidrug resistance but lacked ciprofloxacin resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolates varied between countries. In particular, the susceptibility profile of isolates from Mozambique (East-Africa) included resistance to ceftriaxone and was distinctly different to the susceptibility profiles of isolates from countries located in West- and Central-Africa. Molecular subtyping of isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed a complex relationship among isolates. Some PFGE patterns were unique to particular countries and clustered by country; while other PFGE patterns were shared by isolates from multiple countries, indicating that the same genetic lineage is present in multiple countries. Our data add to a better understanding of cholera epidemiology in Africa. PMID:26606536

  20. Efficacy and Safety of ‘Fixed Dose’ versus ‘Loose’ Drug Regimens for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Two High TB-Burden African Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the performance of the use of fixed-dose combination (FDC) TB drugs when used under programmatic settings in high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC versus loose formulation (LF) TB treatment regimens for treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB) in the context of actual medical practice in prevailing conditions within programmatic settings in five sites in two high TB-burden African countries. Methods A two-arm, single-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing FDCs with separate LFs involving 1000 adults newly diagnosed with culture positive PTB was conducted at five sites in two African countries between 2007 and 2011. Participants were randomized to receive daily treatment with anti-TB drugs given as either FDC or separate LFs for 24 weeks (intensive phase– 8 weeks of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide; continuation phase– 16 weeks of rifampicin and isoniazid). Primary outcome measures were microbiological cure and safety at the end of six months’ treatment; pre-specified non-inferiority margin for difference in cure rate was 4%. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the modified intent to treat (mITT) cohort comprising all randomized patients with a positive baseline culture result for TB and who received at least one dose of study treatment. Patients missing end of treatment culture results were considered failures. Further analyses were done in which mITT patients without an end of treatment (EOT) culture were excluded in a complete case analysis (mITTcc) and a per protocol cohort analysis defined as mITTcc patients who received at least 95% of their intended doses and had an EOT culture result. Results In the mITT analysis, the cure rate in the FDC group was 86.7% (398/459) and in the LF group 85.2% (396/465) (difference 1.5-% (90% confidence interval (CI) (-2.2%– 5.3%)). Per Protocol analysis showed similar results: FDC 98.9% (359/363) versus LF 96.9% (345

  1. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. HIV/AIDS among African Immigrants in the U.S.: The Need for Disaggregating HIV Surveillance Data by Country of Birth.

    PubMed

    Koku, Emmanuel F; Rajab-Gyagenda, Wardah M; Korto, Margaret D; Morrison, Sharon D; Beyene, Yewoubdar; Mbajah, Joy; Ashton, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the United States' National HIV/AIDS Strategy are reducing HIV infections, increasing linkage to care, and reducing health disparities. To accomplish these, it is imperative to have accurate data about HIV prevalence, especially in high-burden populations, including immigrants, ethnic/racial minorities and other minority populations. However, recent increases in HIV prevalence among Black migrants from sub-Saharan Africa has drawn attention to the need to examine the epidemiological diversity of the Black population, and accurately account for HIV prevalence within it. In most HIV surveillance data, a single category, Black/African American, is used to combine data for U.S.-born and foreign-born Blacks, including migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Such categorizations result in under-estimation of HIV prevalence in the African immigrant population, making it difficult to allocate resources appropriately for HIV prevention and treatment. This paper highlights and provides recommendations regarding the importance of disaggregating HIV surveillance data on Blacks by country of birth. PMID:27524770

  3. Antibiotic sensitivity and sequence amplification patterns of genes in multidrug resistant enterobacteria isolates from processed foods in some West African countries.

    PubMed

    Owoseni, Abimbola Adetokunboh; Onilude, Abiodun Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoea, dysentery and other diseases due to other enteric bacteria have reportedly been found to resist chemotherapeutic treatment in some West African communities with fatal consequences in some cases. This study was carried out to determine multidrug resistance patterns of Enterobacteria isolates from processed ready-to-eat foods. Indigenously processed food samples of different types were collected from two Francophone and two Anglophone countries in the West African sub-region during the wet and dry seasons of a sampling period of two years. Enterobacteria were isolated from the samples using standard techniques. Amplification of chromosomal DNA of the isolates using the Polymerase Chain Reaction was carried out. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analyses. All isolates showed resistance to cefuroxime (90.7%), nitrofurantoin (90.6%), augmentin (86.1%) and ampicillin (51.2%) while all were sensitive to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. There was amplification indicating the presence of invA gene at a position of 240 bp. There was no amplification at all for the spvC gene in any of the isolates tested. Multidrug resistant enteric bacteria in these foods containing the invA gene could lead to infections with uncontrolled antibiotic use. The presence of enteric bacteria in the foods analyzed which provide undeniable evidence of the poor microbiological quality of these foods could form the basis of a useful databank in formulation of food-borne disease control and prevention strategies.

  4. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis.

  5. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis. PMID:24779260

  6. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  7. Investing in Community-Based Education to Improve the Quality, Quantity, and Retention of Physicians in Three African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Zohray Moolani; Baingana, Rhona Kezabu; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Van Schalkwyk, Susan Camille; Mehtsun, Sinit; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie

    2014-01-01

    Context The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is a $US 130 million program funded by the United States government supporting 13 African medical schools to increase the quantity, quality, and retention of physicians in underserved areas. This paper examines how community-based education (CBE) is evolving at MEPI schools to achieve these goals. Methods We utilized data from the first two years of site visits and surveys to characterize CBE efforts across the MEPI network and provide detailed descriptions of three models of CBE among the MEPI programs. Results There is widespread investment in CBE, with considerable diversity in the goals and characteristics of training activities among MEPI schools. Three examples described here show how schools are strengthening and evaluating different models of CBE to achieve MEPI goals. In Nigeria, students are being sent for clinical rotations to community hospitals to offload the tertiary hospital. In Uganda, the consistency and quality of teaching in CBE is being strengthened by adopting a competency-based curriculum and developing criteria for community sites. At Stellenbosch University in South Africa, students are now offered an elective year-long comprehensive rural immersion experience. Despite the diversity in CBE models, all schools are investing in e-learning and faculty development. Extensive evaluations are planned to examine the impact of CBE strategies on the health workforce and health services. Discussion The MEPI program is stimulating an evolution in CBE among African medical schools to improve the quality, quantity, and retention of physicians. Identifying the strategies within CBE that are reproducible, scalable and optimize outcomes will be instructive for health professions training programs across the continent. PMID:24200732

  8. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  9. Factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in seven Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-01-30

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d'Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011-2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012-2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d'Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  10. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope L.; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality. PMID:25647663

  11. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  12. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the

  13. Nutrition Planning and Policy for African Countries. Summary Report of a Seminar Held at the Institute for Development Studies (Nairobi, Kenya, June 2-19, 1976). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 5 (1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Michael C., Ed.; Westley, Sidney B., Ed.

    This paper is the summary report of a seminar which was held in Kenya at the Institute for Development Studies of the University of Nairobi from June 2-19, 1976. The seminar was sponsored by USAID through a contract to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Ten English-speaking African countries, whose responsibilities are related to nutrition…

  14. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  15. PEPFAR Funding Associated With An Increase In Employment Among Males in Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Zachary; Barofsky, Jeremy; Sood, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided billions of US tax dollars to expand HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. This investment has generated significant health gains, but much less is known about PEPFAR's population-level economic effects. We use a difference-in-differences approach to compare employment trends between 10 countries that received a large amount of PEPFAR funding against 11 countries that received little or no funding. We find that PEPFAR was associated with a 13% increase in employment among males (95% CI; 3.7%-22.1%), but observe no change in employment among females. In addition, we show that increasing PEPFAR per capita funding by $100 was associated with a 9.1 percentage point increase in employment among males. This rise in employment generates economic benefits equal to half of PEPFAR's cost. These findings suggest that PEPFAR's economic impact must also be taken into account when making aid allocation decisions. PMID:26056199

  16. Patients' rights in a Third World southern African country, with special reference to Bophuthatswana: is there any potential for privatisation?

    PubMed

    Nathan, C

    1989-01-01

    Patients' rights to medical care, to inviolability without informed consent, and to medical screening tests, for example, are determined by the legal system to which they are subject. The interests of the individual must be weighed against the interests of the society to which he or she belongs, as this must be the criterion used to establish the extent of their rights, if any. The rights of an AIDS patient in a First World country and those of an AIDS patient in a Third World country are bound to differ in extent. The emphasis in the simultaneous duties of the state towards an individual AIDS patient and to society as a whole will differ from state to state. The First and Third World sectors are differentiated with reference to privatisation, and legal forms are touched upon.

  17. Patients' rights in a Third World southern African country, with special reference to Bophuthatswana: is there any potential for privatisation?

    PubMed

    Nathan, C

    1989-01-01

    Patients' rights to medical care, to inviolability without informed consent, and to medical screening tests, for example, are determined by the legal system to which they are subject. The interests of the individual must be weighed against the interests of the society to which he or she belongs, as this must be the criterion used to establish the extent of their rights, if any. The rights of an AIDS patient in a First World country and those of an AIDS patient in a Third World country are bound to differ in extent. The emphasis in the simultaneous duties of the state towards an individual AIDS patient and to society as a whole will differ from state to state. The First and Third World sectors are differentiated with reference to privatisation, and legal forms are touched upon. PMID:2495398

  18. Lessons Learned From Enhancing Vaccine Pharmacovigilance Activities During PsA-TT Introduction in African Countries, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Viviani, Simonetta; Ouandaogo, Claude-Roger; Keita, Modibo; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Mbakuliyemo, Nehemie; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Sow, Samba O.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The rollout of the group A meningococcal vaccine, PsA-TT, in Africa's meningitis belt countries represented the first introduction of a vaccine specifically designed for this part of the world. During the first year alone, the number of people who received the vaccine through mass vaccination campaigns was several hundredfold higher than that of subjects who participated in the closely monitored clinical trials. Implementation of a system to identify rare but potentially serious vaccine reactions was therefore a high priority in the design and implementation of those campaigns. Methods. National authorities and their technical partners set up effective vaccine pharmacovigilance systems, including conducting active surveillance projects. Results. Implementation of national expert advisory groups to review serious adverse events following immunization in all countries and active monitoring of conditions of interest in 3 early-adopter countries did not identify particular concerns with the safety profile of PsA-TT, which had already provided tremendous public health benefits. Conclusions. Lessons learned from this experience will help to improve preparations for future vaccine introductions in resource-poor settings and capitalize on such efforts to advance vaccine safety systems in the future. PMID:26553675

  19. Life disruption, life continuation: contrasting themes in the lives of African-American elders with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey; Zalenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the need for more information about how urban African-American elders experience advanced heart failure. Participants included 35 African Americans aged 60 and over with advanced heart failure, identified through records from a community hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Four focus groups (n = 13) and 22 individual interviews were conducted. We used thematic analysis to examine qualitative focus groups and interviews. Themes identified included life disruption, which encompassed the sub-themes of living scared, making sense of heart failure, and limiting activities. Resuming life was a contrasting theme involving culturally relevant coping strategies, and included the sub-themes of resiliency, spirituality, and self-care that helped patients regain and maintain a sense of self amid serious illness. Participants faced numerous challenges and invoked a variety of strategies to cope with their illness, and their stories of struggles, hardship, and resilience can serve as a model for others struggling with advanced illness. PMID:22352363

  20. Women's Education and Health Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1990–2015

    PubMed Central

    Bado, Aristide Romaric; Sathiya Susuman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyse trends in the relationship between mother’s educational level and mortality of children under the year of five in Sub-Saharan Africa, from 1990 to 2015. Data and Methods Data used in this study came from different waves of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Sub-Saharan countries. Logistic regression and Buis’s decomposition method were used to explore the effect of mother’s educational level on the mortality of children under five years. Results Although the results of our study in the selected countries show that under-five mortality rates of children born to mothers without formal education are higher than the mortality rates of children of educated mothers, it appears that differences in mortality were reduced over the past two decades. In selected countries for our study, we noticed a significant decline in mortality among children of non-educated mothers compared to the decrease in mortality rates among children of educated mothers during the period of 1990–2010. The results show that the decline in mortality of children under five years was much higher among the children born to mothers who have never received formal education—112 points drop in Malawi, over 80 in Zambia and Zimbabwe, 65 points in Burkina Faso, 56 in Congo, 43 in Namibia, 27 in Guinea, Cameroon, and 22 to 15 in Niger. However, we noted a variation in results among the countries selected for the study—in Burkina Faso (OR = 0.7), in Cameroon (OR = 0.8), in Guinea (OR = 0.8) and Niger (OR = 0.8). It is normally observed that children of mothers with 0–6 years of education are about 20% more likely to survive until their fifth year compared to children of mothers who have not been to school. Conversely, the results did not reveal significant differences between the under-five deaths of children born to non-educated mothers and children of low-level educated mothers in Congo, Malawi and Namibia. Conclusion The decline in under

  1. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Daniel J.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI) on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR) of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: −43.2, −14.7) after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP). At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90) after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25190448

  2. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  3. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  4. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  5. Decentralization of CD4 testing in resource-limited settings: 7 years of experience in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, F; Medina-Moreno, S; Paterniti, A D; Wattleworth, M; Redfield, R R

    2011-05-01

    Improving access to CD4 testing in resource-limited settings can be achieved through both centralized and decentralized testing networks. Decentralized testing models are more suitable for countries where the HIV epidemic affects a large portion of rural populations. Timely access to accurate CD4 results is crucial at the primary level of the health system. For the past 7 years, the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has implemented a flexible and sustainable three-phase model: (1) site assessment and improvement, (2) appropriate technology selection with capacity building through practical training and laboratory mentoring, and (3) quality management system strengthening and monitoring, to support accessibility to reliable CD4 counting at the point of service. CD4 testing capacity was established in 122 of 229 (53%) laboratories supported in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Among those in rural settings, 46% (69/151) had CD4 testing available at site level, with a functioning flow cytometer installed at 28% (8/29) and 50% (61/122) of level 1 and level 2 sites, respectively. To strengthen local capacity, a total of 1,152 laboratory technicians were trained through 188 training sessions provided both on-site and at central locations. The overall quality of CD4 total testing procedure was assessed at 76% (92/121) of the laboratories, with 25% (23/92), 34% (31/92), and 33% (30/92) of them reporting excellent, good, and satisfactory performance. Balancing country-specific factors with the location of the clinic, number of patients, and the expected workload, was crucial in adapting this flexible model for decentralizing CD4 testing. The close collaboration with local governments and private vendors was key to successfully expanding access to CD4 testing within the framework of HIV care and treatment programs and for the sustainability of medical laboratories in resource-limited settings. PMID:21495181

  6. Sexual Behavior, Knowledge and Information Sources of Very Young Adolescents in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Biddlecom, Ann; Guiella, Georges; Singh, Susheela; Zulu, Eliya

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents are a key target group for HIV and pregnancy prevention efforts, yet very little is known about the youngest adolescents: those under age 15. New survey data from 12–14 year olds in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda are used to describe their sexual activity, knowledge about HIV, STIs and pregnancy prevention, and sources of sexual and reproductive health information, including sex education in schools. Results show that very young adolescents are already beginning to be sexually active and many believe their close friends are sexually active. They have high levels of awareness but little in-depth knowledge about pregnancy and HIV prevention. Multiple information sources are used and preferred by very young adolescents. Given their needs for HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention information that is specific and practical and considering that the large majority are attending school in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, school-based sex education is a particularly promising avenue for reaching adolescents under age 15. PMID:18458739

  7. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  8. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  9. Malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among travellers of African ethnicity living in Paris and visiting their country of origin in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pistone, T; Guibert, P; Gay, F; Malvy, D; Ezzedine, K; Receveur, M C; Siriwardana, M; Larouzé, B; Bouchaud, O

    2007-10-01

    An observational prospective cohort study assessed malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among individuals of African ethnicity living in Paris and travelling to their country of origin to visit friends or relatives (VFR). The study compared two groups of VFR who had visited a travel clinic (TC; n=122) or a travel agency (TA; n=69) before departure. Of the 47% of VFR citing malaria as a health concern, 75% knew that malaria is mosquito-borne and that bed nets are an effective preventive measure. Perception of high malaria risk was greater in the TA group (33%) than in the TC group (7%). The availability of a malaria vaccine was mentioned by 35% of VFR, with frequent confusion between yellow fever vaccine and malaria prevention. Twenty-nine percent took adequate chemoprophylaxis with complete adherence, which was higher among the TC group (41%) than the TA group (12%). Effective antivector protection measures used were bed nets (16%), wearing long clothes at night (14%) and air conditioning (8%), with no differences between the study groups except in the use of impregnated bed nets (11% of the TC group and none of the TA group). Media coverage, malaria chemoprophylaxis repayment and cultural adaptation of preventive messages should be improved to reduce the high rate of inadequate malaria prophylaxis in VFR.

  10. Do support groups members disclose less to their partners? The dynamics of HIV disclosure in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to curtail the HIV epidemic in Africa have emphasised preventing sexual transmission to partners through antiretroviral therapy. A component of current strategies is disclosure to partners, thus understanding its motivations will help maximise results. This study examines the rates, dynamics and consequences of partner disclosure in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, with special attention to the role of support groups and stigma in disclosure. Methods The study employs mixed methods, including a cross-sectional client survey of counselling and testing services, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive individuals in stable partnerships in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, recruited at healthcare facilities offering HIV testing. Results Rates of disclosure to partners varied between countries (32.7% – 92.7%). The lowest rate was reported in Malawi. Reasons for disclosure included preventing the transmission of HIV, the need for care, and upholding the integrity of the relationship. Fear of stigma was an important reason for non-disclosure. Women reported experiencing more negative reactions when disclosing to partners. Disclosure was positively associated with living in urban areas, higher education levels, and being male, while being negatively associated with membership to support groups. Conclusions Understanding of reasons for disclosure and recognition of the role of support groups in the process can help improve current prevention efforts, that increasingly focus on treatment as prevention as a way to halt new infections. Support groups can help spread secondary prevention messages, by explaining to their members that antiretroviral treatment has benefits for HIV positive individuals and their partners. Home-based testing can further facilitate partner disclosure, as couples can test together and be counselled jointly. PMID:23773542

  11. Use of a Comprehensive HIV Care Cascade for Evaluating HIV Program Performance: Findings From 4 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Lamb, Matthew R.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Elul, Batya; Sahabo, Ruben; Hawken, Mark P.; Mussa, Antonio; Zwede, Ayele; Justman, Jessica; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional HIV treatment cascade has been noted to have limitations. A proposed comprehensive HIV care cascade that uses cohort methodology offers additional information as it accounts for all patients. Using data from 4 countries, we compare patient outcomes using both approaches. Methods Data from 390,603 HIV-infected adults (>15 years) enrolled at 217 facilities in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania from 2005 to 2011 were included. Outcomes of all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment were categorized as optimal, suboptimal, or poor. Optimal outcomes included retention in care, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and documented transfer. Suboptimal outcomes included retention in care without ART initiation among eligible patients or those without eligibility data. Poor outcomes included loss to follow-up and death. Results The comprehensive HIV care cascade demonstrated that at 3, 6 and 12 months, 58%, 51%, and 49% of patients had optimal outcomes; 22%, 12%, and 7% had suboptimal outcomes, and 20%, 37% and 44% had poor outcomes. Of all patients enrolled in care, 56% were retained in care at 12 months after enrollment. In comparison, the traditional HIV treatment cascade found 89% of patients enrolled in HIV care were assessed for ART eligibility, of whom 48% were determined to be ART-eligible with 70% initiating ART, and 78% of those initiated on ART retained at 12 months. Conclusions The comprehensive HIV care cascade follows outcomes of all patients, including pre-ART patients, who enroll in HIV care over time and uses quality of care parameters for categorizing outcomes. The comprehensive HIV care cascade provides complementary information to that of the traditional HIV treatment cascade and is a valuable tool for monitoring HIV program performance. PMID:26375466

  12. Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an

  13. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

  14. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  15. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Putnick, Diane L; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-04-15

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  16. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination in Two East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) that contribute to another 15–30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda). Methods and Findings The analysis was performed using a natural history disease simulation model of HPV and cervical cancer. The mathematical model simulates individual women from an early age and tracks health events and resource use as they transition through clinically-relevant health states over their lifetime. Epidemiological data on HPV prevalence and cancer incidence were used to adapt the model to Kenya and Uganda. Health benefit, or effectiveness, from HPV vaccination was measured in terms of life expectancy, and costs were measured in international dollars (I$). The incremental cost of the 9-valent vaccine included the added cost of the vaccine counterbalanced by costs averted from additional cancer cases prevented. All future costs and health benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 3% in the base case analysis. We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate how infection with multiple HPV types, unidentifiable HPV types in cancer cases, and cross-protection against non-vaccine types could affect the potential cost range of the 9-valent vaccine. In the base case analysis in Kenya, we found that vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine was very cost-effective (i.e., had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below per-capita GDP), compared to the current vaccines provided the added cost of the 9-valent vaccine did not exceed I$9.7 per

  17. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or

  18. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Ball, Ray L; Brown, Janine L

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reproductive acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and may contribute to the non-self-sustainability of the captive population in North America. It is a common cause of infertility in women and other mammals and can be treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. The objectives of this study were to assess prolactin responses to cabergoline treatment in hyperprolactinemic, acyclic African elephants and to determine the subsequent impact on ovarian cyclic activity. Five elephants, diagnosed as hyperprolactinemic (>11 ng/ml prolactin) and acyclic (maintenance of baseline progestagens for at least 1 yr), were treated with 1-2 mg cabergoline orally twice weekly for 16-82 wk. Cabergoline reduced (P < 0.05) serum prolactin concentrations during the treatment period compared to pretreatment levels in four of five elephants (11.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4 ng/ml; 20.3 +/- 16.7 vs. 7.9 +/- 9.8 ng/ml; 26.4 +/- 15.0 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; 42.2 +/- 22.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 8.9 ng/ml). However, none of the females resumed ovarian cyclicity based on serum progestagen analyses up to 1 yr posttreatment. In addition, within 1 to 6 wk after cessation of oral cabergoline, serum prolactin concentrations returned to concentrations that were as high as or higher than before treatment (P < 0.05). One elephant that exhibited the highest pretreatment prolactin concentration (75.2 +/- 10.5 ng/ml) did not respond to cabergoline and maintained elevated levels throughout the study. Thus, oral cabergoline administration reduced prolactin concentrations in elephants with hyperprolactinemia, but there was no resumption of ovarian cyclicity, and a significant prolactin rebound effect was observed. It is possible that higher doses or longer treatment intervals may be required for cabergoline treatment to result in permanent suppression of prolactin secretion and to mitigate associated ovarian cycle problems.

  19. The importance for the MDG4 and MDG5 of addressing reproductive health issues during the second decade of life: review and analysis from times series data of 51 African countries.

    PubMed

    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-06-01

    Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues are central to efforts for reducing childhood and maternal mortality embedded in MDG4 and MDG5. This paper reviews these issues in Africa and uses statistical methods for measuring changes to analyze recent and comparable time series data from 51 African countries. The contribution of adolescent fertility to total fertility and mortality remains quite high. Delayed marriage is occurring concomitantly with postponement of sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Six African countries are likely to achieve the MGD4 and five are likely to reach the target for the MDG5; the majority of sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of achieving these goals, not even by 2100 for many at current rates of change in progress indicators. Implementing ground-breaking nationally owned mortality-reduction schemes covering preconceptional and interconceptional periods and well-functioning comprehensive health-care system secured by sustained commitments and financial investments in health and social services are urgently needed, in order to repeal trends of further undoing successes achieved so far or slowing recent progress, thus hastening the pace of child and maternal mortality decline. PMID:22590890

  20. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  1. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    PubMed

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships. PMID:26551532

  2. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  3. Cooking and Season as Risk Factors for Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in African Children: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Country Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Hannes; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use. Methods We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437), 9 (n = 23,139) and 6 countries (n = 14,561) respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels. Results Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001), with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034). During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71), coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97), wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51) and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35). In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95), coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72) and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66) but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66). Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070) determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50). Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation. Conclusions We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season. PMID:26042802

  4. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  5. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  6. Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: Implication for the continuation of the East African Rift System in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in Southern Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the

  7. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process.

  8. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Robert P; Scholz, Christopher A; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Brown, Erik T; Ivory, Sarah J; Johnson, Thomas C; Deino, Alan L; Reinthal, Peter N; McGlue, Michael M; Blome, Margaret W

    2015-12-22

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. PMID:26644580

  9. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Robert P; Scholz, Christopher A; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Brown, Erik T; Ivory, Sarah J; Johnson, Thomas C; Deino, Alan L; Reinthal, Peter N; McGlue, Michael M; Blome, Margaret W

    2015-12-22

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  10. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9–15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world’s largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. PMID:26644580

  11. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  12. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  13. Continuous Assessment in Schools: Teachers' Bitter Pill to Swallow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2011-01-01

    This paper articulates debates surrounding the concept of Continuous Assessment (CA) in South African schools. Although the research was focused on schools in this democratic country, it became evident from the findings that assessment is still a challenge besetting both General Education and Training (GET)and Further Education and Training Bands…

  14. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  15. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  16. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  17. Attitudes to malaria, traditional practices and bednets (mosquito nets) as vector control measures: a comparative study in five west African countries.

    PubMed

    Aikins, M K; Pickering, H; Greenwood, B M

    1994-04-01

    Five West African communities were visited to assess the knowledge of the cause of malaria and to document traditional ways of treating and preventing the infection. Knowledge of the cause of malaria was low in the five communities visited. People were more concerned about mosquitoes being a nuisance than a cause of the infection. Various herbs were used as mosquito repellents. Malaria was treated by a number of traditional practices, including herbal remedies. Bednets were used to a varying extent, from 44% Ghana to 86% Gambia, in each community to protect against mosquito bites but also for other purposes such as privacy, decoration and protection from roof debris dropping on the bed.

  18. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton–Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K.; Counihan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  19. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  20. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  1. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  2. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  3. A first-language-first multilingual model to meet the quality imperative in formal basic education in three `francophone' West African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikièma, Norbert

    2011-12-01

    This paper documents the new trend towards a first-language-first multilingual model in formal education in three former French colonies of West Africa, namely Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It compares the sociolinguistic situations, the conditions of the development of multilingual education and the achievements of mother-tongue-medium education in all three countries. The evidence is that, contrary to common discourse in francophonie, a strong first-language-first model in formal education is the best guarantee of a good mastery of French and, more generally, of quality education in francophone countries.

  4. [Aneamia secondary to geophagia in a rich country? A case report].

    PubMed

    Yersin, S; Favrat, B; Bodenmann, P; Cheseaux, M

    2012-03-14

    Geophagia, eating of earth, is a relative frequent practice in several countries and especially in the African and South American mainlands. In some cases, migrant people continue this practice in the host country. Geophagia has some positive effects, presumed or real, and several harmful effects with significant health impacts. We relate the history of young patient of Cameroonian origin who consults for chonic fatigue, abdominal pain and menorrhagia. Laboratory tests show a severe aneamia with iron deficiency.

  5. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  6. Promoting North-South partnership in space data use and applications: Case study - East African countries space programs/projects new- concepts in document management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlimandago, S.

    This research paper have gone out with very simple and easy (several) new concepts in document management for space projects and programs which can be applied anywhere both in the developing and developed countries. These several new concepts are and have been applied in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda and found out to bear very good results using simple procedures. The intergral project based its documentation management approach from the outset on electronic document sharing and archiving. The main objective of having new concepts was to provide a faster and wider availability of the most current space information to all parties rather than creating a paperless office. Implementation of the new concepts approach required the capturing of documents in an appropriate and simple electronic format at source establishing new procedures for project wide information sharing and the deployment of a new generation of simple procedure - WEB - based tools. Key success factors were the early adoption of Internet technologies and simple procedures for improved information flow new concepts which can be applied anywhere both in the developed and the developing countries.

  7. Designing an Effective Sexuality Education Curriculum for Schools: Lessons Gleaned from the South(ern) African Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lesley; Rolleri, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education forms part of the national school curricula of most sub-Saharan African countries, yet risk-related sexual behaviour among young people continues to fuel the HIV pandemic in this part of the world. One of the arguments put forward to explain why sexuality education seems to have had little impact on sexual risk-taking is that…

  8. What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS.

  9. What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:24345343

  10. Decline of breast-feeding among New York urban poor linked to sources of information on infant feeding practices: a lesson for African countries.

    PubMed

    Isenalumhe, T E

    1984-01-01

    Using a structured interview schedule, the relationship between infant feeding practices and sources of information on infant feeding was evaluated. Subjects of the study were 2 matched groups of breast feeding and non-breast feeding mothers of low socioeconomic status in New York City. It was found that non-breast feeding mothers received significantly more information (p 0.01) from the baby food industry, physicians, and nurses than breast feeding mothers. By contrast, breast feeders received significantly more information (p 0.03) from relatives, friends, and organizations that promote breast feeding than did the non-breast feeders. Over 80% of educational materials on infant feeding, supplied freely to mothers attending ante- and postnatal clinics, were produced by different infant food industries compared with only 17% of such materials produced by the professionals; the materials produced by infant food industries were essentially promotional of the respective company's products with a high potential for discouraging breast feeding. It is suggested that health workers in developing countries should produce and utilize educational materials on infant feeding practices relevant to their respective communities instead of relying on the supply of these materials by baby food manufactures.

  11. Short communication: Strengthening sub-national communicable disease surveillance in a remote Pacific Island country by adapting a successful African outbreak surveillance model.

    PubMed

    Nelesone, Tekaai; Durrheim, David N; Speare, Richard; Kiedrzynski, Tom; Melrose, Wayne D

    2006-01-01

    Successful communicable disease surveillance depends on effective bidirectional information flow between clinicians at the periphery and communicable disease control units at regional, national and global levels. Resource-poor countries often struggle to establish and maintain the crucial link with the periphery. A simple syndrome-based outbreak surveillance system initially developed and evaluated in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa was adapted for the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu. Eight syndromes were identified for surveillance: acute flaccid paralysis (poliomyelitis), profuse watery diarrhoea (cholera), diarrhoea outbreak, dysentery outbreak, febrile disease with abdominal symptoms and headache (typhoid), febrile disease with generalized non-blistering rash (measles), febrile disease with intense headache and/or neck stiffness with or without haemorrhagic rash (meningococcal meningitis), and outbreaks of other febrile diseases of unknown origin. A user-oriented manual, the Tuvalu Outbreak Manual (http://www.wepi.org/books/tom/), was developed to support introduction of the surveillance system. Nurses working in seven outer island clinics and the hospital outpatient department on the main island rapidly report suspected outbreaks and submit weekly zero-reports to the central communicable disease control unit. An evaluation of the system after 12 months indicated that the Outbreak Manual was regarded as very useful by clinic nurses, and there was early evidence of improved surveillance and response to the disease syndromes under surveillance. PMID:16398751

  12. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Speizer, I S

    2012-01-01

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, multivariate analyses examined the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. In the study countries, there were between 521 and 367 communities included in the analysis. Youth who approved of spouse abuse were more likely to have sexually debuted at each age. In Kenya, youth from communities with high female spouse abuse tolerance were more likely to have initiated sex at each age. In Malawi and Zimbabwe, youth from high tolerance communities were less likely to have sexually debuted at each age or to have had premarital sex; the same effect on premarital sex was found for men's tolerance in Kenya and Tanzania. Programs are needed to reduce violence risk and increase youth negotiating power and delayed sexual debut, with the objective of reducing young people's risk of negative outcomes.

  13. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore women’s perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. Methods The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Results Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. Conclusions IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative. PMID:25104971

  14. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  15. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano J.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women’s overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Methods Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) data (2006–2007) from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=6,305), Swaziland (n=2,786), and Zambia (n=4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. Results OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women’s caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). Conclusions OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers’ overweight status in Namibia. PMID:25630405

  16. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Masters in Public Health (MPH) programme with a focus on health workforce development by four academic institutions from East and Southern Africa and the building of a joint teaching platform. Methods Data were obtained through interviews and group discussions with stakeholders, direct and participant observations, and reviews of publications and project documents. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Case description The institutions developed and collaboratively implemented a ‘Masters Degree programme with a focus on health workforce development’. It was geared towards strengthening the leadership capacity of Health ministries to develop expertise in health human resources (HRH) planning and management, and simultaneously build capacity of faculty in curriculum development and innovative educational practices to teach health workforce development. The initiative was configured to facilitate sharing of experience and resources. Discussion The implementation of this initiative has been complex, straddling multiple and changing contexts, actors and agendas. Some of these are common to postgraduate programmes with working learners, while others are unique to this particular partnership, such as weak institutional capacity to champion and embed new programmes and approaches to teaching. Conclusions The partnership, despite significant inherent challenges, has potential for providing real opportunities for building the field and community of practice, and strengthening the

  17. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  18. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  19. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  20. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  1. UK and Twenty Comparable Countries GDP-Expenditure-on-Health 1980-2013: The Historic and Continued Low Priority of UK Health-Related Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Andrew J.E.; Pritchard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that for a considerable period the United Kingdom has spent proportionally less of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health-related services than almost any other comparable country. Average European spending on health (as a % of GDP) in the period 1980 to 2013 has been 19% higher than the United Kingdom, indicating that comparable countries give far greater fiscal priority to its health services, irrespective of its actual fiscal value or configuration. While the UK National Health Service (NHS) is a comparatively lean healthcare system, it is often regarded to be at a ‘crisis’ point on account of low levels of funding. Indeed, many state that currently the NHS has a sizeable funding gap, in part due to its recently reduced GDP devoted to health but mainly the challenges around increases in longevity, expectation and new medical costs. The right level of health funding is a political value judgement. As the data in this paper outline, if the UK ‘afforded’ the same proportional level of funding as the mean average European country, total expenditure would currently increase by one-fifth.

  2. Trends in the rate of emergency room admissions for preventable cardiovascular conditions among african american men and women over the past decade. Continuation of negative trends.

    PubMed

    Davis; Hughes; Lui

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this retrospective analysis was to compare secular changes in the rate of emergency room admissions (per 100,000) for selected acknowledged preventable cardiovascular conditions among African Americans (AA) men and women aged >/=21 from 1991-1998, and rate of change for Caucasian (Cau), Hispanic (Hisp), and Asian (Asi) men and women aged >/=21; conditions included angina, congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes, and hypertension.METHODS: Results are derived from calendar-year California hospital data based on a selection of specified ICD-9 codes that correspond to the principal diagnosis for admission. The combined study sample size included a total of 21,016 individuals who were admitted to a hospital via the ER. Separate standardized and age-adjusted Poisson regression models were employed for each condition to assess race and time main effects and race x time interaction terms (P

  3. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  4. A single-center 7-year experience with end-stage renal disease care in Nigeria-a surrogate for the poor state of ESRD care in Nigeria and other sub-saharan african countries: advocacy for a global fund for ESRD care program in sub-saharan african countries.

    PubMed

    Alasia, Datonye Dennis; Emem-Chioma, Pedro; Wokoma, Friday Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2 ± 7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1%) of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week) per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40%) patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative.

  5. A Single-Center 7-Year Experience with End-Stage Renal Disease Care in Nigeria—A Surrogate for the Poor State of ESRD Care in Nigeria and Other Sub-Saharan African Countries: Advocacy for a Global Fund for ESRD Care Program in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Alasia, Datonye Dennis; Emem-Chioma, Pedro; Wokoma, Friday Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2 ± 7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1%) of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week) per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40%) patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative. PMID:22811906

  6. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  7. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  8. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks. PMID:26642172

  9. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks.

  10. Perpetuating the cycle of violence in South African low-income communities: attraction to violence in young men exposed to continuous threat

    PubMed Central

    Hinsberger, Martina; Sommer, Jessica; Kaminer, Debra; Holtzhausen, Leon; Weierstall, Roland; Seedat, Soraya; Madikane, Solomon; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Life in the low-income urban communities of South Africa is imprinted by a cycle of violence in which young males predominantly are in the roles of both victim and perpetrator. There is some evidence that adolescents who show an attraction to cruelty can display high levels of psychosocial functioning despite the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, the role of appetitive aggression in the context of ongoing threats and daily hassles is not yet fully understood. Objective In this study, we examine the role of attraction to violence in areas of continuous traumatic stress exposure and its effect on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and violence perpetration. Method A sample of 290 young males from two low-income Cape Town communities was surveyed. We assessed appetitive aggression with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS), PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview, the number of witnessed and self-experienced traumatic event types with an adaptation of the Child Exposure to Community Violence questionnaire, and the number of perpetrated violence event types with an adapted offence checklist from the AAS. Results Appetitive aggression scores were predicted by witnessed as well as self-experienced traumatic events. Higher appetitive aggression scores resulted in higher levels of PTSD severity and perpetrated violence. Conclusions Young males living in the low-income areas of South Africa may develop an attraction to cruelty in response to exposure to violence. Their willingness to fight in turn can increase the likelihood of continued violent behaviour. In contrast to previous research from postconflict areas, appetitive aggression and engagement in violence do not prevent the development of PTSD, but are instead associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress. PTSD symptoms such as avoidance and hyperarousal, as well as an attraction to cruelty and thus the willingness to fight, might support survival in areas of

  11. 3 CFR 8468 - Proclamation 8468 of December 23, 2009. To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... articles imported from “lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries.” 4. In Proclamation... section 112(c) of the AGOA, Mauritania is a lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. (4... of lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have...

  12. Differentiated Quality Assurance for the African Virtual University's Teacher Education Qualification in Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, A.

    2008-01-01

    For the African Virtual University and its consortium of African universities the implementation of quality promoting initiatives are not without challenges and scepticisms. To be discussed in this article is the case of a teacher education qualification in ten different African countries. Seven countries were sampled and visited in 2006 with the…

  13. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  14. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  15. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  16. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  17. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  18. Adult Illiteracy: The Root of African Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogwu, C. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    All African Nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. UNDP Human Development Index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. This paper uses Nigeria, a typical…

  19. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  20. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  1. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  2. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. The Making of the Second Diaspora: On the Recent African Immigrant Community in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.

    2002-01-01

    Documents the experiences of recent African immigrants using data from the 1990 U.S. Census. Results indicate that emigration from Africa to the United States is a recent phenomenon, the African immigrant community is not very large, and eight main countries provide the bulk of African immigrants. Significant numbers of African immigrants have…

  5. African swine fever: how can global spread be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Wieland, Barbara; de Glanville, William; Jori, Ferran; Rowlands, Rebecca; Vosloo, Wilna; Roger, Francois; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Dixon, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs with mortality rates approaching 100 per cent. It causes major economic losses, threatens food security and limits pig production in affected countries. ASF is caused by a large DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine against ASFV and this limits the options for disease control. ASF has been confined mainly to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is maintained in a sylvatic cycle and/or among domestic pigs. Wildlife hosts include wild suids and arthropod vectors. The relatively small numbers of incursions to other continents have proven to be very difficult to eradicate. Thus, ASF remained endemic in the Iberian peninsula until the mid-1990s following its introductions in 1957 and 1960 and the disease has remained endemic in Sardinia since its introduction in 1982. ASF has continued to spread within Africa to previously uninfected countries, including recently the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar and Mauritius. Given the continued occurrence of ASF in sub-Saharan Africa and increasing global movements of people and products, it is not surprising that further transcontinental transmission has occurred. The introduction of ASF to Georgia in the Caucasus in 2007 and dissemination to neighbouring countries emphasizes the global threat posed by ASF and further increases the risks to other countries. We review the mechanisms by which ASFV is maintained within wildlife and domestic pig populations and how it can be transmitted. We then consider the risks for global spread of ASFV and discuss possibilities of how disease can be prevented. PMID:19687038

  6. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  7. Towards Producing Black Nobel Laureates Affiliated with ``African Universities''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenneth, Jude

    While Africa has produced a handful Nobel laureate in literature and peace, it has continued to shy away from producing any in the other categories. The reason is not farfetched; our university system is not up to standard. It is saddening that in this century, African countries place emphasis on certificates and not on knowledge. This has made the continent produce students that lack the intellectual capability, experimental ability, fundamental training, creativity, and motivation to excel except they get a foreign training. It is this backdrop that precipitated the research into the methods of teaching and research in universities across Africa. The study is designed to identify the problems and proffer solution to them. Two important questions immediately come to mind. (1) What factors account for the difficulty in producing Nobel laureates affiliated with African universities? (2) What strategies could be adopted to improve teaching and research in African universities? Several factors were investigated which revolve around funding, the competence of the lecturers, quality of students admitted, attitude of the students, parents and government. Nigerian universities were investigated and important deductions were made. During the study an inquiry was made on the method of instruction at various universities, from result obtained, the study therefore concluded that adequate funding, the presence of erudite scholars and brilliant minds will produce future Nobel laureate affiliated with the continent. The study therefore recommended admission and employment of only students and lecturers who have got a thing for academics into the universities and adequate funding of universities and research centres.

  8. Racial Disparities in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and its Subtypes in the African Diaspora: A New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Trudy R; Osei, Kwame

    2016-03-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has extended to the developing countries including Sub-Sahara Africa. In this context, blacks with type 2 diabetes in the African Diaspora continue to manifest 1.5-2 times higher prevalent rates than in their white counterparts. Previous studies have demonstrated that blacks with and without type 2 diabetes have alterations in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin clearance as well as hepatic glucose dysregulation when compared to whites. In addition, non-diabetic blacks in the African Diaspora manifest multiple metabolic mediators that predict type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These pathogenic modifiers include differences in subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress burden, and adipocytokines in blacks in the African Diaspora prior to clinical diagnosis. Consequently, blacks in the African Diaspora manifest subtypes of type 2 diabetes, including ketosis-prone diabetes and J type diabetes. Given the diversity of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora, we hypothesize that blacks manifest multiple early pathogenic defects prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These metabolic alterations have strong genetic component, which appears to play pivotal and primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. However, environmental factors must also be considered as major contributors to the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. These multiple alterations should be targets for early prevention of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora. PMID:26896111

  9. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  10. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  11. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  12. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  13. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  14. The African Institutions Initiative: Insights from the First Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gavin; Robin, Enora; Marjanovic, Sonja; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Hanlin, Rebecca; Kryl, David; Muchova, Lucia; Yaqub, Ohid; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Wellcome Trust launched a research capacity strengthening programme known as the "African Institutions Initiative" (AII). The AII is innovative in its methods and organization. The Initiative funded networked consortia (7 consortia involving 54 institutions in 18 African countries, and Northern partners). RAND Europe was…

  15. New Liberian President Seeks to Rehabilitate Country's Education System: Finding Teachers Still Country's Main Hurdle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    Troubled by the difficulties of training teachers in Liberia, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf says she hopes to attract them from U.S. colleges and universities. Sirleaf envisions the Liberian Education Trust as a way to help repair a country devastated by two civil wars. The trust seeks to raise money so that the West African country can build 50…

  16. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  17. 'Rise 'n' Shine: Catholic Education and the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed.

    African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an…

  18. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  19. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  20. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  1. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  2. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  3. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D; Barnes, Namdi W

    2007-01-01

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans' continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement of contextual factors and functional neuroscience, an opportunity now exists to cleave together a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which discrimination has harmful effects on health. In this article, we review emerging work that locates the cause of race-based health disparities in the external effects of the contextual social space on the internal world of brain functioning and physiologic response. These approaches reflect the growing interdisciplinary nature of psychology in general, and the field of race relations in particular.

  4. Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Barnes, Namdi W.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans’ continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement of contextual factors and functional neuroscience, an opportunity now exists to cleave together a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which discrimination has harmful effects on health. In this article, we review emerging work that locates the cause of race-based health disparities in the external effects of the contextual social space on the internal world of brain functioning and physiologic response. These approaches reflect the growing interdisciplinary nature of psychology in general, and the field of race relations in particular. PMID:16953796

  5. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  6. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  7. African Traditional Pedagogy in a Modern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Milton N.; Coulibaly, Medjomo

    1985-01-01

    This study identified pedagogical principles of African traditional education and then tested for their use today in schools located in rural villages of the Ivory Coast. Results showed that the 10 major principles identified are employed today in teaching and learning in that country. (RM)

  8. In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic…

  9. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  10. English as a Second Language: An Educational Overview for Multicultural and Bilingual West African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubadigbo, Fidelis N.

    This paper describes cultural and educational characteristics of West African countries that may have implications for West Africans studying and learning English in the United States. Countries discussed include Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Benin, Niger, Gambia, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali. The structures of the systems of elementary,…

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  12. Cardiometabolic Health in African Immigrants to the United States: A Call to Re-examine Research on African-descent populations.

    PubMed

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Agyemang, Charles; Sumner, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, Africans in Sub-Saharan Africa had lower rates of cardiometabolic disease than Africans who migrated. However, in the 21st century, beyond infectious diseases, the triple epidemics of obesity, diabetes and hypertension have taken hold in Africa. Therefore, Africans are acquiring these chronic diseases at different rates and different intensity prior to migration. To ensure optimal care and health outcomes, the United States practice of grouping all African-descent populations into the "Black/African American" category without regard to country of origin masks socioeconomic and cultural differences and needs re-evaluation. Overall, research on African-descent populations would benefit from a shift from a racial to an ethnic perspective. To demonstrate the value of disaggregating data on African-descent populations, the epidemiologic transition, social, economic, and health characteristics of African immigrants are presented.

  13. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  14. Country Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    The reports from five countries participating at a seminar on teacher training in environmental education for Asia are compiled in this document. The objectives of the seminar were: (1) to familiarize teacher educators with the contents of the series of teacher training modules in environmental education prepared by the International Environmental…

  15. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  16. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  17. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  18. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  19. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  20. The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network.

    PubMed

    Mukanga, David; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Wurapa, Frederick; Binka, Fred; Serwada, David; Bazeyo, William; Pariyo, George; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gitta, Sheba; Chungong, Stella; Trostle, Murray; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to contain the frequently devastating epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa launched the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in an effort to strengthen surveillance and response. However, 36 sub-Saharan African countries have been described as experiencing a human resource crisis by the WHO. Given this human resource situation, the challenge remains for these countries to achieve, among others, the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper describes the process through which the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) was developed, as well as how AFENET has contributed to addressing the public health workforce crisis, and the development of human resource capacity to implement IDSR in Africa. AFENET was established between 2005 and 2006 as a network of Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) and Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in Africa. This resulted from an expressed need to develop a network that would advocate for the unique needs of African FETPs and FELTPs, provide service to its membership, and through which programs could develop joint projects to address the public health needs of their countries. A total of eight new programs have been developed in sub-Saharan Africa since 2006. Programs established after 2006 represent over 70% of current FETP and FELTP enrolment in Africa. In addition to growth in membership and programs, AFENET has recorded significant growth in external partnerships. Beginning with USAID, CDC and WHO in 2004-2006, a total of at least 26 partners have been added by 2011. Drawing from lessons learnt, AFENET is now a resource that can be relied upon to expand public health capacity in Africa in an efficient and practical manner. National, regional and global health actors can leverage it to meet health-related targets at all levels. The AFENET story is one that continues to be driven

  1. Establishing an Online Continuing and Professional Development Library for Nurses and Midwives in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Kristen N; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Web site using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region.

  2. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac(™) ) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere.

  3. Constraining the African pole of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Laike M.

    1992-08-01

    In the absence of well defined transform faults in the East African rift system for constraining the plate kinematic reconstruction, the pole of relative motion for the African (Nubian) and Somalian plates has been determined from residual motion. If Africa and Somalia are to continue to drift apart along the East African rift system (which would then evolve into a series of ridges offset by transform faults) then incipient transform faults that may reflect the direction of relative motion should already be in place along the East African rift system. The incipient transforms along the East African rift system are characterized by shear zones, such as the Zambezi shear zone in the south and the Aswa and Hamer shear zones in the north. Some of these shear zones have been associated with recent strike-slip faulting in the NW-SE direction during periods of earthquakes. Provided that these, consistently NW-SE oriented, strike-slip movements in the shear zones give the direction of relative motion of the adjacent plates, then they can be used to constrain the position of the Africa-Somalia Euler pole. Due to the fact that identifying transform faults in the East African rift system is difficult and because the genesis of transform faults characterizing a plate boundary at an inception stage is not well known, the discussion here is limited to the northern segment of the East African rift system where shear zones are better characterized by the existing geophysical data. The characterizing features vary with latitude, indicating the complexity of the problem of the genesis of transform faults. I believe, however, that the relatively well defined intra-continental transform fault in the northern East African rift system, which is characterized by strike-slip faulting and earthquakes, constrains the pole of relative motion for the African and Somalian plates to a position near 1.5°S and 29.0°E.

  4. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  5. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  6. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  7. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  8. Factors Associated with Partnership Experiences, Attitudes, and Perceptions: A Comparative Case Study of Two African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiteng Kot, Felly

    2011-01-01

    International partnerships have become an increasingly important trend in African higher education. The creation of partnerships with African universities has been on the rise in the last few years. Different factors (U.S., European, and African initiatives) suggest this trend will continue to increase. This study draws from a survey of a random…

  9. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  10. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  11. HIV health crisis and African Americans: a cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Plowden, K; Miller, J L; James, T

    2000-01-01

    While incidence of new HIV infections have decreased in the overall population, the numbers continue to rise in African-Americans creating a serious health emergency. Studies seem to imply that part of the rise is due to HIV beliefs and high risk behaviors among African Americans. Due to certain societal factors, African Americans appear to be at greater risk for contracting the virus. This article will examine these critical social factors and their impact on this current state of emergency in the African American community using Leininger's theory of Culture Care and Universality. Implications for health providers are also addressed. PMID:11760310

  12. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  13. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  14. [A fetal extraction device used in under-equipped countries: the obstetrical vacuum extractor. Results of 393 vacuum extractions in the Maternity Hospital in Sélestat. (Reflections on the use of this device in African practice)].

    PubMed

    Pambou, O; Wurch, T; Weygandt, J M; Treisser, A

    1991-01-01

    The level of mortality and feto-maternal morbidity in under-equipped countries is frightening. It is important to find answers. Among these: the obstetrical Ventouse is an instrument that can be used for extracting the fetus without too much difficulty. It is relatively easy to learn and to apply as compared with forceps (so long as the mechanism by which it is used is understood). The conditions under which it can be used are well defined at present: term pregnancy, the woman must be in labour, fetal membranes must be ruptured, the cervix must be completely dilated, presentation must be cephalic and the head must be engaged. 393 Ventouse extractions were carried out between 1982 and 1988 at the Maternity Hospital of Selastat and this resulted in delivery of 393 infants in good health. No maternal or fetal mortality occurred in the series. The maternal morbidity was low at 0.76% and the fetal morbidity was only 4.7%. In view of our experience, we believe that the tendency for black women to have android pelves makes it preferable to use the Ventouse as against the forceps because it has several advantages. In view of the literature and of their practice, the authors advise that the obstetric Ventouse should be used in under-equipped countries where conditions of practice are often precarious and the team poorly qualified. This will reduce the mortality and morbidity due to delivery. Pregnant women are insufficiently educated. The quality of health personnel is inadequate. The health services are inadequate for the needs of the population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2019713

  15. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  16. Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  17. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  18. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  19. A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Lunde, Darrin P.; Ejotre, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid “Glauconycteris” superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of “Glauconycteris” superba suggests that “Glauconycteris” superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for Glauconycteris cf. poensis (South Sudan) and Glauconycteris curryae (Gabon) are also reported. PMID:23805046

  20. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to monitor…

  2. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  3. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  4. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

  5. African return migration: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V

    1983-01-01

    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  6. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  7. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  8. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  9. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  10. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  11. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  12. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  13. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  14. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  15. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  16. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  17. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  18. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries. PMID:21184978

  19. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  20. HIV/AIDS information by African companies: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Barako, Dulacha G; Taplin, Ross H; Brown, Alistair M

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Disclosures (HIV/AIDSD) in online annual reports by 200 listed companies from 10 African countries for the year ending 2006. Descriptive statistics reveal a very low level of overall HIV/AIDSD practices with a mean of 6 per cent disclosure, with half (100 out of 200) of the African companies making no disclosures at all. Logistic regression analysis reveals that company size and country are highly significant predictors of any disclosure of HIV/AIDS in annual reports. Profitability is also statistically significantly associated with the extent of disclosure.

  1. A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Leeya F.; Nelson, Brett D.; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn

    2016-01-01

    African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population’s high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654

  2. A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Leeya F; Nelson, Brett D; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn

    2016-01-01

    African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population's high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654

  3. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  4. Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2010-02-01

    Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees ( Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees ( Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.

  5. Opportunity Lost: The Story of African-American Achievement in California, 2010. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    California touts some of the highest educational standards in the country. Yet when it comes to the state's African-American students, these standards have proved to be little more than a mirage, forever out of reach. This report analyzes the most recent data on African-American achievement and opportunity gaps from the elementary grades through…

  6. Spousal Concordance in Attitudes toward Violence and Reported Physical Abuse in African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alio, Amina P.; Clayton, Heather B.; Garba, Madeleine; Mbah, Alfred K.; Daley, Ellen; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the potential association between African couples' concordance on attitudes toward violence (ATV) and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Analyses included 13,837 couples from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2007, from six African countries. Concordance on ATV was defined as both spouses…

  7. Gender and Racial Experiences in Executive School Leadership: Perceptions of African American Female Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Daveda Jean

    2009-01-01

    There is a leadership crisis that exists in our schools creating an urgent need for effective leadership. Even though African American women have made slight gains, throughout the country people of color and women are dramatically underrepresented in the superintendency. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to provide African American…

  8. Experiences of Chinese International Students Learning English at South African Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayliff, D.; Wang, G.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to provide insight into the experiences of Chinese international students in some South African tertiary institutions. The study investigates their successes and failures in endeavouring to learn English and the culture shock and "learning shock" they endure when registering to study in an African country with an essentially…

  9. Suicide Ideation and Psychosocial Distress in Sub-Saharan African Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an association between psychosocial distress, health-risk behaviors and 12-month suicidal ideation among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Methods: Subjects included a cross-national sample of adolescents (N25,568) representing 7 African countries who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey…

  10. Psychology Brewed in an African Pot: Indigenous Philosophies and the Quest for Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandawe, Chiwoza R.

    2005-01-01

    Higher education has often been targeted for criticism with regard to its lack of relevance when seeking to address the harsh realities of poor health, poverty and conflict in African countries. African universities have been seen as producing Western-influenced graduates who become an elite out of touch with their own indigenous worldview. In…

  11. Pedagogy of the Dispersed: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the African Diaspora Phenomenon through the Human and Social Capital Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles; Shizha, Edward

    2015-01-01

    With its origin in Greek where "diaspora" as a noun means "a dispersion" or as a verb means to "scatter about", the term is used in this paper to refer to the dispersion or scattering of Africans from their original African homeland and now live in countries other than their own. Indeed some Africans have dispersed…

  12. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  13. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  14. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  15. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activity in Caribbean states, as a drug-transit zone for illegal substances, is of deep concern to the... in Europe. African leaders understand that growing criminal enterprises in their countries negatively... criminal activities in African nations flow back to the Western Hemisphere, bolstering...

  16. Drivers of Environmental Institutional Dynamics in Decentralized African Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils

    2015-12-01

    This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames.

  17. The Promotion of Science in an African Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toure, Saliou

    1988-01-01

    Describes how government ministries and agencies are attempting to promote the cause of science. Describes the place of science in societies and the need for scientific popularization. States that work has been done in the areas of training, crops, and the establishment of bodies of three kinds. (RT)

  18. Recovery in river country.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, P J

    1988-07-01

    As the 3rd largest sub-Saharan African country with a highly developed and diversified economy, Zairian's life expectancy rose from 43.5 to 51.5 years between 1965-85. A larger medical staff which in 1980 equated 1 doctor/15,000 people contributed to an increase in health care. Zaire's Project SIPA, one of the largest AIDS programs in Africa, uses, e.g., TV messages to publicize public health messages to the population. Food production increased by 10% into the 1980s; 1982 marked the beginning of an upward trend in per capita income. Between 1984-85, the gross national product (GNP) of US $5.7 billion increased by 2.5%, or US $170/capita. Rich natural resources contributed to exports of US $1.87 billion in 1986 and imports of US $1.5 billion. But, hyperinflation abounds with a family of 6 in 1982 requiring US $330 dollars/month when minimum wage was US $70/month for unskilled workers and US $104 for skilled workers. Basic reforms in 1982 to deal with the foreign-debt of US $5 billion reduced inflation to 30% in 1985 from 76% in 1983 and created aa 1% GNP surplus. However, 50% of the government's annual budget was required recently to meet debt repayment schedules. New investment codes protect foreign investment and efforts are underway to channel this into timber (250 million acres), horticulture, and aquaculture. Favorable assets include low labor costs, well-run air cargo transport, and fertile land. Population data are limited, at present, to un demographic projections.

  19. Differences in HIV Natural History among African and Non-African Seroconverters in Europe and Seroconverters in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Nikos; Morrison, Charles; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Lewden, Charlotte; Salata, Robert A.; Minga, Albert; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffe, Harold; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Porter, Kholoud; Meyer, Laurence; Touloumi, Giota

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations. Methods We estimated CD4 cell loss in ART-naïve, AIDS-free individuals using mixed models allowing for random intercept and slope, and time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS, death and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation by survival methods. Using CASCADE data from 20 European and 3 sub-Saharan African (SSA) cohorts of heterosexually-infected individuals, aged ≥15 years, infected ≥2000, we compared estimates between non-African Europeans, Africans in Europe, and Africans in SSA. Results Of 1,959 (913 non-Africans, 302 Europeans - African origin, 744 SSA), two-thirds were female; median age at seroconversion was 31 years. Individuals in SSA progressed faster to clinical AIDS but not to death or non-TB AIDS. They also initiated ART later than Europeans and at lower CD4 cell counts. In adjusted models, Africans (especially from Europe) had lower CD4 counts at seroconversion and slower CD4 decline than non-African Europeans. Median (95% CI) CD4 count at seroconversion for a 15–29 year old woman was 607 (588–627) (non-African European), 469 (442–497) (European - African origin) and 570 (551–589) (SSA) cells/µL with respective CD4 decline during the first 4 years of 259 (228–289), 155 (110–200), and 199 (174–224) cells/µL (p<0.01). Discussion Despite differences in CD4 cell count evolution, death and non-TB AIDS rates were similar across study groups. It is therefore prudent to apply current ART guidelines from resource-rich countries to African populations. PMID:22412867

  20. Unpacking rights in indigenous African societies: indigenous culture and the question of sexual and reproductive rights in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights in the community itself. This paper is an attempt at developing an ‘inventory’ of rights in African cultures as a prelude to the generation both of a holistic theory of rights as well as a research agenda that can recognize the multifaceted nature of rights. Methods We use an interpretive ethnographic approach built on three sources of data: 1) our continuing ethnographic work among two distinct ethnic groups in southeastern Nigeria – the Ubang and the Igbo; 2) informal conversational interviews with individuals from a range of African countries; and 3) a review of relevant literature based on African cultures which provides a context for some of the issues we raise. Results An examination of selected indigenous rights, entitlements, or privileges among the Ubang and Igbo illustrates indigenous culture as a key, but often neglected, axis of rights, as a critical framework for understanding human relationships with rights, and as a resource for, and challenge to, contemporary programmatic efforts focusing on universalized notions of rights. Understanding or interpreting rights in African settings within the framework defined by contemporary human rights discourse poses steep challenges to making progress in the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Conclusions Despite the potential dangers of privileging group rights over individual rights, when important rights are vested in the community; rights, entitlements, and privileges can also be recognized through community experiences, and realized through engagement with communities. Building on communal conceptualizations of rights in order to realize an even wider range of rights remains a largely unexplored strategy which holds promise for the achievement of sexual and reproductive

  1. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  2. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and professional standards in this

  3. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  4. Polio eradication in the World Health Organization African Region, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Gasasira, Alex; Poy, Alain; Porter, Kimberly A; Everts, Johannes; Salla, Mbaye; Brown, Kristin H; Wassilak, Steven G F; Nshimirimana, Deogratias

    2014-11-01

    A renewed commitment at the regional and the global levels led to substantial progress in the fight for polio eradication in the African Region (AFR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) during 2008-2012. In 2008, there were 912 reported cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) infection in 12 countries in the region. This number had been reduced to 128 cases in 3 countries in 2012, of which 122 were in Nigeria, the only remaining country with endemic circulation of WPV in AFR. During 2008-2012, circulation apparently ceased in the 3 AFR countries with reestablished WPV transmission-Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Chad. Outbreaks in West Africa continued to occur in 2008-2010 but were more rapidly contained, with fewer cases than during earlier years. This progress has been attributed to better implementation of core strategies, increased accountability, and implementation of innovative approaches. During this period, routine coverage with 3 doses of oral polio vaccine in AFR, as measured by WHO-United Nations Children's Fund estimates, increased slightly, from 72% to 74%. Despite this progress, challenges persist in AFR, and 2013 was marked by new setbacks and importations. High population immunity and strong surveillance are essential to sustain progress and assure that AFR reaches its goal of eradicating WPV.

  5. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... extraordinary sacrifices to help unite a fractured country and free millions from slavery. These gallant... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  6. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  7. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  8. Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Javier; Carranza, Cristina; Muro, Antonio; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Martín, Antonio-Manuel; Martín, Teresa; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Of 788 recent African adult immigrants to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 213 (27.0%) had eosinophilia. The most frequent causes were filariasis (29.4%), schistosomiasis (17.2%), and hookworm infection (16.8%). Stool microscopy and filarial and schistosomal serologic tests gave the highest diagnostic yield. Country of origin and eosinophil count were associated with specific diagnoses. PMID:17176579

  9. The South African fertility decline: Evidence from two censuses and a Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Moultrie, Tom A; Timaeus, Ian M

    2003-11-01

    Inadequate data and apartheid policies have meant that, until recently, most demographers have not had the opportunity to investigate the level of, and trend in, the fertility of South African women. The 1996 South Africa Census and the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey provide the first widely available and nationally representative demographic data on South Africa since 1970. Using these data, this paper describes the South African fertility decline from 1955 to 1996. Having identified and adjusted for several errors in the 1996 Census data, the paper argues that total fertility at that time was 3.2 children per woman nationally, and 3.5 children per woman for African South Africans. These levels are lower than in any other sub-Saharan African country. We show also that fertility in South Africa has been falling since the 1960s. Thus, fertility transition predates the establishment of a family planning programme in the country in 1974.

  10. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Neil; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684

  11. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-09-05

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  12. African Social Studies Program-2, 1990-91. A Master's Degree Program for African Social Studies Leaders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. School of Education.

    Eight social studies educators from various African countries completed their masters degrees in education from the Indiana University School of Education during the 1990-91 school year. This report describes the program, including the selection process, the master of science in education program, specialized courses, social studies organizations,…

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. Defining and overcoming barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article describes various communication barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families which prevent effective spiritual care. These barriers include covert and deeply internalized racism, belief in false ideologies, persistent stereotyping, and being unaware of white privilege. Proposes potential solutions of acknowledging ones own race; becoming sensitive to the history and continuing oppression of Euro-Americans toward African Americans; building multicultural competence through education; and building equal-status relationships with African American individuals.

  15. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. Cause-of-Death Disparities in the African Diaspora: Exploring Differences Among Shared-Heritage Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, Selvi; Howitt, Christina; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Hennis, Anselm J.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Harris, E. Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene; Sullivan, Louis W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated changes in life expectancy (LE) and cause-specific mortality over time, directly comparing African-descent populations in the United States and the Caribbean. Methods. We compared LE at birth and cause-specific mortality in 6 disease groups between Caribbean countries with a majority (> 90%) African-descent population and US African Americans. Results. The LE improvement among African Americans exceeded that of Afro-Caribbeans so that the LE gap, which favored the Caribbean population by 1.5 years in 1990, had been reversed by 2009. This relative improvement among African Americans was mainly the result of the improving mortality experience of African American men. Between 2000 and 2009, Caribbean mortality rates in 5 of the 6 disease groups increased relative to those of African Americans. By 2009, mortality from cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes was higher in Afro-Caribbeans relative to African Americans, with a diabetes mortality rate twice that of African Americans and 4 times that of White Americans. Conclusions. The Caribbean community made important mortality reductions between 2000 and 2009, but this progress fell short of African American health improvements in the same period, especially among men. PMID:25905849

  18. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  19. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  20. Literacy for Revitalization in the SADCC Countries of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The role of literacy in the revitalization of societies is particularly meaningful in the context of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), a group of nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) surrounding or surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA).…

  1. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  2. African Indigenous science in higher education in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akena Adyanga, Francis

    This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and

  3. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  4. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  5. 7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Country of origin notification. 60.200 Section 60.200... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 60.200 Country of...

  6. 7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Country of origin notification. 60.200 Section 60.200... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 60.200 Country of...

  7. 7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin notification. 60.200 Section 60.200... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 60.200 Country of...

  8. 7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country of origin notification. 60.200 Section 60.200... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 60.200 Country of...

  9. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  10. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  11. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  12. 15 CFR 752.4 - Eligible countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible countries. 752.4 Section 752.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.4 Eligible countries....

  13. 15 CFR 752.4 - Eligible countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible countries. 752.4 Section 752.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.4 Eligible countries....

  14. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  15. Mapping the state of the field of social psychology in Africa and patterns of collaboration between African and international social psychologists.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Michael; Greer, Megan

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of collaboration in social psychology from 2000 to 2010 were mapped to analyse the position of African authors in the international co-authorship network using bibliographic records from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. There are very few social psychologists working in Africa, with the majority of these located in South Africa. Indeed, some small European countries boast more social psychologists than the entire continent of Africa. African authors published less than their non-African collaborators, but had comparable status on joint publications. Co-authorship relationships between African researchers from different African countries were generally mediated by partners from other continents, and direct collaboration between non-compatriot African authors was very rare. The small size, and extremely sparse connection of the African co-authorship network, is likely to be an obstacle both in the development of social psychology as a universally relevant discipline and in the penetration of social psychological knowledge in Africa.

  16. Rural African Americans and Education: The Legacy of the Brown Decision. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This digest summarizes impacts of the Brown decision on school segregation and the educational condition of rural African American students today. In the 1990s, over 90 percent of rural African Americans live in the South and continue to suffer from high poverty rates and low educational attainment. In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown et…

  17. Trio Student Support Services: A Comparative Study of African American Students at Three Texas Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Hattie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although access to postsecondary education for ethnic minorities has increased since desegregation in 1954, the college completion rates for these groups have not, particularly for African Americans. For this reason, it is important to continue to examine strategies that contribute to increases in completion rates for African Americans. The…

  18. Accounting for the Attrition of African American Males in an Academic Support Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancia, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a continuing crisis in our nation's education system. Historically African American students have underperformed academically. This achievement gap is particularly pronounced for African American males. AVID (Advancement Via Individual Determination), an academic support program for underachieving students, most…

  19. "We Don't Feel Welcome Here": African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics…

  20. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haizlip, Breyan N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  1. The Benefits of a Comprehensive Retention Program for African American Students at a Predominately White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lakitta

    2013-01-01

    Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the retention of African American students at predominately White colleges and universities continues to be problematic. Although many of these institutions have implemented retention programs for African American students, few have incorporated a comprehensive program that utilizes multi-program…

  2. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  3. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya

    2014-01-01

    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  4. African Immigrant Families in the United States: Surviving the Sociocultural Tide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Afolayan, Michael O.

    2007-01-01

    There exists a significant yet unique level and magnitude of problems that immigrants of African descent have to grapple with in their efforts to settle down into their new American lives. This fact makes the continuity of the natal culture very difficult. However, in spite of their many problems, African immigrants never lose touch with their…

  5. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  6. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  7. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  8. An Examination of Factors Associated with the Retention and Recruitment of African American Male Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of escalating enrollments of African American students on college campuses and continuing calls to increase the numbers of African American male faculty, a considerable amount of research has been conducted over the years to explore the relative status of African American male faculty (Bennett, 2001). It was difficult to find a college or…

  9. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  10. The Relationships among Student Characteristic Variables, Student Engagement Variables, and the Academic Performance of African American Male Students at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman Mingo, Valarie A.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of research on the experiences of African American males in higher education continues to grow, additional research is needed on the impact of two-year college attendance on African American male students (Flowers, 2006). Since the two-year college system is the "primary portal" to higher education for a number of African American…

  11. 76 FR 6840 - Determinations Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... applicable visa requirements. See Visa Requirements Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act, 66 FR 7837...) has determined that the Republic of Liberia has adopted an effective visa system and related... countries,'' provided that these countries: (1) Have adopted an effective visa system and related...

  12. A plea to better feed African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroosnijder, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  13. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin. PMID:24317269

  14. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    PubMed

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  15. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans’ increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  16. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  17. The Inclusion of African-American Study Participants in Web-Based Research Studies: Viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bekeela; Robinson, Dana H Z; Harker, Laura; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The use of Web-based methods for research recruitment and intervention delivery has greatly increased as Internet usage continues to grow. These Internet-based strategies allow for researchers to quickly reach more people. African-Americans are underrepresented in health research studies. Due to this, African-Americans get less benefit from important research that could address the disproportionate health outcomes they face. Web-based research studies are one promising way to engage more African-Americans and build trust with the African-American community. With African-Americans' increasing access to the Internet using mobile phones and other mobile phone technologies, we advocate for efforts to increase the representation of African-Americans in research studies by using the Internet as a recruitment tool and conclude with recommendations that support this goal. PMID:27334683

  18. Duke Engineering explores huge African Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-10-14

    Duke Engineering & Services and the African Republic of Uganda have entered into a memorandum of understanding to explore the feasibility of installing one or more hydropower plants along the Nile River and building a 2,000 mile transmission line through southern Africa. The project`s participants say they envision a southern African electricity grid connecting all countries in the region. A team comprised of officials from DE&S, Edlow and SAD-ELEC will conduct a six-month, two-part study on the feasibility of linking the existing grid system in the region. The first part of the study will look at the feasibility of installing one or more independent hydropower plants along the Nile and other rivers in Uganda. The second part will explore the design, construction and operation of a transmission system to interconnect Uganda, through neighboring countries to the south and east, to the Republic of South Africa. The site for the proposed hydroelectric plant will determine the route of the transmission line.

  19. Exploring female genital cutting among west African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M

    2014-06-01

    Although many African women immigrate to the United States from countries with high prevalence rates for female genital cutting (FGC), there has been limited research exploring the incidence and impact of FGC among this growing immigrant population. This pilot study sought to examine the experiences of FGC among West African immigrant women in the US. Of the 23 participants, 7 reported a history of FGC, with Muslim participants reporting significantly higher rates of FGC than Christians (Fisher's Exact = .045). Most of the women who had experienced FGC were from Sierra Leone (Fisher's Exact = .027). Limitations of the study are discussed along with suggestions for future research aimed at understanding the impact of FGC, reducing the prevalence and demand for FGC among African immigrant women and improving the health and quality of life of women who have undergone the procedure.

  20. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  1. CII Protection - Lessons for Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlangisa, Mboneli; Herbst, Deon

    We explore the process followed in formulating the South African CII (Critical Information Infrastructure) identification criteria and its application. We report on a three pronged approach that defines National Security, severity of CII security incidents and roles and responsibilities for CII protection. Our Criteria assumes the existence of basic ICT security roles within a country as per application of the South African criteria and its suitability for a country with limited resources. We conclude by recommending a CII protection approach that is best suited for developing countries based on our experiences.

  2. 76 FR 58855 - Request for Public Comments on Annual Review of Country Eligibility for Benefits Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 50284, August 12, 2011). The following sub-Saharan African countries that...: Angola, Republic of Benin, Republic of Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Republic of Cape Verde,...

  3. Biomedical research in developing countries: the case of Morocco in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Alaoui-el-Azher, Mounia

    2003-06-01

    Moroccan biomedical research occupies the third place among African or Arab countries, and its outputs considerably increased during the last decade. The quality of publications from developing countries should be improved as suggested by the comparison with developed countries. The gap between developed and developing countries is very large considering the number of publications and their quality, the number of edited journals, and the number of patented inventions, thus making developing countries more as consumers then producers. Accordingly, there is a large gap between developing and developed countries when considering the human and financial resources devoted to scientific research.

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  5. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  6. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  7. America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    The book examines the one-room schoolhouse and the memories of this important part of the American past through sections on the country school legacy, country school architecture, and country school preservation. The architectural and historical significance of this distinctive building type is evocatively portrayed by more than 400 photographs.…

  8. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  9. Burundi: country profile.

    PubMed

    Hilsum, L

    1988-10-01

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum. PMID:12315487

  10. Burundi: country profile.

    PubMed

    Hilsum, L

    1988-10-01

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.

  11. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  12. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The AVN is one of the most significant vehicles through which capacity development in Africa for SKA participation will be realized. It is a forerunner to the long baseline Phase 2 component of the mid-frequency SKA. Besides the 26m HartRAO telescope in South Africa, Ghana is expected to be the first to establish a VLBI-capable telescope through conversion of a redundant 32m telecommunications system near Accra. The most widely used receivers in the EVN are L-band and C-band (5 GHz). L-band is divided into a low band around the hydrogen (HI) line frequency of 1420 MHz, and a high band covering the hydroxyl line frequencies of 1612-1720 MHz. The high band is much more commonly used for VLBI as it provides more bandwidth. For the AVN, the methanol maser line at 6668 MHz is a key target for the initial receiver and the related 12178MHz methanol maser line also seen in star-forming regions a potential future Ku-band receiver. In the potential future band around 22GHz(K-band), water masers in star-forming regions and meg-maser galaxies at 22.235 GHz are targets, as are other radio continuum sources such as AGNs. The AVN system will include 5GHz and 6.668GHz receiver systems with recommendation to partner countries that the first upgrade should be L-band receivers. The original satellite telecommunications feed horns cover 3.8 - 6.4 GHz and should work at 5 GHz and operation at 6.668 GHz for the methanol maser is yet to be verified. The first light science will be conducted in the 6.7 GHz methanol maser band. Telescopes developed for the AVN will initially join other global networks for VLBI. When at least four VLBI-capable telescopes are operational on the continent, it will be possible to initiate stand-alone AVN VLBI. Each country where an AVN telescope becomes operational will have its own single-dish observing program. Capacity building to run an observatory includes the establishment of competent core essential observatory staff in partner countries who can train

  13. Indigenous Healing Practices among Rural Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    Elderly African Americans residing in rural areas have practiced and continue to practice indigenous healing practices for various reasons. In addition to the belief in the value of such practices, many of these individuals practice indigenous healing because it is cost effective. In this article information is presented on the history of research…

  14. Social Citizenship Formation at University: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Loots, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers citizenship formation at universities, drawing on the example of a student leadership project at the University of the Free State, a formerly White South African university, in a higher education context and society where racialised difference continues to influence peer relationships. The paper proposes a multi-dimensional…

  15. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  16. Appropriate Management in an African Culture: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duze, Chinelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Following continued search for reasons on the inability of African nations to realize appreciable economic development through education, the researcher investigated the influence of cultural environment on management in industry. Because input/output measures of productivity are not easily measured in education, the industry was used, hoping that…

  17. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  19. Africanized honey bees are slowere learners than their European counterparts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The range of Africanized honeybees continues to expand, superseding the common European honeybees in the southern United States. Are superior learning and memory the reason for their ecological success? Surprisingly, a comparison in a classical conditioning test of the two bee races shows that few...

  20. Seasonal Distribution of African Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; O'Neill, Katherine P.

    1992-01-01

    Savannas consist of a continuous layer of grass interspersed with scattered trees or shrubs, and cover approx. 10 million square kilometers of tropical Africa. African savanna fires, almost all resulting from human activities, may produce as much as a third of the total global emissions from biomass burning. Little is known, however, about the frequency and location of these fires, and the area burned each year. Emissions from African savanna burning are known to be transported over the mid-Atlantic, south Pacific and Indian oceans; but to study fully the transport of regional savanna burning and the seasonality of the atmospheric circulation must be considered simultaneously. Here we describe the temporal and spatial distribution of savanna fires over the entire African continent, as determined from night-time satellite imagery. We find that, contrary to expectations, most fires are left to burn uncontrolled, so that there is no strong diurnal cycle in the fire frequency. The knowledge gained from this study regarding the distribution and variability of fires will aid monitoring of the climatically important trace gases emitted from burning biomass.

  1. Developing a Continuing Professional Development Program to Improve Nursing Practice in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Moetsana-Poka, Flavia; Lebaka, Makholu; McCarthy, Carey F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) issued the Continuing Education Strategy for all Health Care Workers in Lesotho, requiring professional regulatory bodies to enforce continuing education requirements amongst their members. In order to comply with this strategy, the Lesotho Nursing Council worked to develop a national comprehensive program for continuing professional development (CPD) Methods Through a seed grant and technical assistance from the African Health Professions Regulatory Collaborative (ARC), national nursing and midwifery leadership collaboratively developed a national CPD framework. The draft CPD framework and logbook were formally vetted with stakeholders during consultative meetings held around the country. Achievements The CPD framework was successfully piloted prior to being launched nationally in October 2012. This is the first health professional CPD program in Lesotho. Development of a CPD program in Lesotho has created a platform to reconcile nursing practice with the legislative standards governing the workforce. Challenges The one-year grant timeframe, along with limited financial and staff resources limited presented implementation challenges. Conclusion In establishing a comprehensive national CPD program, it is critical for countries to engage in a staged planning process that includes monitoring and evaluation. PMID:27053950

  2. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  3. Psychometric properties of instruments for assessing depression among African youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the psychometric properties of instruments used to screen for major depressive disorder or assess depression symptom severity among African youth. Methods: Systematic search terms were applied to seven bibliographic databases: African Journals Online, the African Journal Archive, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the WHO African Index Medicus. Studies examining the reliability and/or validity of depression assessment tools were selected for inclusion if they were based on data collected from youth (any author definition) in an African member state of the United Nations. We extracted data on study population characteristics, sampling strategy, sample size, the instrument assessed, and the type of reliability and/or validity evidence provided. Results: Of 1,027 records, we included 23 studies of 10,499 youth in 10 African countries. Most studies reported excellent scale reliability, but there was much less evidence of equivalence or criterion-related validity. No measures were validated in more than two countries. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence on the reliability or validity of depression assessment among African youth. The field is constrained by a lack of established criterion standards, but studies incorporating mixed methods offer promising strategies for guiding the process of cross-cultural development and validation. PMID:25391712

  4. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  5. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  6. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  7. Genetic evidence for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar resulting from virus introductions from the East African mainland rather than enzootic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Serena A; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006-2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006-2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

  8. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  9. Preventing HIV transmission in "priority" countries.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1993-05-01

    A recent $168 million 5-year cooperative agreement funded by the US Agency for International Development combines elements of its earlier AIDSTECH and AIDSCOM projects under the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). Instead of working to effect broad-scale behavior change toward the prevention of HIV transmission, AIDSCAP strategically targets locations for condom distribution, behavior change messages, and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In Lagos and the states of Cross River and Jigawa where the AIDS epidemic is firmly established, for example, AIDSCAP is intervening to increase condom demand and accessibility; alter sexual behaviors which carry a high risk for HIV transmission; and reduce the prevalence of STDs which enhance the transmission of HIV. The project began in fall of 1991 and has expanded to include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica, India, and Thailand; limited assistance is also provided to 7 other African countries, 4 Latin America countries, and 1 in Asia. 4 more countries are in the final stages of negotiations to be included in the project. The USAID mission in the host country and the government must invite AIDSCAP involvement in order for the country to attain priority status. Countries are selected based on the HIV prevalence rate, population size and distribution, level of commitment to HIV prevention/control, capacity to respond to the AIDSCAP plan of action, level of other donor support, the USAID Mission's development priorities, and the Mission's commitment of substantial funds from its own budget. Once involved, AIDSCAP is mandated to implement interventions through in-country agencies. PMID:12344871

  10. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  11. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  12. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  13. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  14. Changes in North African dust deposition: 35 ka through the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsley, C. W.; McGee, D.; Winckler, G.; deMenocal, P. B.; Stuut, J. W.; Bradtmiller, L. I.

    2013-12-01

    Past changes in atmospheric circulation and aridity in the North African region can be explored by examining continuous records of reconstructed eolian dust accumulation in West African margin sediments. Recent high-resolution reconstructions of dust deposition by McGee et al. (2013) from a meridional transect of cores stretching from 27°N to 19°N along the northwest African margin indicate dramatic changes in North African dust emissions over the last 20 ka. Times of high dust emissions were documented during Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas, and lower dust emissions during the African Humid Period. Here we present a continuation of these records, combining grain size endmember modeling with 230Th-normalized fluxes in these cores to document spatial and temporal changes in dust loads and grain size distributions within the North African dust plume from 20 to ~35 ka. Our results provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of dust flux changes associated with previous Heinrich Stadials, and lend insight to the nature of the North African dust plume through the entirety of the Last Glacial Maximum. References: McGee, D., deMenocal, P.B., Winckler, G., Stuut, J.B.W., Bradtmiller, L.I., 2013. The magnitude, timing and abruptness of changes in North African dust deposition over the last 20,000 yr. Earth And Planetary Science Letters 371-372, 163-176.

  15. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  16. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  17. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  18. Three Decades of Silicosis: Disease Trends at Autopsy in South African Gold Miners

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gill; Girdler-Brown, Brendan; Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Murray, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Background Eliminating silicosis is a priority of the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization. Prevalence is particularly high in developing countries. Objectives We describe trends in silicosis among South African gold miners who had had an autopsy between 1975 and 2007 and quantify the contributions of age at autopsy and employment duration to these trends. Methods South African miners and ex-miners are eligible for autopsy examination for occupational lung disease, regardless of the clinical cause of death, and the families of deceased mine workers may receive compensation from the government of South Africa. Miners who died from external causes and who had been employed in the gold mines for > 1 year were stratified by population group because of differences in exposure, patterns of employment, and autopsy referral patterns. We extracted data from PATHAUT (Pathology Automation System) and used Stata 10 to estimate trends in relative proportions of silicosis that were standardized for age and employment duration. Results The crude proportion of silicosis for white miners was six times that of black miners in 1975. By 2007, it was 1.5 times higher for black miners. The proportion of miners with silicosis increased from 0.03 to 0.32 for black miners and from 0.18 to 0.22 for white miners. The increase can be explained by increasing age and employment duration for white miners. For black miners, it can be only partly explained by these two factors. Conclusion As miners continue to age and work for longer periods, the burden of silicosis will continue to rise. South Africa is committed to global efforts to eliminate silicosis by 2030. The autopsy database allows for disease surveillance, which is necessary to monitor the success of this initiative. PMID:20194070

  19. Expression Library Immunization Can Confer Protection against Lethal Challenge with African Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lacasta, Anna; Ballester, María; Monteagudo, Paula L.; Rodríguez, Javier M.; Salas, María L.; Accensi, Francesc; Pina-Pedrero, Sonia; Bensaid, Albert; Argilaguet, Jordi; López-Soria, Sergio; Hutet, Evelyne; Le Potier, Marie Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT African swine fever is one of the most devastating pig diseases, against which there is no vaccine available. Recent work from our laboratory has demonstrated the protective potential of DNA vaccines encoding three African swine fever viral antigens (p54, p30, and the hemagglutinin extracellular domain) fused to ubiquitin. Partial protection was afforded in the absence of detectable antibodies prior to virus challenge, and survival correlated with the presence of a large number of hemagglutinin-specific CD8+ T cells in blood. Aiming to demonstrate the presence of additional CD8+ T-cell determinants with protective potential, an expression library containing more than 4,000 individual plasmid clones was constructed, each one randomly containing a Sau3AI restriction fragment of the viral genome (p54, p30, and hemagglutinin open reading frames [ORFs] excluded) fused to ubiquitin. Immunization of farm pigs with the expression library yielded 60% protection against lethal challenge with the virulent E75 strain. These results were further confirmed by using specific-pathogen-free pigs after challenging them with 104 hemadsorbing units (HAU) of the cell culture-adapted strain E75CV1. On this occasion, 50% of the vaccinated pigs survived the lethal challenge, and 2 out of the 8 immunized pigs showed no viremia or viral excretion at any time postinfection. In all cases, protection was afforded in the absence of detectable specific antibodies prior to challenge and correlated with the detection of specific T-cell responses at the time of sacrifice. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the presence of additional protective determinants within the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome and open up the possibility for their future identification. IMPORTANCE African swine fever is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild pigs that is endemic in many sub-Saharan countries, where it causes important economic losses and is currently in continuous expansion

  20. Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Parra, E J; Kittles, R A; Argyropoulos, G; Pfaff, C L; Hiester, K; Bonilla, C; Sylvester, N; Parrish-Gause, D; Garvey, W T; Jin, L; McKeigue, P M; Kamboh, M I; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S; Shriver, M D

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed admixture in samples of six different African-American populations from South Carolina: Gullah-speaking Sea Islanders in coastal South Carolina, residents of four counties in the "Low Country" (Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester), and persons living in the city of Columbia, located in central South Carolina. We used a battery of highly informative autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers. Two of the autosomal markers (FY and AT3) are linked and lie 22 cM apart on chromosome 1. The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders (m = 3.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of European admixture is higher in the Low Country (m ranging between 9. 9 +/- 1.8% and 14.0 +/- 1.9%), and is highest in Columbia (m = 17.7 +/- 3.1%). A sex-biased European gene flow and a small Native American contribution to the African-American gene pool are also evident in these data. We studied the pattern of pairwise allelic associations between the FY locus and the nine other autosomal markers in our samples. In the combined sample from the Low Country (N = 548), a high level of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the linked markers, FY and AT3. Additionally, significant associations were also detected between FY and 4 of the 8 unlinked markers, suggesting the existence of significant genetic structure in this population. A continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure. A test conditioning on the overall admixture of each individual showed association of ancestry between the two linked markers (FY and AT3), but not between any of the unlinked markers, as theory predicts. Thus, even in the presence of genetic structure due to continuous gene flow or some other factor, it is possible to differentiate associations due to linkage from spurious associations due to genetic structure.

  1. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  2. African-American Women's Perceptions and Experiences About Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Cecilia S; Emetu, Roberta E; Curtis, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African-American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study is to explore how African-American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N = 20, 10 in each group) were conducted with African-American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population. PMID:26734597

  3. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) at two years

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Carey F; Zuber, Alexandra; Kelley, Maureen A; Verani, Andre R; Riley, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Background The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) for nurses and midwives was created in response to the increasing reliance on shifting HIV tasks to nurses and midwives without the necessary regulation supporting this enhanced professional role. ARC Approach The ARC initiative comprises regional meetings, technical assistance, and regulatory improvement grants which enhance HIV service delivery by nurses and midwives, and systematic evaluation of project impact. Results Eight of 11 countries funded by ARC advanced a full stage in regulatory capacity during their 1-year project period. Countries in ARC also demonstrated increased capacity in project management and proposal writing. Discussion The progress of country teams thus far suggests ARC is a successful model for regulation strengthening and capacity building, as well as presenting a novel approach for sustainability and country ownership. The ARC platform has been a successful vehicle for regional harmonisation of updated regulations and promises to help facilitate the enhancement of HIV service delivery by nurses and midwives. PMID:27066113

  4. Country Profiles, Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John K.; Moore, Richard V.

    A profile of Iran is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, number of households, women of reproductive age, growth patterns, role of women, urban/rural distribution,…

  5. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  6. Country Profiles. France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean

    A profile of France is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: (1) location and description of the country; (2) population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, education,…

  7. Country Profiles, The Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concepcion, Mercedes B.

    A profile of the Philippines is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  8. Country Profiles, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svala, Gertrud

    A profile of Sweden is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Country Profiles, Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Christos

    A profile of Mauritius is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  11. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  12. Country Profiles, Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

    A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  14. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  15. Country Profiles, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkin, Gordon W.; And Others

    A profile of Thailand is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  16. Country Profiles, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Indonesia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population - size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  17. Country Profiles, Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Hong Kong is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  18. Country Profiles, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

    A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  19. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  20. Country Profiles, Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M.; And Others

    A profile of Taiwan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…