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Sample records for african crust evidence

  1. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for involvement of pre-Pan-African crust in the Nubian shield, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Bowring, S.A.; Arvidson, R.E. ); Abuzied, H. ); El Kaliouby, B. )

    1990-08-01

    Two Late Proterozoic granitic bodies from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the ca. 578 Ma Nakhil and the ca. 595 Ma Aswan granites, provide insights into processes of crust formation in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the formation of the Nakhil granite includes (1) U/Pb zircon data that establish a crystallization age of 578 {plus minus} 15 Ma and indicate the presence of inherited zircons possibly as old as 1.6 Ga; (2) an elevated model initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7136); and (3) an elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.561) relative to model mantle compositions at 578 Ma. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the Aswan granite comes from the elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.611). In contrast, extensive crustal contamination is not reflected in the high initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} (+5.7) for the Nakhil and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7029) for the Aswan granite. The contrasting inferences from the different isotopic systems can be explained by the high whole-rock Nd and Sr concentration for the the Nakhil (87 ppm Nd) and the Aswan (173 ppm Sr) granites, respectively, that suggest that the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of the older component has been overshadowed by the more primitive material. Similar contrasts in Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic data from the eastern and western shield margins can be interpreted in the same manner and might suggest widespread involvement of older crustal components in the formation of the Late Proterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield.

  2. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  3. The Mafic Lower Crust of Neoproterozoic age beneath Western Arabia: Implications for Understanding African Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Mooney, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    ) and Cr (435 vs. 117 ppm). Despite high Mg# in pyroxene-rich xenoliths, mineral compositions of labradoritic plagioclase (mean ~An64) and relatively Fe-rich pyroxenes (mean OPX ~En63; mean CPX~ WO48 En35 Fs17) indicate that these are somewhat fractionated. Trace element patterns are similar to those expected for convergent-margin magmatic suites. Nd-model ages define a mean of 0.76±0.08 Ga, similar to the age of exposed Arabian Shield upper crust. An isochron plot (147Sm/144Nd vs. 143Nd/144Nd) is consistent with formation in Neoproterozoic time. Lower crust of Arabia clearly formed during Neoproterozoic time, about the same time as its upper crust complement; a similar origin for the lower crust beneath the broad expanses of Neoproterozoic crust in N and E Africa is likely. There is no evidence that any of the mafic lower crust of Arabia formed due to underplating by Cenozoic magmas, which may also be true for NE Africa and perhaps mafic lower crust on the flanks of the East African Rift. Such an interpretation predicts a strong lower crust for those regions underlain by anhydrous mafic lower crust of Neoproterozoic age.

  4. Secular changes recorded in mineralization of African crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabidi, T.; Thiart, C.; de Wit, M. J.

    2007-02-01

    Variations in enrichment of mineral deposits in continental crust over time may be one way to test for secular changes in crustal genesis. We present spatial and chemical information about African mineral deposits with which to 'fingerprint' the metal endowment of African crust of different age. We then compare three regions of juvenile African crust, all with similar geology, tectonic history, and mineral deposits, but each of a different age. Each region was formed during rapid accretion of similar tectonic units derived from the mantle over ˜500 million years, and is apparently devoid of older recycled continental crust. Together, the three areas span 2500 million years of Earth history, from 0.5 Ga to 3.0 Ga, (e.g. the Zimbabwe Craton (2.5-3.0 Ga), the Birimian Shield (1.8-2.3 Ga), and the Arabian-Nubian Shield (0.5-1.0 Ga)). The three areas have a studied total of 2671 mineral deposits that are divided into six groups according to their geochemical affinities. Using these known deposits, a measure of spatial association (spatial coefficient) is derived. We show that each region has a unique metal endowment and that, per unit area, there is a greater concentration of mineral deposits in the crust of the Archean Zimbabwe Craton relative to the younger crust of the Birimian Shield and in turn the Arabian-Nubian Shield. This study quantitatively corroborates past studies that suggest older crust is more mineral diverse and enriched in mineral deposits than younger crust. Thus, a secular change in mineralization is implicated, and the mantle derived metal endowment of the African crust has undergone major evolutionary changes from Archean to Neoproterozoic time.

  5. Anatexis in Himalayan Crust: Evidences and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Ma, J.

    2004-12-01

    Here we present results of chemical features of migmatites in Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) and K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of the leucosomes (type-I and type-II) in the migmatites. The mass leucosomes distributed in HHC were generated by partial melting and consequently they are ideal specimens to determine the timing of anatexis, to study the relationship between migmatization and leucogranite formation, and to understand the role of partial melting in crustal evolution in continental collision orogenic belt. Mass balance relationship among mesosome, type-I leucosome and melanosome implies that they are likely generated in the same process. The compositions of Type-I leucosome are identical with those of melt produced by dehydration melting of biotite-plagioclase gneiss but different from those of type-II leucosome which compositions are similar to HHL. These compositional characteristics of leucosomes reflect that Type-I leucosome is the product of crystallization from melt generated by partial melting of mesosome in the source region, but Type-II leucosome and HHL probably underwent crystallization differentiation of plagioclase during melt aggregation and migration. Prime partial melting occurred at 22.7-24.7 Ma based on the date of type-I leucosome. The ages of type-II leucosomes (ranging from 14.82 to 18.37 Ma) are consistent with that of HHL. Very young age of 6.2-8.3 Ma of type-II leucosome provides a new time constraint on magma activity in the central segment of Higher Himalayas. These ages reveal some dynamic correlation summarized as follows. (1) The age of about 24 Ma (the beginning of anatexis), which is a little younger than that of MCT movement, does not support the view that anatexis was derived from MCT movement; on the contrary, but rather, the anatexis may have played an important role in the formation of MCT and Southern Tibetan Detachment System. (2) Decompression melting associated with STDS movement and crust uplifting contributed greatly to

  6. Evolution of the earth's crust: Evidence from comparative planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Geochemical data and orbital photography from Apollo, Mariner, and Venera missions were combined with terrestrial geologic evidence to study the problem of why the earth has two contrasting types of crust (oceanic and continental). The following outline of terrestrial crustal evolution is proposed. A global crust of intermediate to acidic composition, high in aluminum, was formed by igneous processes early in the earth's history; portions survive in some shield areas as granitic and anorthositic gneisses. This crust was fractured by major impacts and tectonic processes, followed by basaltic eruptions analogous to the lunar maria and the smooth plains of the north hemisphere of Mars. Seafloor spreading and subduction ensued, during which portions of the early continental crust and sediments derived therefrom were thrust under the remaining continental crust. The process is exemplified today in regions such as the Andes/Peru-Chile trench system. Underplating may have been roughly concentric, and the higher radioactive element content of the underplated sialic material could thus eventually cause concentric zones of regional metamorphism and magmatism.

  7. Evidence for oceanic crust in the Herodotus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi

    2016-04-01

    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (10 to 15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. I have collected 7,000 km of marine magnetic profiles (2012-2014) across the Herodotus and Levant Basins, Eastern Mediterranean, to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic anomaly field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a fully oriented vector magnetometer. The total field data from the Herodotus Basin reveal a newly detected short sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies that straddle the entire basin suggesting a deep two-dimensional magnetic source layer. The three components of the magnetic vector data indicate that an abrupt transition from a 2D to 3D magnetic structure occurs east of the Herodotus Basin, along where a prominent NE-SW gravity feature is found. Altogether, these new findings confirm that the Herodotus Basin preserves remnants of oceanic crust that formed along the Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge system. The continuous northward and counterclockwise motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic allow predicting the evolution of remanent magnetization directions, which in-turn dictate that shape of the anomalies. The shape of the Herodotus anomalies best fit Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (300±20 Myr old) magnetization directions. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these results on the tectonic architecture of the region as well as on various geodynamic processes.

  8. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  9. Magnetism of the oceanic crust: Evidence from ophiolite complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.

    1980-07-10

    The magnetic properties of six ophiolite complexes from around the world, ranging in age from Jurassic to Miocene, are presented. An emphasis is placed in our study on the petrologic and isotopic data from these ophiolite complexes in order to determine first whether the rock samples presently available represent the pristine ocean crust or whether they have been altered subaerially since their formation. Five of the ophiolites are found to be acceptable, and the conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of a marine magnetic source layer that includes not only the pillow lavas but also the underlying dikes and gabbro. At the moment, however, our observations do not suggest that the magnetic contributions of the basaltic dikes should be overlooked in favor of gabbro. A second important conclusion is that nearly pure magnetite could indeed be a magnetic carrier which contributes to marine magnetic anomanies. It only awaits discovery by deeper ocean crustal penetration by future Deep Sea Drilling Project legs.

  10. No evidence for Hadean continental crust within Earth's oldest evolved rock unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimink, J. R.; Davies, J. H. F. L.; Chacko, T.; Stern, R. A.; Heaman, L. M.; Sarkar, C.; Schaltegger, U.; Creaser, R. A.; Pearson, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    Due to the acute scarcity of very ancient rocks, the composition of Earth's embryonic crust during the Hadean eon (>4.0 billion years ago) is a critical unknown in our search to understand how the earliest continents evolved. Whether the Hadean Earth was dominated by mafic-composition crust, similar to today's oceanic crust, or included significant amounts of continental crust remains an unsolved question that carries major implications for the earliest atmosphere, the origin of life, and the geochemical evolution of the crust-mantle system. Here we present new U-Pb and Hf isotope data on zircons from the only precisely dated Hadean rock unit on Earth--a 4,019.6 +/- 1.8 Myr tonalitic gneiss unit in the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Canada. Combined zircon and whole-rock geochemical data from this ancient unit shows no indication of derivation from, or interaction with, older Hadean continental crust. Instead, the data provide the first direct evidence that the oldest known evolved crust on Earth was generated from an older ultramafic or mafic reservoir that probably surfaced the early Earth.

  11. Thin crust as evidence for depleted mantle supporting the Marion Rise.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaiyang; Dick, Henry J B

    2013-02-14

    The global ridge system is dominated by oceanic rises reflecting large variations in axial depth associated with mantle hotspots. The little-studied Marion Rise is as large as the Icelandic Rise, considering both length and depth, but has an axial rift (rather than a high) nearly its entire length. Uniquely along the Southwest Indian Ridge systematic sampling allows direct examination of crustal architecture over its full length. Here we show that, unlike the Icelandic Rise, peridotites are extensively exposed high on the rise, revealing that the crust is generally thin, and often missing, over a rifted rise. Therefore the Marion Rise must be largely an isostatic response to ancient melting events that created low-density depleted mantle beneath the Southwest Indian Ridge rather than thickened crust or a large thermal anomaly. The origin of this depleted mantle is probably the mantle emplaced into the African asthenosphere during the Karoo and Madagascar flood basalt events.

  12. The Crust Has Changed: Evidence for and implications of age dependent Sm/Nd ratios in juvenile continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Nd isotope systematics of crustal granites and their presumed source materials are used to reconstruct the Sm/Nd ratios of the continental crust with distinct mantle extraction ages (based on DePaolo, 1988 EPSL and Bennett and DePaolo, 1987 GSA Bull). A more extensive, literature-derived data set for the western USA supports the isotopic mapping of Bennett and DePaolo. Calculated Sm/Nd ratios of the crust show a secular increase from the Archean to approximately 1.5 Ga. Modern island arc lavas, analogs for juvenile continental crust have the lowest Sm/Nd, consistent with the inferred trend from the granites. Possible reasons for the increasing Sm/Nd include changes in the Sm/Nd ratio of the mantle reservoir and/or changes in the mineralogy of the reservoir from which the crust was extracted. It is postulated that the primary control of Sm/Nd in the continental crust is the residual mineralogy in the reservoirs from which the crust was extracted. This is possible because changes in the geothermal gradient through Earth's history affect the residual mineralogy during the extraction of continental crust. Recent phase equilibria studies relevant to modern island arcs suggest that accessory minerals such as allanite buffer the LREE budget from the subducting sediment and basaltic slab, the primary source of REE in island arc lavas. Crust production early in Earth's history likely occurred at temperatures too high for allanite stability, meaning Sm/Nd ratios were likely controlled by garnet and/or amphibole in either subducted crust or the mantle reservoir. Modeling results will show how changing residual mineralogy during crust extractions can produce the observed changes in Sm/Nd ratios. More broadly the inferred time dependence for Sm/Nd may relate to the silica content of juvenile crust throughout Earth's history.

  13. Petrochemical and petrophysical characterization of the lower crust and the Moho beneath the West African Craton, based on Xenoliths from Kimberlites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Stephen E.; Toft, Paul B.

    1988-01-01

    Additional evidence to the composition of the lower crust and uppermost mantle was presented in the form of xenolith data. Xenoliths from the 2.7-Ga West African Craton indicate that the Moho beneath this shield is a chemically and physically gradational boundary, with intercalations of garnet granulite and garnet eclogite. Inclusions in diamonds indicate a depleted upper mantle source, and zenolith barometry and thermometry data suggest a high mantle geotherm with a kink near the Moho. Metallic iron in the xenoliths indicates that the uppermost mantle has a significant magnetization, and that the depth to the Curie isotherm, which is usually considered to be at or above the Moho, may be deeper than the Moho.

  14. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemm, V.; Frank, M.; Levasseur, S.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10??Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12??Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the No??rdlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Full seismic waveform inversion of the African crust and Mantle - Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Ermert, Laura; Staring, Myrna; Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the progress of a continental-scale full-waveform inversion (FWI) of Africa. From a geodynamic perspective, Africa presents an especially interesting case. This interest stems from the presence of several anomalous features such as a triple junction in the Afar region, a broad region of high topography to the south, and several smaller surface expressions such as the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo Basin. The mechanisms behind these anomalies are not fully clear, and debate on their origin spans causative mechanisms from isostatic forcing, to the influence of localized asthenospheric upwelling, to the presence of deep mantle plumes. As well, the connection of these features to the African LLSVP is uncertain. Tomographic images of Africa present unique challenges due to uneven station coverage: while tectonically active areas such as the Afar rift are well sampled, much of the continent exhibits a severe dearth of seismic stations. As well, while mostly surrounded by tectonically active spreading plate boundaries (a fact which contributes to the difficulties in explaining the South's high topography), sizeable seismic events (M > 5) in the continent's interior are relatively rare. To deal with these issues, we present a combined earthquake and ambient noise full-waveform inversion of Africa. The noise component serves to boost near-surface sensitivity, and aids in mitigating issues related to the sparse source / station coverage. The earthquake component, which includes local and teleseismic sources, aims to better resolve deeper structure. This component also has the added benefit of being especially useful in the search for mantle plumes: synthetic tests have shown that the subtle scattering of elastic waves off mantle plumes makes the plumes an ideal target for FWI [1]. We hope that this new model presents a fresh high-resolution image of sub-African geodynamic structure, and helps advance the debate regarding the causative mechanisms of its surface

  16. Deep Mantle Cycling of Oceanic Crust: Evidence from Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. J.; Kohn, S. C.; Araujo, D.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smith, C. B.; Gaillou, E.; Wang, J.; Steele, A.; Shirey, S. B.

    2011-10-01

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle.

  17. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Kohn, S C; Araujo, D; Bulanova, G P; Smith, C B; Gaillou, E; Wang, J; Steele, A; Shirey, S B

    2011-10-07

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle.

  18. Titanite evidence for Triassic thickened lower crust along southeastern margin of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing-Liang; Gao, Shan; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Hu, Zhao-Chu; Xu, Wen-Liang; Zong, Ke-Qing; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Yuan, Hong-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Titanite U-Pb isotopic and major and trace element compositions of one mafic garnet granulite from a rare suite of lower crustal xenoliths (e.g., eclogite, garnet pyroxenite, and mafic garnet granulite) hosted in Early Cretaceous dioritic porphyries in the Xu-Huai area along the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) were analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS. Titanite occurs as granular grains or coronary rims on rutile. The coronary titanite is clearly a secondary product of rutile decomposition. The granular titanite exhibits zonation in U-Pb age and chemical composition. Petrographic and geochemical evidence suggests that the zonation was formed by thermal diffusion and later fluid-assisted recrystallization. Occurrences of granular titanite between garnet grains point to a pressure of > 10 kbar, while inclusions of rutile inside granular titanite rims imply that the pressure might have reached 15 kbar. Granular titanite cores give U-Pb ages of 237-241 Ma and Zr-temperatures of 794-831 °C at 10 kbar and 850-892 °C at 15 kbar, indicating high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism. Together with previous P-T estimates of coeval eclogite-facies xenoliths, a geotherm of above 60 mW m- 2 is implied. The geotherm plots below the temperature field of amphibole dehydration melting, consistent with presence of abundant amphibole. This geotherm is similar to that of the Kohistan arc, which has preserved a 12-km-thick dense lower crust, but significantly cooler than the geotherm of the Talkeetna arc, where most of the dense lower crust has been foundered. Our results provide new evidence for Triassic thickened dense lower crust along the southeastern margin of the NCC. By comparison with the Kohistan and Talkeetna arc crusts, we suggest that this dense lower crust was not hot enough to be foundered in the Triassic. Foundering must have occurred in the Jurassic-Cretaceous in order to explain the present-day seismic velocity structure characterized by a sharp

  19. Rare-Earth minerals in Martian Meteorite NWA 7034/7533: Evidence for Fluid-Rock Interaction in Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Ma, C.; Chen, Y.; Beckett, J.; Guan, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we reported finding of monazite, chevikinite-perrierite and xenotime in the ‘Black Beauty’ meteorite (NWA 7034/7533). Here, we show textural and compositional evidence of these minerals that suggest hydrothermal fluids in martian crust.

  20. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  1. Neodymium and lead isotope evidence for enriched early Archean crust in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowring, Samuel A.; Housh, Todd B.; Isachsen, Clark E.; Podosek, Frank A.; King, Janet E.

    1989-01-01

    Neodymium and lead isotope measurements and uranium-lead zircon geochronology from Archaean gneisses of the Slave Province in the Northwest Territories of Canada are reported. The gneisses contain zircons with cores older than 3.842 Gyr and an epsilon(Nd) (3.7 Gyr) of - 4.8. This is the oldest reported chondritic model age for a terrestrial sample and provides evidence for strongly enriched pre-3.8-Gyr crust, a reservoir complementary to the depleted mantle already in existence by 3.8 Gyr before the present.

  2. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: Evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kgaswane, Eldridge M.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Juliã, Jordi; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of the lower crust across the southern African shield has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations located in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. For large parts of both Archaean and Proterozoic terrains, the velocity models obtained from the inversions show shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km/s below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating a predominantly mafic lower crust. However, for much of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain in South Africa, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain in Zimbabwe, shear wave velocities of ≤3.9 km/s are found below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The areas of intermediate-to-felsic lower crust in South Africa coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, suggesting that the more evolved composition of the lower crust may have resulted from crustal reworking and extension during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga.

  3. Evolution of continental crust and mantle heterogeneity: Evidence from Hf isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonathan, Patchett P.; Kouvo, O.; Hedge, C.E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1982-01-01

    We present initial 176Hf/177 Hf ratios for many samples of continental crust 3.7-0.3 Gy old. Results are based chiefly on zircons (1% Hf) and whole rocks: zircons are shown to be reliable carriers of essentially the initial Hf itself when properly chosen on the basis of U-Pb studies. Pre-3.0 Gy gneisses were apparently derived from an unfractionated mantle, but both depleted and undepleted mantle are evident as magma sources from 2.9 Gy to present. This mantle was sampled mainly from major crustal growth episodes 2.8, 1.8 and 0.7 Gy ago, all of which show gross heterogeneity of 176Hf/177Hf in magma sources from ??Hf=0 to +14, or about 60% of the variability of the present mantle. The approximate ??Hf=2??Nd relationship in ancient and modern igneous rocks shows that 176Lu/177Hf fractionates in general twice as much as 147Sm/144Nd in mantle melting processes. This allows an estimation of the relative value of the unknown bulk solid/liquid distribution coefficient for Hf. DLu/DHf=??? 2.3 holds for most mantle source regions. For garnet to be an important residual mantle phase, it must hold Hf strongly in order to preserve Hf-Nd isotopic relationships. The ancient Hf initials are consistent with only a small proportion of recycled older cratons in new continental crust, and with quasi-continuous, episodic growth of the continental crust with time. However, recycling of crust less than 150 My old cannot realistically be detected using Hf initials. The mantle shows clearly the general positive ??Hf resulting from a residual geochemical state at least back to 2.9 Gy ago, and seems to have repeatedly possessed a similar degree of heterogeneity, rather than a continuously-developing depletion. This is consistent with a complex dynamic disequilibrium model for the creation, maintenance and destruction of heterogeneity in the mantle. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Blocks in the Europan Crust Provide More Evidence of Subterranean Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The image on the left shows a region of Europa's crust made up of blocks which are thought to have broken apart and 'rafted' into new positions. These features are the best geologic evidence to date that Europa may have had a subsurface ocean at some time in its past. Combined with the geologic data, the presence of a magnetic field leads scientists to believe an ocean is most likely present at Europa today. In this false color image, reddish-brown areas represent non-ice material resulting from geologic activity. White areas are rays of material ejected during the formation of the 25-km diameter impact crater Pwyll (see global view). Icy plains are shown in blue tones to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are ridges and fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. These images were obtained by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during September 7, 1996, December 1996, and February 1997 at a distance of 677,000 kilometers (417,489 miles).

  5. Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing.

    PubMed

    Audet, Pascal; Bostock, Michael G; Christensen, Nikolas I; Peacock, Simon M

    2009-01-01

    Water and hydrous minerals play a key part in geodynamic processes at subduction zones by weakening the plate boundary, aiding slip and permitting subduction-and indeed plate tectonics-to occur. The seismological signature of water within the forearc mantle wedge is evident in anomalies with low seismic shear velocity marking serpentinization. However, seismological observations bearing on the presence of water within the subducting plate itself are less well documented. Here we use converted teleseismic waves to obtain observations of anomalously high Poisson's ratios within the subducted oceanic crust from the Cascadia continental margin to its intersection with forearc mantle. On the basis of pressure, temperature and compositional considerations, the elevated Poisson's ratios indicate that water is pervasively present in fluid form at pore pressures near lithostatic values. Combined with observations of a strong negative velocity contrast at the top of the oceanic crust, our results imply that the megathrust is a low-permeability boundary. The transition from a low- to high-permeability plate interface downdip into the mantle wedge is explained by hydrofracturing of the seal by volume changes across the interface caused by the onset of crustal eclogitization and mantle serpentinization. These results may have important implications for our understanding of seismogenesis, subduction zone structure and the mechanism of episodic tremor and slip.

  6. Pb-isotopic evidence for an early, enriched crust on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Humayun, M.; Hewins, R.; Zanda, B.

    2015-01-01

    Martian meteorite NWA 7533 is a regolith breccia that compositionally resembles the Martian surface measured by orbiters and landers. NWA 7533 contains monzonitic clasts that have zircon with U-Pb ages of 4.428 Ga. The Pb isotopic compositions of plagioclase and alkali feldspars, as well as U-Pb isotopic compositions of chlorapatite in the monzonitic clasts of NWA 7533 have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The U-Pb isotopic compositions measured from the chlorapatite in NWA 7533 yield an age of 1.357 ± 81 Ga (2σ). The least radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions measured in plagioclase and K-feldspar lie within error of the 4.428 Ga Geochron. These data indicate that the monzonitic clasts in NWA 7533 are a product of a differentiation history that includes residence in a reservoir that formed prior to 4.428 Ga with a μ-value (238U/204Pb) of at least 13.4 ± 1.7 (2 σ) and a κ-value (232Th/238U) of ∼4.3. This μ-value is more than three times higher than any other documented Martian reservoir. These results indicate either the Martian mantle is significantly more heterogeneous than previously thought (μ-value of 1-14 vs. 1-5) and/or the monzonitic clasts formed by the melting of Martian crust with a μ-value of at least 13.4. Therefore, NWA 7533 may contain the first isotopic evidence for an enriched, differentiated crust on Mars.

  7. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  8. The Origin of Andesite in the Deep Crust: Evidence from the West-Central Mexican Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, R. A.; Ownby, S.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hall, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    by the crystal-poor examples, and (2) minimal plagioclase accumulation affects the bulk composition of the crystal-rich andesites, which is consistent with the absence of any Eu anomalies. No dacite or rhyolite has erupted, and there is thus no evidence of crystal fractionation of andesite, including segregation of interstitial liquid from crystal-rich andesites in the upper crustal chamber feeding V. Tancítaro. Magma mixing between dacite/rhyolite and basalt/basaltic andesite to make andesite can be ruled out on two counts: (1) the absence of any dacite or rhyolite as a requisite end-member for mixing, and (2) such mixing could not produce crystal-poor (1-5%) andesite. Although hornblende is absent from the phenocryst assemblage of the basalts and basaltic andesites, rare-earth element patterns among the andesites, basaltic andesites, and basalts show that crystal-liquid separation of up to 40% hornblende is required to form the andesites from the basalts. Therefore, the primary mechanism to form crystal-poor andesite in this arc segment appears to be partial melting of hornblende-rich (~40%) gabbronorite in the lowermost crust. No other mechanisms satisfy all the geochemical and petrological constraints.

  9. Andesite Magmas are Produced along Oceanic Arcs where the Crust is Thin: Evidence from Nishinoshima Volcano, Ogasawara Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Sato, T.; Nichols, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The incentive for this study is the ongoing explosive eruption of Nishinoshima volcano, located about 1,000 km south of Tokyo along the Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc. The straightforward but unexpected relationship presented here relates crustal thickness and magma type in the Izu-Ogasawara Oceanic Arc. Volcanoes along the Ogasawara segment of the arc, which include Nishinoshima, are underlain by thin crust (16-21 km)—in contrast to those along the Izu segment, where the crust is ~35 km thick. Interestingly, andesite magmas are dominant products from the former volcanoes and mostly basaltic lavas erupt from the latter. Why and how do volcanoes on the thin crust erupt andesite magmas? An introductory petrology textbook might answer this question by suggesting that, under decreasing pressure and hydrous conditions, the liquidus field of forsterite expands relative to that of enstatite, with the result that, at some point, enstatite melts incongruently to produce primary andesite melt. According to the hypothesis presented here, however, rising mantle diapirs stall near the base of the oceanic arc crust at depths controlled by the thickness of the overlying crust. Where the crust is thin, as along the Ogasawara segment of the arc, pressures are relatively low, and magmas produced in the mantle wedge tend to be andesitic. Where the crust is thick, as along the Izu segment, pressures are greater, and only basaltic magmas tend to be produced. To examine this hypothesis, JAMSTEC cruise NT15-E02 on the R/V Natsushima took place from 11 June to 21 June 2015 to Nishinoshima. It's present island has an elevation of only ~150 m, but its submarine flanks extend to ocean depths of 2,000-3,000 m, so the great bulk of the volcano is submarine and yet-to-be explored. We present the new hypothesis and its evidence from Nishinoshima based on the primitive lavas collected from the submarine parts of the volcano.

  10. Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Copley, Alex; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Brian P

    2011-04-07

    How surface deformation within mountain ranges relates to tectonic processes at depth is not well understood. The upper crust of the Tibetan Plateau is generally thought to be poorly coupled to the underthrusting Indian crust because of an intervening low-viscosity channel. Here, however, we show that the contrast in tectonic regime between primarily strike-slip faulting in northern Tibet and dominantly normal faulting in southern Tibet requires mechanical coupling between the upper crust of southern Tibet and the underthrusting Indian crust. Such coupling is inconsistent with the presence of active 'channel flow' beneath southern Tibet, and suggests that the Indian crust retains its strength as it underthrusts the plateau. These results shed new light on the debates regarding the mechanical properties of the continental lithosphere, and the deformation of Tibet.

  11. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  12. Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: Importance to arid-lands restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Davidson, D.W.; Phillips, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is a global problem, costly to national economies and human societies. Restoration of biological soil crusts (BSCs) may have an important role to play in the reversal of desertification due to their ability to decrease erosion and enhance soil fertility. To determine if there is evidence that lower fertility may hinder BSC recolonization, we investigated the hypothesis that BSC abundance is driven by soil nutrient concentrations. At a regional scale (north and central Colorado Plateau, USA), moss and lichen cover and richness are correlated with a complex water-nutrient availability gradient and have approximately six-fold higher cover and approximately two-fold higher species richness on sandy soils than on shale-derived soils. At a microscale, mosses and lichens are overrepresented in microhabitats under the north sides of shrub canopies, where water and nutrients are more available. At two spatial scales, and at the individual species and community levels, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that distributions of BSC organisms are determined largely by soil fertility. The micronutrients Mn and Zn figured prominently and consistently in the various analyses, strongly suggesting that these elements are previously unstudied limiting factors in BSC development. Structural-equation modeling of our data is most consistent with the hypothesis of causal relationships between the availability of micronutrients and the abundance of the two major nitrogen (N) fixers of BSCs. Specifically, higher Mn availability may determine greater Collema tenax abundance, and both Mn and Zn may limit Collema coccophorum; alternative causal hypotheses were less consistent with the data. We propose experimental trials of micronutrient addition to promote the restoration of BSC function on disturbed lands. Arid lands, where BSCs are most prevalent, cover ???40% of the terrestrial surface of the earth; thus the information gathered in this study is potentially useful

  13. Evidence for ocean-continent crust boundary beneath the abyssal plain of the East Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storetvedt, K. M.

    1987-09-01

    A survey of geophysical results and basalt characteristics of the East Central Atlantic suggests that such data are at present unable to define the seaward limit of the thinned continental crust. The combined evidence from margin sedimentation, deep-sea diapirism, salinity concentration in DSDP-IPOD cores, and the distribution of deep-sea barite and palygorskite-sepiolite assemblages indicate that the Central Atlantic developed from a wide rift basin within a normal continental setting. The notion of an extensive pre-drift basin gains additional support from the occurrences of Lower Cretaceous black shales which are interpreted as resulting from a tectonomagmatic forerunner phase to the actual continental separation process. Seafloor spreading which appears to have commenced at around 90 Ma B.P. (Cenomanian-Turonian), following major phases of subsidence and crustal attenuation in Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, is identified by an apparently sharp change-over from reducing to oxygenated deep-sea environment as well as by the 'onset' of a major sedimentary hiatus. The new development model of the East Central Atlantic is regarded as a representative example of a global pattern; commencement of seafloor spreading in the Upper Cretaceous probably explains the world wide 'Cenomanian' transgression as well as the formation of extensive Upper Cretaceous sedimentary basins in the interior of the major continental blocks. A consequence of this model is that vertical crustal dynamics seem to be as important as seafloor spreading in the development of the oceanic lithosphere. Thus, in the Central Atlantic spreading is probably confined only to the region of the elevated Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  14. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; Blichert-Toft, J; Müller, W; Albarede, F; Holden, P; Mojzsis, S J

    2005-12-23

    The long-favored paradigm for the development of continental crust is one of progressive growth beginning at approximately 4 billion years ago (Ga). To test this hypothesis, we measured initial 176Hf/177Hf values of 4.01- to 4.37-Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia. epsilonHf (deviations of 176Hf/177Hf from bulk Earth in parts per 10(4)) values show large positive and negative deviations from those of the bulk Earth. Negative values indicate the development of a Lu/Hf reservoir that is consistent with the formation of continental crust (Lu/Hf approximately 0.01), perhaps as early as 4.5 Ga. Positive epsilon(Hf) deviations require early and likely widespread depletion of the upper mantle. These results support the view that continental crust had formed by 4.4 to 4.5 Ga and was rapidly recycled into the mantle.

  15. How to identify oceanic crust-Evidence for a complex break-up in the Mozambique Channel, off East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Franke, Dieter; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schnabel, Michael; Stollhofen, Harald; Rose, Jens; Chaheire, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The identification of oceanic crust at rifted margins plays a crucial role in academic research understanding rifting mechanisms and the architecture of continent-ocean boundaries, and is also important for hydrocarbon exploration extending into deeper water. In this paper, we provide a workflow for the determination of the crustal nature in the Mozambique Channel, east of Davie Ridge, by presenting a compilation of several geophysical attributes of oceanic crust at divergent margins. Previous reconstructions locate the Davie Ridge at the trace of a transform fault, along which Madagascar drifted to the south during the breakup of Gondwana. This implies a sharp transition from continental to oceanic crust seaward of Davie Ridge. Using new multichannel seismic profiles offshore northern Mozambique, we are able to identify distinct portions of stretched basement east of Davie Ridge. Two phases of deformation affecting the basement are observed, with the initial phase resulting in the formation of rotated fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Half-grabens are filled with wedge-shaped, syn-extensional sediments overlain by a prominent unconformity that northward merges with the top of highly reflective, mildly deformed basement, interpreted as oceanic crust. The second phase of deformation is associated with wrench faulting and probably correlates with the southward drift of Madagascar, which implies that the preceding phase affected basement generated or modified prior to the opening of the West Somali Basin. We conclude that the basement is unlikely to consist of normal oceanic crust and suggest that the first extensional phase corresponds to rifting between Madagascar and Africa. We find evidence for a wide area affected by strike-slip deformation, in contrast to the earlier proposed major single transform fault in the vicinity of Davie Ridge and suggest that the Mozambique Channel area to the north of Madagascar may be classified as an oblique rather than sheared

  16. Remote sensing evidence for an ancient carbon-bearing crust on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, Patrick N.; Klima, Rachel L.; Lawrence, David J.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Frank, Elizabeth A.; Goldsten, John O.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    Mercury’s global surface is markedly darker than predicted from its measured elemental composition. The darkening agent, which has not been previously identified, is most concentrated within Mercury’s lowest-reflectance spectral unit, the low-reflectance material. This low-reflectance material is generally found in large impact craters and their ejecta, which suggests a mid-to-lower crustal origin. Here we present neutron spectroscopy measurements of Mercury’s surface from the MESSENGER spacecraft that reveal increases in thermal-neutron count rates that correlate spatially with deposits of low-reflectance material. The only element consistent with both the neutron measurements and visible to near-infrared spectra of low-reflectance material is carbon, at an abundance that is 1-3 wt% greater than surrounding, higher-reflectance material. We infer that carbon is the primary darkening agent on Mercury and that the low-reflectance material samples carbon-bearing deposits within the planet’s crust. Our findings are consistent with the formation of a graphite flotation crust from an early magma ocean, and we propose that the heavily disrupted remnants of this ancient layer persist beneath the present upper crust. Under this scenario, Mercury’s globally low reflectance results from mixing of the ancient graphite-rich crust with overlying volcanic materials via impact processes or assimilation of carbon into rising magmas during secondary crustal formation.

  17. Detrital zircon evidence for Hf isotopic evolution of granitoid crust and continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Rino, Shuji; Maruyama, Shigenori; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-04-01

    We have determined U-Pb ages, trace element abundances and Hf isotopic compositions of approximately 1000 detrital zircon grains from the Mississippi, Congo, Yangtze and Amazon Rivers. The U-Pb isotopic data reveal the lack of >3.3 Ga zircons in the river sands, and distinct peaks at 2.7-2.5, 2.2-1.9, 1.7-1.6, 1.2-1.0, 0.9-0.4, and <0.3 Ga in the accumulated age distribution. These peaks correspond well with the timing of supercontinent assembly. The Hf isotopic data indicate that many zircons, even those having Archean U-Pb ages, crystallized from magmas involving an older crustal component, suggesting that granitoid magmatism has been the primary agent of differentiation of the continental crust since the Archean era. We calculated Hf isotopic model ages for the zircons to estimate the mean mantle-extraction ages of their source materials. The oldest zircon Hf model ages of about 3.7 Ga for the river sands suggest that some crust generation had taken place by 3.7 Ga, and that it was subsequently reworked into <3.3 Ga granitoid continental crust. The accumulated model age distribution shows peaks at 3.3-3.0, 2.9-2.4, and 2.0-0.9 Ga. The striking attribute of our new data set is the non-uniformitarian secular change in Hf isotopes of granitoid crusts; Hf isotopic compositions of granitoid crusts deviate from the mantle evolution line from about 3.3 to 2.0 Ga, the deviation declines between 2.0 and 1.3 Ga and again increases afterwards. Consideration of mantle-crust mixing models for granitoid genesis suggests that the noted isotopic trends are best explained if the rate of crust generation globally increased in two stages at around (or before) 3.3 and 1.3 Ga, whereas crustal differentiation was important in the evolution of the continental crust at 2.3-2.2 Ga and after 0.6 Ga. Reconciling the isotopic secular change in granitoid crust with that in sedimentary rocks suggests that sedimentary recycling has essentially taken place in continental settings rather than

  18. Seismic evidence of hyper-stretched crust and mantle exhumation offshore Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savva, D.; Meresse, F.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Lavier, L.; Po, K. Wong; Franke, D.; Steuer, S.; Sapin, F.; Auxietre, J. L.; Lamy, G.

    2013-11-01

    We study the evolution of the Eocene-Recent Phu Khanh Basin opened during the rifting of the South China Sea (SCS). This sub-basin formed when continental crust ruptured along the East-Vietnam Boundary Fault (EVBF) at the western edge of the SCS. Using high quality long-streamer seismic lines we interpret structures that highlight the different phases of the SCS rifting and processes related to crustal boudinage. Extreme crustal thinning and mantle uplift that sometimes places sediments in contact with the Moho discontinuity mark the central part of the basin. The mantle is shallowest there and marks the final rupture of the continental crust during an intense phase of mantle upwelling. There, a low-angle detachment fault separates several crustal blocks from the Moho. The cylindrical axis of the Moho rise is roughly parallel to the trend of the South China Sea propagator. Above the mantle, the upper and lower crusts form large crustal boudins. The network of normal faults is dense in the upper crust and occasionally propagates into the lower crust. However, the lower crust is missing at some places. The seismic facies above the Moho rise is poorly stratified and might have been affected by a certain degree of metamorphism. At the apex of mantle uplift, there are frequent indications of fluid circulations, including volcanic edifices and gas escapes features. Three stages of extension are clearly identifiable, with ages of the two youngest constrained by well calibration: the first and oldest rift sequence is situated between the tilted pre-rift basement and the Oligocene horizons (32 Ma); the second is delimited by the Oligocene to the Mid Miocene (15.5 Ma) horizons, and the third is bound by the Mid Miocene and the Upper Miocene (before 10.5 Ma) horizons. These three rift episodes formed in at least two extension directions, the first N-S and the second NW-SE. The distinct Mid Miocene (15.5 Ma) horizon is tilted and the above layers show a diverging reflection

  19. Hydrological behaviour of microbiotic crusts on sand dunes of NW China: Experimental evidences and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin Ping; Tedeschi, Anna; Orefice, Nadia; de Mascellis, Roberto; Menenti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Large ecological engineering projects were established to reduce and combat the hazards of sandstorms and desertification in northern China. An experiment to evaluate the effects of dunes stabilization by vegetation was carried out at Shapotou in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region at the southeast edge of the Tengger Desert using xerophyte shrubs (Caragana korshinskii, Hedysarum scoparium and Artemisia ordosica) planted in straw checkerboard plots in 1956, 1964, 1981, 1987, 1998, and 2002. The fixed sand surface led to the formation of biotic soil crusts. Biotic crusts formed at the soil surface in the interspaces between shrubs and contribute to stabilization of soil surfaces. Previous results on the area have showed that: i) straw checkerboards enhance the capacity of the dune system to trap dust, leading to the accumulation of soil organic matter and nutrients; ii) the longer the period of dune stabilization, the greater the soil clay content in the shallow soil profile (0-5 cm), and greater the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution. Benefit apart, one should be aware that the formation of a crusted layer at the soil surface is generally characterized by an altered pore-size distribution, with a frequent decrease of hydraulic conductivity which can induce changes of the water regime of the whole soil profile. Accordingly, the main objective of the paper is to evaluate the equivalent (from a hydraulic point of view) geometry of the crusted layer and to verify if the specific characteristics of the crusted soil layer, although local by nature, affect the hydrological behaviour of the whole soil profile. In fact, it is expected that, due to the formation of an upper, impeding soil layer, the lower soil layers do not reach saturation. Such behaviour has important consequences on both water flow and storages in soils. The final aim will be to understand how the crust at the surface of the artificially stabilized sand dune affects the infiltration capacity

  20. Revisiting diagenesis on the Ontong Java Plateau: Evidence for authigenic crust precipitation in Globorotalia tumida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branson, Oscar; Read, Elizabeth; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Rau, Christoph; Elderfield, Henry

    2015-11-01

    The calcite tests of foraminifera lie in marine sediments for thousands to millions of years, before being analyzed to generate trace element and isotope paleoproxy records. These sediments constitute a distinct physio-chemical environment from the conditions in which the tests formed. Storage in sediments can modify the trace element and isotopic content of foraminiferal calcite through diagenetic alteration, which has the potential to confound their paleoceanographic interpretation. A previous study of Globorotalia tumida from the Ontong Java Plateau, western equatorial Pacific, found that preferential dissolution of higher-Mg chamber calcite and the preservation of a low-Mg crust on the tests significantly reduced whole-test Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca. Here we revisit specimens with a combination of synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (sXCT) and electron probe microanalyses to reevaluate the nature of their diagenetic alteration. The dissolution of higher-Mg calcite with depth was directly observed in the sXCT data, confirming the inference of the previous study. The sXCT data further reveal a thickening of the chemically and structurally distinct calcite crust with depth. We propose that these crusts have a diagenetic origin, driven by the simultaneous dissolution of high-Mg chamber calcite and precipitation of low-Mg crust from the resulting modified pore water solution. While the breadth of the study is limited by the nature of the techniques, the observation of both dissolution and reprecipitation of foraminiferal calcite serves to demonstrate the action of two simultaneous diagenetic alteration processes, with significant impacts on the resulting paleoproxy signals.

  1. Seismic evidence for hyper-stretched crust and mantle exhumation offshore Vietnam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savva, D.; Meresse, F.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Franke, D.; Steuer, S.; Sapin, F.; Auxietre, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The Phu Khan basin is one of the sub-basins opened during the rifting of the South China Sea during the Eocene. The basin is located against the East-Vietnam Boundary Fault (EVBF) to the west and the oceanic crust to the east. Good quality seismic lines allow us to observe structures which highlight the rifting history of the South China Sea margin and the processes of crustal boudinage. A Moho rise is the prominent feature of the Central part of the basin. The mantle is shallowest in the center of the basin and at places is directly in contact with the sediments, via a large low-angle detachment fault which separates several crustal blocks. The axis of the Moho rise is roughly parallel to the South China Sea propagator direction. As a consequence, the upper and lower crusts are strongly extended by large crustal boudins. The network of normal fault is dense in the upper crust and propagates into the lower crust occasionally. However, the lower crust seems to be missing at some places. At the apex of the Moho rise, several indicators of fluids circulations have been observed, including volcanic edifices and gas escapes features. The seismic facies just above this Moho rise looks poorly stratified and might be affected by a certain degree of metamorphism. Three stages of extension are clearly identifiable, with age constrained by wells calibration of the horizons: the oldest rift sequence is identified from basement to Oligocene horizons; a second from Oligocene to Mid Miocene (15.5 Ma), and a third from Mid-Miocene to Upper Miocene (10.5 Ma). These three rifts have been formed with at least two directions of extension, a first which is North-South and a second NW - SE The well imaged 15.5 Ma horizon is tilted, as well as part of the subsequent in-filling which is fan-shaped. These are in turn sealed by the 10.5Ma unconformity. Although tectonic activity appears diachronous from north to south, we suggest that cessation of rifting and opening did not occur before 12

  2. Late Permian Melt Percolation through the Crust of North-Central Africa and Its Possible Relationship to the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T. Y.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Lo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Doba gabbro was collected from an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is comprised mostly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide minerals and displays cumulus mineral textures. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating geochronology yielded a Late Permian plateau age of 257 ± 1 Ma. The major and trace elemental geochemistry shows that the gabbro is mildly alkalic to tholeiitic in composition and has trace element ratios (i.e. La/YbN > 7; Sm/YbPM > 3.4; Nb/Y > 1; Zr/Y > 5) indicative of a basaltic melt derived from a garnet-bearing sublithospheric mantle source. The moderately enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.70495 to 0.70839; eNd(T) = -1.0 to -1.3) fall within the mantle array (i.e. OIB-like) and are similar to other Late Permian plutonic rocks of North-Central Africa (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7070). The Late Permian plutonic igneous complexes of North-Central Africa are geologically associated with tectonic lineaments suggesting they acted as conduits for sublithospheric melts to migrate to middle/upper crustal levels. The source of the magmas may be related to the spatial-temporal association of North-Central Africa with the African large low shear velocity province (LLSVP). The African LLSVP has remained stable since the Late Carboniferous and was beneath the Doba basin during the Permian. We suggest that melts derived from deep seated sources related to the African LLSVP percolated through the North-Central African crust via older tectonic lineaments and form a discontiguous magmatic province.

  3. Evidence for the Buried "Pre-Noachian" Crust Pre-Dating the Oldest Observed Surface Units on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; Frey, E. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Tanaka, K. L. T.

    2003-01-01

    MOLA gridded data shows clear evidence for Quasi-Circular Depressions not visible on images in Early Noachian (EN) terrain units on Mars. We suggest these are buried impact basins that pre-date the superimposed craters whose high density makes these EN units the oldest visible at the surface of Mars. There is crust older than the oldest visible terrain units on Mars, and these EN units cannot date from 4.6 BYA. These and other Noa-chian units have similar total (visible + buried) crater retention ages, suggesting a common "pre-Noachian" crustal age OR crater saturation beyond which we cannot see.

  4. Deucalionis Regio, Mars: Evidence for a unique mineralogic endmember and a crusted surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merenyi, E.; Edgett, K. S.; Singer, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    A small equatorial region south of Sinus Meridiani, Deucalionis Regio, has been found spectrally distinct from other regions as seen in a high spectral resolution telescopic image of the meridian hemisphere of Mars. Analysis of Viking IRTM and other related data suggest that Deucalionis Regio has a crusted surface. The crust-bonding minerals may contribute to the spectral uniqueness of this region. Two independent analyses of spectral images, linear spectral mixing and supervised classification based on the spectral shapes, showed that in addition to the well-known spectral endmember regions in this image (western Arabia, south Acidalia, and Sinus Meridiani), Deucalionis Regio has spectral properties that are unique enough to make it a principle endmember unit. In those earlier works, Deucalionis Regio was referred to as 'Meridiani Border.' Analysis of thermal inertia, rock abundance, and albedo information derived from Viking images and Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data obtained 1977-80 also indicate that Deucalionis Regio has a surface of distinctly different physical properties when compared to Arabia, Sinus Meridiani, and Acidalia. Deucalionis Regio has a thermal inertia equivalent to the Martian average, a low rock abundance (less than 5 percent), and an intermediate albedo and color. Considerable effort by previous investigators has revealed a consistent model for the surface (upper few cm) properties of the endmember reigons Arabia, Sinus Meridiani, and Acidalia. Compared with these regions, we consider that Deucalionis Regio is not a region of either (1) unconsolidated, fine bright dust like Arabia, (2) considerable windblown unconsolidated sand like Sinus Meridiani, or (3) a rocky-and-sandy surface like Acidalia. Thus, we are forced to consider that either the surface of Deucalionis Regio is made of unconsolidated fine to medium sand (about 250 microns) of an unusual and previously unreported color and albedo, or that the surface is crusted, fine

  5. Crust beneath the northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province, India: Evidence for uplift and magmatic underplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Madhusudhan; Kumar, M. Ravi; Rastogi, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province of India and its pericratonic rift basins were reactivated during different stages after the breakup of India from the Gondwanaland and collision with the Asian plate. In this study, we present results of crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratios beneath this plume-affected region using common conversion point imaging and H-k stacking analysis of 6893 receiver functions using data from a network comprising 58 broadband seismic stations sited on diverse tectonic terrains. We find large variations in crustal thickness, with the Moho depths varying from 28 to 43 km in the Kachchh rift, 28 to 38 km in the Cambay rift, 39.5-41.5 km in the north and eastern parts of the Cambay rift, and 29 to 39 km in the Saurashtra region and South Gujarat. A Moho upwarp of 6 to 7 km in the Saurashtra region can be attributed to positive buoyancy and uplift due to thermal influx affected by the Reunion plume. High crustal Vp/Vs ratios beneath the Kachchh rift (1.8 to 2.05), coastal areas of Saurashtra (1.75 to 2.06), and North Gujarat (1.81 to 1.85) indicate dominance of a mafic/ultramafic crust. High regional heat flow, high electrical conductivity, large intracrustal S wave velocity reduction, and high average crustal Poisson's ratios are consistent with partial melt related to the process of magmatic underplating in the lower crust. At other stations, the crust appears to be felsic with Vp/Vs ratios in the range of 1.57 to 1.76.

  6. Thorium isotope evidence for melting of the mafic oceanic crust beneath the Izu arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Heye; Ivko, Ben; Gill, James B.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Elliott, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We address the question of whether melting of the mafic oceanic crust occurs beneath ordinary volcanic arcs using constraints from U-Series (238U/232Th, 230Th/232Th and 226Ra/230Th) measurements. Alteration of the top few hundred meters of the mafic crust leads to strong U enrichment. Via decay of 238U to 230Th, this results in elevated (230Th/232Th) (where brackets indicate activity ratios) over time-scales of ∼350 ka. This process leads to the high (230Th/232Th), between 2.6 and 11.0 in the mafic altered oceanic crust (AOC) sampled at ODP Sites 801 and 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Th activity ratios in the Izu arc lavas range from (230Th/232Th) = 1.2-2.0. These values are substantially higher than those in bulk sediment subducting at the Izu trench and also extend to higher values than in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the Mariana arc. We show that the range in Th isotope ratios in the Izu arc lavas is consistent with the presence of a slab melt from a mixed source consisting of AOC and subducted sediments with an AOC mass fraction of up to approximately 80 wt.% in the component added to the arc lava source. The oceanic plate subducting at the Izu arc is comparatively cold which therefore indicates that temperatures high enough for fluid-saturated melting of the AOC are commonly achieved beneath volcanic arcs. The high ratio of AOC/sediments of the slab melt component suggested for the Izu arc lavas requires preferential melting of the AOC. This can be achieved when fluid-saturated melting of the slab is triggered by fluids derived from underlying subducted serpentinites. Dehydration of serpentinites and migration of the fluid into the overlying crust causes melting to start within the AOC. The absence of a significant sediment melt component suggests there was insufficient water to flux both AOC and overlying sediments.

  7. Evidence from the lamarck granodiorite for rapid late cretaceous crust formation in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Frost, T.P.; Glazner, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopic data for rocks from the voluminous 90-million-year-old Lamarck intrusive suite in the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, show little variation across a compositional range from gabbro to granite. Data for three different gabbro intrusions within the suite are identical within analytical error and are consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source. Recognition of local involvement of enriched mantle during generation of the Sierran batholith modifies estimates of crustal growth rates in the United States. These data indicate that parts of the Sierra Nevada batholith may consist almost entirely of juvenile crust added during Cretaceous magmatism.

  8. Evidence from the lamarck granodiorite for rapid late cretaceous crust formation in california.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D S; Glazner, A F; Frost, T P

    1992-12-18

    Strontium and neodymium isotopic data for rocks from the voluminous 90-million-year-old Lamarck intrusive suite in the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, show little variation across a compositional range from gabbro to granite. Data for three different gabbro intrusions within the suite are identical within analytical error and are consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source. Recognition of local involvement of enriched mantle during generation of the Sierran batholith modifies estimates of crustal growth rates in the United States. These data indicate that parts of the Sierra Nevada batholith may consist almost entirely of juvenile crust added during Cretaceous magmatism.

  9. Evidence from xenoliths for a dynamic lower crust, eastern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanchar, John M.; Miller, Calvin F.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Bennett, Victoria C.; Staude, John-Mark G.

    1994-01-01

    Garnet-rich xenoliths in a Tertiary dike in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, preserve information about the nature and history of the lower crust. These xenoliths record pressures of ∼ 10–12 kbar and temperatures of ∼ 750–800°C. Approximately 25% have mafic compositions and bear hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + quartz in addition to garnet. The remainder, all of which contain quartz, include quartzose, quartzofeldspathic, and aluminous (kyanite±sillimanite-bearing) varieties. Most xenoliths have identifiable protoliths—mafic from intermediate or mafic igneous rocks, quartzose from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks, aluminous from Al-rich graywackes or pelites, and quartzofeldspathic from feldspathic sediments and/or intermediate to felsic igneous rocks. However, many have unusual chemical compositions characterized by high FeO(t), FeO(t)/MgO, Al2O3, and Al2O3/CaO, which correspond to high garnet abundance. The mineralogy and major-and trace-element compositions are consistent with the interpretation that the xenoliths are the garnet-rich residues of high-pressure crustal melting, from which granitic melt was extracted. High 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd, together with highly discordant zircons from a single sample with Pb/Pb ages of ∼ 1.7 Ga, demonstrate that the crustal material represented by the xenoliths is at least as old as Early Proterozoic. This supracrustal-bearing lithologic assemblage may have been emplaced in the lower crust during either Proterozoic or Mesozoic orogenesis, but Sr and Nd model ages> 4 Ga require late Phanerozoic modification of parent/daughter ratios, presumably during the anatectic event. Pressures of equilibration indicate that peak metamorphism and melting occurred before the Mojave crust had thinned to its current thickness of <30 km. The compositions of the xenoliths suggest that the lower crust here is grossly similar to estimated world-wide lower-crustal compositions in terms of silica and mafic content

  10. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago.

    PubMed

    Wilde, S A; Valley, J W; Peck, W H; Graham, C M

    2001-01-11

    No crustal rocks are known to have survived since the time of the intense meteor bombardment that affected Earth between its formation about 4,550 Myr ago and 4,030 Myr, the age of the oldest known components in the Acasta Gneiss of northwestern Canada. But evidence of an even older crust is provided by detrital zircons in metamorphosed sediments at Mt Narryer and Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, where grains as old as approximately 4,276 Myr have been found. Here we report, based on a detailed micro-analytical study of Jack Hills zircons, the discovery of a detrital zircon with an age as old as 4,404+/-8 Myr--about 130 million years older than any previously identified on Earth. We found that the zircon is zoned with respect to rare earth elements and oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O values from 7.4 to 5.0%), indicating that it formed from an evolving magmatic source. The evolved chemistry, high delta18O value and micro-inclusions of SiO2 are consistent with growth from a granitic melt with a delta18O value from 8.5 to 9.5%. Magmatic oxygen isotope ratios in this range point toward the involvement of supracrustal material that has undergone low-temperature interaction with a liquid hydrosphere. This zircon thus represents the earliest evidence for continental crust and oceans on the Earth.

  11. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  12. Seismic reflection character of the Cameroon volcanic line: Evidence for uplifted oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.B.; Rosendahl, B.R. )

    1991-11-01

    Deep-imaging multifold seismic lines across submarine parts of the Cameroon volcanic line (west Africa-Gulf of Guinea) show asymmetric uplift of oceanic crust associated with extensive magmatism. The main pulse of uplift occurred after creation of a regional sequence boundary believed to be Miocene in age. The apparent synchroneity of uplift argues against the Cameroon line being a simple hotspot trace, as previously inferred. One plausible theory of origin for the seaward part of the Cameroon volcanic line and its asymmetric uplift geometry combines regional asthenospheric upwelling with restriction of magmatic egress to regularly spaced weak spots, corresponding to fracture-zone crossings. Horizontal motion and buckling also may have occurred along the Cameroon volcanic line.

  13. Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex: Stable isotope evidence for shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; Valley, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate that unusual rocks at the upper contact of the Archean Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex at Fiskenaesset Harbor (southwest Greenland) are the products of hydrothermal alteration by seawater at the time of anorthosite intrusion. Subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism of these Ca-poor and Al- and Mg-rich rocks produced sapphirine- and kornerupine-bearing assemblages. Because large amounts of surface waters cannot penetrate to depths of 30 km during granulite-facies metamorphism, the isotopic signature of the contact rocks must have been obtained prior to regional metamorphism. The stable isotope and geochemical characteristics of the contact rocks support a model of shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust for the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Andrew J; Christensen, Philip R

    2012-04-27

    Athabasca Valles is a near-equatorial martian outflow channel that contains many well-preserved features whose formation and composition have been a point of contention. Large plates of terrain that have clearly fractured and drifted may have once been ice rafts or the rocky solidification crust of a large lava flow. We have identified 269 spiral coils ranging from 5 to 30 meters wide on the polygonally patterned interplate terrain that are morphologically consistent with terrestrial lava coils that form in zones of flow shear. This patterned terrain also exhibits signs of fracture and drift, indicating that it is platelike as well. The coils in the Athabasca region are inconsistent with ice rheology, and the plates, spirals, and polygons are interpreted to be of volcanic origin.

  15. Processes of lithosphere evolution: New evidence on the structure of the continental crust and uppermost mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.; Perchuc, E.; Thybo, H.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the structure of the continental lithosphere, its physical properties, and the mechanisms that formed and modified it since the early Archean. The structure of the upper mantle and the crust is derived primarily from global and regional seismic tomography studies of Eurasia and from global and regional data on seismic anisotropy. These data as documented in the papers of this special issue of Tectonophysics are used to illustrate the role of different tectonic processes in the lithospheric evolution since Archean to present. These include, but are not limited to, cratonization, terrane accretion and collision, continental rifting (both passive and active), subduction, and lithospheric basal erosion due to a relative motion of cratonic keels and the convective mantle. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial melting of the South Qinling orogenic crust, China: Evidence from Triassic migmatites and diorites of the Foping dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Ye, Ri-Sheng; Liu, Bing-Xiang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Shuo; Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun

    2016-09-01

    The Qinling orogen was ultimately formed by suturing of the South Qinling and Yangtze blocks, but the exact timing of the final amalgamation of the two blocks has not been well established so far. Partial melting of the Qinling orogenic continental crust resulted in the generation of migmatites, and such rocks may help to decipher the chronology of such event. In this paper, we report U-Pb ages, trace element, and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from migmatites and diorite gneisses of the Foping dome, South Qinling. Zircons from migmatites form anhedral grains of variable sizes that are characterized by complex trace element compositions. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, the migmatites can be subdivided into two groups: Group 1 migmatites mainly retain Triassic zircons with U-Pb ages of 214-211 Ma and Hf model ages of 1.46 Ga in core and rim domains; zircons from Group 2 migmatites record both Triassic ( 210 Ma) and Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages, analogous to igneous rocks of the Wudang and Yaolinghe Groups exposed in South Qinling. Zircons from the diorite gneisses yield U-Pb ages of 216-210 Ma with Hf isotopic composition (TDM2 ages of 1.46 Ga) similar to the migmatites. Evidence from whole-rock Nd isotopic analyses also points to a similar genesis between migmatites and diorite gneisses. It is proposed that Group 1 migmatites were derived by melting of Triassic diorites, while Group 2 migmatites were derived from Neoproterozoic igneous rocks, a major basement lithology of South Qinling. Partial melting of the orogenic crust took place at 214-210 Ma, approximately consistent with the retrograde metamorphism of granulites exposed along the suture zone between the South Qinling and Yangtze blocks. We suggest that the collision of these two blocks occurred prior to 215 Ma and that the Foping dome resulted from rapid collapse of an overthickened crust followed by partial melting enhanced by asthenospheric influx.

  17. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2016-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  18. Mineralogical Evidence for the Bulk Transformation of Continental Crust to Ultrahigh-Pressure Conditions in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Evidence for (ultra)high-pressure --(U)HP-- metamorphism in modern orogenic belts and the preservation of exhumed (U)HP terranes around the world suggest that subduction and exhumation of continental crust plays an important role in Phanerozoic plate tectonics. The Western Gneiss region (WGR) of Norway, a major (U)HP province extending over 60,000 km2, provides an excellent opportunity to study how subduction to depths >100 km affects continental crust. By studying a ~60 km wide transect bounded to the north by Vartdalsfjorden and Rovdefjorden and the south by the Möre og Romsdal county boundary, we are able to examine mineralogical changes that occurred during subduction and exhumation within a rock composed predominantly of orthogneiss and variably transformed mafic bodies, which indicate the depths to which these rocks were subducted. Previous studies (e.g. Hacker et al., 2005) have suggested that Caledonian deformation in WGR host gneisses is primarily limited to brittle-ductile fabrics characterized by greenschist to lower-amphibolite facies metamorphism; the majority of the deformation in the rocks, including the pervasive foliation and foliation-parallel isoclinal folds, occurred between 1200 and 900 Ma. On the northern half of our study area, however, locally occurring neoblastic garnet crosscuts the foliation in the gneiss. The boundary of this garnet zone coincides with the local HP-UHP boundary, as determined by the presence of coesite in eclogite. Because garnet can retain information about changes in pressure and temperature, as well as the availability of water within the crust to catalyze chemical reactions, our findings suggest that 1) portions of the orthogneiss did transform at high pressures, 2) the presence of garnet within the orthogneiss may indicate conditions that approximate UHP and can therefore be useful in defining the boundaries between UHP and HP conditions, and 3) the growth of garnet during (U)HP metamorphism may be controlled by

  19. Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the El Capitan Granite, California, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratajeski, K.; Sisson, T.W.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial melting of mafic intrusions recently emplaced into the lower crust can produce voluminous silicic magmas with isotopic ratios similar to their mafic sources. Low-temperature (825 and 850??C) partial melts synthesized at 700 MPa in biotite-hornblende gabbros from the central Sierra Nevada batholith (Sisson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635-661, 2005) have major-element and modeled trace-element (REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Th, U) compositions matching those of the Cretaceous El Capitan Granite, a prominent granite and silicic granodiorite pluton in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith (Yosemite, CA, USA) locally mingled with coeval, isotopically similar quartz diorite through gabbro intrusions (Ratajeski et al. in Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1486-1502, 2001). These results are evidence that the El Capitan Granite, and perhaps similar intrusions in the Sierra Nevada batholith with lithospheric-mantle-like isotopic values, were extracted from LILE-enriched, hydrous (hornblende-bearing) gabbroic rocks in the Sierran lower crust. Granitic partial melts derived by this process may also be silicic end members for mixing events leading to large-volume intermediate composition Sierran plutons such as the Cretaceous Lamarck Granodiorite. Voluminous gabbroic residues of partial melting may be lost to the mantle by their conversion to garnet-pyroxene assemblages during batholithic magmatic crustal thickening. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  20. Mantle CO2 degassing through the Icelandic crust: Evidence from carbon isotopes in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E.; Heinemeier, Jan; Arnórsson, Stefán; Kjartansdóttir, Ríkey; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    2016-10-01

    Carbon isotopes of groundwater in Iceland were studied in order to determine the source and reactions of carbon at divergent plate boundaries not associated with active volcanic systems. All the waters were of meteoric origin, with temperatures of 1-130 °C, pH of ∼4.5-10.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (∑CO2) between 1.8 and 4100 ppm. The measured range of δ13CO2 and 14CO2 in these waters was large, -27.4 to +2.0‰ and 0.6-118 pMC, respectively. The sources and reactions of dissolved inorganic carbon were studied by comparing the measured chemical and isotope composition with those simulated using isotope geochemical models. Three major sources of CO2 were identified: (1) dissolution of partially degassed basaltic rocks formed at the surface or shallow depths, (2) atmospheric CO2 through air-water exchange at surface, and (3) input of gas at depth into the groundwater systems that has similar carbon and isotope composition as the pre-erupted melt of the upper mantle and lower crust beneath Iceland. In the groundwater systems the CO2 chemistry and isotope content are modified due to carbonate mineral precipitation and changes in aqueous species distribution upon progressive water-rock interaction; these changes needed to be quantified in order to reveal the various CO2 sources. The CO2 flux of the Icelandic crust was estimated to be ∼5-10 · 1010 mol/yr with as high as 50% of the flux not associated with active volcanic centers but placed off-axis where a significant proportion of the CO2 may originate from the mantle. The mantle input of the groundwater off-axis corresponds to CO2 partial pressures of ∼10-6-1 bar and to a mantle CO2 flux of <5 · 105 mol/km2/yr for most areas and up to 125 · 105 and 1600 · 105 for the Southern Lowlands and Snæfellsnes Peninsula, respectively. The CO2 flux from active volcanic geothermal systems in Iceland was estimated to be ∼500-3000 · 105 mol CO2/km2/yr, considerably greater than the highest values observed off-axis.

  1. Featureless spectra on the Moon as evidence of residual lunar primordial crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Nakamura, R.; Matsunaga, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Morota, T.; Hirata, N.; Ohtake, M.; Hiroi, T.; Yokota, Y.; Haruyama, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the global distribution of areas exhibiting no absorption features (featureless or FL) on the lunar surface, based on the reflectance spectral data set obtained by the Spectral Profiler onboard Kaguya/SELENE. We found that FL sites are located in impact basins and large impact craters in the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, while there are no FL sites in the Procellarum regions nor the South Pole-Aitken basin. FL sites in each impact basin/crater are mainly found at the peak rings or rims, where the purest anorthosite (PAN) sites are also found. At the local scale, most of the FL and PAN points are associated with impact craters and peaks. Most of the FL spectra show a steeper (redder) continuum than the PAN spectra, suggesting the occurrence of space weathering effects. We propose that most of the material exhibiting a FL spectrum originate from space weathered PAN. Taking into account all the occurrence trends of FL sites on the Moon, we propose that both the FL and PAN materials were excavated from the primordial lunar crust during ancient basin formations below the megaregolith in the highlands. Since the FL and PAN sites are widely distributed over the lunar surface, our new data may support the existence of a massive PAN layer below the lunar surface.

  2. Continental growth through time by underplating of subducted oceanic crust: Evidence from kimberlites in South Africa and SW Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1988-01-01

    In the dynamic model of plate tectonics, it is evident that crustal components are returned to the mantle by subduction. Chemical signatures of these subducted components were identified in ocean island volcanics and in island arc volcanics. Indeed, an origin involving a subducted protolith was postulated for certain types of xenoliths in kimberlite, including diamonds. Recent studies of eclogite xenoliths in kimberlite from southern Africa and megacrysts form the Malaitan alnoite, Solomon islands, indicate that lithospheric underplating by subducted oceanic crust has occurred in these two contrasting areas. The results of new eclogite studies from the Bellsbank kimberlite, South Africa, and isotopic data from the Malaitan alnoite megacryst suite. This forms the basis for discerning the role of lithospheric underplating in the growth of cratons and in the evolution of mantle-derived magma.

  3. East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S J; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Caro, T M; FitzGibbon, C; Aggundey, I; Leakey, R E

    1987-01-01

    A combined population genetic and reproductive analysis was undertaken to compare free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa (Acinonyx jubatus raineyi) with the genetically impoverished and reproductively impaired south African subspecies (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Like that of their south African counterparts, the quality of semen specimens from east African cheetahs was poor, with a low concentration of spermatozoa (25.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and a high incidence of morphological abnormalities (79%). From an electrophoretic survey of the products of 49 genetic loci in A. jubatus raineyi, two allozyme polymorphisms were detected; one of these, for a nonspecific esterase, shows an allele that is rare (less than 1% incidence) in south African specimens. Estimates of polymorphism (2-4%) and average heterozygosity (0.0004-0.014) affirm the cheetah as the least genetically variable felid species. The genetic distance between south and east African cheetahs was low (0.004), suggesting that the development of genetic uniformity preceded the recent geographic isolation of the subspecies. We propose that at least two population bottlenecks followed by inbreeding produced the modern cheetah species. The first and most extreme was ancient, possibly late Pleistocene (circa 10,000 years ago); the second was more recent (within the last century) and led to the south African populations.

  4. East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks?

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Caro, T M; FitzGibbon, C; Aggundey, I; Leakey, R E

    1987-01-01

    A combined population genetic and reproductive analysis was undertaken to compare free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa (Acinonyx jubatus raineyi) with the genetically impoverished and reproductively impaired south African subspecies (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Like that of their south African counterparts, the quality of semen specimens from east African cheetahs was poor, with a low concentration of spermatozoa (25.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and a high incidence of morphological abnormalities (79%). From an electrophoretic survey of the products of 49 genetic loci in A. jubatus raineyi, two allozyme polymorphisms were detected; one of these, for a nonspecific esterase, shows an allele that is rare (less than 1% incidence) in south African specimens. Estimates of polymorphism (2-4%) and average heterozygosity (0.0004-0.014) affirm the cheetah as the least genetically variable felid species. The genetic distance between south and east African cheetahs was low (0.004), suggesting that the development of genetic uniformity preceded the recent geographic isolation of the subspecies. We propose that at least two population bottlenecks followed by inbreeding produced the modern cheetah species. The first and most extreme was ancient, possibly late Pleistocene (circa 10,000 years ago); the second was more recent (within the last century) and led to the south African populations. PMID:3467370

  5. Coesite-bearing Assemblages as The Direct Evidence For The Involvement of Subducted Crust in The Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logvinova, A. M.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2006-12-01

    As a SiO2 phase could not originate in ultramafic environment at pressures higher than around 2.8 MPa (O'Hara and Yoder, 1967, Scott. J. of Geology 3, 67), presence of coesite (Cs) in the deep mantle may directly indicate recycling of subducted crust. Here we review available data on the compositions of Cs bearing assemblages in eclogite xenoliths and diamonds from kimberlites and lamproites. The isolated Cs inclusions in two diamonds (Harris, Ind. Dia. Rev., 1968, 28, 402) and a full set of eclogitic minerals [Cs, Grt, Cpx] in two Yakutian diamonds (Sobolev et al., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1976, 230,1442) followed by find of Cs-grospydite (Smyth and Hatton, EPSL, 1977, 34, 284) testify to the importance of coesite as a constituent of a part of diamond forming environment, in particular, eclogitic rocks in subcratonic mantle. Since these earlier times, coesite has been documented in more than 300 natural diamonds from 30 localities worldwide. Some 50 xenoliths of Cs-eclogites were found both in South African and Yakutian kimberlites. All documented DIs with coesite are from wide range of assemblages: websterites, eclogites, kyanite eclogites, grospydites and calcsilicate assemblages with an extremely broad range in Grt [3.7 to 28.7 wt. percent CaO] and Cpx [0.2 to 8.8 wt. percent Na2O] compositions. Diamonds with coesite inclusions have a wide range in carbon isotopic composition [0.5 permile to minus 24.5 permile 13C, PDB], however, most of them are depleted in 13C (e.g. Sobolev et al., Dokl. Nauk SSSR, 1979, 249, 1217). The anomalously high oxygen isotope values are observed in coesite from such diamonds (Schulze et al., Nature, 2003, 423, 68). Fossilized high pressure [up to 5.5 GPa] in coesite inclusions from some diamonds have been identified and measured by using laser Raman and synchrotron X-ray microanalytical techniques (e.g. Sobolev et al., PNAS, 200, 97, 11875). Thus the depth of formation of diamonds containing coesite inclusions exceeds 150 km. The wide

  6. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions.

  7. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  8. Geochemical evidence for pre- and syn-rifting lithospheric foundering in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, W. R.; Furman, T.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is the archetypal active continental rift. The rift branches cut through the elevated Ethiopian and Kenyan domes and are accompanied by a >40 Myr volcanic record. This record is often used to understand changing mantle dynamics, but this approach is complicated by the diversity of spatio-temporally constrained, geochemically unique volcanic provinces. Various sources have been invoked to explain the geochemical variability across the EARS (e.g. mantle plume(s), both enriched and depleted mantle, metasomatized or pyroxenitic lithosphere, continental crust). Mantle contributions are often assessed assuming adiabatic melting of mostly peridotitic material due to extension or an upwelling thermal plume. However, metasomatized lithospheric mantle does not behave like fertile or depleted peridotite mantle, so this model must be modified. Metasomatic lithologies (e.g. pyroxenite) are unstable compared to neighboring peridotite and can founder into the underlying asthenosphere via ductile dripping. As such a drip descends, the easily fusible metasomatized lithospheric mantle heats conductively and melts at increasing T and P; the subsequent volcanic products in turn record this drip magmatism. We re-evaluated existing data of major mafic volcanic episodes throughout the EARS to investigate potential evidence for lithospheric drip foundering that may be an essential part of the rifting process. The data demonstrate clearly that lithospheric drip melting played an important role in pre-flood basalt volcanism in Turkana (>35 Ma), high-Ti "mantle plume-derived" flood basalts and picrites (HT2) from NW Ethiopia (~30 Ma), Miocene shield volcanism on the E Ethiopian Plateau and in Turkana (22-26 Ma), and Quaternary volcanism in Virunga (Western Rift) and Chyulu Hills (Eastern Rift). In contrast, there is no evidence for drip melting in "lithosphere-derived" flood basalts (LT) from NW Ethiopia, Miocene volcanism in S Ethiopia, or Quaternary

  9. Xenoliths in ultrapotassic volcanic rocks in the Lhasa block: direct evidence for crust-mantle mixing and metamorphism in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Collins, William J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Li, Jin-xiang; Li, Qiu-yun; He, Wen-yan; Richards, Jeremy P.; Hou, Zengqian; Zhou, Li-min; Stern, Richard A.

    2016-07-01

    δ18O (+6 to 7.5 ‰), intermediate (δ18O +8.5 to 9.0 ‰), and high δ18O (+11.0 to 12.0 ‰). The fourth is almost pure andradite with δ18O 10-12 ‰. Both the low and intermediate δ18O groups show significant variation in Fe content, whereas the two high δ18O groups are compositionally homogeneous. We interpret these features to indicate that the low and intermediate δ18O group garnets grew in separate fractionating magmas that were brought together through magma mixing, whereas the high δ18O groups formed under high-grade metamorphic conditions accompanied by metasomatic exchange. The garnets record complex, open-system magmatic and metamorphic processes in a single rock. Based on these features, we consider that ultrapotassic magmas interacted with juvenile 35-20 Ma crust after they intruded in the deep crust (>50 km) at ~13 Ma to form hybridized Miocene granitoid magmas, leaving a refractory residue. The ~13 Ma zircons retain the original, evolved isotopic character of the ultrapotassic magmas, and the garnets record successive stages of the melting and mixing process, along with subsequent high-grade metamorphism followed by low-temperature alteration and brecciation during entrainment and ascent in a late UPV dyke. This is an excellent example of in situ crust-mantle hybridization in the deep Tibetan crust.

  10. Depth variations in seismic velocity in the subducting crust: Evidence for fluid-related embrittlement for intermediate-depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Takahiro; Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru; Toyokuni, Genti; Kita, Saeko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated seismic wave velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath eastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. To detect depth-dependent properties of the seismic velocities in the crust, we analyzed guided waves that propagate in the crust and estimated P wave velocity (Vp) of 6.5-7.5 km/s and S wave velocity (Vs) of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-100 km. The results show that the obtained Vp and Vs are 10-15% lower than those expected for the fully hydrated mid-ocean ridge basalt, suggesting the existence of aqueous fluids by 1 vol % in the crust at this depth range. Our observations suggest that overpressurized fluids channeled in the subducting crust plays as a dominant factor for facilitating the genesis of crustal earthquakes at intermediate depths.

  11. Geologic history of Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034: Evidence for hydrothermal activity and lithologic diversity in the Martian crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Novak-Szabo, Timea; Santos, Alison; Tartese, Romain; Muttik, Nele; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Steele, Andrew; Elardo, Stephen M.; Rahman, Zia; Anand, Mahesh; Delhaye, Thomas; Agee, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The timing and mode of deposition for Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 were determined by combining petrography, shape analysis, and thermochronology. NWA 7034 is composed of igneous, impact, and brecciated clasts within a thermally annealed submicron matrix of pulverized crustal rocks and devitrified impact/volcanic glass. The brecciated clasts are likely lithified portions of Martian regolith with some evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Represented lithologies are primarily ancient crustal materials with crystallization ages as old as 4.4 Ga. One ancient zircon was hosted by an alkali-rich basalt clast, confirming that alkalic volcanism occurred on Mars very early. NWA 7034 is composed of fragmented particles that do not exhibit evidence of having undergone bed load transport by wind or water. The clast size distribution is similar to terrestrial pyroclastic deposits. We infer that the clasts were deposited by atmospheric rainout subsequent to a pyroclastic eruption(s) and/or impact event(s), although the ancient ages of igneous components favor mobilization by impact(s). Despite ancient components, the breccia has undergone a single pervasive thermal event at 500–800°C, evident by groundmass texture and concordance of ~1.5 Ga dates for bulk rock K-Ar, U-Pb in apatite, and U-Pb in metamict zircons. The 1.5 Ga age is likely a thermal event that coincides with rainout/breccia lithification. We infer that the episodic process of regolith lithification dominated sedimentary processes during the Amazonian Epoch. The absence of pre-Amazonian high-temperature metamorphic events recorded in ancient zircons indicates source domains of static southern highland crust punctuated by episodic impact modification.

  12. Geologic history of Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034: Evidence for hydrothermal activity and lithologic diversity in the Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Novák-Szabó, Tímea; Santos, Alison R.; Tartèse, Romain; Muttik, Nele; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge; Keller, Lindsay P.; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Steele, Andrew; Elardo, Stephen M.; Rahman, Zia; Anand, Mahesh; Delhaye, Thomas; Agee, Carl B.

    2016-10-01

    The timing and mode of deposition for Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 were determined by combining petrography, shape analysis, and thermochronology. NWA 7034 is composed of igneous, impact, and brecciated clasts within a thermally annealed submicron matrix of pulverized crustal rocks and devitrified impact/volcanic glass. The brecciated clasts are likely lithified portions of Martian regolith with some evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Represented lithologies are primarily ancient crustal materials with crystallization ages as old as 4.4 Ga. One ancient zircon was hosted by an alkali-rich basalt clast, confirming that alkalic volcanism occurred on Mars very early. NWA 7034 is composed of fragmented particles that do not exhibit evidence of having undergone bed load transport by wind or water. The clast size distribution is similar to terrestrial pyroclastic deposits. We infer that the clasts were deposited by atmospheric rainout subsequent to a pyroclastic eruption(s) and/or impact event(s), although the ancient ages of igneous components favor mobilization by impact(s). Despite ancient components, the breccia has undergone a single pervasive thermal event at 500-800°C, evident by groundmass texture and concordance of 1.5 Ga dates for bulk rock K-Ar, U-Pb in apatite, and U-Pb in metamict zircons. The 1.5 Ga age is likely a thermal event that coincides with rainout/breccia lithification. We infer that the episodic process of regolith lithification dominated sedimentary processes during the Amazonian Epoch. The absence of pre-Amazonian high-temperature metamorphic events recorded in ancient zircons indicates source domains of static southern highland crust punctuated by episodic impact modification.

  13. The Cool Early Earth: Oxygen Isotope Evidence for Continental Crust and Oceans on Earth at 4.4 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, J. W.; King, E. M.; Peck, W. H.; Graham, C. M.; Wilde, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    oceans at that time. The evidence for liquid water and possibly oceans at 4.4 Ga suggests a Cool Early Earth. This contrasts with the Hot Early Earth and global magma oceans envisioned at 4.5-4.3 Ga based on: an impact origin of the Moon (4.45-4.50 Ga), core formation, higher Hadean radioactive heat production, and intense early meteorite bombardment. Magma on the surface of the Earth cools quickly by radiation to form a crust, but a magma ocean caused by these processes might persist beneath the initially thin crust for up to 400 m.y. and might erupt as massive flood basalts in response to major meteorite impacts, boiling surface waters. The thermal contrasts presented by these lines of evidence are minimized if the Moon and core formed earlier (\\sim4.5 Ga), if the Moon formed by a process not involving a Mars-size impactor, or if the early meteorite bombardment was less intense or irregular in timing. It is possible that periods of Cool vs. Hot Early Earth alternated, with boiling of early oceans after major impact events followed by periods of cooler surface conditions. If life evolved in these seas, multiple extinctions before 3.9 Ga are suggested.

  14. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  15. Genetic evidence for larger African population size during recent human evolution.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Jorde, L B

    1999-03-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the long-term average effective size of sub-Saharan Africa is larger than other geographic regions. A method is described that allows estimation of relative long-term regional population sizes. This method is applied to 60 microsatellite DNA loci from a sample of 72 sub-Saharan Africans, 63 East Asians, and 120 Europeans. Average heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample. Expected heterozygosity was computed for each region and locus using a population genetic model based on the null hypothesis of equal long-term population sizes. Average residual heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample, indicating that African population size was larger than other regions during recent human evolution. The best fit of the model is with relative population weights of 0.73 for sub-Saharan Africa, 0.09 for East Asia, and 0.18 for Europe. These results are similar to those obtained using craniometric variation for these three geographic regions. These results, combined with inferences from other genetic studies, support a major role of Africa in the origin of modern humans. It is less clear, however, whether complete African replacement is the most appropriate model. An alternative is an African origin with non-African gene flow. While Africa is an important region in recent human evolution, it is not clear whether the gene pool of our species is completely out of Africa or predominately out of Africa.

  16. Early African Diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Price, T Douglas; Tiesler, Vera; Burton, James H

    2006-08-01

    Construction activities around Campeche's central park led to the discovery of an early colonial church and an associated burial ground, in use from the mid-16th century AD to the late 17th century. Remains of some individuals revealed dental mutilations characteristic of West Africa. Analyses of strontium isotopes of dental enamel from these individuals yielded unusually high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, inconsistent with an origin in Mesoamerica, but consistent with an origin in West Africa in terrain underlain by the West Africa Craton, perhaps near the port of Elmina, a principal source of slaves for the New World during the 16th century. These individuals likely represent some of the earliest representatives of the African Diaspora in the Americas.

  17. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification.

  18. African American Preschoolers' Emotion Explanations Can Provide Evidence of Their Pragmatic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…

  19. Evidence for Archean inheritance in the pre-Panafrican crust of Central Cameroon: Insight from zircon internal structure and LA-MC-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganwa, Alembert Alexandre; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The main geological feature of Central Cameroon is the wide spread occurrence of granitoids emplaced in close association with transcurrent regional shear zones. The basement of this vast domain is a Paleoproterozoic ortho-and para-derivative formation, which has been intensely reworked, together with subsequent intrusions and sediments, during the Panafrican orogenesis in the Neoproterozoic. As consequence, the area underwent pervasive metamorphism and intense deformation. This makes it difficult to distinguish between Panafrican metasediments or syntectonic plutonites and their respective basement. Our study presents zircon features (CL-BSE-SE) and in-situ U-Th-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology of a meta-sedimentary pyroxene-amphibole-bearing gneiss of the Méiganga area in Central Cameroon. Based on the Internal structures of the zircon four characteristic zonation patterns can be deciphered: 1) cores with magmatic oscillatory zonation 2) zircons with oscillatory or sector zonation, 3) zircons with sector zoning or blurred zoning, and 4) narrow bright un-zoned rims. These groups suggest that the rock experienced a number of geological events. Considering this zircon characteristic, the U-Th-Pb data allow to distinguish four ages: 2116 ± 57 Ma, consistent with ages from the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt; 2551 ± 33 Ma which marks a late Neoarchean magmatic event; 2721 ± 27 Ma related to a Neoarchean magmatic even in Central Cameroon, similar to one found in the Congo Craton. A zircon core gives ages around 2925 Ma which provides some evidence of the presence of the Mesoarchean basement prior to the Neoarchean magmatism. A weighted average of lower intercepts ages gives a value of 821 ± 50 Ma, representing the age of later metamorphism event. The various characteristic group and related ages reflect not only the complexity of the history of the pyroxene amphibole gneiss, but also show that the meta-sediment has at least three zircon contributing

  20. Evidence for strong lateral seismic velocity variation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath the California margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Voon Hui; Graves, Robert W.; Wei, Shengji; Helmberger, Don

    2017-04-01

    Regional seismograms from earthquakes in Northern California show a systematic difference in arrival times across Southern California where long period (30-50 s) SH waves arrive up to 15 s earlier at stations near the coast compared with sites towards the east at similar epicentral distances. We attribute this time difference to heterogeneity of the velocity structure at the crust-mantle interface beneath the California margin. To model these observations, we propose a fast seismic layer, with thickness growing westward from the San Andreas along with a thicker and slower continental crust to the east. Synthetics generated from such a model are able to match the observed timing of SH waveforms better than existing 3D models. The presence of a strong upper mantle buttressed against a weaker crust has a major influence in how the boundary between the Pacific plate and North American plate deforms and may explain the observed asymmetric strain rate across the boundary.

  1. Further X-Ray Observations of EXO 0748-676 in Quiescence: Evidence for a Cooling Neutron Star Crust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Files (ODF) using the tasks emproc and epproc. To identify possible periods of high particle background, we extracted high-energy lightcurves (> 10 keV...crust and show that that the quiescent lightcurve of EXO 0748–676 is markedly shallower than that observed for three other neutron star X-ray binaries...neutron star crust and show that that the quiescent lightcurve of EXO 0748?676 is markedly shallower than that observed for three other neutron star X-ray

  2. Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Avigad, D.; Miller, N. R.; Beyth, M.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the East African Orogen (EAO) occurred between 870 Ma and the end of the Precambrian (˜542 Ma). ANS crustal growth encompassed a time of dramatic climatic change, articulated as the Snowball Earth hypothesis (SEH). SEH identifies tremendous paleoclimatic oscillations during Neoproterozoic time. Earth’s climate shifted wildly, from times when much of our planet’s surface was frozen to unusually warm episodes and back again. There is evidence for four principal icehouse episodes: ˜585 582 Ma (Gaskiers), ˜660 635 Ma (Marinoan), ˜680 715 Ma (Sturtian), and ˜735 770 Ma (Kaigas). Evidence consistent with the SEH has been found at many locations around the globe but is rarely reported from the ANS, in spite of the fact that this may be the largest tract of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust on the planet, and in spite of the fact that Huqf Group sediments in Oman, flanking the ANS, record evidence for Sturtian and Marinoan low-latitude glaciations. This review identifies the most important evidence preserved in sedimentary rocks elsewhere for SEH: diamictites, dropstones, cap carbonates, and banded iron formation (BIF). Expected manifestations of SEH are integrated into our understanding of ANS and EAO tectonic evolution. If Kaigas and Sturtian events were global, sedimentary evidence should be preserved in ANS sequences, because these occurred during an embryonic stage of ANS evolution, when crustal components (island arcs, back-arc basins, and sedimentary basins) were mostly below sea level. Previous SEH investigations have been largely reconnaissance in scope, but potentially diagnostic sedimentary units such as diamictites, marine carbonates with δ13C excursions and banded iron formations are reported from the ANS and are worthy of further investigation. Collision and uplift to form the EAO destroyed most marine sedimentary basins about 630 Ma ago, so evidence of Marinoan and Gaskiers glaciations will be more

  3. Imaging The Flat Slab Beneath The Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, Using Receiver Function Analysis: Evidence For Overthickened Subducted Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Gilbert, H. J.; Alvarado, P. M.; Linkimer, L.; Porter, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    The western margin of the South American continent between 30°and 32° S is characterized by the flat slab subduction of the ~43 Ma oceanic Nazca plate beneath the continental South American plate. Several arrays of broadband seismic instruments have been deployed in Chile and western Argentina to study this phenomenon (e.g., CHARGE, 2000-2002; SIEMBRA, 2007-2009; ESP, 2008-2010). The low angle subduction has prevented magmatism in the area since the late Miocene due to reduced mantle flow above the subducting slab, and spatially correlates with the formation of both thick-skinned (Sierras Pampeanas) and thin-skinned (Andean Precordillera) thrust belts within the region. In order to better constrain the crust and upper mantle structure in the transition region between flat slab and normal subduction to the south and east, we have calculated receiver functions (RFs) from teleseismic earthquakes. Using our dense SIEMBRA array, combined with the broader CHARGE and ESP arrays, we are able to image in detail the flat slab, which contains a distinct negative arrival (indicative of a low velocity zone) at the top of the flat slab, followed by a strong positive P-to-S conversion. While the exact causes of flat slab subduction continue to be debated, one overriding theme is the necessity of having an overthickened crust in order to increase the buoyancy of the subducting slab. In this region, the hotspot seamount chain of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR) is thought to provide such a mechanism. Kopp et al. (2004), however, did not find overthickened crust in the offshore portion of the JFR, but rather moderately thick oceanic crust. Preliminary results from our receiver functions, compared with synthetic RFs containing either a normal (7 km) or an overthickened (17km) crust, indicate that the oceanic crust at the top of the slab (the low velocity zone) must be at least ~15 km thick. Our results support the idea of an overthickened crust in the subducted flat slab beneath

  4. Icelandic-type crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Du, Z.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous seismic studies, in particular using receiver functions and explosion seismology, have provided a detailed picture of the structure and thickness of the crust beneath the Iceland transverse ridge. We review the results and propose a structural model that is consistent with all the observations. The upper crust is typically 7 ?? 1 km thick, heterogeneous and has high velocity gradients. The lower crust is typically 15-30 ?? 5 km thick and begins where the velocity gradient decreases radically. This generally occurs at the V p ??? 6.5 km s-1 level. A low-velocity zone ??? 10 000 km2 in area and up to ??? 15 km thick occupies the lower crust beneath central Iceland, and may represent a submerged, trapped oceanic microplate. The crust-mantle boundary is a transition zone ???5 ?? 3 km thick throughout which V p increases progressively from ???7.2 to ???8.0 km s-1. It may be gradational or a zone of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. There is no seismic evidence for melt or exceptionally high temperatures in or near this zone. Isostasy indicates that the density contrast between the lower crust and the mantle is only ???90 kg m-3 compared with ???300 kg m-3 for normal oceanic crust, indicating compositional anomalies that are as yet not understood. The seismological crust is ???30 km thick beneath the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges, and eastern Iceland, ???20 km beneath western Iceland, and ???40 km thick beneath central Iceland. This pattern is not what is predicted for an eastward-migrating plume. Low attenuation and normal V p/V s ratios in the lower crust beneath central and southwestern Iceland, and normal uppermost mantle velocities in general, suggest that the crust and uppermost mantle are subsolidus and cooler than at equivalent depths beneath the East Pacific Rise. Seismic data from Iceland have historically been interpreted both in terms of thin-hot and thick-cold crust models, both of which have been cited as supporting the plume

  5. Short episodes of crust generation during protracted accretionary processes: Evidence from Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, P. A.; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of generation of continental crust but the spatial and temporal distribution of crust generation within individual orogens remains poorly constrained. Paleozoic (∼540-270 Ma) granitic rocks from the Alati, Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have markedly bimodal age frequency distributions with peaks of ages at ∼400 Ma and 280 Ma for the Altai segment, and ∼430 Ma and 300 Ma for the Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments. Most of the magma was generated in short time intervals (∼20-40 Ma), and variations in magma volumes and in Nd-Hf isotope ratios are taken to reflect variable rates of new crust generation within a long-lived convergent plate setting. The Junggar segment is characterized by high and uniform Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = + 5 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = + 10 to + 16) and it appears to have formed in an intra-oceanic arc system. In the Altai and Chinese Tianshan segments, the Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = - 7 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = - 16 to + 16) are lower, although they increase with decreasing age of the rock units. The introduction of a juvenile component into the Chinese Tianshan and Altai granitic rocks appears to have occurred in continental arc settings and it reflects a progressive reduction in the contributions from old continental lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Within the long-lived convergent margin setting (over ∼200 Ma), higher volumes of magma, and greater contributions of juvenile material, were typically emplaced over short time intervals of ∼20-40 Ma. These intervals were associated with higher Nb/La ratios, coupled with lower La/Yb ratios, in both the mafic and granitic rocks, and these episodes of increased magmatism from intraplate-like sources are therefore thought to have been in response to lithospheric extension. The trace element and Nd-Hf isotope data, in combination with estimates of granitic magma volumes, highlight

  6. Early Mesozoic deep-crust reworking beneath the central Lhasa terrane (South Tibet): Evidence from intermediate gneiss xenoliths in granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Xiong, Qing; Yang, Jing-Sui; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Griffin, William L.; Dai, Hong-Kun

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the rheological behavior of the Tibetan Plateau and its response to geodynamic processes requires a clear knowledge of the composition, evolution and lithological properties of the deep crust. Here we present U-Pb-Hf isotopes of zircons, bulk-rock geochemistry and mineral compositions for seven intermediate gneiss xenoliths and their host Early Mesozoic granites (205 ± 6 Ma) in the central Lhasa terrane to probe the deep crust beneath Southern Tibet. The xenoliths contain plagioclase, amphibole, titanite, allanite, quartz, biotite and muscovite, with accessory Fe-Ti oxides, apatite and zircon. Bulk-rock and mineral geochemistry suggests that these xenoliths have a magmatic origin and experienced deformation and amphibolite-facies metamorphism (equilibration at pressures of 0.46-0.83 GPa and temperatures of 650 °C), before they were captured by the host granite at 205 Ma. Zircons in these xenoliths show complex microstructures, including inherited cores, magmatic or metamorphic bands, and high U-Th hydrothermal rims. Inherited zircon cores record U-Pb ages from 2277 Ma to 517 Ma. Igneous zircons show a range of concordant U-Pb ages, suggesting a protracted magmatism from 236 Ma to 203 Ma. Metamorphic zircon zones record the timing of amphibolite-facies metamorphism from 224 to 192 Ma, while the high U-Th hydrothermal rims show a subsequent fluid activity until 150 Ma. Unradiogenic Hf isotopic compositions of both xenoliths and host granites [xenolith εHf(t) = - 11.2 to 0; host granite εHf(t) = - 17.3 to - 3.3] indicate that the Early Mesozoic deep crust in the central Lhasa terrane originated mainly from ancient (i.e., Proterozoic) crust, with little or no interaction with juvenile magmas. This study suggests a possible continental differentiation mechanism during crustal reworking; progressive melting may initiate from the lower mafic crust (at ca. 236 Ma) and gradually migrate into the sediment-rich upper crust (until ca. 203 Ma). The reworking

  7. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  8. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic evidence for ancient lower continental crust beneath the Xi Ujimqin area of NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Peixi; Kang, Lei; Xi, Rengang

    2016-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogen on Earth. The role that Precambrian continental microblocks played in its formation, however, remains a highly controversial topic. New zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic studies on Permian (253-251 Ma) andesites from the Xi Ujimqin area provide the first evidence for the existence of a continental lower mafic crust in the eastern segment of the CAOB. These Permian lavas generally have chemical compositions similar to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenites. Based on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositional differences, they can be further subdivided into two groups. Group 1 has moderately radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7060-0.7062) and nonradiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 9.0-8.3) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 17.18-17.23) isotopic compositions similar to the ancient lower mafic crust beneath the North China Craton (NCC). Compared with Group 1, Group 2 has less radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7051-0.7055), and more radiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 0.2-+1.4) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 18.04-18.20) isotopic compositions as observed in the Phanerozoic granitoids and felsic lavas of the CAOB. The combined geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Group 1 was derived from ancient lower mafic crust of the NCC affinity, with a residual assemblage of pyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole. The source for Group 2 was a mixture of ancient lower mafic crust and a juvenile crustal component, and melting left a residue of orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + garnet + amphibole. Generation of these two types of late Permian andesites favors a model whereby breakoff of a subducted slab and subsequent lithospheric extension triggered extensive asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the continental mafic lower crust of the eastern CAOB. The discovery of ancient lower continental crust of the NCC affinity in the CAOB implies that the NCC experienced continental breakup during

  9. Isotopic evidence for the dependence of recurrent felsic magmatism on new crust formation: An example from the Georgetown region of Northeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, L. P.; McCulloch, M. T.

    1990-01-01

    U-Pb zircon, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic data, together with previously accumulated geological and chemical evidence show that the Georgetown inlier of northeast Queensland and its immediate environs were subjected to three widespread, temporally discrete episodes of felsic magmatism. The earliest of these, at about 1550 Ma, produced widespread anatexis within the metasedimentary rocks of the inlier, which have a poorly constrained depositional age, but which were derived by the degradation of ca. 2000-2500 Ma crust. Contemporaneous I-type (trondhjemitic) magmas contained more radiogenic Nd ( ɛ = -0.1 compared with - 1.9 to -4.7), and are thought to have formed from mixing of newly formed crustal material with the igneous precursors of the metasediments. A 420 Ma event was also characterised by two isotopically distinct magmas (with ɛ Nd = -5.6 and about -16), but in this case both were of I-type. The more radiogenic magma is represented by the Dido Granodiorite, which is likely to have formed by the melting of ca. 1550 Ma crust, whereas the other magma type (which includes three different granitoids) was apparently derived from the same (2000-2500 Ma) igneous crust from which the metasediments were formed. I-type 300 Ma igneous rocks had a uniform isotopic composition ( ɛNd = -7.5, 87Sr /86Sr = 0.710 ) consistent with their formation by different degrees of partial melting (perhaps combined with fractional crystallisation) from a Dido Granite-like precursor. A younger source component was at least partially involved in the origin of spatially associated A-type volcanics, which are about 30 Ma younger and have more primitive Nd compositions. Most of the Palaeozoic igneous rocks reflect at least two episodes of intracrustal melting. The data are best explained in terms of successive addition from below of new crustal material (via underplating or emplacement into the lower crust) at about 1550 Ma, 420 Ma, and 300 Ma. The model requires that such newly accreted

  10. Comment on "Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 Ga".

    PubMed

    Valley, John W; Cavosie, Aaron J; Fu, Bin; Peck, William H; Wilde, Simon A

    2006-05-26

    Harrison et al. (Reports, 23 December 2005, p. 1947) proposed that plate tectonics and granites existed 4.5 billion years ago (Ga), within 70 million years of Earth's formation, based on geochemistry of >4.0 Ga detrital zircons from Australia. We highlight the large uncertainties of this claim and make the more moderate proposal that some crust formed by 4.4 Ga and oceans formed by 4.2 Ga.

  11. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China

    PubMed Central

    Kyong-Song, Ri; Hammond, James O. S.; Chol-Nam, Ko; Hyok, Kim; Yong-Gun, Yun; Gil-Jong, Pak; Chong-Song, Ri; Oppenheimer, Clive; Liu, Kosima W.; Iacovino, Kayla; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is an enigmatic volcano on the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Despite being responsible for one of the largest eruptions in history, comparatively little is known about its magmatic evolution, geochronology, or underlying structure. We present receiver function results from an unprecedented seismic deployment in the DPRK. These are the first estimates of the crustal structure on the DPRK side of the volcano and, indeed, for anywhere beneath the DPRK. The crust 60 km from the volcano has a thickness of 35 km and a bulk VP/VS of 1.76, similar to that of the Sino-Korean craton. The VP/VS ratio increases ~20 km from the volcano, rising to >1.87 directly beneath the volcano. This shows that a large region of the crust has been modified by magmatism associated with the volcanism. Such high values of VP/VS suggest that partial melt is present in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu. This region of melt represents a potential source for magmas erupted in the last few thousand years and may be associated with an episode of volcanic unrest observed between 2002 and 2005. PMID:27152343

  12. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People's Republic of Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kyong-Song, Ri; Hammond, James O S; Chol-Nam, Ko; Hyok, Kim; Yong-Gun, Yun; Gil-Jong, Pak; Chong-Song, Ri; Oppenheimer, Clive; Liu, Kosima W; Iacovino, Kayla; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is an enigmatic volcano on the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Despite being responsible for one of the largest eruptions in history, comparatively little is known about its magmatic evolution, geochronology, or underlying structure. We present receiver function results from an unprecedented seismic deployment in the DPRK. These are the first estimates of the crustal structure on the DPRK side of the volcano and, indeed, for anywhere beneath the DPRK. The crust 60 km from the volcano has a thickness of 35 km and a bulk V P/V S of 1.76, similar to that of the Sino-Korean craton. The V P/V S ratio increases ~20 km from the volcano, rising to >1.87 directly beneath the volcano. This shows that a large region of the crust has been modified by magmatism associated with the volcanism. Such high values of V P/V S suggest that partial melt is present in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu. This region of melt represents a potential source for magmas erupted in the last few thousand years and may be associated with an episode of volcanic unrest observed between 2002 and 2005.

  13. Granitic rocks and metasediments in Archean crust, Rainy Lake area, Ontario: ND isotope evidence for mantle-like SM/ND sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Hanson, G. N.

    1983-01-01

    Granitoids, felsic volcanic rocks and clastic metasediments are typical rocks in Archean granite-greenstone belts that could have formed from preexisting continentasl crust. The petrogenesis of such rocks is assessed to determine the relative roles of new crust formation or old crust formation or old crust recycling in the formation of granite-greenstone belts.

  14. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  15. Genome-wide Scan of 29,141 African Americans Finds No Evidence of Directional Selection since Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study’s conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497

  16. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L

    2014-10-02

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.

  17. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  18. The slavery hypothesis for hypertension among African Americans: the historical evidence.

    PubMed

    Curtin, P D

    1992-12-01

    The slavery hypothesis for hypertension has stated that the high blood pressures sometimes measured in African Americans are caused by one or more of these conditions: first, salt deficiency in the parts of Africa that supplied slaves for the Americas; second, the trauma of the slave trade itself; third, conditions of slavery in the United States. A review of the historical evidence shows that there was no salt deficiency in those parts of Africa, nor do present-day West Africans have a high incidence of hypertension. Historical evidence does not support the hypothesis that deaths aboard slave ships were caused mainly by conditions that might be conductive to hypertension, such as salt-depleting diseases. Finally, the hypothesis has depended heavily on evidence from the West Indies, which is not relevant for the United States. There is no evidence that diet or the resulting patterns of disease and demography among slaves in the American South were significantly different from those of other poor southerners.

  19. The slavery hypothesis for hypertension among African Americans: the historical evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, P D

    1992-01-01

    The slavery hypothesis for hypertension has stated that the high blood pressures sometimes measured in African Americans are caused by one or more of these conditions: first, salt deficiency in the parts of Africa that supplied slaves for the Americas; second, the trauma of the slave trade itself; third, conditions of slavery in the United States. A review of the historical evidence shows that there was no salt deficiency in those parts of Africa, nor do present-day West Africans have a high incidence of hypertension. Historical evidence does not support the hypothesis that deaths aboard slave ships were caused mainly by conditions that might be conductive to hypertension, such as salt-depleting diseases. Finally, the hypothesis has depended heavily on evidence from the West Indies, which is not relevant for the United States. There is no evidence that diet or the resulting patterns of disease and demography among slaves in the American South were significantly different from those of other poor southerners. Images p1682-a p1684-a PMID:1456349

  20. Coupling of oceanic and continental crust during Eocene eclogite-facies metamorphism: evidence from the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, Thomas J.; Johnson, Clark M.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Piaz, Giorgio V. Dal; Skora, Susanne; Beard, Brian L.

    2007-02-01

    High precision U Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps, Italy, indicate that the Monte Rosa nappe was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 ± 0.6 Ma. The sample area [Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz (2001) Geology of the Monte Rosa massif: historical review and personal comments. SMPM] consists of eclogite boudins that are exposed inside a south-plunging overturned synform within micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins at about 42.6 Ma occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480 570°C, >1.3 1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. The timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Monte Rosa nappe determined in this study is identical to that of the Gran Paradiso nappe [Meffan-Main et al. (2004) J Metamorphic Geol 22:261 281], confirming that these two units have shared the same Alpine metamorphic history. Furthermore, the Gran Paradiso and Monte Rosa nappes underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism within the same time interval as the structurally overlying Zermatt-Saas ophiolite [˜50 40 Ma; e.g., Amato et al. (1999) Earth Planet Sci Lett 171:425 438; Mayer et al. (1999) Eur Union Geosci 10:809 (abstract); Lapen et al. (2003) Earth Planet Sci Lett 215:57 72]. The nearly identical P T t histories of the Gran Paradiso, Monte Rosa, and Zermatt-Saas units suggest that these units shared a common Alpine tectonic and metamorphic history. The close spatial and temporal associations between high pressure (HP) ophiolite and continental crust during Alpine orogeny indicates that the HP internal basement nappes in the western Alps may have played a key role in exhumation and preservation of the

  1. Early Archean crust in the northern Wyoming province Evidence from U-Pb ages of detrital zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Nutman, A.P.; Mogk, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    U-Pb ages of individual detrital and metamorphic zircons from 12 Archean metasedimentary rocks, including quartzites, from the Beartooth, Ruby, and Tobacco Root uplifts of the northern Wyoming province indicate that they were deposited between 2.7 and 3.2 Ga. Younger, metamorphic zircons are found as overgrowths and new grains in some samples, and yield ages between 2.7 and 1.9 Ga. They are, however, much less abundant than detrital grains, which constitute >75% of the 355 grains analyzed. The majority of the detrital grains have ages between 3.2 and 3.4 Ga; none are younger than 2.9 Ga. Grains with 207Pb/206Pb ages between 3.4 and 4.0 Ga constituted approximately 15% of all grains with analyses within 10% of concordia, but are concentrated in samples from the eastern Beartooth Mountains. Comparison of the average of the Pb-Pb ages of individual zircons within 10% of concordia with previously published Lu-Hf chondritic model ages for some individual samples suggests that the age distribution recorded by the U-Pb system in these zircons has not been significantly disturbed by pre- or post-depositional Pb-loss. Collectively, these data suggest that the individual metasedimentary rocks did not completely share a common provenance and that a major crust-forming cycle occurred 3.2 to 3.4 Ga. In conjunction with previously published U-Th-Pb whole-rock data, these results suggest that rocks with a relatively high proportion of > 3.4 Ga grains may have had crust of comparable age in their provenance. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in Europe, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, have not been assessed for their vector competence for ASFV. In this study, we aimed to determine whether virus replication can occur in any of these two hard tick species (I. ricinus and/or D. reticulatus), in comparison with O. moubata (the confirmed vector), after feeding them blood containing different ASFV isolates using an improved in vitro system. DNA quantities of ASFV in these infected hard ticks were measured systematically, for 6 weeks in I. ricinus, and up to 8 weeks in D. reticulatus, and the results were compared to those obtained from O. moubata. There was evidence of virus replication in the O. moubata ticks. However, there was no evidence of virus replication in I. ricinus or D. reticulatus, even though viral DNA could be detected for up to 8 weeks after feeding in some cases. This study presents the first results on the possible vector competence of European hard (ixodid) ticks for ASFV, in a validated in vitro feeding setup. In conclusion, given the lack of evidence for virus replication under in vitro conditions, D. reticulatus and I. ricinus are unlikely to be relevant biological vectors of ASFV.

  3. Mechanical and statistical evidence of the causality of human-made mass shifts on the Earth's upper crust and the occurrence of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    A global catalog of small- to large-sized earthquakes was systematically analyzed to identify causality and correlatives between human-made mass shifts in the upper Earth's crust and the occurrence of earthquakes. The mass shifts, ranging between 1 kt and 1 Tt, result from large-scale geoengineering operations, including mining, water reservoirs, hydrocarbon production, fluid injection/extractions, deep geothermal energy production and coastal management. This article shows evidence that geomechanical relationships exist with statistical significance between (a) seismic moment magnitudes M of observed earthquakes, (b) lateral distances of the earthquake hypocenters to the geoengineering "operation points" and (c) mass removals or accumulations on the Earth's crust. Statistical findings depend on uncertainties, in particular, of source parameter estimations of seismic events before instrumental recoding. Statistical observations, however, indicate that every second, seismic event tends to occur after a decade. The chance of an earthquake to nucleate after 2 or 20 years near an area with a significant mass shift is 25 or 75 %, respectively. Moreover, causative effects of seismic activities highly depend on the tectonic stress regime in which the operations take place (i.e., extensive, transverse or compressive). Results are summarized as follows: First, seismic moment magnitudes increase the more mass is locally shifted on the Earth's crust. Second, seismic moment magnitudes increase the larger the area in the crust is geomechanically polluted. Third, reverse faults tend to be more trigger-sensitive than normal faults due to a stronger alteration of the minimum vertical principal stress component. Pure strike-slip faults seem to rupture randomly and independently from the magnitude of the mass changes. Finally, mainly due to high estimation uncertainties of source parameters and, in particular, of shallow seismic events (<10 km), it remains still very difficult to

  4. Pyroxenite and granulite xenoliths from beneath the Scottish Northern Highlands Terrane: evidence for lower-crust/upper-mantle relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, B. G. J.; Aspen, P.; Hinton, R. W.

    2001-08-01

    Xenolith suites from Permian host rocks in Orkney and the extreme NE of the Scottish mainland (Duncansby Ness) are described and compared to those from elsewhere in the Northern Highlands Terrane. Those from the Tingwall dyke, Orkney, comprise roughly equal proportions of ultramafic rocks (wehrlites, clinopyroxenites, websterites, hornblendites) and mafic to felsic rocks (gabbroic, noritic and dioritic granulites, with subordinate tonalites and trondhjemites). Those from Duncansby (45 km to the south) are dominantly olivine-poor ultramafic rocks (clinopyroxenites, pargasite pyroxenites, biotite-pyroxenites), together with granulites grading from gabbroic through to tonalites and trondhjemites. Most of the granulites are meta-igneous, comprising plagioclase and one- or two-pyroxene species with equilibration temperatures of 810-710 °C, and are regarded as samples of the lower crust. Absence of garnet and olivine, together with the association of relatively sodic plagioclase and aluminous pyroxenes, is consistent with derivation from depths corresponding to 5-10 kbar. Positive Eu anomalies in the granulites imply that most originated as plagioclase-rich cumulates from basaltic magmas. Scarce peraluminous quartzo-feldspathic xenoliths, such as a garnet-sillimanite-bearing sample from Duncansby, are regarded as metasedimentary in origin. Pyroxenes (and biotites) in the ultramafic xenoliths tend to have higher mg numbers than those of the granulites, reflecting higher temperatures of formation. Whereas the pyroxene-rich ultramafic rocks may be partly interleaved with the granulites in the lower crust, it is concluded that they also constitute a zone of substantial thickness at or around Moho level, separating the granulites from underlying peridotites, and that they originated as cumulates cognate to the granulites. They have, however, been variably metasomatised with formation of amphibole. This zone may constitute a density trap at which melt fractions, rich in K, Fe

  5. The importance of broad, integrated data sets for mantle plume studies - South Atlantic combined with South African evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, C.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemistry alone cannot distinguish between shallow enriched sources and plume sources including deep recycled material, because both types are formed by differentiation processes near the surface of the Earth [1]. The observation of elevated 3He/4He isotope ratios above the values typical in MORB has been arguably the least equivocal geochemical tracer in support of mantle plumes from the lower mantle [2,3]. In the oceans, elevated 3He/4He isotope ratios are almost exclusively found in volcanic rocks related to an age-progressive track of seamounts, aseismic ridges or islands. Similarly, geochemically anomalously enriched MORB related to such an age-progressive track has been taken as evidence for plume-ridge interaction. The presence of continental material from shallow recycling has been suggested, in most cases, based on continental samples not spatially related to the respective oceanic basalts, but based on their extreme continental-type composition and/or continental material from other places. However, each of these arguments by themselves are equivocal. Here it is argued that putting oceanic basalt samples in a broader context allows better constraints on the origin of mantle plume geochemical signatures. For example, sampling continental material spatially related to oceanic basalts through rifting processes allow testing the role of shallow sources from recent continental breakup. In addition, sampling seamounts adjacent to bathymetric anomalies in the oceans can place constraints on the low temperature melting components in the upper mantle specific to this area, and thus allows distinction between plume and ambient mantle sources. This approach is applied to the source composition of the four South Atlantic plumes that have been related to the edge of the African LLSVP [4]. The Shona plume has been shown to be active for 80 Ma and its track extends to the African continental shelf [4]. Extending the age progression of this plume onto the continent

  6. Contemporary treatment of heart failure: is there adequate evidence to support a unique strategy for African-Americans? Con position.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Serrano, Claudia C; Ferdinand, Daphne P

    2002-08-01

    Heart failure is a substantial cause of increased morbidity and mortality in the African-American population, with poorer prognosis versus white patients. Systolic heart failure is predominantly caused by poorly controlled hypertension in African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans remain underrepresented in morbidity and mortality heart failure trials, and further data are needed to confirm the potential benefit of present therapies and newer approaches to heart failure in African-Americans. Intensive blood pressure control and control of other risk factors, along with the appropriate application of evidence-based therapies including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and approved beta-blockers, are required to decrease racial disparities. Although some data suggest that contemporary treatment with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers may be less effective in African-Americans in terms of reducing heart failure morbidity and mortality, there is not adequate evidence to support a unique strategy for this population. The use of evidence-based therapies should be equally applied to African-Americans as well as to other ethnic groups while awaiting further studies.

  7. Silica-rich lavas in the oceanic crust: experimental evidence for fractional crystallization under low water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Koepke, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigated phase relations and phase compositions as well as the influence of water activity ( aH2O) and redox conditions on the equilibrium crystallization path within an oceanic dacitic potassium-depleted system at shallow pressure (200 MPa). Moreover, we measured the partitioning of trace elements between melt and plagioclase via secondary ion mass spectrometry for a highly evolved experiment (SiO2 = 74.6 wt%). As starting material, we used a dacitic glass dredged at the Pacific-Antarctic Rise. Phase assemblages in natural high-silica systems reported from different locations of fast-spreading oceanic crust could be experimentally reproduced only in a relatively small range of temperature and melt-water content ( T ~950 °C; melt H2O < 1.5 wt%) at redox conditions slightly below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. The relatively low water content is remarkable, because distinct hydrothermal influence is generally regarded as key for producing silica-rich rocks in an oceanic environment. However, our conclusion is also supported by mineral and melt chemistry of natural evolved rocks; these rocks are only congruent to the composition of those experimental phases that are produced under low aH2O. Low FeO contents under water-saturated conditions and the characteristic enrichment of Al2O3 in high aH2O experiments, in particular, contradict natural observations, while experiments with low aH2O match the natural trend. Moreover, the observation that highly evolved experimental melts remain H2O-poor while they are relatively enriched in chlorine implies a decoupling between these two volatiles during crustal contamination.

  8. Nitrogen isotopes in thermal fluids of a forearc region (Jalisco Block, Mexico): Evidence for heavy nitrogen from continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, S.; Taran, Y.; Grassa, F.; Capasso, G.; Favara, R.; Varley, N.; Faber, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Jalisco Block (JB) is a geologically and tectonically complex part of northwestern Mexico characterized by active subduction-type volcanism, rifting, and old stable structures. Thermal springs and groups of springs are widely distributed over JB. Bubbling gas from seven thermal springs located within different tectonic environments of the JB was analyzed for He, 20Ne, and N2 concentrations and δ15N ratios. All gases are N2-dominant (>84%) with the exception of one sample (Rió Purificación), which has a significant CH4 content (about 50%). All collected gas samples are relatively high in He, up to 1500 ppm vol and with 3He/4He values ranging from 0.6 to 4.5 Ra. All measured nitrogen isotope ratios are heavier than air with δ15N values ranging from 0.5 to 5.0‰. The relative N2 excess with respect to air-saturated water computed on the basis of N2 and 20Ne contents indicates the contribution of a nonatmospheric N2 source. All the samples show a good correlation between δ15N and the relative excess of N2 with δ15N ˜ +5.3‰ for the maximum N2 excess of 100%. Due to a presumed lack of seafloor sediment involved in the subduction process, such a δ15N positive value seems to reflect the addition to the fluids of a heavy nitrogen originating from metamorphism processes of rocks occurring within the overlying continental crust.

  9. Silicon Isotope Geochemistry of Ocean Island Basalts: Search for Deep Mantle Heterogeneities and Evidence for Recycled Altered Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, E. A.; Savage, P. S.; Jackson, M. G.; Moreira, M. A.; Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-12-01

    recycled altered oceanic crust in the plume source. However, the sampling of a primitive reservoir enriched in the light isotopes of Si, as suggested by [4], cannot be ruled out as a potential source of Si isotope variations in OIBs. References: [1] Ziegler et al., GCA 2005 [2] Savage et al., GCA 2011 [3] Savage et al., EPSL 2010 [4] Huang et al., GCA 2014

  10. Formation of iddingsite veins in the martian crust by centripetal replacement of olivine: Evidence from the nakhlite meteorite Lafayette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Tomkinson, T.; Hallis, L. J.; Mark, D. F.

    2015-04-01

    common microstructural control on water-mineral interaction between Mars and Earth, and indicates that prior shock deformation was not a prerequisite for aqueous alteration of the martian crust.

  11. Evidence for gas accumulation beneath the surface crust driving cyclic rise and fall of the lava surface at Halema`uma`u, Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Wilson, D.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Fee, D.; Nadeau, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing eruption in Halema`uma`u crater, at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, has surpassed the two-year mark and is characterized by lava lake activity in the vent. As of August 2010, the lava lake is about 70 m in diameter and 180 m below the rim of a narrow vent cavity. Although the explosive events that typified the first year of activity have abated, episodic rise and fall of the lava surface remains common. Cycles of rise and fall range from several minutes to eight hours in duration and are characterized by a quiescent rise phase and violent, gas-charged fall, spanning a height change of 20-30 m. Several models have been proposed to explain the cyclic rise and fall of lava surfaces at basaltic volcanoes, which in some cases is referred to as “gas pistoning”. In one model, episodic rise and fall is driven by the ascent of gas slugs from depth. In another, the cyclic behavior is driven by gas accumulation beneath the surface crust, with each cycle terminated by an abrupt failure of the crust, resulting in gas release. Seismic and infrasound data, as well as gas and webcam monitoring, at Halema`uma`u over the past two years strongly support the gas accumulation model, based on several lines of evidence. First, gas emission rates drop significantly below background levels during the rise phase, and increase dramatically during the fall phase, suggesting a process of gas buildup and release as opposed to slug flow. Second, the rise phases can last several hours, which is longer than reasonable slug ascent times. Third, the rise rate decreases over time, and in many cases plateaus, as the lava reaches its high stand, which is contrary to the exponential increase expected for gas slugs. Fourth, webcam video has captured numerous instances where rockfalls piercing the surface crust initiate gas release and lava level drop, suggestive of gas accumulation at shallow levels. Lastly, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) data reveal changes in gas

  12. Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Lebrun, Renaud; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fara, Emmanuel; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hautier, Lionel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Lazzari, Vincent; Mebrouk, Fateh; Peigné, Stéphane; Sudre, Jean; Tafforeau, Paul; Valentin, Xavier; Mahboubi, Mahammed

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have demonstrated that Africa and Asia were epicentres for the origin and/or early diversification of the major living primate lineages, including both anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) and crown strepsirhine primates (lemurs, lorises and galagos). Competing hypotheses favouring either an African or Asian origin for anthropoids rank among the most hotly contested issues in paleoprimatology. The Afrocentric model for anthropoid origins rests heavily on the >45 Myr old fossil Algeripithecus minutus from Algeria, which is widely acknowledged to be one of the oldest known anthropoids. However, the phylogenetic position of Algeripithecus with respect to other primates has been tenuous because of the highly fragmentary fossils that have documented this primate until now. Recently recovered and more nearly complete fossils of Algeripithecus and contemporaneous relatives reveal that they are not anthropoids. New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives. Azibius exhibits anatomical evidence for nocturnality. Algeripithecus has a long, thin and forwardly inclined lower canine alveolus, a feature that is entirely compatible with the long and procumbent lower canine included in the toothcomb of crown strepsirhines. These results strengthen an ancient African origin for crown strepsirhines and, in turn, strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids. PMID:19740889

  13. Evidence of Positive Selection in Mitochondrial Complexes I and V of the African Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Tabitha M.; Zhao, Nan; Korkin, Dmitry; Frederick, Katy H.; Eggert, Lori S.

    2014-01-01

    As species evolve, they become adapted to their local environments. Detecting the genetic signature of selection and connecting that to the phenotype of the organism, however, is challenging. Here we report using an integrative approach that combines DNA sequencing with structural biology analyses to assess the effect of selection on residues in the mitochondrial DNA of the two species of African elephants. We detected evidence of positive selection acting on residues in complexes I and V, and we used homology protein structure modeling to assess the effect of the biochemical properties of the selected residues on the enzyme structure. Given the role these enzymes play in oxidative phosphorylation, we propose that the selected residues may contribute to the metabolic adaptation of forest and savanna elephants to their unique habitats. PMID:24695069

  14. Evidence of positive selection in mitochondrial complexes I and V of the African elephant.

    PubMed

    Finch, Tabitha M; Zhao, Nan; Korkin, Dmitry; Frederick, Katy H; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    As species evolve, they become adapted to their local environments. Detecting the genetic signature of selection and connecting that to the phenotype of the organism, however, is challenging. Here we report using an integrative approach that combines DNA sequencing with structural biology analyses to assess the effect of selection on residues in the mitochondrial DNA of the two species of African elephants. We detected evidence of positive selection acting on residues in complexes I and V, and we used homology protein structure modeling to assess the effect of the biochemical properties of the selected residues on the enzyme structure. Given the role these enzymes play in oxidative phosphorylation, we propose that the selected residues may contribute to the metabolic adaptation of forest and savanna elephants to their unique habitats.

  15. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Muhua; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Fan, Chuanzhu; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Zuccolo, Andrea; Song, Xiang; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Maldonado, Carlos; Chen, Jinfeng; Lee, Seunghee; Sisneros, Nick; de Baynast, Kristi; Golser, Wolfgang; Wissotski, Marina; Kim, Woojin; Sanchez, Paul; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Sanni, Kayode; Long, Manyuan; Carney, Judith; Panaud, Olivier; Wicker, Thomas; Machado, Carlos A; Chen, Mingsheng; Mayer, Klaus F X; Rounsley, Steve; Wing, Rod A

    2014-09-01

    The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of domestication and selection. Population genomics analyses of 20 O. glaberrima and 94 Oryza barthii accessions support the hypothesis that O. glaberrima was domesticated in a single region along the Niger river as opposed to noncentric domestication events across Africa. We detected evidence for artificial selection at a genome-wide scale, as well as with a set of O. glaberrima genes orthologous to O. sativa genes that are known to be associated with domestication, thus indicating convergent yet independent selection of a common set of genes during two geographically and culturally distinct domestication processes.

  16. Evidence from mitochondrial DNA that African honey bees spread as continuous maternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Hall, H G; Muralidharan, K

    1989-05-18

    African honey bees have populated much of South and Central America and will soon enter the United States. The mechanism by which they have spread is controversial. Africanization may be largely the result of paternal gene flow into extant European populations or, alternatively, of maternal migration of feral swarms that have maintained an African genetic integrity. We have been using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms to follow the population dynamics between European and African bees. In earlier reports, we suggested that if African honey bees had distinctive mitochondrial (mt) DNA, then it could potentially distinguish the relative contributions of swarming and mating to the Africanization process. Because mtDNA is maternally inherited, it would not be transmitted by mating drones and only transported by queens accompanying swarms. Furthermore, the presence of African mtDNA would reflect unbroken maternal lineages from the original bees introduced from Africa. The value of mtDNA for population studies in general has been reviewed recently. Here we report that 19 feral swarms, randomly caught in Mexico, all carried African mtDNA. Thus, the migrating force of the African honey bee in the American tropics consists of continuous African maternal lineages spreading as swarms. The mating of African drones to European queens seems to contribute little to African bee migration.

  17. Evidence of common signatures of selection in the genomes of West African cattle and the Yoruba human population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1954, Allison found that the sickle-cell anemia mutation in the beta hemoglobin gene was highly prevalent in West African people because it is protective against malaria, so carriers would thrive and leave offspring in spite of the genetic disease. This is one of the earliest evidences of an envi...

  18. Structural and gravity evidence for an uplifted Pan-African granulite terrain in the Sabaloka Inlier, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, Ahmed S.; Sadig, Abdelati A.

    Granulite facies rocks of Pan-African age are exposed within retrogressed gneisses and migmatites of amphibolite facies in the Sabaloka inlier N of Khartoum and represent deepseated metamorphism in a thickned crust, while in the Red Sea Hills to the east and in the Bayuda to the nort volcanic rocks of greenchist facies metamorphism and associated granitoids of island arc affinity are dominant. We suggest that the granulites were uplifted to their present level by tectonic processes rather than by erosion only. Structural and gravity data, which show a remarkable correlation, indicate thrusting as the major cause of uplift for the granulites. Other mechanisms may also a remarkable correlation, indicate thrusting as the major cause of uplift for the granulites. Other mechanisms may also have contributed to the uplifting. These include faulting, folding and as rafts in an upward moving granitoid batholith.

  19. The Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchfiel, B. Clark

    1983-01-01

    Continental crust underlies the continents, their margins, and also small shallow regions in oceans. The nature of the crust (much older than oceanic crust) and its dynamics are discussed. Research related to and effects of tectonics, volcanism, erosion, and sedimentation on the crust are considered. (JN)

  20. Evidence that hyperprolactinaemia is associated with ovarian acyclicity in female zoo African elephants.

    PubMed

    Dow, T L; Brown, J L

    2012-01-01

    African elephants of reproductive age in zoos are experiencing high rates of ovarian cycle problems (>40%) and low reproductive success. Previously, our laboratory found that 1/3 of acyclic females exhibit hyperprolactinaemia, a likely cause of ovarian dysfunction. This follow-up study re-examined hyperprolactinaemia in African elephants and found the problem has increased significantly to 71% of acyclic females. Circulating serum progestagens and prolactin were analysed in 31 normal cycling, 13 irregular cycling and 31 acyclic elephants for 12 months. In acyclic females, overall mean prolactin concentrations differed from cycling females (P < 0.05), with concentrations being either higher (n = 22; 54.90 ± 13.31 ngmL(-1)) or lower (n = 9; 6.47 ± 1.73 ngmL(-1)) than normal. No temporal patterns of prolactin secretion were evident in elephants that lacked progestagen cycles. In cycling females, prolactin was secreted in a cyclical manner, with higher concentrations observed during nonluteal (34.38 ± 1.77 and 32.75 ± 2.61 ngmL(-1)) than luteal (10.51 ± 0.30 and 9.67 ± 0.42 ngmL(-1)) phases for normal and irregular females, respectively. Of most concern was that over two-thirds of acyclic females now are hyperprolactinemic, a dramatic increase over that observed 7 years earlier. Furthermore, females of reproductive age constituted 45% of elephants with hyperprolactinaemia. Until the cause of this problem is identified and a treatment is developed, reproductive rates will remain suboptimal and the population nonsustaining.

  1. Evidence from Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions that the Martian Mantle has a Chondritic D/H Ratio and that Some Young Basalts have Assimilated Old Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, Tomohiro; Alexander, O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Magmatic degassing of volatile elements affects the climate and near-surface environment of Mars. Telescopic and meteorite studies have revealed that the Martian atmosphere and near-surface materials have D/H ratios 5-6 times terrestrial values [e.g., 1, 2]. Such high D/H ratios are interpreted to result from the preferential loss of H relative to heavier D from the Martian atmosphere, assuming that the original Martian water inventory had a D/H ratio similar to terrestrial values and to H in primitive meteorites [e.g., 1, 3]. However, the primordial Martian D/H ratio has, until now, not been well constrained. The uncertainty over the Martian primordial D/H ratio has arisen both from the scarcity of primitive Martian meteorites and as a result of contamination by terrestrial and, perhaps, Martian surface waters that obscure the signature of the Martian mantle. This study reports a comprehensive dataset of magmatic volatiles and D/H ratios in Martian primary magmas based on low-contamination, in situ ion microprobe analyses of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from both depleted [Yamato 980459 (Y98)] and enriched [Larkman Nunatak 06319 (LAR06)] Martian basaltic meteorites. Analyses of these primitive melts provide definitive evidence that the Martian mantle has retained a primordial D/H ratio and that young Martian basalts have assimilated old Martian crust.

  2. North Atlantic Deep Water export to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr: Evidence from Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, M.; Whiteley, N.; Kasten, S.; Hein, J.R.; O'Nions, K.

    2002-01-01

    The intensity of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production has been one of the most important parameters controlling the global thermohaline ocean circulation system and climate. Here we present a new approach to reconstruct the overall strength of NADW export from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr applying the deep water Nd and Pb isotope composition as recorded by ferromanganese crusts and nodules. We present the first long-term Nd and Pb isotope time series for deep Southern Ocean water masses, which are compared with previously published time series for NADW from the NW Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest a continuous and strong export of NADW, or a precursor of it, into the Southern Ocean between 14 and 3 Ma. An increasing difference in Nd and Pb isotope compositions between the NW Atlantic and the Southern Ocean over the past 3 Myr gives evidence for a progressive overall reduction of NADW export since the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). The Nd isotope data allow us to assess at least semiquantitatively that the amount of this reduction has been in the range between 14 and 37% depending on location.

  3. Tomographic image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the western Tien Shan from the MANAS broadband deployment: Possible evidence for lithospheric delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiwei, Li; Roecker, Steve; Zhihai, Li; Bin, Wei; Haitao, Wang; Schelochkov, Gennady; Bragin, Vitaly

    2009-11-01

    We combine teleseismic P arrival times from the recent MANAS deployment of broadband sensors with P and S arrival times from local events recorded by the GENGHIS deployment and analog observations from the Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology to generate a high resolution (~ 20 km) image of elastic wavespeeds in the crust and upper mantle beneath the western Tien Shan. The total data set consists of 29,006 P and 21,491 S arrivals from 2176 local events recorded at 144 stations along with 5202 P arrivals from 263 teleseismic events recorded at 40 stations. The most significant feature in our image of the mantle beneath the Tien Shan is a pair of large, elongated high wavespeed regions dipping in opposite directions from the near surface to depths of at least 400 km. These regions appear to be continuous and extend upwards to bounding range fronts where the Tarim Basin is being overthrust by the Kokshal range on the south side, and the Kazach shield underthrusts the Kyrgyz range on the north side. While it is tempting to interpret these high wavespeed anomalies as evidence for contemporary subduction of continental lithosphere, such a scenario is difficult to reconcile with both the timing of the orogen and the size of the wavespeed anomaly. We suggest instead that they represent downwelling side-limbs of a lithospheric delamination beneath the central part of the Tien Shan, possibly by siphoning of the bordering continental lithosphere as the central part descends.

  4. This Too Shall Pass: Evidence of Coping and Fading Emotion in African Americans' Memories of Violent and Nonviolent Death.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn X; Bond, Gary D; Alderson, Courtney J; Walker, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined African Americans essays on coping with violent and nonviolent death and fading affect bias. Essays from 101 African Americans were coded for psychological resolution (resolved or unresolved) and for type of death (violent or nonviolent). Linguistic analyses were used to examine the experience of loss and coping methods. Religious coping was important for nonviolent death events while social support and emotion (e.g., crying) were themes that emerged for violent death events. For unresolved violent death events, dissociation was a common theme. The perceived change in the emotional intensity of the events was examined and revealed that the negative emotion showed evidence of substantial fading. Overall, these results suggest religious coping, social support and sharing enhance coping among African American participants. These processes can help negative affect associated with death events fade, allowing for psychological resolution, healing, and resilience.

  5. Two stage melt-rock interaction in the lower oceanic crust of the Parece Vela basin (Philippine sea), evidence from the primitive troctolites from the Godzilla Megamullion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Dick, H. J.; Ohara, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Godzilla Megamullion is a giant oceanic core complex exposed in an extinct slow- to intermediate-spreading segment of the Parece Vela Basin (Philippine sea) [1; 2]. It exposes lower crust and mantle rocks on the sea-floor, offering a unique opportunity to unravel the architecture and the composition of the lower oceanic lithosphere of an extinct back arc basin. Here we present data on primitive troctolites and associated olivine-gabbros from the breakaway area of the Godzilla Megamullion. On the basis of the olivine/plagioclase volume ratio, the troctolites are subdivided into Ol-troctolites (Ol/Pl >1) and Pl-troctolites (Ol/Pl<1), which show evident textural differences. Ol-troctolites have rounded to polygonal olivine, subhedral plagioclase, and poikilitic clinopyroxene. This texture suggests chemical disequilibrium between the olivine and a melt crystallizing plagioclase and clinopyroxene. We interpret these rocks as reaction products of a dunite matrix with transient basaltic melts [e.g. 3; 4]. Pl-troctolites have euhedral plagioclase and poikilitic olivine and clinopyroxene. Irregular shapes and inverse zoning of the plagioclase chadacrysts within the olivine indicate disequilibrium between existing plagioclase and an olivine-clinopyroxene saturated melt. The occurrence of plagioclase chadacrysts within clinopyroxene ranging from irregular to euhedral in shape suggests crystallization of new lower-Na plagioclase with the clinopyroxene. Olivine oikocrysts in the Pl-troctolites have low-NiO olivine in equilibrium with a high-MgO melt. The Pl-troctolites, then, may be the product of reaction between a plagioclase cumulate and a basaltic melt produced by mixing the high-MgO melt residual to the formation of the Ol-troctolites with new magma. The effect of melt-rock reaction in the Pl- and Ol- troctolites explains the sharp decrease in plagioclase An with respect to Mg# in clinopyroxene and olivine. Furthermore, the melt is shifted towards lower Na, which is

  6. Double-layer structure of the crust beneath the Zhongdian arc, SW China: U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Kang; Xu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Jian-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Ren, Jiang-Bo; Zhao, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zhen-Xing

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons in Late Triassic and Cretaceous intrusive rocks from the Zhongdian arc, SW China, are used to decipher the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic processes that occurred during this period. New U-Pb dating of zircons from Late Triassic porphyries yielded ages of ca. 216 Ma and εHf(t) values of -2.1 to +6.1. Combined with previous results, the data indicate that these Late Triassic rocks were most likely derived from a juvenile mafic lower-crust with minor old crust material. However, the Cretaceous granites (∼80 Ma) have lower εHf(t) values (-7.6 to -2.4) than the Late Triassic rocks, indicating that the former originated from old crust. Based on the new data and previous studies of Mesozoic magmatic activity, a plausible model for the tectono-magmatism and metallogenesis of the Zhongdian arc is proposed. The westwards subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic crust began before ∼230 Ma, resulting in the formation of a juvenile lower crust beneath the Zhongdian arc due to the underplating of mafic arc magmas during ca. 230-216 Ma. At ca. 216 Ma, break-off or slab-tearing of the west-dipping Ganzi-Litang oceanic slab led to partial melting of the juvenile lower crust, which gave rise to Cu-bearing porphyries. In the Late Cretaceous, the Zhongdian arc probably underwent post-collision extension, triggering the partial melting of the old middle-upper crustal materials and producing various granites and related Mo-Cu deposits. According to this model, the crust beneath the Zhongdian arc probably has a double-layer structure, with older crust at shallow levels and juvenile crust at deeper levels.

  7. Feldspar palaeo-isochrons from early Archaean TTGs: Pb-isotope evidence for a high U/Pb terrestrial Hadean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, B. S.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Moorbath, S.; Collerson, K. D.

    2001-12-01

    Feldspar lead-isotope data for 22 early Archaean (3.80-3.82 Ga) tonalitic gneisses from an area south of the Isua greenstone belt (IGB),West Greenland, define a steep linear trend in common Pb-isotope space with an apparent age of 4480+/-77 Ma. Feldspars from interleaved amphibolites yield a similar array corresponding to a date of 4455+/-540 Ma. These regression lines are palaeo-isochrons that formed during feldspar-whole rock Pb-isotope homogenisation a long time (1.8 Ga) after rock formation but confirm the extreme antiquity (3.81 Ga) of the gneissic protoliths [1; this study]. Unlike their whole-rock counterparts, feldspar palaeo-isochrons are immune to rotational effects caused by the vagaries of U/Pb fractionation. Hence, comparison of their intercept with mantle Pb-isotope evolution models yields meaningful information regarding the source history of the magmatic precursors. The locus of intersection between the palaeo-isochrons and terrestrial mantle Pb-isotope evolution lines shows that the gneissic precursors of these 3.81 Ga gneisses were derived from a source with a substantially higher time-integrated U/Pb ratio than the mantle. Similar requirements for a high U/Pb source have been found for IGB BIF [2], IGB carbonate [3], and particularly IGB galenas [4]. Significantly, a single high U/Pb source that separated from the MORB-source mantle at ca. 4.3 Ga with a 238U/204Pb of ca. 10.5 provides a good fit to all these observations. In contrast to many previous models based on Nd and Hf-isotope evidence we propose that this reservoir was not a mantle source but the Hadean basaltic crust which, in the absence of an operating subduction process, encased the early Earth. Differentiation of the early high U/Pb basaltic crust could have occurred in response to gravitational sinking of cold mantle material or meteorite impact, and produced zircon-bearing magmatic rocks. The subchondritic Hf-isotope ratios of ca. 3.8 Ga zircons support this model [5] provided that

  8. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Jonathan; Carlson, Richard W

    2017-03-17

    Geologic processing of Earth's surface has removed most of the evidence concerning the nature of Earth's first crust. One region of ancient crust is the Hudson Bay terrane of northeastern Canada, which is mainly composed of Neoarchean felsic crust and forms the nucleus of the Northeastern Superior Province. New data show these ~2.7-billion-year-old rocks to be the youngest to yield variability in neodymium-142 ((142)Nd), the decay product of short-lived samarium-146 ((146)Sm). Combined (146-147)Sm-(142-143)Nd data reveal that this large block of Archean crust formed by reworking of much older (>4.2 billion-year-old) mafic crust over a 1.5-billion-year interval of early Earth history. Thus, unlike on modern Earth, mafic crust apparently could survive for more than 1 billion years to form an important source rock for Archean crustal genesis.

  9. Reexaming the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2003-01-01

    Examines several longstanding, isolated biracial sociolinguistic situations in the coastal and Appalachian regions of North Carolina: a core community of African Americans and two case studies of isolated speakers. Compares diagnostic phonological and morphosyntactic variables for speakers representing different generations of African American and…

  10. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan

    2001-10-01

    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An 60 to An 70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  11. Thermomagmatic evolution of Mesoproterozoic crust in the Blue Ridge of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: Evidence from U-Pb geochronology and zircon geothermometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Mazdab, Frank K.; Southworth, Scott; Fanning, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    New geologic mapping, petrology, and U-Pb geochronology indicate that Mesoproterozoic crust near Mount Rogers consists of felsic to mafic meta-igneous rocks emplaced over 260 m.y. The oldest rocks are compositionally diverse and migmatitic, whereas younger granitoids are porphyritic to porphyroclastic. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircon from four representative units preserves textural evidence of multiple episodes of growth, including domains of igneous, metamorphic, and inherited origin. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) trace-element analyses indicate that metamorphic zircon is characterized by lower Th/U, higher Yb/Gd, and lower overall rare earth element (REE) concentrations than igneous zircon. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon define three episodes of magmatism: 1327 ± 7 Ma, 1180–1155 Ma, and 1061 ± 5 Ma. Crustal recycling is recorded by inherited igneous cores of 1.33–1.29 Ga age in 1161 ± 7 Ma meta-monzogranite. Overlapping ages of igneous and metamorphic crystallization indicate that plutons of ca. 1170 and 1060 Ma age were emplaced during episodes of regional heating. Local development of hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± clinopyroxene indicates that prograde metamorphism at 1170–1145 Ma and 1060–1020 Ma reached upper-amphibolite-facies conditions, with temperatures estimated using Ti-in-zircon geothermometry at ~740 ± 40 °C during both episodes. The chemical composition of 1327 ± 7 Ma orthogranofels from migmatite preserves the first evidence of arc-generated rocks in the Blue Ridge, indicating a subduction-related environment that may have been comparable to similar-age systems in inliers of the Northern Appalachians and the Composite Arc belt of Canada. Granitic magmatism at 1180–1155 Ma and ca. 1060 Ma near Mount Rogers was contemporaneous with anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) plutonism in the Northern Appalachian inliers and Canadian Grenville Province. Metamorphism at ca. 1160

  12. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  13. Palaeohydrology of the Fazzan Basin, Libyan Sahara: Evidence for multiple phases of North African humidity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, S. J.; White, K.; Drake, N.

    2008-12-01

    The Fazzan is a large closed basin with an area of 450,000 km2, located in south-western Libya. The present-day climate is hyper-arid. Modern human occupation is restricted to oases, notably at the foot of the Messak Sattafat, a Nubian Sandstone escarpment which divides the Fazzan into two sub-basins. However widespread lithic scatters with varying inferred ages, and numerous Holocene hearth fields, indicate that the Fazzan has a long history of human occupation. In addition, regionally extensive lake deposits attest to the presence of a large palaeolake, here termed Lake Mega-Fazzan, at various periods in the past. Although the Sahara contains evidence for several other large palaeolakes, Lake Mega-Fazzan is the only one fed exclusively by rivers draining the Sahara proper. Thus, the Lake Mega-Fazzan sediments and archaeological remains provide an important resource for advancing our understanding of climate change in this part of the Sahara. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques have been applied to a range of lacustrine deposits, and more experimentally to the Holocene hearth fields, to provide an internally consistent chronology for the Fazzan record. Results indicate that sediments within the Fazzan Basin record a very long history of palaeohydrological change. The oldest lacustrine sediments are beyond the range of conventional OSL dating techniques, but younger humid periods during oxygen isotope stages 11, 5 and 1 are recognised. Initial results from one hearth field also indicate that OSL has the potential to reveal human responses to changes in hydrology during the Holocene. These results, when compared with similar studies of adjacent closed basins, indicate that the Sahara may not always have provided as formidable a barrier to faunal migration as it does at present. The implications of this finding for our understanding of North African palaeoclimate and biogeography will be discussed.

  14. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  15. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  16. Freshly brewed continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  17. Constrained potential field modeling of the crustal architecture of the Musgrave Province in central Australia: Evidence for lithospheric strengthening due to crust-mantle boundary uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Alan R. A.; Betts, Peter G.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Gray, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    We image the crustal architecture of the Musgrave Province with petrophysically constrained forward models of new potential field data. These models image divergent shallow-dipping crustal scale thrusts that, at depth, link with an axial zone defined by steeper, lithospheric scale transpressional shear zones. They also show that to permit a near-surface density distribution that is consistent with petrophysical and geological observations, approximately 15-20 km of crust-mantle boundary uplift is necessary beneath the axial zone. The long-term preservation of this crust-mantle boundary offset implies a change from relatively weak lithosphere to relatively strong lithosphere during the intraplate Petermann Orogeny. To explain this, we propose a model in which uplift of the axial zone of the orogen leads to local lithospheric strengthening as a result of the uplift of mantle rocks into the lower crust, coupled with long-term lithospheric cooling due to the erosion of a radioactive upper crust. Brace-Goetze lithospheric strength models suggest that these processes may have increased the integrated strength of the lithosphere by a factor of 1.4-2.8. Because of this strengthening, this system is self-limiting, and activity will cease when lithospheric strength is sufficient to resist external forces and support isostatic imbalances. A simple force-balance model demonstrates that the force required to uplift the axial zone is tectonically reasonable and that the system can subsequently withstand significant tensional forces. This example shows that crust-mantle boundary uplift coupled with reduced crustal heat production can profoundly affect the long-term strength of the continental lithosphere and may be a critical process in the tectonic stabilization of intraplate regions.

  18. Continued Evidence for Input of Chlorine into the Martian Crust from Degassing of Chlorine-Rich Martian Magmas with Implications for Potential Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiberto, J.; Gross, J.

    2014-12-01

    The chlorine-concentration (or salinity) of a fluid affects the potential for that fluid to be a habitable environment, with most known terrestrial organisms preferring low salinity fluids [1, 2]. The Martian crust (as analyzed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer) is chlorine-rich with up to 0.8 wt% Cl; while the MER rovers Spirit and Opportunity as well as MSL Curiosity have analyzed rocks with even higher chlorine concentrations [e.g., 3]. This suggests that any potential fluid flowing through the crust would have high chlorine concentrations and therefore high salinity. Here we investigate the bulk and mineral chemistry of the SNC meteorites to constrain the pre-eruptive chlorine concentrations of Martian magmas as the potential source of chlorine in the Martian crust. Bulk SNC meteorites have Cl concentrations similar to terrestrial Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts which would suggest a Cl content of the Martian interior similar to that of the Earth [4]. However, based on Cl/La ratios, the Martian interior actually has 2-3 times more Cl than the Earth [5]. This is also reflected in the composition of Cl-rich minerals within the SNC meteorites [5, 6] and suggests that the pre-eruptive parental magmas to the SNC meteorites were Cl-rich. Eruption and degassing of such Cl-rich magmas would have delivered Cl to the Martian crust, thereby increasing the salinity of any fluids within the crust. [1] Rothschild L.J. and R.L. Mancinelli (2001) Nature. 409: 1092-1101. [2] Sharp Z.D. and D.S. Draper (2013) EPSL. 369-370: 71-77. [3] Taylor G.J. et al. (2010) GRL. 37: L12204. [4]. Burgess R. et al (2013) GCA 77: 793. [5] Filiberto J. and A.H. Treiman (2009) Geology. 37: 1087-1090. [6] McCubbin F.M. et al. (2013) MaPS. 48: 819-853.

  19. Genetic Evidence of African Slavery at the Beginning of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

    PubMed Central

    Martiniano, Rui; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria João; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15th–17th centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions. PMID:25104065

  20. Genetic evidence of African slavery at the beginning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

    PubMed

    Martiniano, Rui; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria João; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G

    2014-08-08

    An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15(th)-17(th) centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.

  1. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhike; Zhu, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries. PMID:24741366

  2. Three-dimensional conductivity model of crust and uppermost mantle at the northern Trans North China Orogen: Evidence for a mantle source of Datong volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiqian; Huang, Qinghua; Zhao, Guoze; Guo, Zhen; Chen, Y. John

    2016-11-01

    While the Eastern Block of North China Craton (NCC) had experienced significant lithospheric destruction in the Mesozoic, the Western Block of NCC and the Trans North China Orogen (TNCO) have undergone localized lithospheric modification since the Cenozoic. The northern TNCO is highlighted by the Cenozoic magmatic activities including Hannuoba basalts and Datong volcanoes and is a seismically active region. In this study 3-D electrical conductivity model of the crust and uppermost mantle is derived by the 3-D inversion technique using data from 72 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations. The final model shows that a 15 km thick resistive layer of about 3000 Ω m dominates the upper crust, which may represent the intact Archean and Paleoproterozoic terrains. Whereas in the mid-crust there are marked high conductivity anomalies of about 10 Ω m beneath Shanxi rifting basin, which may result from the interconnected saline fluid of 0.2% to 6% volume fraction. The most important finding is that one significant conductor extended into the mantle is located between Hannuoba field and Datong volcanoes and it connects with the mid-crust conductor beneath the Datong volcanoes. We suggest that this could be the mantle source (partial melting region) for the Quaternary volcanic activities of Datong volcanoes and the melt fraction is estimated as 6.6%. Its location inside the Western Block suggests that the volcanic activities at Datong volcanoes are irrelevant to the tectonic process to the east of TNCO. It is likely to be related to the mantle flows from the Tibetan Plateau around the Ordos block which converges at the northeastern corner of the Ordos block and local upward flow along the slope of the thinning lithosphere resulted in decompression partial melting and the melt percolated upward through the crust to feed the lava eruptions at the Datong volcanoes to the east. Finally, large crustal earthquakes in this region are generally located in resistive zones with high

  3. Growth of continental crust and its episodic reworking over >800 Ma: evidence from Hf-Nd isotope data on the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Moyen, Jean-François; Doucelance, Régis; Martin, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Precambrian, and in particular during the Archaean eon (4.0-2.5 Ga), is still a matter of debate. In particular, it is not yet clear in which tectonic environment the genesis of crust took place and how the large volume of granitoid rocks that form ~70% of the Archaean crust were extracted from the mantle. Many studies highlighted that radiogenic isotope systems, especially Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd, are powerful tools to unravel the respective extent of crustal growth and recycling in Archaean terranes. This work presents coupled Hf and Nd isotope data (analyzed both in situ in accessory minerals and in whole rock samples) of Meso- to Neoarchaean granitoids, applied to unravel the processes of crust formation and evolution of the Pietersburg crustal block in South Africa. This crustal segment, the northermost one of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, is separated from older crust (3.65-3.10 Ga) by a large-scale suture zone, and the processes related to amalgamation of both blocks and their subsequent evolution are still unclear. The Pietersburg block is made up of a wide range of Archaean granitoid rocks, including tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series, high-K monzogranites as well as (grano)diorites belonging to the so-called "sanukitoid" group [1], all intruded by late Paleoproterozoic alkaline complexes. Age determinations highlighted two stages of granitoid formation: (1) TTG magmatism took place episodically over >400 Ma between 3.34 and 2.89 Ga, with a major pulse at 2.97-2.90 Ga; while (2) all the other (high-K) granitoid types emplaced subsequently between 2.84 and 2.69 Ga before a long magmatic shutdown until the intrusion of alkaline complexes at ~2.00 Ga [2-3]. Isotope systematics reveal that these two stages are related to juvenile crust formation and crust reworking, respectively. Indeed, all Hf-Nd isotope data from TTG gneisses are suprachondritic, pointing to a juvenile origin and precluding

  4. Variations in the Pb isotope composition in polyformational magmatic rocks of the Ketkap-Yuna igneous province of the Aldan Shield: Evidence for mantle-crust interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, V. F.; Dril, S. I.; Khanchuk, A. I.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Vladimirova, T. A.; Il'ina, N. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Pb isotope composition of polyformational Mesozoic igneous rocks of the Ketkap-Yuna igneous province (KYIP) and lower crustal metamorphic rocks of the Batomga granite-greenstone area (the complex of the KYIP basement) of the Aldan Shield was studied for the first time. Based on the data obtained, several types of material sources participating in petrogenetic processes were distinguished. The mantle source identified as PREMA is registered in most of the igneous formations and predominates in mafic alkaline rocks. According to the isotope characteristics, the upper crustal source corresponds to a source of the "Orogen" type by the model of "plumbotectonics" or to the average composition of the continental crust by the Stacey-Kramers model. The lower crust is the third material source; however, the type of lower crustal protolith involved in the igneous process is still not defined, which makes difficult to estimate its role in the petrogenetic processes.

  5. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  6. First findings of Paleo- and Mesoarchean zircons in the rocks from the Central Arctic province of oceanic rises as an evidence of the ancient continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, S. A.; Presnyakov, S. L.; Antonov, A. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Rodionov, N. V.; Shevchenko, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents the results of local U-Pb zircon dating (SIMS SHRIMP II) for a sample of migmatite gneiss dredged on the western slope of Alpha Ridge in the Arctic Ocean in the course of the "Arktika-2012" Russian polar expedition. The distribution of U-Pb ages of the examined zircon points to the Early Precambrian origin of this gneiss, for the bulk of the zircon was crystallized at least 3450 Ma ago from a magmatic melt under acidic volcanism at the primary crust formation. Zircon of the second generation was crystallized 3300 Ma ago under the remelting of acid volcanics and appearance of migmatite gneisses under the amphibolite facies of metamorphism. Most likely, a partial recrystallization of zircon and formation of microfolded structures and foliation took place 3000 Ma ago at the stage of rocks deformation. The latest zircon was formed 1900 Ma ago from the crust fluid or melt under the low-gradient metamorphism. In view of the possibility of the appearance of the treated clastogenic gneiss fragment under current oceanic erosion, the obtained results allow one to affirm that the occurrence of a fragment of the most ancient sialic continental crust formed at least 3450 Ma ago is possible at the submarine rises of the Arctic Ocean (Alpha Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise).

  7. ­Crustal Structure of the Western Anatolian Extensional Province: Evidence for a ductile lower crust through the joint inversion of Receiver Functions and Dispersion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J. R.; Kahraman, M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ozacar, A. A.; Turkelli, N.

    2014-12-01

    Western Anatolia is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, undergoing broad N-S extension associated with the rollback of the Aegean slab in the south. This region is characterized by high heat-flow, recent volcanism, and core-complex formation. We use >3500 receiver functions from a dense array of 47 stations located in western Turkey and dispersion data from a recent regional-scale, ambient noise tomography study to invert for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth. Using this technique, we obtain an unprecedented three-dimensional shear-wave velocity model that characterizes the crust of western Turkey. We find a sharp Moho transition beneath much of western Anatolia, with crustal thickness varying from ~25 km near the Aegean Sea to ~35 km beneath the Fethiye Lobe correlating with the topography in western Turkey. The lower crust exhibits a relatively continuous ~10-15 km thick low shear-wave velocity layer (LVL) beneath most of western Anatolia, reaching velocities below 3.0 km/s in some places. The top of this LVL marks the lower boundary of crustal seismicity. These characteristics suggest that the lower crust in western Anatolia is behaving as a ductile solid, as seismic velocities in this range at lower crustal depths are indicative of the presence of fluids (possibly partial melts when considering the high heat-flow in the region). We propose that the lower crust in this region may be undergoing local crustal flow due to the N-S dominated stress regime, which led to the formation of the sharp, low-relief Moho observed in western Turkey. Across the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, we see the slowest S-wave velocities in the lower crust, reaching ~2.8 km/s. Unlike elsewhere in western Turkey, this region has relatively low surficial heat-flow and no recent volcanism. Therefore, the anomaly in the Fethiye Lobe is likely due to a different mechanism than western Turkey. We also observe a very slow uppermost mantle beneath this region, with

  8. A petrogenetic study of anorogenic felsic magmatism in the Cretaceous Paresis ring complex, Namibia: evidence for mixing of crust and mantle-derived components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingram, B.; Trumbull, R. B.; Littman, S.; Gerstenberger, H.

    2000-10-01

    Paresis is one of a group of Cretaceous ring complexes extending from the coast some 350 km NE across the Damara Belt. It consists of over 90% rhyolites and comendites, with subordinate intrusions of quartz syenite and alkali-feldspar syenite. These felsic units are accompanied by very minor amounts of silica-undersaturated basalt, phonolite and lamprophyre. Located near the edge of the Congo Craton, Paresis is the farthest inland of any felsic complex in the Cretaceous ring complex group. The other ring complexes in the vicinity consist of carbonatites and undersaturated alkaline rocks (e.g., Okorusu, Kalkfeld, Etaneno, Ondurakorume). Geochemical and isotopic data provide evidence for both mantle and crustal components in the sources of the Paresis magmas. The alkaline basalts, phonolite and lamprophyre have overlapping Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios which plot within the mantle array close to bulk-earth values ( ɛNd=-0.9 to -2.8 and 87Sr/ 86Sr(i)=0.7042-0.7054) and may indicate a mantle plume component. The rhyolite units comprise metaluminous feldspar rhyolites and peraluminous, more differentiated quartz-feldspar rhyolites. Both units show prominent negative Nb and Ta anomalies on mantle-normalized multielement diagrams and have extremely nonradiogenic Nd ratios ( ɛNd=-21) and Sr initial ratios of 0.7117-0.7138. These isotopic values suggest a crustal origin from pre-Damara (Early Precambrian) gneisses and granitoids, which are exposed in the Congo craton and related inliers in northern Namibia. The comendites are peralkaline, highly differentiated rocks. In contrast to the rhyolites, comendites lack mantle-normalized Nb and Ta anomalies, have higher HFSE and LREE contents, extreme negative Eu anomalies and ɛNd values of -11. Like the comendites, alkali-feldspar syenites are peralkaline, lack Nb and Ta anomalies, have negative Eu anomalies and high HFSE concentrations. Their ɛNd values are -6.5 to -8. The quartz syenites overlap with the peralkaline

  9. The Oceanic Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francheteau, Jean

    1983-01-01

    The earth's oceanic crust is created and destroyed in a flow outward from midocean ridges to subduction zones, where it plunges back into the mantle. The nature and dynamics of the crust, instrumentation used in investigations of this earth feature, and research efforts/findings are discussed. (JN)

  10. No evidence for proteolytic venom resistance in southern African ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Molly A; Waterman, Jane M; Du Plessis, Pg; Smit, Martin; Bennett, Nigel C

    2012-10-01

    Many mammalian species that interact with venomous snakes show resistances to venoms. The family Sciuridae has several North American members that harass venomous snakes and show proteolytic resistances in their sera. We examined sera collected from an African ground squirrel (Xerus inauris) against two sympatric venomous snakes (Bitis arietans and Naja annulifera) and found no support for proteolytic resistance. Our results add to our understanding of the risks in predator defense within the family Sciuridae.

  11. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  12. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  13. Oceanic crust in the mid-mantle beneath west-central Pacific subduction zones: evidence from S to P converted waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongtao; He, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    The fate of subducted slabs is enigmatic, yet intriguing. We analyse seismic arrivals at ˜20-50 s after the direct P wave in an array in northeast China (NECESSArray) recordings of four deep earthquakes occurring beneath the west-central Pacific subduction zones (from the eastern Indonesia to Tonga region). We employ the array analysing techniques of fourth root vespagram and beam-forming analysis to constrain the slowness and backazimuth of later arrivals. Our analyses reveal that these arrivals have a slightly lower slowness value than the direct P wave and the backazimuth deviates slightly from the great circle direction. Along with calculation of 1-D synthetic seismograms, we conclude that the later arrival is corresponding to an energy of S-to-P converted at a scatterer below the sources. Total five scatterers are detected at depths varying from ˜700 to 1110 km in the study region. The past subducted oceanic crust most likely accounts for the seismic scatterers trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the west-central subduction zones. Our observation in turn reflects that oceanic crust at least partly separated from subducted oceanic lithosphere and may be trapped substantially in the mid-mantle surrounding subduction zones, in particular in the western Pacific subduction zones.

  14. Oceanic crust in the mid-mantle beneath Central-West Pacific subduction zones: Evidence from S-to-P converted waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of subducted slabs is enigmatic, yet intriguing. We analyze seismic arrivals at ~20-50 s after the direct P wave in an array in northeast China (NECESSArray) recordings of four deep earthquakes occurring beneath the west-central Pacific subduction zones (from the eastern Indonesia to Tonga region). We employ the array analyzing techniques of 4th root vespagram and beam-form analysis to constrain the slowness and back azimuth of later arrivals. Our analyses reveal that these arrivals have a slightly lower slowness value than the direct P wave and the back azimuth deviates slightly from the great-circle direction. Along with calculation of one-dimensional synthetic seismograms, we conclude that the later arrival is corresponding to an energy of S-to-P converted at a scatterer below the sources. Total five scatterers are detected at depths varying from ~700 to 1110 km in the study region. The past subducted oceanic crust most likely accounts for the seismic scatterers trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the west-central subduction zones. Our observation in turn reflects that oceanic crust at least partly separated from subducted oceanic lithosphere and may be trapped substantially in the mid-mantle surrounding subduction zones, in particular in the western Pacific subduction zones.

  15. Neodymium isotopic evidence for decreasing crustal contributions to cenozoic ignimbrites of the western United States. Implications for the thermal evolution of the Cordilleran crust

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V. ); DePaolo, D.J. ); Baldridge, W.S. )

    1993-07-01

    We have estimated the crustal contributions to 12 early Oligocene to Pleistocene rhyolite systems located throughout the Cordillera. We have determined that (1) crustal contributions to large-volume rhyolite systems decrease from the Oligocene to the Miocene, and (2) rhyolite systems younger than 20 Ma are dominated by mantle components. The crustal contributions to rhyolite systems may be controlled by system size and duration, crustal thickness, tectonic setting, crustal composition, crustal density, and crustal temperature. We conclude that regional cooling of the lower crust, which progressively limited the amount of crustal wallrock assimilated by rhyolite systems, is the only parameter that is consistent with geologic and geochemical data for rhyolite systems and the geologic evolution of the Cordillera. A quantitative model that relates the amount of crustal contribution to assimilation/recharge rates and the temperature of the crust indicates that lower-crustal temperatures would have to decrease about 300[degrees]C between early Oligocene and early Miocene time to account for the decrease in crustal contributions. 57 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Evidence from meimechites and other low-degree mantle melts for redox controls on mantle-crust fractionation of platinum-group elements

    PubMed Central

    Mungall, James E.; Hanley, Jacob J.; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Debecdelievre, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the geochemistry of the chalcophile elements [i.e., Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd (platinum-group elements), and Au, Cu, Ni] has been informed for at least 20 years by the common assumption that when crust-forming partial melts are extracted from the upper mantle, sulfide liquid in the restite sequesters chalcophile elements until the extent of partial melting exceeds ≈25% and all of the sulfide has been dissolved in silicate melt [Hamlyn, P. R. & Keays, R. R. (1985) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 1797–1811]. Here we document very high, unfractionated, chalcophile element concentrations in small-degree partial melts from the mantle that cannot be reconciled with the canonical residual sulfide assumption. We show that the observed high, unfractionated platinum-group element concentrations in small-degree partial melts can be attained if the melting takes place at moderately high oxygen fugacity, which will reduce the amount of sulfide due to the formation of sulfate and will also destabilize residual monosulfide solid solution by driving sulfide melts into the spinel-liquid divariant field. Magmas formed at high oxygen fugacity by small degrees of mantle melting can be important agents for the transfer of chalcophile elements from the upper mantle to the crust and may be progenitors of significant ore deposits of Pt, Pd, and Au. PMID:16908861

  17. Diapirs and cantaloupes: Layering and overturn of Triton's crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P.; Jackson, M. P. A.

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that cantaloupe terrain formed as a result of instability and overturn (i.e., diapirism) of Triton's crust. Morphologic evidence implicates compositional layering within Triton's crust as the driving mechanism for the overturn. Here, we review the morphologic evidence for this origin and evaluate some of the implications.

  18. The syncollisional granitoid magmatism and continental crust growth in the West Kunlun Orogen, China - Evidence from geochronology and geochemistry of the Arkarz pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Niu, Yaoling; Hu, Yan; Liu, Jinju; Ye, Lei; Kong, Juanjuan; Duan, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The West Kunlun orogenic belt (WKOB) at the northwest margin of the Greater Tibetan Plateau records seafloor subduction, ocean basin closing and continental collision with abundant syncollisional granitoids in response to the evolution of the Proto- and Paleo-Tethys Oceans from the early-Paleozoic to the Triassic. Here we present a combined study of detailed zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic geochemistry on the syncollisional Arkarz (AKAZ) pluton with mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) exposed north of the Mazha-Kangxiwa suture (MKS) zone. The granitoid host rocks and MMEs of the AKAZ pluton give the same late Triassic age of ~ 225 Ma. The granitoid host rocks are metaluminous granodiorite and monzogranite. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70818 to 0.70930, εNd(225 Ma) = - 4.61 to - 3.91 and εHf(225 Ma) = - 3.01 to 0.74. The MMEs are more mafic than the host with varying SiO2 (51.00-63.24 wt.%) and relatively low K2O (1.24-3.02 wt.%), but have similar Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions to the host ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70830-0.70955, εNd(225 Ma) = - 4.88 to - 4.29, εHf(225 Ma) = - 2.57 to 0.25). Both the host and MMEs have rare earth element (REE) and trace element patterns resembling those of bulk continental crust (BCC). The MMEs most likely represent cumulate formed from common magmas parental to the granitoid host. The granitoid magmatism is best explained as resulting from melting of amphibolite of MORB protolith during continental collision, which produces andesitic melts with a remarkable compositional similarity to the BCC and the inherited mantle-like isotopic compositions. Simple isotopic mixing calculations suggest that ~ 80% ocean crust and ~ 20% continental materials contribute to the source of the AKAZ pluton. Thus, the hypothesis "continental collision zones as primary sites for net continental crust growth" is applicable in the WKOB as shown by studies in southern Tibet, East Kunlun and Qilian orogens. In

  19. Mass transfer in the lower crust: Evidence for incipient melt assisted flow along grain boundaries in the deep arc granulites of Fiordland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Catherine A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of mass transfer is critical in improving our understanding of crustal evolution, however mass transfer mechanisms are debated, especially in arc environments. The Pembroke Granulite is a gabbroic gneiss, passively exhumed from depths of >45 km from the arc root of Fiordland, New Zealand. Here, enstatite and diopside grains are replaced by coronas of pargasite and quartz, which may be asymmetric, recording hydration of the gabbroic gneiss. The coronas contain microstructures indicative of the former presence of melt, supported by pseudosection modeling consistent with the reaction having occurred near the solidus of the rock (630-710°C, 8.8-12.4 kbar). Homogeneous mineral chemistry in reaction products indicates an open system, despite limited metasomatism at the hand sample scale. We propose the partial replacement microstructures are a result of a reaction involving an externally derived hydrous, silicate melt and the relatively anhydrous, high-grade assemblage. Trace element mapping reveals a correlation between reaction microstructure development and bands of high-Sr plagioclase, recording pathways of the reactant melt along grain boundaries. Replacement microstructures record pathways of diffuse porous melt flow at a kilometer scale within the lower crust, which was assisted by small proportions of incipient melt providing a permeable network. This work recognizes melt flux through the lower crust in the absence of significant metasomatism, which may be more common than is currently recognized. As similar microstructures are found elsewhere within the exposed Fiordland lower crustal arc rocks, mass transfer of melt by diffuse porous flow may have fluxed an area >10,000 km2.

  20. Deformation at the frictional-viscous transition: Evidence for cycles of fluid-assisted embrittlement and ductile deformation in the granitoid crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrens, Philip; Berger, Alfons; Peters, Max; Spillmann, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Mid-crustal deformation is classically characterized by the transition from ductile to brittle deformation defining the frictional-to-viscous transition (FVT). Here we investigate an exhumed continental mid-crustal basement section in order to envisage the relationship between ductile and brittle deformation at the FVT. Our detailed study from km- to micro-scale shows that, under greenschist metamorphic conditions, deformation is accommodated by a dense network of highly-localized ductile shear zones. In the investigated case it is not quartz which defines the overall ductile deformation behavior but the viscous granular deformation in shear zones with an ultrafine-grained polymineralic matrix consisting of quartz, feldspar, sheet silicates and epidote. During viscous granular flow mass transfer processes under the presence of fluids promote a chemo-mechanical mixing, resulting in grain size reduction and reaction softening. Coeval with this ductile deformation, fluid-assisted embrittlement occurs, as indicated by biotite-coated fractures, cataclasites and injection of non-cohesive polymineralic gouge material into secondary fractures inside the host rock. The embrittlement during predominant ductile deformation occurs in cycles, i.e. prolonged periods of slow viscous granular flow are interrupted by rapid brittle deformation. We interpret this fluid-assisted cyclic embrittlement evidenced by injection of the fluidized material into off-fault fractures as an alternative equivalent to pseudotachylites and as a microstructural indicator for paleo-seismic activity. With exhumation and associated cooling, localized deformation persists in the ultrafine-grained polymineralic shear zones but progressively transitions to cataclastic flow and finally to pressure-dependent frictional flow; always showing cycles of slow interseismic flow and fast seismic injection events. Overall, in the granitic crust of the Aar-massif, brittle and ductile deformation coexist up to

  1. The satellite magnetic anomaly of Ahaggar - Evidence for African Plate motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Brown, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ahaggar volcanic province of North Central Africa is considered a region of excess heat flow (hot spot) and hence elevated Curie isotherm. Using a modified version of the Parker FFT potential field representation, magnetic signals were calculated at Magsat altitudes for models in which the African Plate is both fixed and moving. The moving-plate model extends the Curie isotherm anomaly in the direction of plate motion and provides a satisfactory match to vertical component anomaly data when the magnitude of plate velocity is 0.75 cm/yr. Although the signal levels are marginal for the scalar component anomalies of this region, the same model provides an adequate match to this data set and is clearly preferable to a fixed-plate model.

  2. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  3. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  4. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  5. Oxygen consumption in subseafloor basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor basalts has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) basaltic crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within basaltic crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool basaltic crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.

  6. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    PubMed

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-08

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System.

  7. Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Nedimović, Mladen R; Carbotte, Suzanne M; Harding, Alistair J; Detrick, Robert S; Canales, J Pablo; Diebold, John B; Kent, Graham M; Tischer, Michael; Babcock, Jeffrey M

    2005-08-25

    The Earth's oceanic crust crystallizes from magmatic systems generated at mid-ocean ridges. Whereas a single magma body residing within the mid-crust is thought to be responsible for the generation of the upper oceanic crust, it remains unclear if the lower crust is formed from the same magma body, or if it mainly crystallizes from magma lenses located at the base of the crust. Thermal modelling, tomography, compliance and wide-angle seismic studies, supported by geological evidence, suggest the presence of gabbroic-melt accumulations within the Moho transition zone in the vicinity of fast- to intermediate-spreading centres. Until now, however, no reflection images have been obtained of such a structure within the Moho transition zone. Here we show images of groups of Moho transition zone reflection events that resulted from the analysis of approximately 1,500 km of multichannel seismic data collected across the intermediate-spreading-rate Juan de Fuca ridge. From our observations we suggest that gabbro lenses and melt accumulations embedded within dunite or residual mantle peridotite are the most probable cause for the observed reflectivity, thus providing support for the hypothesis that the crust is generated from multiple magma bodies.

  8. Osmium isotope evidence for Early to Middle Proterozoic mantle lithosphere stabilization and concomitant production of juvenile crust in Dish Hill, CA peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, Rosalind M. G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    The 187Os/188Os compositions in peridotite samples from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) can be used to constrain the timing of melt extraction and potentially test the link between large-scale mantle melting and juvenile crust production. The SCLM has often experienced a complex history such that some lithophile elements such as REEs (rare earth elements) in these rocks typically record overprinting during metasomatism. New 187Os/188Os, major and trace element compositional data were obtained on sixteen Dish Hill peridotite xenoliths (California, USA) and are used to examine these issues. The samples show strong correlations between 187Os/188Os and indicators of melt depletion such as Lu abundance in clinopyroxene, modal abundance of clinopyroxene, bulk rock Al2O3 and the Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel. These relationships indicate that metasomatism did not compromise the 187Os/188Os systematics. The data appear to form two melt depletion trends consistent with Re depletion model ages (TRD) obtained from the two Al2O3 versus 187Os/188Os trends are 2.1 ± 0.5 Ga and 1.3 ± 0.3 Ga (±95% conf.). It has been suggested that the SCLM under Dish Hill may be fragments of oceanic lithosphere emplaced as the result of Farallon plate subduction during the Late Cretaceous (Luffi et al., 2009). However, the strong melt depletion trends, major element compositions and Re-depletion ages are not consistent with the interpretation of this suite of xenoliths having an oceanic lithospheric origin. Rather, the 2.1 Ga age coincides with Nd model ages of 2-2.3 Ga (Bennett and DePaolo, 1987; Rämö and Calzia, 1998) for the overlying Mojavia crustal province. The 1.3 Ga age is consistent with large-scale A-type magmatism in the nearby region at this time that is purported to be the result of mantle plume melting processes. Therefore, data from this study point to the SCLM under Dish Hill being formed by two ancient mantle-melting events, which could be the result of

  9. Raising the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2017-02-01

    The changes that occur at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons are arguably the most fundamental to affect the evolution of Earth's continental crust. The principal component of Archean continental crust is Granite-Greenstone Terranes (GGTs), with granites always dominant. The greenstones consist of a lower sequence of submarine komatiites and basalts, which erupted onto a pre-existing Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) crust. These basaltic rocks pass upwards initially into evolved volcanic rocks, such as andesites and dacites and, subsequently, into reworked felsic pyroclastic material and immature sediments. This transition coincides with widespread emplacement of granitoids, which stabilised (cratonised) the continental crust. Proterozoic supra-crustal rocks, on the other hand, are dominated by extensive flat-lying platform sequences of mature sediments, which were deposited on stable cratonic basements, with basaltic rocks appreciably less abundant. The siliceous TTGs cannot be produced by direct melting of the mantle, with most hypotheses for their origin requiring them to be underlain by a complimentary dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root, which we suggest acted as ballast to the early continents. Ubiquitous continental pillow basalts in Archean lower greenstone sequences require the early continental crust to have been sub-marine, whereas the appearance of abundant clastic sediments, at higher stratigraphic levels, shows that it had emerged above sea level by the time of sedimentation. We hypothesise that the production of komatiites and associated basalts, the rise of the continental crust, widespread melting of the continental crust, the onset of sedimentation and subsequent cratonisation form a continuum that is the direct result of removal of the continent's dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite roots, triggered at a regional scale by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere. Our idealised calculations suggest

  10. Ferromanganese crusts as indicators for paleoceanographic events in the NE Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Hein, J.R.; Mangini, A.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2-5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30-40 Ma.

  11. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  12. Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; May, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances, while type 2 rocks are relatively low in Al and similar to alkali rich MOR (midocean-ridge) or intraplate basalts. Intercalated with mafic granulites are paragneisses which include felsic granulites, aluminous gneisses, marble, and calc-silicate gneisses. Type 1 mafic granulites and calcic trondhjemitic pegmatites also oceur as cross-cutting, synmetamorphic dikes or small plutons. Small-scale heterogeneity of deep continental crust is indicated by the lithologic and isotopic diversity of intercalated ortho-and paragneisses exposed in Cucamonga terrane. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that K, Rb, and U depletion and Sm/Nd fractionation were associated with biotite +/- muscovite dehydration reactions in type 1 mafic granulites and aluminous gneisses during high-grade metamorphism. Field relations and model initial isotopic ratios imply a wide range of protolith ages, ranging from Early Proterozoic to Phanerozoic. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marcel A.; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%–42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%–7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  14. Evidence of cretaceous to recent West African intertropical vegetation from continental sediment spore-pollen analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salard-Cheboldaeff, M.; Dejax, J.

    The succession of spore-pollen assemblages during the Cretaceous and Tertiary, as defined in each of the basin from Senegal to Angola, gives the possibility to consider the intertropical African flora evolution for the past 120 M.a. During the Early Cretaceous, xeric-adapted gymnosperms and various ferns were predominant the flora which nevertheless comprises previously unknown early angiosperm pollen. During the Middle Cretaceous, gymnospers were gradually replaced by angiosperms; these became more and more abundant, along with the diversification of new genera and species. During the Paleocene, the radiation of the monocotyledons (mainly that of the palm-trees) as well as a greater diversification among the dicotyledons and ferms are noteworthy. Since gymnosperms had almost disappeared by the Eocene, the diversification of the dicotyledons went on until the neogene, when all extinct pollen types are already present. These important modifications of the vegetation reflect evolutionary trends as well as climatic changes during the Cretaceous: the climate, firstly hot, dry and perhaps arid, did probably induced salt deposition, and later became gradually more humid under oceanic influences which arose in connection with the Gondwana break-up.

  15. Evidence of hemolysis in pigs infected with highly virulent African swine fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Karalyan, Zaven; Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arakelova, Elina; Aivazyan, Violeta; Tatoyan, Marina; Kotsinyan, Armen; Izmailyan, Roza; Karalova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF). Materials and Methods: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. Results: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased. Also were detected the trends of decrease in RBC count at terminal stages of ASF. Analysis of blood biochemistry revealed that during ASF development, besides bilirubinemia significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were detected. Analysis of urine biochemistry revealed the presence of bilirubinuria, proteinuria during ASF development. Proteinuria, especially at late stages of the disease reflects a severe kidney damage possible glomerulonefritis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the characteristics of developing hemolytic anemia observed in acute ASF (genotype II). PMID:28096614

  16. Ophiolites and oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moores, E.M.; Jackson, E.D.

    1974-01-01

    OPHIOLITES consist of a pseudostratiform sequence, of harzburgite, tectonite, ultramafic and mafic cumulates sometimes including gabbro and quartz diorite (plagiogranite) intrusions, dolerite dyke swarms, pillow lava 1, and deep-sea sediments2-4. This assemblage occurs in all Phanerozoic mountain systems and is interpreted as fossil oceanic crust and uppermost mantle5-10. Outstanding problems include differences between the chemical properties of Ophiolites and rocks thought to represent present-day oceanic crust11,12, the lack in some complexes of recognised dyke swarms or cumulates, and the relative thinness of ophiolite mafic rocks compared with standard oceanic crustal sections5,8,13. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Genome scan of human systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 1q in African-American pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Kathy L.; Neas, Barbara R.; Salmon, Jane E.; Yu, Hua; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Asundi, Neeraj; Bruner, Gail R.; Fox, Jerome; Kelly, Jennifer; Henshall, Stephanie; Bacino, Debra; Dietz, Myron; Hogue, Robert; Koelsch, Gerald; Nightingale, Lydia; Shaver, Tim; Abdou, Nabih I.; Albert, Daniel A.; Carson, Craig; Petri, Michelle; Treadwell, Edward L.; James, Judith A.; Harley, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens including DNA, ribosomal P, Ro (SS-A), La (SS-B), and the spliceosome. Etiology is suspected to involve genetic and environmental factors. Evidence of genetic involvement includes: associations with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR2, Fcγ receptors (FcγR) IIA and IIIA, and hereditary complement component deficiencies, as well as familial aggregation, monozygotic twin concordance >20%, λs > 10, purported linkage at 1q41–42, and inbred mouse strains that consistently develop lupus. We have completed a genome scan in 94 extended multiplex pedigrees by using model-based linkage analysis. Potential [log10 of the odds for linkage (lod) > 2.0] SLE loci have been identified at chromosomes 1q41, 1q23, and 11q14–23 in African-Americans; 14q11, 4p15, 11q25, 2q32, 19q13, 6q26–27, and 12p12–11 in European-Americans; and 1q23, 13q32, 20q13, and 1q31 in all pedigrees combined. An effect for the FcγRIIA candidate polymorphism) at 1q23 (lod = 3.37 in African-Americans) is syntenic with linkage in a murine model of lupus. Sib-pair and multipoint nonparametric analyses also support linkage (P < 0.05) at nine loci detected by using two-point lod score analysis (lod > 2.0). Our results are consistent with the presumed complexity of genetic susceptibility to SLE and illustrate racial origin is likely to influence the specific nature of these genetic effects. PMID:9843982

  18. Recycled oceanic crust and marine sediment in the source of alkali basalts in Shandong, eastern China: Evidence from magma water content and oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Chen, Huan; Feng, Min

    2015-12-01

    The magma water contents and cpx δ18O values in alkali basalts from the Fuyanyshan (FYS) volcano in Shandong, eastern China, were investigated by an inverse calculation based on the water content of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts, the ivAlcpx-dependent water partitioning coefficient Dwatercpx>/melt, and secondary ion mass spectrometer, respectively. The calculated water content (H2O wt.) of magma ranges from 0.58% to 3.89%. It positively correlates with heavy rare earth element concentrations and bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and it negatively correlates with Nb/U ratios. However, it is not correlated with bulk Mg# (Mg# = 100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) and (La/Yb)n (n represents primitive mantle normalization). Combined with the rather homogenous distribution of water content within cpx grains, these correlations indicate that the water variations among different samples represent the original magma signature, rather than results of a shallow process, such as degassing and diffusion. The δ18O of cpx phenocrysts varies from 3.6‰ to 6.3‰ (±0.5‰, 2SD), which may be best explained by the involvement of components from the lower and upper oceanic crust with marine sediments within the mantle source. The H2O/Ce ratios of the calculated melts range from 113 to 696 and form a positive trend with bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr, which cannot be explained by the recycled Sulu eclogite or by the metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Our modeling calculation shows that the decoupling of ɛHf and ɛNd could be caused by the involvement of marine sediments. Combing the high Ba/Th ratios, positive Sr spikes, and low Ce/Pb ratios for the Fuyanshan basalts, we suggest that the hydrous nature of the FYS basalts was derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone with ancient sediments.

  19. Direct dating of paleomagnetic results from Precambrian sediments in the Amazon craton: Evidence for Grenvillian emplacement of exotic crust in SE Appalachians of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Tohver, Eric; Santos, João O. S.; Elming, Sten-Åke; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Pacca, Igor I. G.; Geraldes, Mauro C.

    2008-03-01

    We apply a new diagenetic dating technique to determine the age of magnetization for Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the SW Amazon craton. Two new paleomagnetic poles are reported from the rocks of the Aguapeí Gp.: red beds of the Fortuna Fm. (Plat = 59.8°N, Plon = 155.9°E, A95 = 9.5, K = 14, 18 sites, N/n 128/115, Q = 5) and the reverse-polarity mudstones of the overlying Vale da Promissão Formation (Plat = 49.5°N, Plon = 89.3°E, A95 = 12.5, K = 30, 6 sites, N/n = 94/80, Q = 4). The Fortuna Fm. magnetization is hosted by massive, interstitial hematite cement and constitutes a post-depositional remanence. The age of diagenesis of the red beds is well-constrained by the 1149 ± 7 Ma U-Pb age of authigenic xenotime rims on detrital zircons determined by SHRIMP analysis. The magnetite-hosted remanence of the Vale da Promissão Fm. may be detrital in origin, but the age of deposition is poorly constrained. The reliable and precisely-dated Fortuna Fm. paleomagnetic pole fixes the paleogeographic position of the Amazon craton near the SE Appalachians portion of North America at 1.15 Ga. These data demonstrate a mobile Grenvillian link between these two cratons, and support the recent identification of Amazon crust in the Blue Ridge province region of North America.

  20. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  1. Platinum-group element abundances and Re-Os isotopic systematics of the upper continental crust through time: Evidence from glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Walker, Richard J.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Gao, Shan; Gaschnig, Richard M.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Tang, Ming; Hu, Zhao-Chu

    2016-10-01

    The fine-grained matrix of glacial diamictites, deposited periodically by continental ice sheets over much of Earth history, provides insights into the average composition and chemical evolution of the upper continental crust (UCC) (Gaschnig et al., 2016, and references therein). The concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGEs, including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd) and the geochemically related Re, as well as 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios, are reported here for globally-distributed glacial diamictites that were deposited during the Mesoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic eras. The medians and averages of PGE concentrations of these diamictite composites decrease from the Mesoarchean to the Neoproterozoic, mimicking decreases in the concentrations of first-row transition elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co and Ni). By contrast, Re concentrations are highly variable with no discernable trend, owing to its high solubility. Assuming these diamictites are representative of average UCC through time, the new data are fully consistent with the previous inference that the Archean UCC contained a greater proportion of mafic-ultramafic rocks relative to younger UCC. Linear regressions of PGEs versus Cr and Ni concentrations in all the diamictite composites from the four time periods are used to estimate the following concentrations of the PGEs in the present-day UCC: 0.059 ± 0.016 ng/g Os, 0.036 ± 0.008 ng/g Ir, 0.079 ± 0.026 ng/g Ru, 0.80 ± 0.22 ng/g Pt and 0.80 ± 0.26 ng/g Pd (2σ of 10,000 bootstrapping regression results). These PGE estimates are slightly higher than the estimates obtained from loess samples. We suggest this probably results from loess preferentially sampling younger UCC rocks that have lower PGE concentrations, or PGEs being fractionated during loess formation. A Re concentration of 0.25 ± 0.12 ng/g (2σ) is obtained from a regression of Re versus Mo. From this, time-integrated 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios for the UCC are

  2. Post-collisional high-Mg granitoids from the Paleoproterozoic East Sarmatian Orogen (East European Craton): Evidence for crust-mantle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentiev, R. A.; Santosh, M.

    2017-03-01

    lower crust that produced low-Mg melts which interacted with high-Mg mantle melts derived from previously underplated source.

  3. Lu-Hf systematics of the ultra-high temperature Napier Complex, East Antarctica: evidence for the early Archean formation of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Mukasa, S. B.; Andronikov, A. V.; Osanai, Y.; Harley, S. L.; Kelly, N. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Napier Complex in East Antarctica comprises some of the oldest rocks on earth (~3.8 billion years old), overprinted by an ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphic event near the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. Garnet, orthopyroxene, sapphirine, osumilite, rutile and a whole rock representing an equilibrated assemblage from this belt yield a Lu-Hf isochron age of 2,403 ± 43 Ma. Preservation of the UHT mineral assemblage in the rock analyzed suggests rapid cooling with closure likely to have occurred for the Lu-Hf system at post-peak UHT conditions near a temperature of ~800C. Individual zircon grains from Gage Ridge within the Napier Complex yielded a remarkably uniform range of 176Hf/177Hf values between 0.280433 ± 7 and 0.280505 ± 10, corresponding to ɛHf > +5.6 at 3.85 Ga relative to the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR). Because of their exceedingly low Lu/Hf values (<0.001), the grains are effectively recording the initial Hf isotope composition of the magmatic systems from which the gneiss protoliths crystallized. These results indicate that (1) the source of the crustal materials that formed the Napier Complex at 3.85 Ga were depleted relative to the CHUR. The extent of depletion involved is higher than has been predicted by extrapolation from the Lu-Hf isotopic evolution inferred for the source of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic basalts, judging from an fLu/Hf value of 0.51, (2) the depleted mantle reservoir has been in existence since very early in Earth’s history, in agreement with the early differentiation of the Earth that the latest core formation models require, and (3) an extremely depleted source also mean that the bulk of continental crust was extracted from the mantle by ~3.8 Ga. Moreover, the results demonstrate that even the oldest silicic rocks in the complex are not likely to have formed from remobilized older crustal materials, but were instead juvenile products of mantle melting. In addition, zircons with metamorphic rims have a similar

  4. 1900-Ma ocean crust in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The oldest known occurrence in North America of an ophiolite, considered to be a piece of ancient ocean crust, has been reported in the Cape Smith Belt in northern Quebec, Canada.The recognition last summer of a key structural component of the characteristic ophiolite suite has buttressed confidence in the theory that the 1900-Ma fragments of an ocean basin were accreted to an early Proterozoic Canadian continent. The tectonic mixing of oceanic and continental crust is strong evidence for the operation of plate tectonics early in Earth's history.

  5. Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

  6. Evidence of constant diversification punctuated by a mass extinction in the African cycads.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Bamigboye, Samuel O; Daru, Barnabas H; van der Bank, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The recent evidence that extant cycads are not living fossils triggered a renewed search for a better understanding of their evolutionary history. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary diversification history of the genus Encephalartos, a monophyletic cycad endemic to Africa. We found an antisigmoidal pattern with a plateau and punctual explosive radiation. This pattern is typical of a constant radiation with mass extinction. The rate shift that we found may therefore be a result of a rapid recolonization of niches that have been emptied owing to mass extinction. Because the explosive radiation occurred during the transition Pliocene-Pleistocene, we argued that the processes might have been climatically mediated.

  7. Argon, oxygen, and boron isotopic evidence documenting 40ArE accumulation in phengite during water-rich high-pressure subduction metasomatism of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menold, Carrie A.; Grove, Marty; Sievers, Natalie E.; Manning, Craig E.; Yin, An; Young, Edward D.; Ziegler, Karen

    2016-07-01

    were even older, exceeding the time of eclogite formation by a factor of 1.7. In contrast, lower pressure retrograde muscovite present within the host gneiss and in discrete shear zones cutting the selvage yield 40Ar/39Ar ages that were younger than the time of HP metamorphism and consistent with regional cooling age patterns. Our observation of high 40ArE concentrations in phengite from schistose rocks infiltrated by regionally extensive fluids at HP conditions runs contrary to widely held expectations. Conventional wisdom dictates that low phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon (Dphg/fluid Ar =10-3to 10-5) coupled with the dry, closed systems conditions that are widely reported to characterize HP metamorphism of continental crust explains why high concentrations of 40ArE partitions are able to accumulate within phengite. We alternatively propose that phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon increase linearly with pressure to values as high as 10-2 to allow phengites to accumulate large amounts of 40ArE from aqueous fluids under HP to UHP conditions.

  8. Long tree-ring chronologies provide evidence of recent tree growth decrease in a Central African tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Zalloni, Enrica; Castaldi, Simona; Marzaioli, Fabio; Cazzolla-Gatti, Roberto; Lasserre, Bruno; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether the exponential rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration has produced a fertilization effect on tropical forests, thus incrementing their growth rate, in the last two centuries. As many factors affect tree growth patterns, short -term studies might be influenced by the confounding effect of several interacting environmental variables on plant growth. Long-term analyses of tree growth can elucidate long-term trends of plant growth response to dominant drivers. The study of annual rings, applied to long tree-ring chronologies in tropical forest trees enables such analysis. Long-term tree-ring chronologies of three widespread African species were measured in Central Africa to analyze the growth of trees over the last two centuries. Growth trends were correlated to changes in global atmospheric CO2 concentration and local variations in the main climatic drivers, temperature and rainfall. Our results provided no evidence for a fertilization effect of CO2 on tree growth. On the contrary, an overall growth decline was observed for all three species in the last century, which appears to be significantly correlated to the increase in local temperature. These findings provide additional support to the global observations of a slowing down of C sequestration in the trunks of forest trees in recent decades. Data indicate that the CO2 increase alone has not been sufficient to obtain a tree growth increase in tropical trees. The effect of other changing environmental factors, like temperature, may have overridden the fertilization effect of CO2.

  9. Long Tree-Ring Chronologies Provide Evidence of Recent Tree Growth Decrease in a Central African Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Zalloni, Enrica; Castaldi, Simona; Marzaioli, Fabio; Cazzolla- Gatti, Roberto; Lasserre, Bruno; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether the exponential rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration has produced a fertilization effect on tropical forests, thus incrementing their growth rate, in the last two centuries. As many factors affect tree growth patterns, short -term studies might be influenced by the confounding effect of several interacting environmental variables on plant growth. Long-term analyses of tree growth can elucidate long-term trends of plant growth response to dominant drivers. The study of annual rings, applied to long tree-ring chronologies in tropical forest trees enables such analysis. Long-term tree-ring chronologies of three widespread African species were measured in Central Africa to analyze the growth of trees over the last two centuries. Growth trends were correlated to changes in global atmospheric CO2 concentration and local variations in the main climatic drivers, temperature and rainfall. Our results provided no evidence for a fertilization effect of CO2 on tree growth. On the contrary, an overall growth decline was observed for all three species in the last century, which appears to be significantly correlated to the increase in local temperature. These findings provide additional support to the global observations of a slowing down of C sequestration in the trunks of forest trees in recent decades. Data indicate that the CO2 increase alone has not been sufficient to obtain a tree growth increase in tropical trees. The effect of other changing environmental factors, like temperature, may have overridden the fertilization effect of CO2. PMID:25806946

  10. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  11. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI. PMID:26587531

  12. Did African Americans experience the 'Antebellum Puzzle'? Evidence from the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War.

    PubMed

    Haines, Michael R; Craig, Lee A; Weiss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The "Antebellum Puzzle" has been the subject of comment since the 1980s. It involves the paradox that, although the American economy was experiencing rapid economic growth in the several decades prior to the Civil War (1861-1865), the stature of native-born white males had been declining for the birth cohorts from the late 1820s. This was also true for free blacks (Komlos, 1992), but was apparently not true for slaves. This paper uses a sample of 8592 adult back males who were recruits to the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War. They were recruited significantly among ex-slaves. Recruits from the birth cohorts of 1838-1842 were then linked to characteristics of their counties of birth from the 1840 and 1850 U.S. Censuses. Unlike slaves in the coastal manifests, these African American recruits showed evidence of a decline in heights from the birth cohorts of the 1820s onwards. Unlike the native-white recruits, however, the characteristics of their counties of birth had relatively less power in explaining differences in heights. There was some support for the mortality hypothesis, but the nutrition hypothesis needs to be interpreted in light of the fact that slave owners has a strong interest in monitoring and controlling the diet of their slaves.

  13. Evolution of the pygmy phenotype: evidence of positive selection fro genome-wide scans in African, Asian, and Melanesian pygmies.

    PubMed

    Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Romero, Irene Gallego; Metspalu, Mait; Leavesley, Matthew; Pagani, Luca; Antao, Tiago; Huang, Da-Wei; Sherman, Brad T; Siddle, Katharine; Scholes, Clarissa; Hudjashov, Georgi; Kaitokai, Elton; Babalu, Avis; Belatti, Maggie; Cagan, Alex; Hopkinshaw, Byrony; Shaw, Colin; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Ene; Mägi, Reedik; Lempicki, Richard A; Villems, Richard; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    Human pygmy populations inhabit different regions of the world, from Africa to Melanesia. In Asia, short-statured populations are often referred to as "negritos." Their short stature has been interpreted as a consequence of thermoregulatory, nutritional, and/or locomotory adaptations to life in tropical forests. A more recent hypothesis proposes that their stature is the outcome of a life history trade-off in high-mortality environments, where early reproduction is favored and, consequently, early sexual maturation and early growth cessation have coevolved. Some serological evidence of deficiencies in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis have been previously associated with pygmies' short stature. Using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data, we first tested whether different negrito groups living in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea are closely related and then investigated genomic signals of recent positive selection in African, Asian, and Papuan pygmy populations. We found that negritos in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea are genetically more similar to their nonpygmy neighbors than to one another and have experienced positive selection at different genes. These results indicate that geographically distant pygmy groups are likely to have evolved their short stature independently. We also found that selection on common height variants is unlikely to explain their short stature and that different genes associated with growth, thyroid function, and sexual development are under selection in different pygmy groups.

  14. Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence for a Gradient Relationship in an Urban, Poor, African American Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…

  15. Psoriasis or crusted scabies.

    PubMed

    Goyal, N N; Wong, G A

    2008-03-01

    We describe a case of a 67-year-old woman with a 1-year history of nail thickening and a non-itchy erythematous scaly eruption on the fingertips. She was diagnosed with psoriasis and started on methotrexate after having had no response to topical calcipotriol. The diagnosis was reviewed after it was revealed by another consultant that the patient's husband had been attending dermatology clinics for several years with chronic pruritus, which had been repeatedly thought to be due to scabies. Our patient was found to have crusted scabies after a positive skin scraping showed numerous mites. She was treated with topical permethrin, keratolytics and oral ivermectin. We also review the literature on crusted scabies and its management, with recommendations.

  16. Geodynamic evolution of a Pan-African granitoid of extended Dizo Valley in Karbi Hills, NE India: Evidence from Geochemistry and Isotope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Dilip; Dutta, Pankhi

    2016-03-01

    enrichment of Ba for the studied granitoids and a gradual depletion of Rb, Sr and Eu values. The Lu-Hf profile produced an initial 176Hf/177Hf (i) ratio of all zircons from 0.2819-0.2821 and have ɛHf(t) values -12.20 to -18.90; suggesting melting of 2.25-2.67 Ga old metasomatized crust (TDM2) of magmatic origin which has been predicted to produce KG granitoids that had gained enrichment in LILE during earlier subduction events. The zircons bear evidence of oscillatory zoning visible in Cathodo Luminescence (CL) images which clearly attributes toward a magmatic origin of KG granitoids.

  17. No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Kathrin; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85 μm is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

  18. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1990-01-01

    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  19. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  20. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  1. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  2. Physical constraints on dolomite crust formation, Ambergris Cay Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, B.A.; Bischoff, W.D.; Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitic crusts forming on a peritidal flat on Ambergris Cay, Belize, occur beneath surface sediment adjacent to, but not within, small saline (60-90 ppt) ponds. Upper crusts, 2-12 cm thick forming at or slightly below the water table (approximately equivalent to lagoon water level) are areally restricted by (1) ponds where sediment lies below 20-50 cm of water, (2) high and relatively dry areas where sediment accumulation of more than 15 cm above water level supports diverse vegetation, and (3) low areas affected by mangrove encroachment where preexisting crusts are perforated by roots and displaced. The lower crusts occur immediately above the Pleistocene in lows beneath the Holocene sediment and on exposed Pleistocene surfaces. Estimates from x-ray diffraction analysis indicate 80-100% dolomite content within the upper crusts and 50-60% dolomite content in the lower crusts. Unlithified sediment above and below the upper crust contain up to 80% dolomite. Compositions range from Ca{sub 56}, Mg{sub 44} in the upper crusts to Ca{sub 60} Mg{sub 40} in the lower crusts. There is no correlation between stoichiometry and ordering in the dolomites; all are poorly ordered as indicated by very weak (015) and (021) superstructure peaks. Where crusts are not 100% dolomite, the dolomite is evident as euhedral cements within pores, especially within foraminiferal tests, and as micrite along algal laminations and walls of burrows. However, preliminary examinations with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray mapping show that magnesium enrichment is pervasive within these crusts and may represent Mg-enrichment of calcite as an intermediate stage in dolomite formation.

  3. Electrical signature of modern and ancient tectonic processes in the crust of the Atlas mountains of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Jones, Alan G.; Siniscalchi, Agata; Campanyà, Joan; Kiyan, Duygu; Romano, Gerardo; Rouai, Mohamed; TopoMed MT Team

    2011-04-01

    The Atlas Mountains in Morocco are considered as type examples of intracontinental mountain chains, with high topography that contrasts with moderate crustal shortening and thickening. Whereas recent geological studies and geodynamic modelling suggest the existence of dynamic topography to explain this apparent contradiction, there is a lack of modern geophysical data at the crustal scale to corroborate this hypothesis. To address this deficiency, magnetotelluric data were recently acquired that image the electrical resistivity distribution of the crust from the Middle Atlas to the Anti-Atlas, crossing the tabular Moulouya plain and the High Atlas. All tectonic units show different, distinct and unique electrical signatures throughout the crust reflecting the tectonic history of development of each one. In the upper crust, electrical resistivity values and geometries can be associated to sediment sequences in the Moulouya and Anti-Atlas and to crustal scale fault systems in the High Atlas developed likely during Cenozoic times. In the lower crust, the low resistivity anomaly found below the Moulouya plain, together with other geophysical (low velocity anomaly, lack of earthquakes and minimum Bouguer anomaly) and geochemical (Neogene-Quaternary intraplate alkaline volcanic fields) evidences, infer the existence of a small degree of partial melt at the base of the crust. Resistivity values suggest a partial melt fraction of the order of 2-8%. The low resistivity anomaly found below the Anti-Atlas may be associated with a relict subduction of Precambrian oceanic sediments, or to precipitated minerals during the release of fluids from the mantle during the accretion of the Anti-Atlas to the West African Supercontinent during the Panafrican orogeny (ca. 685 Ma).

  4. Oxygen isotope ratios and rare earth elements in 3.3 to 4.4 Ga zircons: Ion microprobe evidence for high δ 18O continental crust and oceans in the Early Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, William H.; Valley, John W.; Wilde, Simon A.; Graham, Colin M.

    2001-11-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotope ratios in Early Archean (Hadean) zircons (4.0- to 4.4-Ga) reveal variable magmatic δ 18O values, including some that are high relative to the mantle, suggesting interaction between magmas and already-formed continental crust during the first 500 million yr of Earth's history. The high average δ 18O value of these zircons is confirmed by conventional analysis. A metaconglomerate from the Jack Hills in the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) contains detrital zircons with ages > 4.0 Ga (Compston and Pidgeon, 1986) and one crystal that is 4.40-Ga old (Wilde et al., 2001). The newly discovered 4.40-Ga grain is the oldest recognized terrestrial mineral. The Jack Hills metaconglomerate also contains a large 3.3- to 3.6-Ga-old zircon population with an average δ 18O value of 6.3 ± 0.1‰ (1 s.e.,; n = 32 spot analyses). Two 4.15-Ga zircons have an average δ 18O of 5.7 ± 0.2‰ ( n = 13). In addition, a 4.13-Ga zircon has an average δ 18O of 7.2 ± 0.3‰ ( n = 8) and another 4.01-Ga zircon has an average δ 18O of 6.8 ± 0.4‰ ( n = 10). The oldest grain (4.40 Ga) is zoned with respect trace element composition (especially LREE), and intensity of cathodoluminescence, all of which correlate with oxygen isotope ratios (7.4‰ vs. 5.0‰). High LREE and high-δ 18O values from the 4.01- to 4.40-Ga grains are consistent with growth in evolved granitic magmas (δ 18O(WR) = 8.5 to 9.5‰) that had interacted with supracrustal materials. High δ 18O values show that low-temperature surficial processes (i.e., diagenesis, weathering, or low-temperature alteration) occurred before 4.0 Ga, and even before 4.40 Ga, shortly following the hypothesized date of core differentiation and impact of a Mars-sized body to form the Moon at ˜4.45 Ga. This is the first evidence of continental crust as early as 4.40 Ga and suggests differentiation during the period of intense meteorite bombardment of the early Earth. The magnitude of water and rock

  5. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopes and granite geochemistry of the Murchison Domain of the Yilgarn Craton: Evidence for reworking of Eoarchean crust during Meso-Neoarchean plume-driven magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanic, Timothy J.; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Wyche, Stephen; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Belousova, Elena A.

    2012-09-01

    New in situ Lu-Hf data on zircons from GSWA geochronology samples has provided a unique isotopic dataset with a high temporal resolution for the Murchison Domain of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. These data identify extended periods of juvenile mantle input (positive ɛHf values) into the crust firstly at c. 2980 Ma and then from c. 2820 Ma to c. 2640 Ma with significant pulses of crustal recycling at c. 2750 Ma and c. 2620 Ma (highly negative ɛHf values). Geochemical data from well-characterised granitic suites of the Murchison Domain provide additional constraints on the crustal evolution of the area and indicate a prolonged period of crustal melting and remelting at progressively shallower depths from c. 2750 to c. 2600 Ma. At c. 2760-2753 Ma, widespread calc-alkaline, intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks of the Polelle Group were erupted, accompanied by intrusion of felsic to intermediate melts derived from a variety of crustal sources that likely formed by partial mixing with basaltic melts. The intrusive rocks include a wide geochemical array of rocks in the Cullculli and Eelya suites that were sourced over a wide range of crustal depths. At this time a major departure to negative ɛHf values (<-5) occurred, indicating sampling of c. 3.80 Ga model aged source rocks as well as continued juvenile input. Post-volcanic granitic rocks emplaced between c. 2710 and c. 2600 Ma show geochemical evidence for progressive fractionation through time and derivation from an evolving crustal source. We interpret the driving force for this protracted history of mantle and crustal melting to be two mantle plumes at 2.81 and 2.72 Ga. These data document the process of cratonization through progressive melt depletion of the lower crust, progressively fractionating and shallower melts, culminating with a final phase of crustal recycling (ɛHf < - 5) and the cessation of juvenile input at c. 2630-2600 Ma during intrusion of the Bald Rock Supersuite, resulting in

  6. Microtopography of manganese crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Charles L.

    Quantitative examination of the seafloor surface roughness will be necessary for any design of equipment intended for use in collecting surface deposits such as cobalt-rich manganese crusts or nodules. Furthermore, it is an essential prerequisite to the confident interpretation of returns from high frequency side-scan and other acoustic systems. The objectives of the project were to develop the capability at the University of Hawaii of generating high resolution (less than 1 cm horizontal and vertical) topographic models of the seafloor from 35 mm stereo photographs; to produce such models from existing photographs of cobalt-rich manganese crust deposits; and to optimize the configuration of the existing Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) camera system for stereo photograph collection and correlation of acoustic data with the photographic ground-truth. These tasks were accomplished and have also led to the development of a follow-on project (MMTC/OBD Project 1512) dedicated to the simultaneous acquisition of both optical and side-scan acoustic data for future accurate determination of seabed microtopography.

  7. The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa - Evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, A.; Stern, R. J.; Dawoud, A. S.; Compston, W.; Reischmann, T.

    1987-09-01

    The evolution of the Pan-African ancient continental margin in northeastern Africa was investigated, using an Nd model age, ion-microprobe data on zircon ages, and Rb-Sr whole-rock dates on the high-grade gneiss terrain at Sabaloka, Sudan, a region which is formally considered to be part of the Archaean/early Proterozoic Nile craton. The analysis of these data indicates that the Sabaloka granulites and gneisses are not Archaen in age. Instead, they reflect Pan-African metamorphic events. The gneisses studied may represent the infrastructure of the ancient African continental margin onto which the juvenile arc assemblage of the Arabian-Nubian shield was accreted during intense horizontal shortening and crustal interstacking of a major collision event.

  8. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and social interaction anxiety scales: evidence of construct equivalence in an African American sample.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tang, Dickson; Rekrut, Frances M; Condit, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety scale in a community sample of African Americans. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the combined scales comparing the data to 2- and 3-factor solutions commonly reported in the literature. The results indicated that neither solution produce an adequate fit to the data in this study. We then proceeded to conduct an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory framework of both scales. While we were able to extract a 2-factor solution from the data, the item composition of the factors was somewhat different for African Americans than what is typically reported in non-Hispanic White samples. While we conclude that use of the two social anxiety scales is warranted, we make recommendations regarding the interpretation of both scales with African Americans.

  9. Haplotype study of West European and North African Unverricht-Lundborg chromosomes: evidence for a few founder mutations.

    PubMed

    Moulard, Bruno; Genton, Pierre; Grid, Djamel; Jeanpierre, Marc; Ouazzani, Réda; Mrabet, Amel; Morris, Mike; LeGuern, Eric; Dravet, Charlotte; Mauguière, François; Utermann, Barbara; Baldy-Moulinier, Michel; Belaidi, Halima; Bertran, Françoise; Biraben, Arnaud; Ali Chérif, André; Chkili, Taieb; Crespel, Arielle; Darcel, Françoise; Dulac, Olivier; Geny, Christian; Humbert-Claude, Véronique; Kassiotis, Philippe; Buresi, Catherine; Malafosse, Alain

    2002-09-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy common in Finland and North Africa, and less common in Western Europe. ULD is mostly caused by expansion of a dodecamer repeat in the cystatin B gene ( CSTB) promoter. We performed a haplotype study of ULD chromosomes (ULDc) with the repeat expansion. We included 48 West European Caucasian (WEC) and 47 North African (NA) ULDc. We analysed eight markers flanking CSTB(GT10-D21S1890-D21S1885-D21S2040-D21S1259- CSTB-D21S1912-PFKL-D21S171) and one intragenic variant in the CSTB 3' UTR (A2575G). We observed a founder effect in most of the NA ULD patients, as 61.7% of the NA ULDc (29/47) shared the same haplotype, A1 (1-1-A-1-6-7), for markers D21S1885-D21S2040-A2575G-D21S1259-D21S1912-PFKL. Moreover, if we considered only the markers D21S1885, D21S2040, A2575G and D21S1259, 43 of the 47 NA ULDc shared the same alleles 1-1-A-1, haplotype A. As previously shown, the WEC ULDc were heterogeneous. However, the Baltic haplotype, A3 (5-1-1-A-1-1), was observed in ten WEC ULDc (20.8%) and the CSTB 3'UTR variant, which we called the Alps variant, was observed in 17 ULDc (35.4%). Finally, as almost all NA patients, like Scandinavian patients, were of the haplotype A, we assumed that there was an ancient common founder effect in NA and Baltic ULD patients. We estimated that the putative most recent common ancestral ULD carrier with this haplotype A must have existed about 2,500 years ago (100-150 generations). Finally, this work provides evidence for the existence of only a small number of founder mutations in ULD.

  10. Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Jonathan; Carlson, Richard W; Francis, Don; Stevenson, Ross K

    2008-09-26

    Neodymium-142 data for rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in northern Quebec, Canada, show that some rock types have lower 142Nd/144Nd ratios than the terrestrial standard (epsilon142Nd = -0.07 to -0.15). Within a mafic amphibolite unit, 142Nd/144Nd ratios correlate positively with Sm/Nd ratios and produce a 146Sm-142Nd isochron with an age of 4280(-81)(+53) million years. These rocks thus sample incompatible-element-enriched material formed shortly after Earth formation and may represent the oldest preserved crustal section on Earth.

  11. Feasibility of delivering evidence-based HIV/STI prevention programming to a community sample of African American teen girls via the internet.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Jones, Andrea M; Borkman, April L; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the feasibility of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for African American female adolescents. The intervention SiHLEWeb is a web-based adaptation of the evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE). Participants were 41 African American girls aged 13 to 18 years, recruited in collaboration with community partners (local high schools, Department of Juvenile Justice, child advocacy center, medical university). Results support the feasibility of recruitment, screening, and follow-up retention methods. The majority (63.4%) of recruited participants completed the intervention, taking an average of 4.5 (SD = 3.63) site visits. Completers of SiHLEWeb demonstrated increases in knowledge regarding HIV/STI risks and risk reduction behavior [t(18) = 4.74, p < .001], as well as significant increases in condom use self-efficacy [t(16) = 2.41, p = .03]. Findings provide preliminary support for the large-scale, randomized-controlled trial of the efficacy of SiHLEWeb to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among female African American adolescents.

  12. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  13. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  14. Compiling an Evidence-Based Improvement Plan for the Support of Distance-Education Students at a Southern African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhakhane, Bothephana; Wilkinson, Annette C.; Ndeya-Ndereya, Charity N.

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates how an event guide can be used to organise, systematise and prioritise the large amount of findings from an extensive study. The study aimed to enhance student support at a distance-education institute in a Southern African country (Lesotho). In this case study an improvement-oriented evaluation of the strengths,…

  15. College Athletic Reputation and College Choice among African American High School Seniors: Evidence from the Educational Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…

  16. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  17. Habitability Of Europa's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, R.; Tufts, B. R.; Geissler, P.; Hoppa, G.

    Physical characterization of Europa's crust shows it to be rich in potentially habitable niches, with several timescales for change that would allow stability for organisms to prosper and still require and drive evolution and adaptation. Studies of tectonics on Europa indicate that tidal stress causes much of the surface cracking, that cracks pen- etrate through to liquid water (so the ice must be thin), and that cracks continue to be worked by tidal stress. Thus a global ocean is (or was until recently) well linked to the surface. Daily tidal flow (period~days) transports substances up and down through the active cracks, mixing surface oxidants and fuels (cometary material) with the oceanic reservoir of endogenic and exogenic substances. Organisms moving with the flow or anchored to the walls could exploit the disequilibrium chemistry, and those within a few meters of the surface could photosynthesize. Cracks remain active for at least ~10,000 yr, but deactivate as nonsynchronous rotation moves them to different stress regimes in less than a million yr. Thus, to survive, organisms squeezed into the ocean must migrate to new cracks, and those frozen in place must hibernate. Most sites remelt and would release captive organisms within about a million yr based on the prevalence of chaotic terrain, which covers nearly half of Europa. Linkage of the ocean to the surface also could help sustain life in the ocean by delivering oxidants and fuels. Suboceanic volcanism (if any) could provide additional sites and support for life, but is not necessary. Recent results support this model. We further constrain the non-synchronous rotation rate, demonstrate the plausibility of episodic melt-through, show that characteristics of pits and uplift features do not imply thick ice, and demonstrate polar wander, i.e. that the ice crust is detached from the solid interior and has slipped as a unit relative to the spin axis. Thus Europa's biosphere (habitable if not inhabited) likely

  18. Composition and origin of ferromanganese crusts from equatorial western Pacific seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guozhi; Jansa, Luba; Chu, Fengyou; Zou, Can; Sun, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    In the equatorial western Pacific, iron-manganese oxyhydroxide crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) and nodules form on basaltic seamounts and on the top of drowned carbonate platform guyots that have been swept free of pelagic sediments. To date, the Fe-Mn crusts have been considered to be almost exclusively of abiotic origin. However, it has recently been suggested that these crusts may be a result of biomineralization. Although the Fe-Mn crust textures in the equatorial western Pacific are similar to those constructed by bacteria and algae, and biomarkers also document the existence of bacteria and algae dispersed within the Fe-Mn crusts, the precipitation, accumulation and distribution of elements, such as Fe, Mn, Ni and Co in Fe-Mn crusts are not controlled by microbial activity. Bacteria and algae are only physically incorporated into the crusts when dead plankton settle on the ocean floor and are trapped on the crust surface. Geochemical evidence suggests a hydrogenous origin of Fe-Mn crusts in the equatorial western Pacific, thus verifying a process for Fe-Mn crusts that involves the precipitation of colloidal phases from seawater followed by extensive scavenging of dissolved trace metals into the mineral phase during crust formation.

  19. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Michael J.; Waddell, Victor G.; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried; Hedges, S. Blair; Cleven, Gregory C.; Kao, Diana; Springer, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and α-β hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals. PMID:9707584

  1. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, M J; Waddell, V G; Madsen, O; de Jong, W; Hedges, S B; Cleven, G C; Kao, D; Springer, M S

    1998-08-18

    The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and alpha-beta hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals.

  2. Giant Seismites and Megablock Uplift in the East African Rift: Evidence for Late Pleistocene Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic ‘megablock complex’ that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions. PMID:26042601

  3. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: evidence for Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions.

  4. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  5. 3.30 Ga high-silica intraplate volcanic-plutonic system of the Gavião Block, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Evidence of an intracontinental rift following the creation of insulating continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zincone, Stefano A.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Laurent, Oscar; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Mingguo

    2016-12-01

    High-silica rhyolites having U-Pb zircon ages of 3303 ± 11 Ma occur along the eastern border of the Gavião Block (Brazil) associated with the Contendas-Mirante and Mundo Novo supracrustal belts. Unlike many Archean greenstone sequences, they are not interlayered with mafic to intermediate units. Instead, they belong to an inter-related plutonic-volcanic system, together with granitic massifs having similar zircon crystallization ages of ca. 3293 ± 3 Ma and 3328 ± 3 Ma and plotting along the same geochemical trends as the rhyolites. The rhyolites show well-preserved primary volcanic features such as magma flow textures and euhedral phenocrysts. High emplacement temperatures are indicated by petrographic evidence (β-quartz phenocrysts), zircon saturation temperatures (915-820 °C) and geochemical data, especially high SiO2 (74-79 wt.%) together with elevated Fe2O3(T) ( 3 wt.%), MgO (0.5-1.5 wt.%) and low Al2O3 (< 11 wt.%). The rhyolites show homogeneous trace element ratios (La/YbN 4.8 ± 1.8; EuN/Eu* 0.55; Sr/Y 0.7) and negative ԐHf(3.3 Ga) from 0 to - 7, indicating derivation from a single crustal source for both occurrences. Specifically, the rhyolites would have derived from extraction and eruption of highly silicic residual liquid formed by crystallization of granitic magma in a relatively shallow (< 10 km) reservoir, now represented by the granite massifs. The granite magma was formed by melting or differentiation of material similar to the diorite gneiss that occurs regionally. The 3.30 Ga volcanic-plutonic systems formed after a period of crustal growth and stabilization of a thick continental lithosphere, represented by massive 3.40-3.33 Ga TTG and medium to high-K calk-alkaline magmatism in the Gavião Block. The 3.30 Ga-old rhyolites and granites would therefore have formed in an intracontinental tectonic setting after the formation and stabilization of new continental crust, and accordingly would represent the first stages of rifting and continental

  6. Composition of the Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Gao, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Earth is an unusual planet in our solar system in having a bimodal topography that reflects the two distinct types of crust found on our planet. The low-lying oceanic crust is thin (˜7 km on average), composed of relatively dense rock types such as basalt and is young (≤200 Ma old) (see Chapter 3.13). In contrast, the high-standing continental crust is thick (˜40 km on average), is composed of highly diverse lithologies (virtually every rock type known on Earth) that yield an average intermediate or "andesitic" bulk composition (Taylor and McLennan (1985) and references therein), and contains the oldest rocks and minerals yet observed on Earth (currently the 4.0 Ga Acasta gneisses (Bowring and Williams, 1999) and 4.4 Ga detrital zircons from the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia (Wilde et al., 2001)), respectively. Thus, the continents preserve a rich geological history of our planet's evolution and understanding their origin is critical for understanding the origin and differentiation of the Earth.The origin of the continents has received wide attention within the geological community, with hundreds of papers and several books devoted to the topic (the reader is referred to the following general references for further reading: Taylor and McLennan (1985), Windley (1995), and Condie (1997). Knowledge of the age and composition of the continental crust is essential for understanding its origin. Patchett and Samson (Chapter 3.10) review the present-day age distribution of the continental crust and Kemp and Hawkesworth (Chapter 3.11) review secular evolution of crust composition. Moreover, to understand fully the origin and evolution of continents requires an understanding of not only the crust, but also the mantle lithosphere that formed more-or-less contemporaneously with the crust and translates with it as the continents move across the Earth's surface. The latter topic is reviewed in Chapter 2.05.This chapter reviews the present-day composition of the

  7. Employing a teen advisory board to adapt an evidence-based HIV/STD intervention for incarcerated African-American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Latham, Teaniese P; Sales, Jessica M; Renfro, Tiffaney L; Boyce, Lorin S; Rose, Eve; Murray, Colleen C; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript assesses priorities and challenges of adolescent females by conducting a meeting with teen advisory board (TAB) members to collect information regarding their lives and experiences pre-, during and post-incarceration in a juvenile detention facility. Multiple themes emerged regarding the impact of incarceration on young African-American females, including experiencing a loss of personal liberties, the importance of making money upon release, unfaithfulness by partners on the 'outside', substance use and lack of control over their environment upon release, including parents, peers and male sexual partners. Based on feedback from TAB members, unique barriers and challenges were identified that suggested areas where adaptations to an evidenced-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) intervention would be justified to more adequately meet the needs of this particular subgroup of young African-American women. Adaptations to the evidence-based interventions included enhancing activities related to goal setting, emotion regulation skills, decision-making, recognizing and utilizing support networks and addressing the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior. Future health education efforts focusing on either the creation of new HIV/STD interventions or adaptations to existing interventions should consider utilizing advisory boards with members of the priority population at the earliest stages of intervention planning.

  8. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  9. Evidence for an interplay between cell cycle progression and the initiation of differentiation between life cycle forms of African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Successful transmission of the African trypanosome between the mammalian host blood-stream and the tsetse fly vector involves dramatic alterations in the parasite's morphology and biochemistry. This differentiation through to the tsetse midgut procyclic form is accompanied by re-entry into a proliferative cell cycle. Using a synchronous differentiation model and a variety of markers diagnostic for progress through both differentiation and the cell cycle, we have investigated the interplay between these two processes. Our results implicate a relationship between the trypanosome cell cycle position and the perception of the differentiation signal and demonstrate that irreversible commitment to the differentiation occurs rapidly after induction. Furthermore, we show that re-entry into the cell cycle in the differentiating population is synchronous, and that once initiated, progress through the differentiation pathway can be uncoupled from progress through the cell cycle. PMID:8195296

  10. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: evidence of interepidemic transmission.

    PubMed

    LaBeaud, A Desirée; Cross, Paul C; Getz, Wayne M; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk.

  12. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  13. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    PubMed

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  14. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  15. Early Pan-African evolution of the basement around Elat, Israel, and the Sinai Peninsula revealed by single-zircon evaporation dating, and implications for crustal accretion rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kroener, A. ); Eyal, M.; Eyal, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors report {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb single-zircon evaporation ages for early Pan-African rocks from southern Israel and the northeastern Sinai Peninsula, the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian shield. The oldest rocks are metamorphic schists of presumed island-arc derivation; detrital zircons date the source terrain at ca. 800-820 Ma. A major phase of tonalite-trondhjemite plutonism occurred at ca. 760-780 Ma; more evolved granitic rocks were emplaced at about 745 Ma. A metagabbro-metadiorite complex reflects the youngest igneous phase at ca. 640 Ma. We find no evidence for pre-Pan-African crust, and our data document important crust-forming events that correlate with similar episodes elsewhere in the shield. The widespread presence of early Pan-African juvenile rocks (i.e., ca. 760-850 Ma) in many parts of the Arabian-Nubian shield makes this period the most important in the magmatic history of the shield and supports earlier suggestions for unusually high crust-production rates.

  16. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  17. Developing an evidence-based decision support system for rational insecticide choice in the control of African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael; Sharp, Brian; Seocharan, Ishen; Hemingway, Janet

    2006-07-01

    The emergence of Anopheles species resistant to insecticides widely used in vector control has the potential to impact directly on the control of malaria. This may have a particularly dramatic effect in Africa, where pyrethroids impregnated onto bed-nets are the dominant insecticides used for vector control. Because the same insecticides are used for crop pests, the extensive use and misuse of insecticides for agriculture has contributed to the resistance problem in some vectors. The potential for resistance to develop in African vectors has been apparent since the 1950s, but the scale of the problem has been poorly documented. A geographical information system-based decision support system for malaria control has recently been established in Africa and used operationally in Mozambique. The system incorporates climate data and disease transmission rates, but to date it has not incorporated spatial or temporal data on vector abundance or insecticide resistance. As a first step in incorporating this information, available published data on insecticide resistance in Africa has now been collated and incorporated into this decision support system. Data also are incorporated onto the openly available Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) Web site (http://www.mara.org.za). New data, from a range of vector population-monitoring initiatives, can now be incorporated into this open access database to allow a spatial understanding of resistance distribution and its potential impact on disease transmission to benefit vector control programs.

  18. Geological Models for the Uppermost Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, J.

    2004-05-01

    Prototype cross-sections through the uppermost 100 m of the Martian crust are attempted for several distinct terrains: (a) young and uncratered (northern lowlands); (b) young and cratered (northern lowlands); (c) older and cratered (southern highlands) and (d) older and uncratered (southern highlands). Polar regions are also considered. The cross-sections are built from four main materials (1) uncemented sediment (i.e., dust and aeolian deposits); (2) cemented sediment (e.g., evaporites, sediments consolidated by diagenesis); (3) igneous rock (e.g., basaltic lavas and related hypabyssal intrusions, impact melt); and (4) megaregolith (i.e., impact-bombarded and impact-mixed material derived from 1-3 above). Megaregolith constitutes the foundation component, given that the entire crust had probably been impact processed by the end of the heavy bombardment period. The cross-sections have been constructed primarily in order to optimize the design of an orbiting synthetic aperture radar (SAR)/Sounder system for Mars. The cross-sections are also intended for use in mission planning (i.e., site selection, rover design and equipment selection). Understanding the composition and structure of the uppermost 100 m of the Martian crust is important for future missions. We need to estimate the likely substructure for landing sites so that we can optimize mission design. This is particularly important for rover-based drilling, ground-penetrating radar technology, sampling for evidence of life, and accessing H2O. Constructing cross-sections is an iterative process, largely based on existing remote sensing data (Mariner, Viking, MGS, Odyssey), combined with analogies with other terrestrial planets, especially Earth and the Moon. In this respect, Mars shows similarities with both the Moon (e.g., in megaregolith development and its preservation) and Earth (e.g., recent volcanism, presence of sedimentary deposits).

  19. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  20. Sequestration of volatiles in the martian crust through hydrated minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Poulet, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Carter, J.

    2011-12-01

    The magnitude and history of volatile reservoirs is a key question in understanding Mars' evolution. The volumes of reservoirs for water through time have been estimated on the basis of morphology (e.g. Carr 1996) and modeling while the volume of active identifiable modern reservoirs such as the polar caps, the near-surface cryosphere, and the atmosphere are reasonably well known. One reservoir that has been hypothesized but not examined is the crust where water would be in the form of hydrous minerals. The OMEGA and CRISM experiments on Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter respectively, have shown that phyllosilicate minerals are commonly observed in the Noachian crust of Mars. Modeling has shown that depending on the location the abundance of clays and phyllosilicates can exceed 50% but more typically is less or absent, particularly in the Hesperian and younger terrains (Poulet 2007). Phyllosilicate-bearing outcrops have been observed in the deepest wall exposures of Valles Marineris (8 km below the rim) and in the central peaks of impact craters as large of 100 km. Modeling suggests that the porosity of the crust in maintained to approximate 8-10 km depth permitting the circulation of water to this depth and formation of phyllosilicate and other hydrated minerals. Based on these and other observations it is evident that at least the top 10 km of the crust can be considered to contain hydrated silicate minerals. These observations also show that phyllosilicates are globally present in Noachian crust. We use altered oceanic crust as an analog for the amount of alteration on Mars. Analyses show that the average volume fraction of hydrous phases in the lower oceanic crust is 10%. Simple calculations show this results in a water content of between 1 - 3%. If the upper 10 km of the martian crust is altered to this extent then a global equivalent thickness (GET) of water of 0.3 to 0.9 km is stored in the crust due to alteration minerals. This is comparable to

  1. Collescipoli - An unusual fusion crust glass. [chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.

    1979-01-01

    An electron microprobe study was conducted on glass fragments taken from the fusion crust and an internal glass-lined vein in the H-5 chondrite Collescipoli. Microprobe analyses of the glasses revealed an unusual fusion crust composition, and analyses of glass from inside the meteorite showed compositions expected for a melt of an H-group chondrite. Studies of fusion crusts by previous workers, e.g., Krinov and Ramdohr, showed that fusion crusts contain large amounts of magnetite and other oxidized minerals. The Collescipoli fusion crusts do contain these minerals, but they also contain relatively large amounts of reduced metal, sulphide, and a sodium-rich glass. This study seems to indicate that Collescipoli preserved an early type of fusion crust. Oxidation was incomplete in the fusion crust melt that drained into a crack. From this study it is concluded that fusion crust formation does not invariably result in complete oxidation of metal and sulphide phases.

  2. GALENICALS IN THE TREATMENT OF CRUSTED SCABIES

    PubMed Central

    Sugathan, P; Martin, Abhay Mani

    2010-01-01

    Crusted scabies is rare. It is a therapeutic challenge, as the common drugs used against scabies are unsatisfactory. The successful use of galenicals in a 10-year-old girl with crusted scabies is reported. PMID:20606896

  3. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  4. Passive rifting of thick lithosphere in the southern East African Rift: Evidence from mantle transition zone discontinuity topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cory A.; Liu, Kelly H.; Chindandali, Patrick R. N.; Massingue, Belarmino; Mdala, Hassan; Mutamina, Daniel; Yu, Youqiang; Gao, Stephen S.

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the mechanisms for the initiation and early-stage evolution of the nonvolcanic southernmost segments of the East African Rift System (EARS), we installed and operated 35 broadband seismic stations across the Malawi and Luangwa rift zones over a 2 year period from mid-2012 to mid-2014. Stacking of over 1900 high-quality receiver functions provides the first regional-scale image of the 410 and 660 km seismic discontinuities bounding the mantle transition zone (MTZ) within the vicinity of the rift zones. When a 1-D standard Earth model is used for time-depth conversion, a normal MTZ thickness of 250 km is found beneath most of the study area. In addition, the apparent depths of both discontinuities are shallower than normal with a maximum apparent uplift of 20 km, suggesting widespread upper mantle high-velocity anomalies. These findings suggest that it is unlikely for a low-velocity province to reside within the upper mantle or MTZ beneath the nonvolcanic southern EARS. They also support the existence of relatively thick and strong lithosphere corresponding to the widest section of the Malawi rift zone, an observation that is consistent with strain localization models and fault polarity and geometry observations. We postulate that the Malawi rift is driven primarily by passive extension within the lithosphere attributed to the divergent rotation of the Rovuma microplate relative to the Nubian plate, and that contributions of thermal upwelling from the lower mantle are insignificant in the initiation and early-stage development of rift zones in southern Africa.

  5. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc.) are accessible and effectively used. PMID:22840190

  6. Devonian Nb-enriched basalts and andesites of north-central Tibet: Evidence for the early subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the North Qiangtang Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongrui; Yang, Tiannan; Hou, Zengqian; Bian, Yeke

    2016-07-01

    The early evolution of the Tethyan Ocean in north-central Tibet is currently poorly constrained. A sequence of volcanic rocks ranging from basic to intermediate in composition has been identified in the Zaduo area of the North Qiangtang Block. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from a sample of Zaduo andesite suggests an eruption age of Late Devonian ( 380 Ma). The Zaduo volcanic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics similar to those of typical Nb-enriched basalts, with relatively high Nb, Ta, and Zr contents, resulting in high Nb/La ratios (0.70-1.08) and Nb/U ratios (10.57-34.37). The relative enrichment in high field strength elements, together with positive εNd(t) values of + 4.6 to + 5.8 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70367-0.70532, indicates the Zaduo volcanic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by silicate melts of a subducted oceanic slab. The occurrence of Nb-enriched volcanic rocks in the North Qiangtang Block suggests that the subduction of Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust was initiated in the Late Devonian. Available geochronological data from ophiolites surrounding the North Qiangtang Block suggest that the subducted slab is most likely the Longmucuo-Shuanghu Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust.

  7. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids

    SciTech Connect

    Kedda, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Manga, P.; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; Ramsay, M. Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg )

    1994-06-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid [open quotes]ty-pos OCA[close quotes] individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and [open quotes]normal[close quotes] chromosomes. No haplotype showed statistically significant association with ty-pos OCA, and thus none could be used to predict the origins of the ty-pos OCA mutations. On the basis of the D15S12 results, there is evidence for multiple ty-pos OCA mutations in southern African negroids. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Magnetic structure of the crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The bibuniqueness aspect of geophysical interpretation must be constrained by geological insight to limit the range of theoretically possible models. An additional step in depth understanding of the relationship between rock magnetization and geological circumstances on a grand scale is required. Views about crustal structure and the distribution of lithologies suggests a complex situation with lateral and vertical variability at all levels in the crust. Volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic processes together with each of the observed anomalies. Important questions are addressed: (1) the location of the magnetic bottom; (2) whether the source is a discrete one or are certain parts of the crust cumulatively contributing to the overall magnetization; (3) if the anomaly to some recognizable surface expression is localized, how to arrive at a geologically realistic model incorporating magnetization contrasts which are realistic; (3) in the way the primary mineralogies are altered by metamorphism and the resulting magnetic contracts; (4) the effects of temperature and pressure on magnetization.

  9. Earthquakes in stable continental crust

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.C.; Kanter, L.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Earthquakes can strike even in stable crust, well away from the familiar earthquake zones at the edges of tectonic plates, but their mere occurrence is both a source of concern in planning critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. The authors sought answers to two major questions: Just how much seismic activity does take place within the stable parts of continents And are there specific geologic features that make some areas of stable crust particularly susceptible to earthquakes They began by studying North America alone, but it soon became clear that the fairly short record of these rare events on a single continent would not provide enough data for reliable analysis. Hence, they decided to substitute space for time--to survey earthquake frequency and distribution in stable continental areas worldwide. This paper discusses their findings.

  10. Short-lived increase in erosion during the African Humid Period: Evidence from the northern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Yannick; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Torres Acosta, Verónica; Melnick, Daniel; Guillemoteau, Julien; Willenbring, Jane; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-02-01

    The African Humid Period (AHP) between ∼15 and 5.5 cal. kyr BP caused major environmental change in East Africa, including filling of the Suguta Valley in the northern Kenya Rift with an extensive (∼2150 km2), deep (∼300 m) lake. Interfingering fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Baragoi paleo-delta provide insights into the lake-level history and how erosion rates changed during this time, as revealed by delta-volume estimates and the concentration of cosmogenic 10Be in fluvial sand. Erosion rates derived from delta-volume estimates range from 0.019 to 0.03 mm yr-1. 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates at ∼11.8 cal. kyr BP ranged from 0.035 to 0.086 mm yr-1, and were 2.7 to 6.6 times faster than at present. In contrast, at ∼8.7 cal. kyr BP, erosion rates were only 1.8 times faster than at present. Because 10Be-derived erosion rates integrate over several millennia, we modeled the erosion-rate history that best explains the 10Be data using established non-linear equations that describe in situ cosmogenic isotope production and decay. Two models with different temporal constraints (15-6.7 and 12-6.7 kyr) suggest erosion rates that were ∼25 to ∼300 times higher than the initial erosion rate (pre-delta formation). That pulse of high erosion rates was short (∼4 kyr or less) and must have been followed by a rapid decrease in rates while climate remained humid to reach the modern 10Be-based erosion rate of ∼0.013 mm yr-1. Our simulations also flag the two highest 10Be-derived erosion rates at ∼11.8 kyr BP related to non-uniform catchment erosion. These changes in erosion rates and processes during the AHP may reflect a strong increase in precipitation, runoff, and erosivity at the arid-to-humid transition either at ∼15 or ∼12 cal. kyr BP, before the landscape stabilized again, possibly due to increased soil production and denser vegetation.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  12. Is poverty a driver for risky sexual behaviour? Evidence from national surveys of adolescents in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Madise, Nyovani; Zulu, Eliya; Ciera, James

    2007-12-01

    This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the wealthiest girls in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi had later sexual debut compared with their poorer counterparts but this association was not significant for Uganda. Wealth status was weaker among males and significant only in Malawi, where those in the middle quintile had earlier sexual debut. Wealthier adolescents were most likely to use condoms at the last sexual act, but wealth status was not associated with number of sexual partners. Although the link between wealth status and sexual behaviour is not consistent, there is evidence that poor females are vulnerable to infection because of earlier sexual debut and non-use of condoms.

  13. Deep fracture fluids isolated in the crust since the Precambrian era.

    PubMed

    Holland, G; Lollar, B Sherwood; Li, L; Lacrampe-Couloume, G; Slater, G F; Ballentine, C J

    2013-05-16

    Fluids trapped as inclusions within minerals can be billions of years old and preserve a record of the fluid chemistry and environment at the time of mineralization. Aqueous fluids that have had a similar residence time at mineral interfaces and in fractures (fracture fluids) have not been previously identified. Expulsion of fracture fluids from basement systems with low connectivity occurs through deformation and fracturing of the brittle crust. The fractal nature of this process must, at some scale, preserve pockets of interconnected fluid from the earliest crustal history. In one such system, 2.8 kilometres below the surface in a South African gold mine, extant chemoautotrophic microbes have been identified in fluids isolated from the photosphere on timescales of tens of millions of years. Deep fracture fluids with similar chemistry have been found in a mine in the Timmins, Ontario, area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Here we show that excesses of (124)Xe, (126)Xe and (128)Xe in the Timmins mine fluids can be linked to xenon isotope changes in the ancient atmosphere and used to calculate a minimum mean residence time for this fluid of about 1.5 billion years. Further evidence of an ancient fluid system is found in (129)Xe excesses that, owing to the absence of any identifiable mantle input, are probably sourced in sediments and extracted by fluid migration processes operating during or shortly after mineralization at around 2.64 billion years ago. We also provide closed-system radiogenic noble-gas ((4)He, (21)Ne, (40)Ar, (136)Xe) residence times. Together, the different noble gases show that ancient pockets of water can survive the crustal fracturing process and remain in the crust for billions of years.

  14. Metamorphism in the Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; Labotka, Theodore C.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.

    2015-04-01

    Compositions of basaltic and ultramafic rocks analyzed by Mars rovers and occurring as Martian meteorites allow predictions of metamorphic mineral assemblages that would form under various thermophysical conditions. Key minerals identified by remote sensing roughly constrain temperatures and pressures in the Martian crust. We use a traditional metamorphic approach (phase diagrams) to assess low-grade/hydrothermal equilibrium assemblages. Basaltic rocks should produce chlorite + actinolite + albite + silica, accompanied by laumontite, pumpellyite, prehnite, or serpentine/talc. Only prehnite-bearing assemblages have been spectrally identified on Mars, although laumontite and pumpellyite have spectra similar to other uncharacterized zeolites and phyllosilicates. Ultramafic rocks are predicted to produce serpentine, talc, and magnesite, all of which have been detected spectrally on Mars. Mineral assemblages in both basaltic and ultramafic rocks constrain fluid compositions to be H2O-rich and CO2-poor. We confirm the hypothesis that low-grade/hydrothermal metamorphism affected the Noachian crust on Mars, which has been excavated in large craters. We estimate the geothermal gradient (>20 °C km-1) required to produce the observed assemblages. This gradient is higher than that estimated from radiogenic heat-producing elements in the crust, suggesting extra heating by regional hydrothermal activity.

  15. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  16. Magnetization of the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carley, R. A.; Whaler, K. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Halekas, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields measured by the satellite Lunar Prospector show large scale features resulting from remanently magnetized crust. Vector data synthesized at satellite altitude from a spherical harmonic model of the lunar crustal field, and the radial component of the magnetometer data, have been used to produce spatially continuous global magnetization models for the lunar crust. The magnetization is expressed in terms of localized basis functions, with a magnetization solution selected having the smallest root-mean square magnetization for a given fit to the data, controlled by a damping parameter. Suites of magnetization models for layers with thicknesses between 10 and 50 km are able to reproduce much of the input data, with global misfits of less than 0.5 nT (within the uncertainties of the data), and some surface field estimates. The magnetization distributions show robust magnitudes for a range of model thicknesses and damping parameters, however the magnetization direction is unconstrained. These global models suggest that magnetized sources of the lunar crust can be represented by a 30 km thick magnetized layer. Average magnetization values in magnetized regions are 30-40 mA/m, similar to the measured magnetizations of the Apollo samples and significantly weaker than crustal magnetizations for Mars and the Earth. These are the first global magnetization models for the Moon, providing lower bounds on the magnitude of lunar crustal magnetization in the absence of multiple sample returns, and can be used to predict the crustal contribution to the lunar magnetic field at a particular location.

  17. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  18. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  19. Continental crust generated in oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, Esteban; Hayes, Jorden L.; Hoernle, Kaj; Kelemen, Peter; Everson, Erik; Holbrook, W. Steven; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul; Vance, Eric A.; Chu, Shuyu; Calvert, Andrew J.; Carr, Michael J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.

    2015-04-01

    Thin oceanic crust is formed by decompression melting of the upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges, but the origin of the thick and buoyant continental crust is enigmatic. Juvenile continental crust may form from magmas erupted above intra-oceanic subduction zones, where oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath other oceanic lithosphere. However, it is unclear why the subduction of dominantly basaltic oceanic crust would result in the formation of andesitic continental crust at the surface. Here we use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American land bridge, which formed above an intra-oceanic subduction system over the past 70 Myr. We find that the geochemical signature of erupted lavas evolved from basaltic to andesitic about 10 Myr ago--coincident with the onset of subduction of more oceanic crust that originally formed above the Galápagos mantle plume. We also find that seismic P-waves travel through the crust at velocities intermediate between those typically observed for oceanic and continental crust. We develop a continentality index to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust globally. We conclude that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone--a process probably more common in the Archaean--can produce juvenile continental crust.

  20. Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

    2014-07-01

    Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

  1. Radiometric, magnetic, and gravity study of the Quixadá batholith, central Ceará domain (NE Brazil): evidence for Pan-African/Brasiliano extension-controlled emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Mariano Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo; Martins, Guttenberg; Araújo de Castro, Neivaldo

    2002-10-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in the central Ceará domain of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil). The aim of this investigation was to find geophysical evidence for the emplacement of the Quixadá batholith, which is a granitic body probably situated in the local extensional site in the oblique collisional regime of the Pan-African/Brasiliano collage. Remote sensing and airborne geophysical data provided information on the regional deformation that affected the intrusion and surrounding country rocks. In addition, a gravity study was used to determine the three-dimensional geometry and constrain the emplacement model of the Quixadá granite at depth. The trajectories of structural and magnetic lineaments suggest that the regional deformation is strongly influenced by dextral transcurrent movements of the major shear zones. The batholith, which shows an unusual positive gravity anomaly and a low U counts, displays a subhorizontal floor with several gently dipping areas, which are interpreted as magma feeder channels. The 2300 m thick root zones are roughly aligned with NE-SW-trending shear zones. Finally, the internal architecture of the pluton suggests that the Quixadá batholith was emplaced in a dilational shear zone tip area at the north end of Quixeramobim shear zone.

  2. Nature of crust in the central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Park, Yongcheol

    2014-07-01

    A transition between continental crust in the northern Red Sea and oceanic crust in the southern Red Sea coincides broadly with a southward increase in plate tectonic separation rate and with a decrease in upper mantle seismic velocity. We re-evaluate here the nature of crust in the intervening central Red Sea with the results of legacy seismic refraction experiments and recently released marine gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimeter measurements. In the refraction data, collected east of Thetis Deep, velocities of 6.6-6.9 km s- 1 of a deep refracting layer, which are similar to measured velocities of unaltered gabbro samples, extend outside the deep to 65 km from the axis. The new version of the marine gravity field reveals trends crossing the central Red Sea. Whereas some of them connect with major lineaments in the surrounding African-Arabian shield, those around Thetis Deep die out towards the coastlines. They can be paired across the ridge and lie slightly oblique to plate motions, as is typical of oceanic fracture zones or non-transform discontinuities migrating away from hotspots. Taken together these observations support the view that an oceanic rather than extended continental crust underlies this part of the central Red Sea. The crestal mountains around the median valleys of slow-spreading ridges are typically 500-1000 m lower at spreading discontinuities. Around Thetis Deep, the similar pattern in the gravity field to those of slow-spreading ridges suggests that the crestal mountains may variably block or impede flowage of evaporites towards the spreading centre, whereas the discontinuities may mark areas where flowage is unobstructed. Limited multibeam data collected in transits outside Thetis Deep show oblique fabrics as expected from these predicted movements.

  3. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  4. Crust Formation and Stabilization of the Western Archean Kaapvaal Craton: Evidence from U-Pb Geochronology of Basement Blocks and Deep Crustal Xenoliths from the Kimberley Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    The kimberlites of the Kimberley region of South Africa have yielded one of the most abundantly sampled and studied suites of lithospheric mantle xenoliths in the world, providing a detailed picture of the composition and thermal evolution of the continental mantle beneath the western Kaapvaal craton. Surprisingly however, little published data exist regarding the nature of the basement and deeper crustal rocks in the western craton, with which to contrast the evolution of the crustal and mantle portions of this Archean cratonic region. Crustal xenoliths collected in the various mine dumps around Kimberley are predominantly large blocks of near-surface basement lithologies, including deformed granitic to tonalitic gneisses and amphibolites, weakly deformed pegmatoids, and non-deformed biotite granite. U-Pb zircon geochronological data for a number of xenoliths have been used to develop a preliminary framework for the age and evolution of the Archean crust of the Kimberley region. The youngest component of the Kimberley basement is a non-deformed sample of biotite granite with an age of 2724+/-2 Ma. A major episode of metamorphism and crustal anatexis is recorded by 2928+/-2 Ga metamorphic zircon growth in amphibolitic and tonalitic components of banded gneisses, and igneous zircons of identical age in weakly deformed cross-cutting pegmatoids. Zircons from these same pegmatoids also have inherited cores which yield 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3265 Ma. These inherited zircons, as well as cores of zircons from a foliated granodioritic xenolith with 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3184 Ma, indicate the antiquity of the oldest crustal components of the Kimberley basement. These data are consistent with cursory SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronological information reported for lithologies collected in situ in the diamond mine walls of Kimberley. Two important implications of this data are considered: first, we interpret the major metamorphism and crustal anatexis at 2.93 Ga as

  5. Isotopic evidence ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, δ 7Li) for alteration of the oceanic crust at deep-rooted mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Reitz, Anja; Romer, Rolf L.; Liebetrau, Volker; Meixner, Anette; Weise, Stephan M.; Haeckel, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of pore fluids is presented for five deep-rooted mud volcanoes aligned on a transect across the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin at water depths between 350 and 3860 m. Generally decreasing interstitial Li concentrations and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios with increasing distance from shore are attributed to systematically changing fluid sources across the continental margin. Although highest Li concentrations at the near-shore mud volcanoes coincide with high salinities derived from dissolution of halite and late-stage evaporites, clayey, terrigenous sediments are identified as the ultimate Li source to all pore fluids investigated. Light δ 7Li values, partly close to those of hydrothermal vent fluids (δ 7Li: +11.9‰), indicate that Li has been mobilized during high-temperature fluid/sediment or fluid/rock interactions in the deep sub-surface. Intense leaching of terrigenous clay has led to radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (˜0.7106) in pore fluids of the near-shore mud volcanoes. In contrast, non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (˜0.7075) at the distal locations are attributed to admixing of a basement-derived fluid component, carrying an isotopic signature from interaction with the basaltic crust. This inference is substantiated by temperature constraints from Li isotope equilibrium calculations suggesting exchange processes at particularly high temperatures (>200 °C) for the least radiogenic pore fluids of the most distal location. Advective pore fluids in the off-shore reaches of the Gulf of Cadiz are influenced by successive exchange processes with both oceanic crust and terrigenous, fine-grained sediments, resulting in a chemical and isotopic signature similar to that of fluids in near-shore ridge flank hydrothermal systems. This suggests that deep-rooted mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz represent a fluid pathway intermediate between mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent and shallow, marginal cold seep. Due to the thicker sediment

  6. No evidence for a large difference in ALS frequency in populations of African and European origin: a population based study in inner city London.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Garcia, Ricardo; Scott, Kirsten M; Roche, Jose Carlos; Scotton, William; Martin, Naomi; Janssen, Anna; Goldstein, Laura H; Leigh, P Nigel; Ellis, Cathy M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested a lower incidence of ALS in people of African origin. We used a population based register in an urban setting from inner city London postcodes where there is a large population of people of African ancestry to compare the frequency of ALS in people of European and African origin. Population statistics stratified by age, gender and ethnicity were obtained from the 2001 census. Incidence and prevalence were calculated in each ethnic group. Results showed that in a population of 683,194, of which 22% were of African ancestry, 88 individuals with ALS were identified over a seven-year period, including 14 people with African ancestry. The adjusted incidence in people of African ancestry was 1.35 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.72-2.3) and in those of European ancestry 1.97 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.55-2.48). In conclusion, in this small population based study we could not detect a difference in rates of ALS between people of African ancestry and those of European ancestry.

  7. Implications for the evolution of continental crust from Hf isotope systematics of Archean detrital zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Ross K.; Patchett, P. Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    Results from the fractionation of zircon by sedimentary processes into continental margin sandstone yield information on the preservation of preexisting continental crust in the form of zircon, making it possible to distinguish between the contrasting theories of gradual growth versus constant volume of continental crust over geologic time. In this work, Hf-176/Hf-177 ratios were determined for detrital zircon fractions from 2.0-2.5, 2.6-3.0, and pre-3.0 Gyr old sandstones from the Canadian-Shield, the North-Atlantic, the Wyoming, and the Kaapvaal Cratons. Results pointed to small amounts of continental crust prior to 3.0 Gyr ago and a rapid addition of continental crust between 2.5 and 3.0 Gyr ago, consistent with the gradual growth of continental crust, and giving evidence against no-growth histories.

  8. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3–7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8–19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife–livestock–human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  9. Geochemical characteristics and metal element enrichment in crusts from seamounts of the Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Kechao; Du, Yong; Zhang, Fuyuan; Zhang, Weiyan; Ren, Xiangwen; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Dasong

    2016-03-01

    Elemental geochemistry is an essential part of understanding mineralization mechanisms. In this paper, a data set of 544 cobalt crust samples from seamounts of the Western Pacific are used to study the enrichment characteristics of metal elements. REE normalization is utilized to reveal the origin of the crusts; effects of water depth on Co enrichment and impacts of phosphatization on mineral quality are discussed to obtain the evolution of these marine mineral deposits, which gives support to further resource assessment. Conclusions are reached as follows: 1) Elemental abundances, inter-element relationships, and shale-normalized REE patterns for phosphate-poor crusts from different locations reflect hydrogenetic origin of the crusts. EFs (enrichment coefficients) of REE exhibit exponential increase from surface sediments to phosphorite to polymetallic nodules to crusts, suggesting that the improved degree of hydrogeneous origin induces the enrichment of REE. 2) The crusts in the Western Pacific, formed through hotspot produced guyots trails, have relatively lower REE than those in the Mid-Pacific. The latter could be attributed to the peculiar submarine topography of seamounts formed by intraplate volcanism. 3) The non-phosphatized younger crust layers have 40% higher Co than the phosphatized older layers. This indicates the modification of the elemental composition in these crusts by phosphatization. A general depletion of hydroxide-dominated elements such as Co, Ni, and Mn and enrichment of P, Ca, Ba, and Sr is evident in phosphatized crusts, whereas non-phosphatized younger generation crusts are rich in terrigenous aluminosilicate detrital matter. 4) Co increases above the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) from less than 0.53% to over 0.65% in seamount regions with water depth of less than 2,500 m, suggesting the significance of the dissolution of carbonate in the sea water column to the growth and composition of crusts.

  10. Mars Crust: Made of Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2009-05-01

    By combining data from several sources, Harry Y. (Hap) McSween (University of Tennessee), G. Jeffrey Taylor (University of Hawaii) and Michael B. Wyatt (Brown University) show that the surface of Mars is composed mostly of basalt not unlike those that make up the Earth's oceanic crust. McSween and his colleagues used data from Martian meteorites, analyses of soils and rocks at robotic landing sites, and chemical and mineralogical information from orbiting spacecraft. The data show that Mars is composed mostly of rocks similar to terrestrial basalts called tholeiites, which make up most oceanic islands, mid-ocean ridges, and the seafloor beneath sediments. The Martian samples differ in some respects that reflect differences in the compositions of the Martian and terrestrial interiors, but in general are a lot like Earth basalts. Cosmochemistst have used the compositions of Martian meteorites to discriminate bulk properties of Mars and Earth, but McSween and coworkers' synthesis shows that the meteorites differ from most of the Martian crust (the meteorites have lower aluminum, for example), calling into question how diagnostic the meteorites are for understanding the Martian interior.

  11. Pacific ferromanganese crust geology and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, S.I.; Vanstein, B.G.; Anikeeva, L.I. )

    1990-06-01

    Cobaltiferous ferromanganese crusts form part of a large series of oceanic ferromanganese oxide deposits. The crusts show high cobalt (commonly over 0.4%), low nickel and copper sum (0.4-0.8%), considerably high manganese (18-20%), and iron (14-18%). Less abundant elements in crusts are represented by molybdenum and vanadium; the rare-earth elements cerium, lanthenum, and yttrium; and the noble metals platinum and rhodium. Co-rich crusts form at water depths of 600 to 2,500 m. Crust thicknesses range from millimeters to 15-17 cm, averaging 2-6 cm. The most favorable conditions for 4-10 cm thick crusts to occur is at water depths of 1,200-2,200 m. The crusts formed on basaltic, calcareous, siliceous, and breccia bedrock surfaces provided there were conditions preventing bottom sedimentation at them. If the sedimentation takes place, it may be accompanied by nodules similar in composition to the crusts. The most favorable topography for extensive crust formation is considered to be subdued (up to 20{degree}) slopes and summit platforms of conical seamounts, frequently near faults and their intersection zones. Subhorizontal guyot summits do not usually favor crust growth. Crust geochemistry is primarily defined by mineralogy and manganese hydroxides (vernadite)/iron ratio. The first associated group of compounds includes cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, cerium, and titanium; the other is strontium, yttrium, cerium, and cadmium. The aluminosilicate phase is associated with titanium, iron, chromium, and vanadium; phosphate biogenic phase includes copper, nickel, zinc, lead, and barium. The crucial point in cobaltiferous crust formation is their growth rate on which is dependent the degree of ferromanganese matrix sorption saturation with cobalt. The optimum for cobalt-rich ferromanganese ores is the conditions facilitating long-term and continuous hydrogenic processes.

  12. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.

  13. The evolution of the early lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    In the framework of the plutonic and tectonic processes that acted to create the current configuration of the lunar crust, attention is given to the problems as to why (1) the crust is vertically zoned; (2) there are no plutonic equivalents to mare basalt; and (3) the evolution of lunar crust would shape subsequent and younger volcanic events. The existence of mascons by 3.9 By shows that the entire crust had strengthened, and could support far greater stresses than those generated by mafic plutons.

  14. Pulsar glitches: the crust is not enough.

    PubMed

    Andersson, N; Glampedakis, K; Ho, W C G; Espinoza, C M

    2012-12-14

    Pulsar glitches are traditionally viewed as a manifestation of vortex dynamics associated with a neutron superfluid reservoir confined to the inner crust of the star. In this Letter we show that the nondissipative entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid, effectively reducing the moment of inertia associated with the angular momentum reservoir. Combining the latest observational data for prolific glitching pulsars with theoretical results for the crust entrainment, we find that the required superfluid reservoir exceeds that available in the crust. This challenges our understanding of the glitch phenomenon, and we discuss possible resolutions to the problem.

  15. Evolution of the Chilka Lake granulite complex, northern Eastern Ghats Belt, India: First evidence of ~ 780 Ma decompression of the deep crust and its implication on the India-Antarctica correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Das, K.; Torimoto, J.; Arima, M.; Dunkley, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    High-grade para- and orthogneissic rocks near the Chilka Lake granulite complex, northern part of the Eastern Ghats Belt show complex structural and petrological history. Based on field and petrographic characters, five (M1-M5) metamorphic events could be identified. The earliest metamorphic event (M1) produced amphibolite grade mineral assemblage which produced the peak granulite (M2) assemblages at 900-950 °C, 8.5-9.0 kbar. The third metamorphic event caused decompression of the deeper crust up to 700-800 °C, 6.0-6.5 kbar. This was followed by cooling (M4) and subsequent thermal overprinting (M5). Fluid-composition during M3 was dominated by high-density CO2 and changed to low-density mixed CO2-H2O during the M3. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP data suggest 781 ± 9 Ma age for M3 event. Texturally constrained monazite U-Th-Pb EPMA data, on the other hand, yield a group age of 988 ± 23 Ma from grain interior, which can signifies the age of M2 event. Few spots with younger dates in the range of 550-500 Ma are also noted. This interpretation changes the existing tectonothermal history of northern Eastern Ghats Belt. Our data show that the two adjacent crustal domains of the Eastern Ghats Belt show distinctly contrasting Neoproterozoic histories. While the central Domain 2 evolved through early anticlockwise P-T path culminating in ultrahigh temperature, the northern Domain 3 evolved through a clockwise P-T path. It appears that the Domain 3 was contiguous to East Antarctica and became part of the Eastern Ghats Belt during the assembly of Gondwana. The ca. 780 Ma decompression event in the northern Eastern Ghats Belt opens up new possibilities for interpreting the breakup of Rodinia.

  16. Armorican provenance for the mélange deposits below the Lizard ophiolite (Cornwall, UK): evidence for Devonian obduction of Cadomian and Lower Palaeozoic crust onto the southern margin of Avalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Rob A.; Linnemann, Ulf; Jeffries, Teresa; Drost, Kerstin; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-07-01

    Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Meneage Formation within the footwall of the Lizard ophiolite complex in SW England are thought to have been derived from erosion of the over-riding Armorican microplate during collision with Avalonia and the closure of the Rheic Ocean. We further test this hypothesis by comparison of their detrital zircon suites with those of autochthonous Armorican strata. Five samples analysed from SW England (Avalonia) and NW France (Armorica) have a bimodal U-Pb zircon age distribution dominated by late Neoproterozoic to middle Cambrian (c. 710-518 Ma) and Palaeoproterozoic (c. 1,800-2,200 Ma) groupings. Both can be linked with lithologies exposed within the Cadomian belt as well as the West African craton, which is characterized by major tectonothermal events at 2.0-2.4 Ga. The detrital zircon signature of Avalonia is distinct from that of Armorica in that there is a much larger proportion of Mesoproterozoic detritus. The common provenance of the samples is therefore consistent with: (a) derivation of the Meneage Formation mélange deposits from the Armorican plate during Rheic Ocean closure and obduction of the Lizard Complex and (b) previous correlation of quartzite blocks within the Meneage Formation with the Ordovician Grès Armoricain Formation of NW France.

  17. Crustal radiogenic heat production and the selective survival of ancient continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of Earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental heat flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic heat production to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.

  18. Crustal radiogenic heat production and the selective survival of ancient continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental heat flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic heat production to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.

  19. Weak Faults, Yet Strong Middle Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Behr, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    A global compilation of stress magnitude from mylonites developed along major fault zones suggests that maximum differential stresses between 140 and 200 MPa are reached at temperatures between 300 and 350°C on normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. These differential stresses are consistent with brittle rock strengths estimated based on Coulomb fracture (e.g., Byerlee's law), and with in-situ measurements of crustal stress measured in boreholes. This confirms previous suggestions that many parts of the continental crust are stressed close to failure down to the brittle-ductile transition. Many major active faults in all tectonic regimes are considered to be relatively weak, however, based on various lines of evidence, including their unfavorable orientation with respect to regional stresses, the absence of heat flow anomalies, the mechanical properties of fault gouge, and evidence for high fluid pressures along subduction zone megathrusts. Peak differential stresses estimated by a variety of techniques lie mostly in the range 1 - 20 MPa. The sharp contrast between differential stresses estimated on the seismogenic parts of major faults and those estimated from ductile rocks immediately below the brittle-ductile transition has the following implications: 1. The lower limit of seismicity in major fault zones is not controlled by the intersection of brittle fracture laws such as Byerlee's law with ductile creep laws. Rather, it represents an abrupt downward termination, probably controlled by temperature, of the weakening processes that govern fault behavior in the upper crust. 2. The seismogenic parts of major fault zones contribute little to lithospheric strength, and are unlikely to have much influence on either the slip rate or the location of the faults. Conversely, the high strength segments of ductile shear zones immediately below the brittle-ductile transition constitute a major load-bearing element within the lithosphere. Displacement rates are governed by

  20. Plagioclase flotation and lunar crust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Hays, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthitic plagioclase floats in liquids parental to the lunar highlands crust. The plagioclase enrichment that is characteristic of lunar highlands rocks can be the result of plagioclase flotation. Such rocks would form a gravitationally stable upper crust on their parental magma.

  1. Molecular evidence supports an african affinity of the neotropical freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata, say 1818, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G; Jones, C S; Lockyer, A E; Hughes, S; Brown, D; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria, Preston 1910, are the most important and widely distributed intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis, in Africa and the Neotropics. S. mansoni is thought to have been imported repeatedly into the Americas during the last 500 years with the African slave trade. Surprisingly considering that the New and Old World separated 95-106 million years (Myr) ago, the disease rapidly became established due to the presence of endemic susceptible hosts. Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within Biomphalaria may provide insights into the successful intercontinental spread of S. mansoni. Parsimony and distance analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show African taxa to be monophyletic and Neotropical species paraphyletic, with Biomphalaria glabrata forming a separate clade from other Neotropical Biomphalaria, and ancestral to the African taxa. A west to east trans-Atlantic dispersal of a B. glabrata-like taxon, possibly as recently as the Plio-Pleistocene (1.8-3.6 Myr ago) according to a general mitochondrial clock, would fit these observations. Vicariance or an African origin for B. glabrata followed by multiple introductions to South America over the past 500 years with the African slave trade seem unlikely explanations. Knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among important intermediate host species may prove useful in furthering control measures which exploit genetic differences in susceptibility to parasites, and in elucidating the evolution of schistosome resistance. PMID:11133023

  2. Europium mass balance in polymict samples and implications for plutonic rocks of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1988-07-01

    From correlations of SM concentration and Sm/Eu ratio with Th concentration for a large number of polymict samples from various locations in the lunar highlands and the value of 0.91 {mu}g/g for the mean Th concentration of the highlands surface crust obtained by the orbiting gamma-ray experiments. The authors estimate the mean concentrations of Sm and Eu in the lunar surface crust to be between 2 and 3 {mu}g/g Sm and 0.7 and 1.2 {mu}g/g Eu. The compositional trends indicate that there is no significant enrichment or depletion of Eu, on the average, compared to Sm relative to chondritic abundances, i.e., there is no significant Eu anomaly in average upper crust. Although rich in plagioclase ({approximately}70%), the upper crust does not offer evidence for a gross vertical separation of plagioclase from the final liquid from which it crystallized. This and the chondritic ratio of Eu/Al in average highlands material imply that the net effect of the processes that led to formation of the lunar crust was to put most of the Al and incompatible elements in the crust. Among plutonic rocks, only plagioclase in rocks from the magnesian suite can supply the excess Eu in the polymict rocks. Owing to the intermediate value of the mean Mg/Fe ratio of the crust, a significant fraction of the mafic rocks of the lunar highlands must have lower Mg/Fe ratios than the norites and troctolites of the magnesian-suite of plutonic rocks. A large fraction of the plagioclase in the lunar crust is associated not with ferroan anorthosite, but with more mafic rocks. There is little evidence in the Eu data that the lunar crust ever consisted of a thick shell of nearly pure plagioclase, as envisioned in some formulations of the magma ocean model of its formation.

  3. Trend in proportions of missed children during polio supplementary immunization activities in the African Region: evidence from independent monitoring data 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Gasasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Poy, Alain; Orkeh, Godwin; Shaba, Keith; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-02-19

    This is a comparative analysis of independent monitoring data collected between 2010 and 2012, following the implementation of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in countries in the three sub regional blocs of World Health Organization in the African Region. The sub regional blocs are Central Africa, West Africa, East and Southern Africa. In addition to the support for SIAs, the Central and West African blocs, threatened with importation and re-establishment of polio transmission received intensive coordination through weekly teleconferences. The later, East and Southern African bloc with low polio threats was not engaged in the intensive coordination through teleconferences. The key indicator of the success of SIAs is the proportion of children missed during SIAs. The results showed that generally there was a decrease in the proportion of children missed during SIAs in the region, from 7.94% in 2010 to 5.95% in 2012. However, the decrease was mainly in the Central and West African blocs. The East and Southern African bloc had countries with as much as 25% missed children. In West Africa and Central Africa, where more coordinated SIAs were conducted, there were progressive and consistent drops, from close to 20-10% at the maximum. At the country and local levels, steps were undertaken to ameliorate situation of low immunization uptake. Wherever an area is observed to have low coverage, local investigations were conducted to understand reasons for low coverage, plans to improve coverage are made and implemented in a coordinated manner. Lessons learned from close monitoring of polio eradication SIAs are will be applied to other campaigns being conducted in the African Region to accelerate control of other vaccine preventable diseases including cerebrospinal meningitis A, measles and yellow fever.

  4. Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu

  5. Mineralogy of the lunar crust: Results from Clementine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.

    1999-01-01

    The central peaks of 109 impact craters across the Moon are examined with Clementine UVVIS camera multispectral data. The craters range in diameter from 40 to 180 km, and are believed to have exhumed material from 5 - 30 km beneath the surface to form the peaks, including both upper and lower crustal rocks depending on whether craters have impacted into highlands or basins. Representative five-color spectra from spectrally and spatially distinct areas within the peaks are classified using spectral parameters, including the "key ratio" (which is related to mafic mineral abundance) and "spectral curvature" (linked to absorption band shape, which distinguishes between low- and high-Ca pyroxene and olivine). The spectral parameters are correlated to mineralogical abundances, related in turn to highland plutonic rock compositions. The derived rock compositions for the various central peaks are presented in a global map. From these results, it is evident that the lunar crust is compositionally diverse, both globally and at local 100-m scales found within individual sets of central peaks. While the central peaks compositions imply a crust that is generally consistent with previous models of crustal structure, they also indicate a more anorthositic crust than generally assumed, with a bulk plagioclase content of ~81%, evolving from "pure" anorthosite near the surface towards more mafic, low-Ca pyroxene-rich compositions with depth (comparable to anorthositic norite). Evidence for mafic plutons occurs in both highlands and basins, and represent all mafic highland rock types. However, the lower crust is more compositionally diverse than the highlands, with both a greater range of rock types and more diversity within individual sets of central peaks.

  6. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary decline of cryptic bacterial crusts in tropical reefs.

    PubMed

    Riding, R; Liang, L; Braga, J C

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21,000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14,000 years with largest reduction occurring 12,000-10,000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects.

  7. Excavation and melting of the Hadean continental crust by Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaike, Yuhito; Sasaki, Takanori; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    No Hadean rocks have ever been found on Earth's surface except for zircons-evidence of continental crust, suggesting that Hadean continental crust existed but later disappeared. One hypothesis for the disappearance of the continental crust is excavation/melting by the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a concentration of impacts in the last phase of the Hadean eon. In this paper, we calculate the effects of LHB on Hadean continental crust in order to investigate this hypothesis. Approximating the size-frequency distribution of the impacts by a power-law scaling with an exponent α as a parameter, we have derived semi-analytical expressions for the effects of LHB impacts. We calculated the total excavation/melting volume and area affected by the LHB from two constraints of LHB on the Moon, the size of the largest basin during LHB, and the density of craters larger than 20 km. We also investigated the effects of the value of α. Our results show that LHB does not excavate/melt all of Hadean continental crust directly, but over 70% of the Earth's surface area can be covered by subsequent melts in a broad range of α. If there have been no overturns of the continental crust until today, LHB could be responsible for the absence of Hadean rocks because most of Hadean continental crust is not be exposed on the Earth's surface in this case.

  8. Continental Lower Crust: Wavespeeds, Composition, and Relamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of much of Earth's lower continental crust is enigmatic. The available heat-flow and wavespeed constraints can be satisfied if lower continental crust elsewhere contains anywhere from 49 to 62 wt% SiO2 (similar to andesite and dacite), with high to moderate concentrations of K, Th and U. Beneath shields and platforms, Vp suggests that 20-30% of lower crust is mafic. A large fraction of this material could be denser than peridotite. In these settings the underlying upper mantle is too cold to permit development of a convective instability. High Vp lithologies in these settings may be the result of mafic underplating, or slow metamorphic growth of large proportions of garnet. Vp from lower crust of Paleozoic-Mesozoic orogens indicates a smaller amount of mafic rock and little or no material that is denser than peridotite. Beneath rifts, arcs, and volcanic plateaux and beneath continent-collision zones, ~10-20% of lower crust is mafic, and about half that is denser than peridotite. The inferred gravitational instability and high Moho temperatures suggest that the mafic lower crust in these regions may be temporary. During sediment subduction, subduction erosion, arc subduction, and continent subduction, mafic rocks become eclogite and may continue to descend into the mantle, whereas more silica-rich rocks are transformed into felsic gneisses that are less dense than peridotite but more dense than continental upper crust. These more-felsic rocks may rise buoyantly, undergo decompression melting and melt extraction, and may be relaminated to the base of the crust. As a result of this refining/differentiation process, such relatively felsic rocks could form much of lower crust.

  9. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  10. History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jérémy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

    2014-02-01

    Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet.

  11. History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jérémy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

    2014-01-01

    Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet. PMID:24567742

  12. Human Capital Development (HCD) through Open, Distance and E-Learning: Evidence from Corporate Annual Reports (CARs) of Top South African Listed Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelowotan, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of open, distance and e-learning in the development of human resources by examining human capital development related disclosures in the corporate annual reports (CARs) of top South African listed companies. The study employed content analysis method to analyse the CARs of these companies with the aid of qualitative…

  13. What Hf isotopes in zircon tell us about crust-mantle evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Itano, Keita; Hibiya, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazue

    2017-03-01

    The 176Lu-176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to study planetary crust-mantle differentiation. Of considerable utility in this regard is zircon, a resistant mineral that can be precisely dated by the U-Pb chronometer and record its initial Hf isotope composition due to having low Lu/Hf. Here we review zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data mainly obtained over the last two decades and discuss their contributions to our current understanding of crust-mantle evolution, with emphasis on the Lu-Hf isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), early differentiation of the silicate Earth, and the evolution of the continental crust over geologic history. Meteorite zircon encapsulates the most primitive Hf isotope composition of our solar system, which was used to identify chondritic meteorites best representative of the BSE (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Hadean-Eoarchean detrital zircons yield highly unradiogenic Hf isotope compositions relative to the BSE, providing evidence for the development of a geochemically enriched silicate reservoir as early as 4.5 Ga. By combining the Hf and O isotope systematics, we propose that the early enriched silicate reservoir has resided at depth within the Earth rather than near the surface and may represent a fractionated residuum of a magma ocean underlying the proto-crust, like urKREEP beneath the anorthositic crust on the Moon. Detrital zircons from world major rivers potentially provide the most robust Hf isotope record of the preserved granitoid crust on a continental scale, whereas mafic rocks with various emplacement ages offer an opportunity to trace the Hf isotope evolution of juvenile continental crust (from εHf[4.5 Ga] = 0 to εHf[present] = + 13). The river zircon data as compared to the juvenile crust composition highlight that the supercontinent cycle has controlled the evolution of the continental crust by regulating the rates of crustal generation and intra

  14. Microphytic crusts: 'topsoil' of the desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Deserts throughout the world are the home of microphytic, or cryptogamic, crusts. These crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria, previously called blue-green algae, and also include lichens, mosses, green algae, microfungi and bacteria. They are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces on which they occur. In the cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau (including parts of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico), these crusts are extraordinarily well-developed, and may represent 70-80% of the living ground cover.

  15. Localization of the gene causing keratolytic winter erythema to chromosome 8p22-p23, and evidence for a founder effect in South African Afrikaans-speakers.

    PubMed Central

    Starfield, M; Hennies, H C; Jung, M; Jenkins, T; Wienker, T; Hull, P; Spurdle, A; Küster, W; Ramsay, M; Reis, A

    1997-01-01

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as "Oudtshoorn skin disease," or "erythrokeratolysis hiemalis," is an autosomal dominant skin disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a cyclical erythema, hyperkeratosis, and recurrent and intermittent peeling of the palms and soles, particularly during winter. Initially KWE was believed to be unique to South Africa, but recently a large pedigree of German origin has been identified. The disorder occurs with a prevalence of 1/7,000 in the South African Afrikaans-speaking Caucasoid population, and this high frequency has been attributed to founder effect. After a number of candidate regions were excluded from linkage to KWE in both the German family and several South African families, a genomewide analysis was embarked on. Linkage to the microsatellite marker D8S550 on chromosome 8p22-p23 was initially observed, with a maximum LOD score (Z(max)) of 9.2 at a maximum recombination fraction (theta(max)) of .0 in the German family. Linkage was also demonstrated in five of the larger South African families, with Z(max) = 7.4 at theta(max) = .02. When haplotypes were constructed, 11 of 14 South African KWE families had the complete "ancestral" haplotype, and 3 demonstrated conservation of parts of this haplotype, supporting the hypothesis of founder effect. The chromosome segregating with the disease in the German family demonstrated a different haplotype, suggesting that these chromosomes do not have a common origin. Recombination events place the KWE gene in a 6-cM interval between D8S550 and D8S552. If it is assumed that there was a single South African founder, a proposed ancestral recombinant suggests that the gene is most likely in a 1-cM interval between D8S550 and D8S265. PMID:9311742

  16. Sahel megadrought during Heinrich Stadial 1: evidence for a three-phase evolution of the low- and mid-level West African wind system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Prange, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie; Lippold, Jörg; Mulitza, Stefan; Zonneveld, Karin

    2012-12-01

    Millennial-scale dry events in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions during the last Glacial period are commonly attributed to southward shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) associated with an intensification of the northeasterly (NE) trade wind system during intervals of reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Through the use of high-resolution last deglaciation pollen records from the continental slope off Senegal, our data show that one of the longest and most extreme droughts in the western Sahel history, which occurred during the North Atlantic Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), displayed a succession of three major phases. These phases progressed from an interval of maximum pollen representation of Saharan elements between ˜19 and 17.4 kyr BP indicating the onset of aridity and intensified NE trade winds, followed by a millennial interlude of reduced input of Saharan pollen and increased input of Sahelian pollen, to a final phase between ˜16.2 and 15 kyr BP that was characterized by a second maximum of Saharan pollen abundances. This change in the pollen assemblage indicates a mid-HS1 interlude of NE trade wind relaxation, occurring between two distinct trade wind maxima, along with an intensified mid-tropospheric African Easterly Jet (AEJ) indicating a substantial change in West African atmospheric processes. The pollen data thus suggest that although the NE trades have weakened, the Sahel drought remained severe during this time interval. Therefore, a simple strengthening of trade winds and a southward shift of the West African monsoon trough alone cannot fully explain millennial-scale Sahel droughts during periods of AMOC weakening. Instead, we suggest that an intensification of the AEJ is needed to explain the persistence of the drought during HS1. Simulations with the Community Climate System Model indicate that an intensified AEJ during periods of reduced AMOC affected the North African climate by enhancing moisture

  17. Drilling to gabbro in intact ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Douglas S; Teagle, Damon A H; Alt, Jeffrey C; Banerjee, Neil R; Umino, Susumu; Miyashita, Sumio; Acton, Gary D; Anma, Ryo; Barr, Samantha R; Belghoul, Akram; Carlut, Julie; Christie, David M; Coggon, Rosalind M; Cooper, Kari M; Cordier, Carole; Crispini, Laura; Durand, Sedelia Rodriguez; Einaudi, Florence; Galli, Laura; Gao, Yongjun; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gilbert, Lisa A; Hayman, Nicholas W; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Hirano, Nobuo; Holter, Sara; Ingle, Stephanie; Jiang, Shijun; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Kerneklian, Marcie; Koepke, Jürgen; Laverne, Christine; Vasquez, Haroldo L Lledo; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Sally; Neo, Natsuki; Nichols, Holly J; Park, Sung-Hyun; Reichow, Marc K; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Sano, Takashi; Sandwell, Rachel; Scheibner, Birgit; Smith-Duque, Chris E; Swift, Stephen A; Tartarotti, Paola; Tikku, Anahita A; Tominaga, Masako; Veloso, Eugenio A; Yamasaki, Toru; Yamazaki, Shusaku; Ziegler, Christa

    2006-05-19

    Sampling an intact sequence of oceanic crust through lavas, dikes, and gabbros is necessary to advance the understanding of the formation and evolution of crust formed at mid-ocean ridges, but it has been an elusive goal of scientific ocean drilling for decades. Recent drilling in the eastern Pacific Ocean in Hole 1256D reached gabbro within seismic layer 2, 1157 meters into crust formed at a superfast spreading rate. The gabbros are the crystallized melt lenses that formed beneath a mid-ocean ridge. The depth at which gabbro was reached confirms predictions extrapolated from seismic experiments at modern mid-ocean ridges: Melt lenses occur at shallower depths at faster spreading rates. The gabbros intrude metamorphosed sheeted dikes and have compositions similar to the overlying lavas, precluding formation of the cumulate lower oceanic crust from melt lenses so far penetrated by Hole 1256D.

  18. The breaking strain of neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Kadau, Kai; Horowitz, C J

    2009-01-01

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

  19. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Bulanova, G P; Armstrong, L S; Keshav, S; Blundy, J D; Gudfinnsson, G; Lord, O T; Lennie, A R; Clark, S M; Smith, C B; Gobbo, L

    2008-07-31

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here we provide experimental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years.

  20. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.J.; Bulanova, G.P.; Armstrong, L.S.; Keshav, S.; Blundy, J.D.; Gudfinnesson, G.; Lord, O.T.; Lennie, A.R.; Clark, S.M.; Smith, C.B.; Gobbo, L.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here they provide exper8imental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years.

  1. Workshop on the Growth of Continental Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Constraints and observations were discussed on a fundamental unsolved problem of global scale relating to the growth of planetary crusts. All of the terrestrial planets were considered, but emphasis was placed on the Earth's continental crust. The title of each session is: (1) Extraterrestrial crustal growth and destruction; (2) Constraints for observations and measurements of terrestrial rocks; (3) Models of crustal growth and destruction; and (4) Process of crustal growth and destruction.

  2. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  3. Rapid Ascent of Aphyric Mantle Melts through the Overriding Crust in Subduction Zones: Evidence from Variable Uranium-Series Disequilibria, Amorphous Hydrous Alteration Microtextures in Crystal Rims, and Two-Pyroxene Pseudo-Decompression Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmer, G. F.; Freymuth, H.; Hsieh, H. H.; Hwang, S. L.; Iizuka, Y.; Miller, C. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Sakamoto, N.; Yurimoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic hazard mitigation at subduction zones critically depends on knowledge of magma generation and ascent processes and timescales. Two diametrically opposite scenarios are presently debated: One paradigm is the generation of low-silica (basaltic) melts in the mantle wedge, followed by protracted sub-liquidus magma ascent and evolution through crystal growth and fractionation in crustal reservoirs, which are tapped during volcanic eruptions. In contrast, a diametrically opposite model favours the generation of higher silica melts in the mantle or in a lower crustal hot zone, followed by rapid decompression to the surface under super-liquidus conditions. In the latter case, crystals are picked up during magma ascent, and are in the process of dissolving. We present multiple lines of evidence that point to crystal uptake as the principal processes by which arc melts acquire their crystal cargo: (i) variable 234U-238U disequilibria in mineral separates; (ii) hydrous mineral rims with amorphous alteration textures; and (iii) two-pyroxene pseudo-decompression paths; cf. Zellmer et al. (2014a,b,c), doi: 10.1144/SP385.3 and 10.1144/SP385.9 and 10.1144/SP410.1. These observations point to a scarcity of true phenocrysts in many arc magmas, and thus to decompression of aphyric melts that take up their crystal cargo during ascent. The data imply that many hydrous wedge melts are more silica-rich than basalts and achieve super-liquidus conditions during rapid ascent from great depth.

  4. Synthetic petroleum stability under thermobaric conditions of the Earth crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serovaiskii, Aleksandr; Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there are several dozens of large crude oil deposits at the depth more than 10 km (Kutcherov and Krayushkin, 2010). The existence of such deep oil fields at the depth exceeding conventional "oil window" could be explained by the migration of the deep fluid from the asthenosphere. This fluid migrates up to the surface and forms oil and gas deposits in different kind of rocks in the on various depths of the Earth's crust. Crude oil consists of a great numbers of different hydrocarbons. Its precise molecular composition is impossible to investigate nowadays. Instead of the natural hydrocarbons mixture synthetic petroleum with simpler composition was used in the experiments. The synthetic petroleum stability was investigated at the Earth crust thermobaric conditions corresponding to the depth down to 50 km. The experiments were carried out in Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) with the internal resistive heating. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the petroleum composition. The analysis of the sample was made in situ during the experiment. Ruby and Sm:YAG Raman shifts were the controllers of the temperature and pressure inside the sample (Trots et al., 2012; Mao et al., 1986). Three series of the experiments were carried out at 320°C and 0.7GPa, 420°C and 1.2GPa, 450°C and 1.4GPa. After the experiment the Raman spectra of the sample was compared to the reference spectra of the petroleum before the experiment. The comparison showed no changes in the sample's composition after the experiment. Obtained data may explain the existence of deep oil fields located deeper than the "oil window". It can broaden the knowledge about the existing range of depths for the crude oil and natural gas deposits in the Earth crust. The evidence of the petroleum existence in the Earth low crust may support the existence of unconventional, deep abyssal hydrocarbons source.

  5. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  6. Stable isotope and Ar/Ar evidence of prolonged multi-scale fluid flow during exhumation of orogenic crust: example from the Mont Blanc and Aar massifs (NW Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Yann; Rossi, Magali

    2015-04-01

    The spatial and temporal scales and the geometry of fluid pathways in a collisional orogen are investigated using stable isotope analysis (O, C, H) and 40Ar/39Ar dating of vein minerals formed at c. 11-16 Ma in the Mont Blanc and the Aar External Crystalline Massifs. In both massifs 40Ar/39Ar dating of veins adularia provides evidence for progressive crystallization from 16 to 9 Ma, and mainly at 11-12 Ma following veins opening during shear zone activity. The fluid flow duration thus ranges from 4 to 5 Ma in the two massifs. The δ18O values of vein quartz and calcite are similar to those of undeformed crystalline and sedimentary host-rocks, suggesting rock buffering, while carbon isotope ratios of vein calcites fall into three compositional groups. A-type veins have δ13C values that are buffered by the Helvetic metasediments, which suggests that these veins formed in a closed-system from a locally-derived CO2-rich fluid. The fluid in equilibrium with C-type veins has depleted δ13C values similar to mantle-CO2, while the intermediate δ13C values of B-type veins suggest mixing between the A-type and C-type fluids. These results are in agreement with crustal- to lithosphere-scale upward vertical fluid flow along vertical shear zones related to the strike-slip system bounding the Adriatic block since 16-20 Ma, connecting a deep-seated fluid to some downward flow in the sedimentary cover of External Crystalline Massifs.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  8. Granitic Perspectives on the Generation and Secular Evolution of the Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, A. I. S.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Every geologist is acquainted with the principle of "uniformitarianism," which holds that present-day processes are the key to those that operated in the past. But the extent this applies to the processes driving the growth and differentiation of the Earth's continental crust remains a matter of debate. Unlike its dense oceanic counterpart, which is recycled back into the mantle by subduction within 200 Ma (see Chapter 3.13), the continental crust comprises buoyant quartzofeldspathic materials and is difficult to destroy by subduction. The continental crust is, therefore, the principal record of how conditions on the Earth have changed, and how processes of crust generation have evolved through geological time. It preserves evidence of secular variation in crustal compositions, and thus the way in which the crust has formed throughout Earth's history. Exploring the nature and origin of these variations is the focus of this chapter.Continental rocks are highly differentiated, and so the crust is enriched in incompatible components compared to the primeval chondritic composition (see Chapter 3.01). Of these, water is perhaps the most relevant, both for the origin and evolution of life, and also for many models of crust generation and differentiation. Similarly, the mass of continental crust is just 0.57% of the silicate Earth, and yet it contains ˜35% of the potassium (using the crustal composition estimates in Table 1). Continental rocks comprise the buoyant shell that was once thought to float on a basaltic substratum, inferred from the wide distribution of chemically similar continental flood basalts (von Cotta, 1858). The links with the adjacent oceans were perhaps unclear, "the greatest mountains confront the widest oceans" ( Dana, 1873). Yet, it has long been argued that the rock that has the most similar composition to the average continental crust, andesite, may be generated by fractional crystallization of basalt ( Daly (1914) and Bowen (1928); but see the

  9. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  10. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  11. Transdomes sampling of lower and middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Roger, F.; Rey, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Migmatite transdomes are formed by lateral and upward flow of partially molten crust in transtension zones (pull-apart structures). In order to understand the flow leading to this type of domes, 3D numerical models were set-up to simulate the general case of an extensional domain located between two strike-slip faults (pull-apart or dilational bridge). Results show that upper crust extension induces flow of the deep, low-viscosity crust, with rapid upward movement of transdome material when extension becomes localized. At this point a rolling hinge detachment allows rapid removal of upper crust. The internal structure of transdomes includes a subvertical high strain zone located beneath the zone of localized upper crust extension; this shear zone separates two elongate subdomes of foliation that show refolded/sheath folds. Lineation tends to be oriented dominantly subhorizontal when the amount of strike-slip motion is greater than the amount of upward flow of dome rocks. Models also predict nearly isothermal decompression of transdome material and rapid transfer of ~50 km deep rocks to the near surface. These model results are compared to the structural and metamorphic history of several transdomes, and in particular the Variscan Montagne Noire dome (French Massif Central) that consists of two domes separated by a complex high strain zone. The Montagne Noire dome contains ~315 Ma eclogite bodies (U-Pb zircon age) that record 1.4 GPa peak pressure. The eclogite bodies are wrapped in highly sheared migmatite that yield 314-310 Ma monazite ages interpreted as the metamorphism and deformation age. Based on these relations we conclude that the Montagne Noire transdome developed a channel of partially molten crust that likely entrained eclogite bodies from the deep crust (~50 km) before ascending to the near-surface. One implication of this work is that the flowing crust was deeply seated in the orogen although it remained a poor recorder of peak pressure of metamorphism

  12. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  13. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  14. Iron Isotopic Fractionation in Early Planetary Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Moynier, F.; Dauphas, N.; Barrat, J.; Day, J. M.; Sio, C.; Korotev, R. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Differentiated meteorites (achondrites) derive from planetary bodies that experienced variable degrees of melting and silicate-metal segregation. The oldest achondrites, such as eucrites, angrites, brachinites and the oligoclase-rich meteorites Graves Nunataks 06128/06129 (GRA 06128/9), were formed ~2-5 Ma after the first Solar System solids. They represent the oldest differentiated silicate samples known in the Solar System and the study of these samples provides insight on the origins and conditions of formation of the first planetary crusts. Here, we present new high-precision data for the Fe isotopic compositions of eucrites, angrites, brachinites and GRA 06128/9 and interpret these results in terms of magmatism during formation of these samples. We find that most eucrites and brachinites are not fractionated compared to undifferentiated chondritic meteorites (δ56Fe = 0.00±0.01, 2se), while the rare Stannern-trend eucrites are slightly enriched in the heavier isotopes of Fe. Angrites are also enriched in the heavier isotopes (δ56Fe = 0.12±0.01, 2se), similar to what is observed for terrestrial basalts, reflecting the relatively high oxidation states of the angrite parent body(ies). Contrastingly to the 'basaltic' achondrites, GRA 06128/9 are enriched in light isotopes of Fe (δ56Fe = -0.08±0.02, 2se). Evidence for light Fe isotope enrichments may be the consequence of the segregation of magma rich in sulphide (usually enriched in light isotopes of Fe compared to silicate and metal in undifferentiated meteorites). If correct, this result not only confirms that GRA 06128/9 represent products from <30% partial melting of an asteroidal body, prior to core formation, but also indicates complementary Fe isotope systematics between GRA 06128/9 and brachinites.

  15. Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Eshwehdi, A.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of North Africa using Libyan seismic data. Libya sits at the transition between the relatively aseismic continental crust of the African plate and the seismically active oceanic crust under the Mediterranean Sea which is subducting under the Eurasian Plate along the Calabrian, Hellenic, and Cyprean Arcs. The country also encompasses the Sirte Basin to the north and the smaller Murzuk and Kufra basins in the south. Broadband data from several seismic stations in Libya provide an opportunity for studying the velocity structure of the region. We have made some preliminary dispersion measurements from these stations and have found notable improvements in the group velocity tomography model by incorporating the additional measurements. We will be adding to this analysis by making dispersion measurements from regional events and receiver functions for teleseismic events. Recently, we have been employing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, as well as more detail about the upper mantle (lithospheric thickness and presence of anisotropy). We propose to apply this method to data from several Libyan stations where we can and, in the absence of receiver functions, invert the dispersion data only. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and how it fits into the larger tectonic picture of North Africa.

  16. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  17. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  18. Growth of the lower continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the largest uncertainties in crustal composition and growth models is the nature of the lower continental crust. Specifically, by what processes is it formed and modified, and when is it formed, particularly in reference to the upper crust? The main reason for this lack of information is the scarcity of lower crustal rock samples. These are restricted to two types: rocks which outcrop in granulite facies terrains and granulite facies xenoliths which are transported to the earth's surface by young volcanics. The important conclusions arising from the xenolith studies are: the majority of mafic lower crustal xenoliths formed through cumulate process, resitic xenoliths are rare; and formation and metamorphism of the deep crust is intimately linked to igneous activity and/or orogeny which are manifest in one form or another at the earth's surface. Therefore, estimates of crustal growth based on surface exposures is representative, although the proportion of remobilized pre-existing crust may be significantly greater at the surface than in the deep crust.

  19. Active Dehydration, Delamination and Deformation of Transitional Continental Crust in an Arc-Continent Collision, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R. J.; Chen, K. H.; Huang, H. H.; Wang, Y. J.; Ouimet, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    A new study of the 3-D velocity structure of Taiwan, using a new tomographic model (Vp and Vs; Huang et al., 2014), suggests that subducted continental crust is delaminated from the subducting mantle of the Eurasia plate and progressively deformed by the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In southern Taiwan, vertical sections show an east-dipping, asymmetric lobe of low velocity that projects down dip to a band of seismicity interpreted as the Wadati-Benioff zone of the subducting Eurasian plate. Seismic tremors in the mid-crust also suggest dehydration (Chuang et al., 2014), consistent with prograde metamorphism of crustal materials. In central Taiwan, however, the seismicity of the W-B zone progressively disappears and the low velocity lobe shallows and broadens. The velocity structure of the lower and middle crust (represented by the 7.5 and 6.5 km/sec isovelocity surfaces, respectively) also appear distinctly out-of-phase, with the lower crust forming a broad, smooth synformal structure that contrasts with the higher amplitude undulations of the middle crust. These mid-crust structures appear as smaller irregular lobes separated by patches of higher velocity. In northern Taiwan, the velocity structure of the lower and middle crust again appear "in phase" and form a symmetrical crustal root centered beneath the Central Range. Seismicity patterns and 3-D analysis of the velocity structure also show the western edge of the PSP subducting beneath the eastern Central Range. We interpret these south-to-north changes to reflect the partial subduction (southern Taiwan), delamination (central Taiwan) and deformation (northern Taiwan) of continental-like crust. Support for these interpretation comes from: 1) unusually high rates of surface uplift (up to 15 mm/yr; Ching et al., 2011); 2) Vp and Vs attenuation studies that suggest anomalously high temperatures; 3) evidence for NE-SW extension; and 4) anomalous areas of low topographic relief.

  20. Nature and evolution of Neoproterozoic ocean-continent transition: Evidence from the passive margin of the West African craton in NE Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Caby

    2014-03-01

    The Timétrine massif exposed west of the Pan-African suture zone in northeastern Mali belongs to the passive margin of the West African craton facing to the east intra-oceanic arc assemblages and 730 Ma old pre-collisional calc-alkaline plutons. The Timétrine lithologic succession includes from the base to the top Mesoproterozoic cratonic to passive margin formations overlain by deep-sea Fe-Mg schists. Submarine metabasalts and two ultramafic massifs of serpentinized mantle peridotites are inserted as olistoliths towards the top whereas turbidites of continental origin represent the younger unit. Field and petrological data have revealed a distinct metasedimentary sequence attached to the serpentinized peridotites. It essentially consists of impure carbonates, Fe jaspers and polymictic breccias containing altered blocks of mantle peridotites, most rocks being enriched in detrital chromite. This association is interpreted as reworked chemical and detrital sediments derived from the alteration of mafic-ultramafic rocks. It is argued that mantle exhumation above sea floor took place during the Neoproterozoic rifting and crustal thinning period under possible tropical conditions, as suggested by the large volume of silicified serpentinites. In spite of greenschist facies metamorphic overprint characterized by widespread Fe-rich blue amphiboles that are not diagnostic of high-pressure conditions, it is possible to reconstruct a former ocean-continent transition similar to that evidenced for the Mesozoic period, followed by the deposition of syn-to post rift terrigeneous turbidites roughly coeval with ocean spreading some time before 800 Ma. It is concluded that the serpentinite massifs were tectonically emplaced first in an extensional setting, then incorporated within deep-sea sediments as olistoliths and finally transported westward during late Neoproterozoic collisional tectonics onto the West African craton.

  1. Genetic evidence for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar resulting from virus introductions from the East African mainland rather than enzootic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Serena A; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006-2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006-2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

  2. Geochemistry of Archean Mafic Amphibolites from the Amsaga Area, West African Craton, Mauritania: Occurrence of Archean oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Atrassi, Fatima; Debaille, Vinciane; Mattielli, Nadine; Berger, Julien

    2015-04-01

    While Archean terrains are mainly composed of a TTG (Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) suite, more mafic lithologies such as amphibolites are also a typical component of those ancient terrains. Although mafic rocks represent only ~10% of the Archean cratons, they may provide key evidence of the role and nature of basaltic magmatism in the formation of the Archean crust as well as the evolution of the Archean mantle. This study focuses on the Archean crust from the West African craton in Mauritania (Amsaga area). The Amsaga Archean crust mainly consists of TTG and thrust-imbricated slices of mafic volcanic rocks, which have been affected by polymetamorphic events from the amphibolite to granulite facies. We report the results of a combined petrologic, Sm-Nd isotopic, major element and rare earth element (REE) study of the Archean amphibolites in the West African craton. This study was conducted in order to characterize these rocks, to constrain the time of their formation and to evaluate their tectonic setting and their possible mantle source. Our petrological observations show that these amphibolites have fine to medium granoblastic and nematoblastic textures. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages (mainly amphibole and plagioclase), but garnet and clinopyroxene occur in a few samples. These amphibolites have tholeiitic basalt composition. On a primitive mantle-normalized diagram, they display fairly flat patterns without negative anomalies for either Eu or Nb-Ta. We have shown using Sm-Nd whole rock isotopic data that these amphibolites formed at 3.3 ±0.075 Ga. They have positive ɛNdi values (+5.2 ± 1.6). These samples show isotopically juvenile features, which rule out the possibility of significant contamination of the protolith magmas by ancient continental crust. Based on these geochemical data we propose that the tholeiitic basalts were formed in an oceanic plateau tectonic setting from a mantle plume source and that they have a

  3. Partial crystallization of MORB in crust and mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzberg, C.

    2003-04-01

    Where does partial melting end and partial crystallization begin in the formation of oceanic crust? This question is addressed by an examination of the pressures at which partial crystallization occurs for MORB using a parameterization of experimental data in the form of projections. It is shown that olivine gabbro partial crystallization ranges from 1 atmosphere to 1.0 GPa for a global database of over 10,000 glass analyses, but there are systematic variations that correlate with spreading rate, ridge segmentation, and crustal thickness. Partial crystallization of MORB from fast and intermediate spreading centers (EPR, Galapagos, Juan de Fuca) occurs mostly in the oceanic crust, consistent with field and seismic evidence for the importance of layered gabbro crystallization in steady-state magma chambers. Partial crystallization of MORB from many but not all slow spreading centers (MAR, Cayman, SW Indian, American-Antarctic) occurs mostly in the mantle, consistent with field and seismic observations that show an absence of layered gabbros in steady-state magma chambers. Pressures are in agreement with previous petrological estimates, and support prior conclusions regarding the importance of partial crystallization of MORB in both oceanic crust and mantle (Elthon et al., 1995; Grove et al., 1992). For both slow and fast spreading centers, highest pressures are recorded by MORB from ridge segment terminations defined by tectonic fracture zones, overlapping spreading centers, and deviations from linearity. Slow spreading centers usually record the highest pressures of partial crystallization and are associated with rough and faulted topography, but there are important exceptions. The Reykjanes Ridge is a slow but unsegmented spreading center with thick crust, and erupted MORB display partial crystallization mostly in the crust rather than mantle, similar to the EPR. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Azores platform is unusually thick, and bounded to the north and south

  4. Evaluating evidence-based health care teaching and learning in the undergraduate human nutrition; occupational therapy; physiotherapy; and speech, language and hearing therapy programs at a sub-Saharan African academic institution

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn

    2017-01-01

    Background It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. Methods We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning. Results We reviewed all module outlines (n = 89) from HN, PT and SLHT. The OT curriculum was being revised at that time and could not be included. Six lecturers each from HN and OT, and five lecturers each from PT and SLHT participated in the focus groups. Thirty percent (53/176) of invited students responded to the survey. EBHC competencies were addressed to varying degrees in the four programs, although EBHC teaching and learning mostly occurred implicitly. Learning outcomes referring to EBHC focused on enabling competencies (e.g., critical thinking, biostatistics, epidemiology) and were concentrated in theoretical modules. Key competencies (e.g., asking questions, searching databases, critical appraisal) were rarely addressed explicitly. Students felt that EBHC learning should be integrated throughout the four year study period to allow for repetition, consolidation and application of knowledge and skills. Lecturers highlighted several challenges to teaching and practising

  5. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  6. Generation of felsic crust in the Archean: a geodynamic modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizova, Elena; Gerya, Taras; Stüwe, Kurt; Brown, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The relevance of contemporary tectonics to the formation of the Archean terrains is a matter of vigorous debate. Higher mantle temperatures and higher radiogenic heat production in the past would have impacted on the thickness and composition of the oceanic and continental crust. As a consequence of secular cooling, there is generally no modern analog to assist in understanding the tectonic style that may have operated in the Archean. For this reason, well-constrained numerical modeling, based on the fragmentary evidence preserved in the geological record, is the most appropriate tool to evaluate hypotheses of Archean crust formation. The main lithology of Archean terrains is the sodic tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite. Melting of hydrated basalt at garnet-amphibolite to eclogite facies conditions is considered to be the dominant process for the generation of the Archean TTG crust. Taking into account geochemical signatures of possible mantle contributions to some TTGs, models proposed for the formation of Archean crust include subduction, melting at the bottom of thickened continental crust and fractional crystallization of mantle-derived melts under water-saturated conditions. We evaluated these hypotheses using a 2D coupled petrological-thermomechanical numerical model with initial conditions appropriate to the Eoarchean-Mesoarchean. As a result, we identified three tectonic settings in which intermediate to felsic melts are generated by melting of hydrated primitive basaltic crust: 1) delamination and dripping of the lower primitive basaltic crust into the mantle; 2) local thickening of the primitive basaltic crust; and, 3) small-scale crustal overturns. In addition, we consider remelting of the fractionated products derived from underplated dry basalts as an alternative mechanism for the formation of some Archean granitoids. In the context of a stagnant lid tectonic regime which is intermittently terminated by short-lived subduction, we identified

  7. Elemental composition of the Martian crust.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wyatt, Michael B

    2009-05-08

    The composition of Mars' crust records the planet's integrated geologic history and provides clues to its differentiation. Spacecraft and meteorite data now provide a global view of the chemistry of the igneous crust that can be used to assess this history. Surface rocks on Mars are dominantly tholeiitic basalts formed by extensive partial melting and are not highly weathered. Siliceous or calc-alkaline rocks produced by melting and/or fractional crystallization of hydrated, recycled mantle sources, and silica-poor rocks produced by limited melting of alkali-rich mantle sources, are uncommon or absent. Spacecraft data suggest that martian meteorites are not representative of older, more voluminous crust and prompt questions about their use in defining diagnostic geochemical characteristics and in constraining mantle compositional models for Mars.

  8. Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.

  9. Elemental Composition of the Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wyatt, Michael B.

    2009-05-01

    The composition of Mars’ crust records the planet’s integrated geologic history and provides clues to its differentiation. Spacecraft and meteorite data now provide a global view of the chemistry of the igneous crust that can be used to assess this history. Surface rocks on Mars are dominantly tholeiitic basalts formed by extensive partial melting and are not highly weathered. Siliceous or calc-alkaline rocks produced by melting and/or fractional crystallization of hydrated, recycled mantle sources, and silica-poor rocks produced by limited melting of alkali-rich mantle sources, are uncommon or absent. Spacecraft data suggest that martian meteorites are not representative of older, more voluminous crust and prompt questions about their use in defining diagnostic geochemical characteristics and in constraining mantle compositional models for Mars.

  10. The Early Evolution of Mars' Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, H.; Baratoux, D.; Kurita, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars crustal density and thickness have been recently re-evaluated using petrological constraints from remote sensing, in-situ data, and SNC meteorites. This work indicates that the present-day Martian crust is denser and thicker than previously proposed if essentially basaltic in composition. As a consequence, the average crustal thickness would be commensurable with the depth of the basalt/eclogite transition, re-opening the question of crustal recycling on Early Mars and more generally throughout all its history. We have therefore investigated the conditions under which a thick ancient crust with an eclogitic root could survive through the history of Mars using numerical modelling. Delamination may occur if the combination of poorly constrained physical parameters induces the presence of gravitationally unstable layers and favors a rheological decoupling. To study the conditions and the time scales for the occurrence of crustal delamination on Mars, we investigated the influence of critical parameters for a plausible range of values corresponding to the Martian mantle. For each case we follow the dynamic evolution over geological times of a three-layer system (i.e., crust-mantle with a distinction between low pressure, buoyant basaltic crust and higher pressure, denser eclogitic material). We systematically varied four governing parameters within plausible ranges: (1) the basalt-eclogite transition depth, (2) the density difference between the mantle and the basaltic crust, (3) the density difference between the eclogitic crust and the lithosphere & mantle, (4) the viscous rheology. These experiments allow determining the average Martian crustal thickness at early and late evolutionary stages.

  11. Translating an Evidence-Based Diabetes Education Approach Into Rural African-American Communities: The “Wisdom, Power, Control” Program

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Ory, Marcia G.; Hollingsworth, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the efficacy of the “Wisdom, Power, Control” diabetes self-management education (DSME) program with regard to diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care, distress level, and A1C in an African-American population. Methods. A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measure design was employed to measure these outcomes. Study participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks post-intervention, and at a 3-month A1C follow-up. Results. A total of 103 participants were recruited from the intervention counties, and 14 were identified from the control counties. At the post-test, participants in the intervention group reported a significantly higher level of diabetes knowledge (Δ = 9.2%, P <0.0001), higher self-efficacy (Δ = 0.60, P <0.0001), more self-care behaviors (Δ = 0.48, P <0.0001), lower distress level (Δ = –0.15, P = 0.05), and higher health status (Δ = 0.49, P = <0.0001). About 56% of the intervention group completed all six classes, and 25% attended five classes. Conclusions. Findings from this study demonstrate the initial success of translating a culturally adapted DSME program into rural African-American communities. The study highlights important lessons learned in the process of implementing this type of program in a real-world setting with a minority population. PMID:25987809

  12. Millennial-scale northwest African droughts related to Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles: Evidence in marine sediments from offshore Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itambi, A. C.; von Dobeneck, T.; Mulitza, S.; Bickert, T.; Heslop, D.

    2009-03-01

    We present a suite of new high-resolution records (0-135 ka) representing pulses of aeolian, fluvial, and biogenic sedimentation along the Senegalese continental margin. A multiproxy approach based on rock magnetic, element, and color data was applied on three cores enclosing the present-day northern limit of the ITCZ. A strong episodic aeolian contribution driven by stronger winds and dry conditions and characterized by high hematite and goethite input was revealed north of 13°N. These millennial-scale dust fluxes are synchronous with North Atlantic Heinrich stadials. Fluvial clay input driven by the West African monsoon predominates at 12°N and varies at Dansgaard-Oeschger time scales while marine productivity is strongly enhanced during the African humid periods and marine isotope stage 5. From latitudinal signal variations, we deduce that the last glacial ITCZ summer position was located between core positions at 12°26' and 13°40'N. Furthermore, this work also shows that submillennial periods of aridity over northwest Africa occurred more frequently and farther south than previously thought.

  13. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Burton, K.W.; Christensen, J.N.; Gunther, D.

    1999-01-01

    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in 87Sr/86Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  14. Crusted scabies and multiple dosages of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Loayza, Alex G; McCall, Calvin O; Nunley, Julia R

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a bone marrow transplant patient who was diagnosed with crusted scabies but did not respond to the usual approach with topical permethrin and ivermectin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were contacted and suggested a 7-dose regimen of ivermectin. The patient started to improve remarkably after the third dose, and the skin eruption was resolved after 7 doses. This case supports the use of a more prolonged course of oral ivermectin for crusted scabies in those who fail the conventional approach.

  15. Burden of Diabetes and First Evidence for the Utility of HbA1c for Diagnosis and Detection of Diabetes in Urban Black South Africans: The Durban Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Hird, Thomas R.; Pirie, Fraser J.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; O’Leary, Brian; McCarthy, Mark I.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Motala, Ayesha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended as an additional tool to glucose-based measures (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and 2-hour plasma glucose [2PG] during oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) for the diagnosis of diabetes; however, its use in sub-Saharan African populations is not established. We assessed prevalence estimates and the diagnosis and detection of diabetes based on OGTT, FPG, and HbA1c in an urban black South African population. Research Design and Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥18 years in Durban (eThekwini municipality), KwaZulu-Natal. All participants had a 75-g OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c, using OGTT as the reference, and to determine optimal HbA1c cut-offs. Results Among 1190 participants (851 women, 92.6% response rate), the age-standardised prevalence of diabetes was 12.9% based on OGTT, 11.9% based on FPG, and 13.1% based on HbA1c. In participants without a previous history of diabetes (n = 1077), using OGTT as the reference, an HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) detected diabetes with 70.3% sensitivity (95%CI 52.7–87.8) and 98.7% specificity (95%CI 97.9–99.4) (AUC 0.94 [95%CI 0.89–1.00]). Additional analyses suggested the optimal HbA1c cut-off for detection of diabetes in this population was 42 mmol/mol (6.0%) (sensitivity 89.2% [95%CI 78.6–99.8], specificity 92.0% [95%CI: 90.3–93.7]). Conclusions In an urban black South African population, we found a high prevalence of diabetes and provide the first evidence for the utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes in black Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27560687

  16. Comment on "Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust".

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2009-07-17

    O'Neil et al. (Reports, 26 September 2008, p. 1828) presented neodymium-142 data for rocks from northern Quebec, Canada, and suggested that these rocks may represent the oldest preserved crustal section on Earth. We argue that the age of the rocks is based on a spurious correlation between rocks that are probably not co-genetic and negative (142)Nd anomalies that may be the result of an analytical artifact.

  17. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  18. Building early Archean cratons from recycled Hadean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, J.; Carlson, R. W.; Boyet, M.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of Earth's early crust and the geological processes leading to creation and preservation of stable Archean cratons are still poorly understood. Archean terrains are dominated by felsic Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks. These felsic rocks however, cannot be directly produced from melting of the mantle but must instead be derived from the melting of an older mafic precursor. Despite growing evidence for a basaltic >4.3 Ga primordial crust on Earth, there are only a few occurrences of zircons older than 4.0 Ga; in the Jack Hills conglomerates and in the Acasta gneisses. Only after ~3.8 Ga does the zircon record become more prominent. The zircon age distribution in itself suggests a long quiescence period of over half a billion years before the mafic primitive crust was extensively recycled to produce a significant amount of felsic magma. The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (NGB) provides a glimpse at the nature of the mafic primitive crust. The mafic rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (NGB), called the Ujaraaluk unit, have 146Sm-142Nd systematics consistent with them being formed in the Hadean, between 4.3 and 4.4 Ga. The NGB also comprises multiple generations of TTG ranging from 3.75 Ga to 3.35 Ga. Despite the fact that the mafic and felsic lithologies of the NGB show strong evidence of disturbance in the 147Sm-143Nd and 176Lu-177Hf long-lived isotopic systems, the NGB TTGs yield 142Nd and 182W anomalies that can be only generated in the Hadean. Moreover, zircons from the 3.35 to 3.65 TTGs have strongly subchondritic initial ɛHf values and display an ɛHf vs. age array consistent with their derivation from a Hadean mafic precursor. The NGB TTGs appear to have been formed primarily from melting of a source compositionally similar to the 4.4 Ga Ujaraaluk unit. The crustal history recorded in the NGB seems to be similar to the early crustal evolution recorded in the Jack Hills Hadean zircons where reworking of a >4.3 Ga enriched

  19. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep

  20. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale.

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Pourrut, X; Vidal, N; Veas, F; Durand, J P; Cuny, G

    1997-01-01

    High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate here genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale (i.e., sympatric population) in Senegal. For 11 new strains, we PCR amplified and sequenced two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop. These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. PMID:8985351

  1. Resonant Shattering of Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn; Piro, Anthony; Hinderer, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ~10^46-10^47 erg of energy secondsbefore the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of sGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. I will also discuss shattering flares as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave bursts during parabolic and elliptic encounters in dense star clusters.

  2. Electrical conductivity of the continental crust

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, P.W.J.; Vine, F.J. |

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical measurements indicate that the Earth`s continental lower crust has a high electrical conductivity for which no simple cause has been found. Explanation usually relies on either saline fluids saturating the pores, or interconnected highly conducting minerals such as graphite, Fe/Ti oxides and sulfides, providing conducting pathways. Attempts in the laboratory to clarify the problem have, hitherto, been unable to recreate conditions likely to be present at depth by controlling the confining pressure and pore fluid pressure applied to a rock saturated with saline fluids at temperatures between 270 C and 1000 C. Here we report conductivity data obtained using a cell designed to make such measurements on rocks saturated with saline fluids. Our results show that the conductivity of saturated samples of acidic rocks is explicable entirely in terms of conduction through the pore fluid whereas the conductivity of saturated basic rocks requires the presence of an additional conduction mechanism(s). We have used the experimental data to construct electrical conductivity/depth profiles for the continental crust, which, when compared with profiles obtained from magnetotelluric observations, demonstrate that a mid to lower crust composed of amphibolite saturated with 0.5 M NaCl shows electrical conductivities sufficient to explain conductivity/depth profiles for the continental crust inferred from geophysical measurements.

  3. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    PubMed

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation.

  4. Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism: tracing continental crust into the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopin, Christian

    2003-07-01

    More and more evidence is being discovered in Phanerozoic collision belts of the burial of crustal rocks to previously unsuspected (and ever increasing) depths, presently on the order of 150-200 km, and of exhumation from such depths. This extends by almost one order of magnitude the depth classically ascribed to the metamorphic cycling of continental crust, and demonstrates its possible subduction. The pieces of evidence for this new, ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism exclusively occur in the form of relics of high-pressure minerals that escaped back-transformation during decompression. The main UHP mineral indicators are the high-pressure polymorphs of silica and carbon, coesite and microdiamond, respectively; the latter often demonstrably precipitated from a metamorphic fluid and is completely unrelated to kimberlitic diamond or any shock event. Recent discoveries of pyroxene exsolutions in garnet and of coesite exsolutions in titanite suggest a precursor garnet or titanite containing six-fold coordinated silicon, therefore still higher pressures than implied by diamond stability, on the order of 6 GPa. The UHP rocks raise a formidable geological problem: that of the mechanisms responsible for their burial and, more pressingly, for their exhumation from the relevant depths. The petrological record indicates that large tracts of UHP rocks were buried to conditions of low T/ P ratio, consistent with a subduction-zone context. Decompression occurred in most instances under continuous cooling, implying continuous heat loss to the footwall and hangingwall of the rising body. This rise along the subduction channel - an obvious mechanical discontinuity and weak zone - may be driven by buoyancy up to mid-crustal levels as a result of the lesser density of the acidic crustal rocks (even if completely re-equilibrated at depth) after delamination from the lower crust, in a convergent setting. Chronological studies suggest that the rates involved are typical plate

  5. Drought effect on biocrust resilience: High-speed winds result in crust burial and crust rupture and flaking.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Giora J; Ying, Wang; Starinsky, Abraham; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-02-01

    Once established, biocrusts (known also as biological soil crusts or microbiotic crusts) are thought to be relatively resilient to wind erosion, with crust burial being considered as the main mechanism responsible for crust death. Thus far, to the best of our knowledge, crust flaking and rupture under natural conditions were not reported. We report herein a two-year study during two severe drought years (2010-2012) in a dunefield in the Negev Desert during which in addition to crust burial, crust rupture and flaking also took place. As for crust burial, it took place under sand sheets or coppice dunes (mounds). Subsequent removal of the coppice dunes by wind resulted in crust disintegration and erosion of the formerly buried crust and the formation of patches devoid of crusts termed herein 'erosion cirques'. As for crust flaking and rupture, it is explained by a large change in the properties of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composing the crust. The EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCD-M) technology. EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties deduced from the QCM-D experiments suggest that crust coherence and elasticity, mediated by the EPS, were affected by droughts. Although crust flaking affected up to 25% of the interdunal surface, it is suggested that with continuous rain shortage, further crust flaking is likely to take place under continuous drought-driven dry surface conditions. This positive feedback mechanism, during which initially eroded crusts trigger additional crust erosion, may have severe consequences on the structure and function of drought-prone ecosystems, and may endanger the stability of dunefields, causing dust storms, triggering dune encroachment and declining air quality.

  6. Biogeochemical signals from deep microbial life in terrestrial crust.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohey; Konno, Uta; Fukuda, Akari; Komatsu, Daisuke D; Hirota, Akinari; Watanabe, Katsuaki; Togo, Yoko; Morikawa, Noritoshi; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Aosai, Daisuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Tsunogai, Urumu; Nagao, Seiya; Ito, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the deep subseafloor biosphere, a volumetrically vast and stable habitat for microbial life in the terrestrial crust remains poorly explored. For the long-term sustainability of a crustal biome, high-energy fluxes derived from hydrothermal circulation and water radiolysis in uranium-enriched rocks are seemingly essential. However, the crustal habitability depending on a low supply of energy is unknown. We present multi-isotopic evidence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in a granitic aquifer, a representative of the terrestrial crust habitat. Deep meteoric groundwater was collected from underground boreholes drilled into Cretaceous Toki granite (central Japan). A large sulfur isotopic fractionation of 20-60‰ diagnostic to microbial sulfate reduction is associated with the investigated groundwater containing sulfate below 0.2 mM. In contrast, a small carbon isotopic fractionation (<30‰) is not indicative of methanogenesis. Except for 2011, the concentrations of H2 ranged mostly from 1 to 5 nM, which is also consistent with an aquifer where a terminal electron accepting process is dominantly controlled by ongoing sulfate reduction. High isotopic ratios of mantle-derived 3He relative to radiogenic 4He in groundwater and the flux of H2 along adjacent faults suggest that, in addition to low concentrations of organic matter (<70 µM), H2 from deeper sources might partly fuel metabolic activities. Our results demonstrate that the deep biosphere in the terrestrial crust is metabolically active and playing a crucial role in the formation of reducing groundwater even under low-energy fluxes.

  7. Biogeochemical Signals from Deep Microbial Life in Terrestrial Crust

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Akari; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Hirota, Akinari; Watanabe, Katsuaki; Togo, Yoko; Morikawa, Noritoshi; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Aosai, Daisuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Tsunogai, Urumu; Nagao, Seiya; Ito, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the deep subseafloor biosphere, a volumetrically vast and stable habitat for microbial life in the terrestrial crust remains poorly explored. For the long-term sustainability of a crustal biome, high-energy fluxes derived from hydrothermal circulation and water radiolysis in uranium-enriched rocks are seemingly essential. However, the crustal habitability depending on a low supply of energy is unknown. We present multi-isotopic evidence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in a granitic aquifer, a representative of the terrestrial crust habitat. Deep meteoric groundwater was collected from underground boreholes drilled into Cretaceous Toki granite (central Japan). A large sulfur isotopic fractionation of 20–60‰ diagnostic to microbial sulfate reduction is associated with the investigated groundwater containing sulfate below 0.2 mM. In contrast, a small carbon isotopic fractionation (<30‰) is not indicative of methanogenesis. Except for 2011, the concentrations of H2 ranged mostly from 1 to 5 nM, which is also consistent with an aquifer where a terminal electron accepting process is dominantly controlled by ongoing sulfate reduction. High isotopic ratios of mantle-derived 3He relative to radiogenic 4He in groundwater and the flux of H2 along adjacent faults suggest that, in addition to low concentrations of organic matter (<70 µM), H2 from deeper sources might partly fuel metabolic activities. Our results demonstrate that the deep biosphere in the terrestrial crust is metabolically active and playing a crucial role in the formation of reducing groundwater even under low-energy fluxes. PMID:25517230

  8. Stability of clathrate hydrates in Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds constituted by cages formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules inside of which guest gas molecules are trapped. These materials are typically stable at high pressure and low temperature and are present on Earth mainly in marine sediments and in permafrost. Moreover, clathrate hydrates are expected to exist on celestial bodies like the icy moons Titan, Europa or Enceladus. Current conditions in the Martian crust are favourable to the presence of clathrate hydrates. In this study, we focused on the stability of methane and carbon dioxide clathrates in the Martian crust. We coupled the stability conditions of clathrates with a 1D thermal model in order to obtain the variations of the clathrate stability zone in the crust of Mars with time and for different crust compositions. Indeed, the type of soil directly controls the geothermal conditions and therefore the depth of clathrates formation. Unconsolidated soil acts as a thermal insulator and prevents the clathrates formation in the crust except on a small part of a few tens of meters thick. In contrast, sandstone or ice-cemented soil allows the clathrates formation with a stability zone of several kilometers. This is explained by the fact that they evacuate heat more efficiently and thus maintain lower temperatures. We also studied the stability zone of clathrates formed from a mixture of methane and hydrogen sulphide as well as from a mixture of methane and nitrogen. Contrary to the addition of N2, the addition of H2S to CH4 clathrates extends the stability zone and thus brings it closer to the surface. Therefore, mixed clathrates CH4-H2S will be more easily destabilized by changes in surface temperature than CH4 clathrates.

  9. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  10. A wide-angle seismic survey of the Hecataeus Ridge, south of Cyprus: a microcontinental block from the African plate docked in a subduction zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Ayda; Welford, Kim; Hall, Jeremy; Hübscher, Christian; Louden, Keith; Ehrhardt, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Cyprus lies at the southern edge of the Aegean-Anatolian microplate, caught in the convergence of Africa and Eurasia. Subduction of the African plate below Cyprus has probably ceased and this has been attributed to the docking in the subduction zone of the Eratosthenes Seamount microcontinental fragment on the northern edge of the African plate. In early 2010, on R.V. Maria S. Merian, we conducted a wide-angle seismic survey to test the hypothesis that the Hecataeus Ridge, another possible microcontinental block lying immediately offshore SE Cyprus, might be related to an earlier docking event. The upper crust of southern Cyprus is dominated by ophiolites, with seismic velocities of up to 7 km s-1. A wide angle seismic profile along Hecataeus Ridge was populated with 15 Canadian and German ocean-bottom seismographs at 5 km intervals and these recorded shots from a 6000 cu. in. air gun array, fired approximately every 100 m. Rough topography of the seabed has made picking of phases and their modelling a demanding task. Bandpass and coherency filtering have enabled us to pick phases out to around 80 km. Tomographic inversion of short-range first arrivals provided an initial model of the shallow sub-seabed structure. Forward modelling by ray-tracing, using the code of Zelt and Smith, was then used to model crustal structure down to depths of around 20 km, with occasional evidence of reflections from deeper boundaries (Moho?). Modelling results provide good control on P-wave velocities in the top 20 km and some indications of deeper events. There is no evidence of true velocities approaching 7 km/s in the top 20 km below the Ridge that might indicate the presence of ophiolitic rocks. Regional gravity and magnetic field data tend to support this proposition. We thus conclude that Hecataeus Ridge is not composed of characteristically ophiolitic, Cyprus (upper plate) crust, and it might well be derived from the African (lower) plate.

  11. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  13. Controls of host rock mineralogy and H2O content on the nature of pseudotachylyte melts: Evidence from Pan-African faulting in the foreland of the Gariep Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, S. H.; Sherlock, S.; Fryer, L.; Lodge, J.; Diale, T.; Kazondunge, R.; Macey, P.

    2013-11-01

    Late-orogenic Pan-African tectonics formed an 8 km long fault-fracture zone in the shallow foreland crust of the Gariep Orogen in Mesoproterozoic granitoid basement. Pseudotachylyte was locally formed during a single seismic event that caused brittle failure in cohesive quartz-diorite, granodiorite and granitic gneiss. 40Ar/39Ar laser spot analysis provides an age of 512.5 ± 7.5 Ma for this seismic event. The depth of the hypocentre between 1700 and 5300 m is inferred from the likely thickness of the overlying rock at that time. Abundant quartz melting in conjunction with low host rock temperature indicates a minimum seismic temperature rise exceeding 1030 °C but in some samples dry quartz melting at temperatures exceeding 1700 °C might have been possible. The abundance of hydrous phases in the host rock controlled the volume of melt produced in a given host rock type. Different types of primary melt were formed by the fusion of batches of host rock with different relative proportions of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, and, where present, amphibole or garnet. The chemical and physical interaction between these melts depended on contrasting melt mobility and viscosity. In quartz-diorite, glasses of variable composition are well preserved and show the distribution of primary melt species at the time of quenching. These different melt species had limited tendency of mixing, unless mixing was assisted by syn-seismic shearing. In granodiorite, which has a low proportion of hydrous phases, low-viscosity melt was formed at high temperatures, eliminating most host rock fragments and leading to extensive melting of quartz. The low melt viscosity, probably further decreased by the dissolution of free H2O, permitted effective melt homogenisation in such veins. Still in the liquid state these melts segregated, effectively separating secondary melts of sodic-calcic and of K-Mg-Fe-rich composition. After quenching the solid state diffusion of cations in glass

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  15. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  16. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  17. Probing the Lunar Polar Crust with GRAIL Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Goossens, S. J.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    The lunar polar crust, from latitude ±80° to the pole, exhibits Bouguer gravity anomalies that result from crustal density variations of order ±45 mGal in the south and ±25 mGal in the north, bandpass filtered to wavelengths representing the top 50 km. Evident in the Bouguer gravity at both poles are the signatures of a few large craters and basins. But at both poles, the Bouguer map also displays a large number of small, rather sinuous features, some outlining crater rims and some structures on crater floors, that are distributed more or less uniformly across the region. The root mean square (rms) variation over the 10° radius cap is less than 11 mGals at the south pole and less than 7 mGals in the north. This difference reflects the greater crustal complexity in the south compared to the north, but these magnitudes are approximately 10% of the total field in the polar regions, indicating that substantial density anomalies exist below 50 km depth. Modeling the crustal anomalies in the top 50 km by density contrasts at various depths suggest the rms magnitudes can be explained by small local variations in porosity, or possibly the presence of H2O at concentrations of a few percent. The required concentration increases with depth for a given volume but the possibility that the source of the polar anomalies includes small concentrations of H2O in the crust, however, cannot be ruled out.

  18. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Robert P; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Norman, Marc D

    2003-10-09

    The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are comprised dominantly of sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite of rocks. Here we present direct experimental evidence showing that partial melting of hydrous basalt in the eclogite facies produces granitoid liquids with major- and trace-element compositions equivalent to Archaean TTG, including the low Nb/Ta and high Zr/Sm ratios of 'average' Archaean TTG, but from a source with initially subchondritic Nb/Ta. In modern environments, basalts with low Nb/Ta form by partial melting of subduction-modified depleted mantle, notably in intraoceanic arc settings in the forearc and back-arc regimes. These observations suggest that TTG magmatism may have taken place beneath granite-greenstone complexes developing along Archaean intraoceanic island arcs by imbricate thrust-stacking and tectonic accretion of a diversity of subduction-related terranes. Partial melting accompanying dehydration of these generally basaltic source materials at the base of thickened, 'arc-like' crust would produce compositionally appropriate TTG granitoids in equilibrium with eclogite residues.

  19. A seafloor microbial biome hosted within incipient ferromanganese crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, A. S.; Knowles, E. J.; Eldridge, D. L.; Arey, B. W.; Dohnalkova, A. C.; Webb, S. M.; Bailey, B. E.; Tebo, B. M.; Staudigel, H.

    2009-12-01

    Exposed rocks at underwater volcanoes and ridges host complex, abundant and diverse microbial communities. The volcanic glasses associated with these features constitute one of the most geochemically reactive components of the Earth's crust. The most commonly held hypothesis is that their oxidation in sea water provides the energy necessary to establish a seafloor biosphere. However, this hypothesis has yet to be directly tested. Here we used synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques to examine the initial chemical changes that occur as the glassy rims of young pillow basalts are colonized by microbial organisms at Loihi seamount, Hawaii. We found little evidence of basalt dissolution. Instead, microbial biofilms were intimately associated with Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides that had precipitated from sea water onto the fresh basalt surfaces. These accumulations of secondary minerals probably represent the earliest stages of ferromanganese crust formation. We suggest that fluid-derived energy sources, such as dissolved and particulate Fe(II), Mn(II) and organic matter, may support the microbial communities colonizing seafloor rocks to a greater degree than local rock dissolution.

  20. The fate of Ceres' original crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James H.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-11-01

    The bulk density of Ceres implies that water ice comprises a substantial fraction of Ceres’ interior. However, water ice is not stable at Ceres orbital distance and if exposed would have a loss rate of 1 km Myr-1 or more. The near-hydrostatic shape of Ceres, and relatively low melting point of ice suggests that the interior is at least partly differentiated. Because Ceres’ surface remains exposed to space, it radiates very effectively, and models predicting differentiation retain an undifferentiated crust. This would be denser than the ice shell beneath it resulting in an unstable stratification. This has led to expectations that the crust would founder and the surface of Ceres might be very smooth and relaxed. But could the crust have remained to the present day?Here, we model global-scale overturn on Ceres using both analytical two-layer linear stability analyses, and numerical models to predict the most unstable wavelength, and growth timescales for Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We find that for a 10 km-thick crust above a 75 km-thick ice layer, instabilities grow fastest at spherical harmonic degree l=4. The growth timescale is a function of the viscosity of the upper layer. This timescale is less than the age of the solar system unless the effective viscosity of the crust is > 1024 Pa s. We conclude that the crust of Ceres could remain at the surface if it either has some finite elastic strength over a ~800 km length scale, or is an unconsolidated regolith with a large, (> 50%) macro-porosity, such that the regolith is buoyant relative to water ice.Neither end-member for the crustal strength precludes convective activity in the underlying ice layer. However we note that a thick, porous regolith is a fantastic insulator and may promote heating of the interior and potential foundering of the regolith if the top of the ice becomes too warm. This possibility can be evaluated by models of thermal evolution (e.g., Castillo-Rogez et al., 2010). An episode of

  1. Carbon fixation in oceanic crust: Does it happen, and is it important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B.; Sylvan, J. B.; Rogers, D.; Lee, R.; Girguis, P. R.; Carr, S. A.; Jungbluth, S.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon sources supporting a deep biosphere in igneous oceanic crust, and furthermore the balance of heterotrophy and autotrophy, are poorly understood. When the large reservoir size of oceanic crust is considered, carbon transformations in this environment have the potential to significantly impact the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, igneous oceanic crust is the most massive potential habitat for life on Earth, so understanding the carbon sources for this potential biosphere are important for understanding life on Earth. Geochemical evidence suggests that warm and anoxic upper basement is net heterotrophic, but the balance of these processes in cooler and potentially oxic oceanic crust are poorly known. Here, we present data from stable carbon isotope tracer incubations to examine carbon fixation in basalts collected from the Loihi Seamount, the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to provide a first order constraint on the rates of carbon fixation on basalts. These data will be compared to recently available assessments of carbon cycling rates in fluids from upper basement to synthesize our current state of understanding of the potential for carbon fixation and respiration in oceanic crust. Moreover, we will present new genomic data of carbon fixation genes observed in the basalt enrichments as well as from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, enabling identification of the microbes and metabolic pathways involved in carbon fixation in these systems.

  2. Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Foley, Stephen; Tiepolo, Massimo; Vannucci, Riccardo

    2002-06-20

    It is thought that the first continental crust formed by melting of either eclogite or amphibolite, either at subduction zones or on the underside of thick oceanic crust. However, the observed compositions of early crustal rocks and experimental studies have been unable to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we show a clear contrast in trace-element ratios of melts derived from amphibolites and those from eclogites. Partial melting of low-magnesium amphibolite can explain the low niobium/tantalum and high zirconium/samarium ratios in melts, as required for the early continental crust, whereas the melting of eclogite cannot. This indicates that the earliest continental crust formed by melting of amphibolites in subduction-zone environments and not by the melting of eclogite or magnesium-rich amphibolites in the lower part of thick oceanic crust. Moreover, the low niobium/tantalum ratio seen in subduction-zone igneous rocks of all ages is evidence that the melting of rutile-eclogite has never been a volumetrically important process.

  3. Grounding evidence-based approaches to cancer prevention in the community: a case study of mammography barriers in underserved African American women.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda; Bartholomew, L Kay; Hartman, Marieke A; Ford, M Molly; Balihe, Philomene

    2014-11-01

    When community health planners select an evidence-based intervention that has been developed and tested in one situation and adapt it for use in a different situation or community, best practice suggests needs assessment and formative research in the new setting. Cancer prevention planners who are interested in adopting and adapting evidence-based approaches need to base their choices on a sound understanding of the health or behavioral risk problem in which they mean to intervene. This requires a balancing act of weighing community information against a broader perspective from the scientific literature and using the combination to identify and adapt an evidence-based intervention program that is likely to be effective in the new setting. This report is a case study of a community and organizational assessment conducted as a foundation for selecting and recommending adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for improving mammography appointment attendance. We used an inductive sequential exploratory mixed-methods design to inform this process. The process provides a model for formative research grounding evidence-based practice for cancer control planners. Future studies that incorporate findings from needs assessment into the adaptation of the selected intervention program may promote the effective dissemination of evidence-based programs.

  4. Eoarchean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills zircon source and loss of Hadean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; Kohl, Issaku E.; Young, Edward D.

    2014-12-01

    Given the global dearth of Hadean (>4 Ga) rocks, 4.4-4.0 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Narryer Gneiss Complex (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) constitute our best archive of early terrestrial materials. Previous Lu-Hf investigations of these zircons suggested that felsic (low Lu/Hf) crust formation began by ∼4.4 to 4.5 Ga and continued for several hundred million years with evidence of the least radiogenic Hf component persisting until at least ∼4 Ga. However, evidence for the involvement of Hadean materials in later crustal evolution is sparse, and even in the detrital Jack Hills zircon population, the most unradiogenic, ancient isotopic signals have not been definitively identified in the younger (<3.9 Ga) rock and zircon record. Here we show Lu-Hf data from <4 Ga Jack Hills detrital zircons that document a significant and previously unknown transition in Yilgarn Craton crustal evolution between 3.9 and 3.7 Ga. The zircon source region evolved largely by internal reworking through the period 4.0-3.8 Ga, and the most ancient and unradiogenic components of the crust are mostly missing from the record after ∼4 Ga. New juvenile additions to the crust at ca. 3.9-3.8 Ga are accompanied by the disappearance of unradiogenic crust ca. 3.9-3.7 Ga. Additionally, this period is also characterized by a restricted range of δ18O after 3.8 Ga and a shift in several zircon trace element characteristics ca. 3.9-3.6 Ga. The simultaneous loss of ancient crust accompanied by juvenile crust addition can be explained by a mechanism similar to subduction, which effects both processes on modern Earth. The oxygen isotope and trace element information, although less sensitive to tectonic setting, also supports a transition in zircon formation environment in this period.

  5. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  6. Melt evolution and residence in extending crust: Thermal modeling of the crust and crustal magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Ozge; Dufek, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Tectonic extension and magmatism often act in concert to modify the thermal, mechanical, and chemical structure of the crust. Quantifying the effects of extension and magma flux on melting relationships in the crust is fundamental to determining the rate of crustal melting versus fractionation, magma residence time, and the growth of continental crust in rift environments. In order to understand the coupled control of tectonic extension and magma emplacement on crustal thermal evolution, we develop a numerical model that accounts for extension and thermal-petrographic processes in diverse extensional settings. We show that magma flux exerts the primary control on melt generation and tectonic extension amplifies the volume of melt residing in the crustal column. Diking into an extending crust produces hybrid magmas composed of 1) residual melt remaining after partial crystallization of basalt (mantle-derived melt) and 2) melt from partial melting of the crust (crustal melt). In an extending crust, mantle-derived melts are more prevalent than crustal melts across a range of magma fluxes, tectonic extension rates, and magmatic water contents. In most of the conditions, crustal temperatures do not reach their solidus temperatures to initiate partial melting of these igneous lithologies. Energy balance calculations show that the total enthalpy transported by dikes is primarily used for increasing the sensible heat of the cold surrounding crust with little energy contributing to latent heat of melting the crust (maximum crustal melting efficiency is 6%). In the lower crust, an extensive mush region develops for most of the conditions. Upper crustal crystalline mush is produced by continuous emplacement of magma with geologically reasonable flux and extension rates on timescales of 106 yr. Addition of tectonic effects and non-linear melt fraction relationships demonstrates that the magma flux required to sustain partially molten regions in the upper crust is within the

  7. Structure and Composition of the Lunar Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Hawke, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first return of lunar samples indicated that global differentiation of the Moon had occurred, numerous models of crustal structure have been proposed. With the completion of the first global reconnaissance mapping by Clementine and Lunar Prospector, we are now in position to re-evaluate crustal structure and composition at a global scale. Although this is a difficult and complex task, and one requiring significant study, some first-order results are apparent now and are quite telling. We here summarize our current view of crustal structure and identify some required knowledge to better understand the origin and evolution of the lunar crust. Wood et al. attempted to estimate the amount of plagioclase in the crust, based on the average elevation difference between mare and highlands and some simple assumptions about anorthosite and basalt as responsible for the principal lunar rock types. Later, more complex models emerged, involving layered crusts of feldspathic material over more basaltic material or a laterally variable crust, with Mg-suite plutons intruding a grossly anorthositic crust. Later models attempted to reconcile these contrasting styles by incorporating both features. In part, crustal structure was inferred by the envisioned mode of crustal formation. A decade-long debate on the reality of the lunar "magma ocean," stimulated by the provocative notion of Walker that the Moon never had a magma ocean, and the recognition that the anorthosites and Mg suite probably recorded different and unrelated magmatic events. Such a scenario leaves much about crustal structure an open question, but allows for both lateral and vertical heterogeneity, thus accommodating both principal crustal models. Global maps of Fe , Ti, and Th both confirm old ideas and create new problems. It is clear that vast areas of the lunar highlands are extremely low in Fe, consistent with a significant amount of anorthosite. Such a distribution supports the magma ocean. However

  8. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948 – 1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the post-apartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population-level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut off score of ten or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race/ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential de-racialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to non-racial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654

  9. Depression, disability and functional status among community dwelling older adults in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling elderly population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Method Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n=1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Results Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependency in ADL (adjusted OR=2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR=2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]) and PFM (adjusted OR=1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]) but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. Conclusion The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger older populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. PMID:23512338

  10. Does heavy adolescent marijuana use lead to criminal involvement in adulthood? Evidence from a multiwave longitudinal study of urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2010-11-01

    While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school dropout and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime.

  11. Density Sorting During the Evolution of Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.; Hacker, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    We consider two settings - in addition to "delamination" of arc lower crust - in which dense, mafic eclogites founder into the convecting mantle while buoyant, felsic lithologies accumulate at the base of evolving continental crust. Arc processes play a central role in generating continental crust, but it remains uncertain how basaltic arc crust is transformed to andesitic continental crust. Dense, SiO2-poor products of fractionation may founder from the base of arc crust by "delamination", but lower arc crust after delamination has significantly different trace elements compared to lower continental crust (LCC). In an alternative model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are first subducted, mainly via subduction erosion. Upon heating, these buoyant lithologies ascend through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, and are "relaminated" at
the base of overlying crust (e.g., Hacker et al EPSL 11, AREPS 15). Average buoyant lavas and plutons
for the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs fall within the range of estimated LCC major and trace elements. Relamination is more efficient in generating continental crust than delamination. Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle. There is a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across the region where Tibetan crust overlies Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust. About half the subducted Indian crust is present, whereas the other half is missing. Data (Vp/Vs; Miocene lavas formed by interaction of continental crust with mantle; xenolith thermometry) indicate 1000°C or more from ca 50 km depth to the Moho since the Miocene. We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al Tectonics 92, T'phys 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al Nature 05; Monsalve et al JGR 08) to advance the hypothesis that rapid growth of garnet occurs at 70-80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust. Dense eclogites founder

  12. Direct Inoculation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus from Sooty Mangabeys in Black Mangabeys (Lophocebus aterrimus): First Evidence of AIDS in a Heterologous African Species and Different Pathologic Outcomes of Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Cristian; Gormus, Bobby; Pandrea, Ivona; Metzger, Michael; ten Haaft, Peter; Martin, Louis N.; Bohm, Rudolf; Alvarez, Xavier; Koopman, Gerrit; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Baskin, Gary; Heeney, Jonathan; Marx, Preston A.

    2004-01-01

    A unique opportunity for the study of the role of serial passage and cross-species transmission was offered by a series of experiments carried out at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in 1990. To develop an animal model for leprosy, three black mangabeys (BkMs) (Lophocebus aterrimus) were inoculated with lepromatous tissue that had been serially passaged in four sooty mangabeys (SMs) (Cercocebus atys). All three BkMs became infected with simian immunodeficiency virus from SMs (SIVsm) by day 30 postinoculation (p.i.) with lepromatous tissue. One (BkMG140) died 2 years p.i. from causes unrelated to SIV, one (BkMG139) survived for 10 years, whereas the third (BkMG138) was euthanized with AIDS after 5 years. Histopathology revealed a high number of giant cells in tissues from BkMG138, but no SIV-related lesions were found in the remaining two BkMs. Four-color immunofluorescence revealed high levels of SIVsm associated with both giant cells and T lymphocytes in BkMG138 and no detectable SIV in the remaining two. Serum viral load (VL) showed a significant increase (>1 log) during the late stage of the disease in BkMG138, as opposed to a continuous decline in VL in the remaining two BkMs. With the progression to AIDS, neopterin levels increased in BkMG138. This study took on new significance when phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly showed that all four serially inoculated SMs were infected with different SIVsm lineages prior to the beginning of the experiment. Furthermore, the strain infecting the BkMs originated from the last SM in the series. Therefore, the virus infecting BkMs has not been serially passaged. In conclusion, we present the first compelling evidence that direct cross-species transmission of SIV may induce AIDS in heterologous African nonhuman primate (NHP) species. The results showed that cross-species-transmitted SIVsm was well controlled in two of three BkMs for 2 and 10 years, respectively. Finally, this case of AIDS in an African monkey

  13. Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations; significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P.; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W.H. Linda; Abboud, Hanna E.; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G.; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Results Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population. PMID:19795399

  14. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts.

    PubMed

    Kobyakov, D; Pethick, C J

    2014-03-21

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that, at densities above that for neutron drip (∼ 4 × 1 0(11)  g cm(-3) or roughly one-thousandth of nuclear matter density), the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3. As a consequence, the properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated, and we mention possible consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  15. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüster, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  16. Temperature distribution in the crust and mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Morris, S.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the temperature distribution in the earth, experimental constraints on the geotherm in the crust and mantle are considered. The basic form of the geotherm is interpreted on the basis of two dominant mechanisms by which heat is transported in the earth: (1) conduction through the rock, and (2) advection by thermal flow. Data reveal that: (1) the temperature distributions through continental lithosphere and through oceanic lithosphere more than 60 million years old are practically indistinguishable, (2) crustal uplift is instrumental in modifying continental geotherms, and (3) the average temperature through the Archean crust and mantle was similar to that at present. It is noted that current limitations in understanding the constitution of the lower mantle can lead to significant uncertainties in the thermal response time of the planetary interior.

  17. Hall Effect in Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgouliatos, K. N.; Cumming, A.

    2014-08-01

    The crust of Neutron Stars can be approximated by a highly conducting solid crystal lattice. The evolution of the magnetic field in the crust is mediated through Hall effect, namely the electric current is carried by the free electrons of the lattice and the magnetic field lines are advected by the electron fluid. Here, we present the results of a time-dependent evolution code which shows the effect Hall drift has in the large-scale evolution of the magnetic field. In particular we link analytical predictions with simulation results. We find that there are two basic evolutionary paths, depending on the initial conditions compared to Hall equilibrium. We also show the effect axial symmetry combined with density gradient have on suppressing turbulent cascade.

  18. [Crusted scabies (Norwegian scabies) a case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tamayo, Nora; Flores-Villa, Rebeca; Blanco-Aguilar, Jaime; Dueñas-Arau, Maria de los Angeles; Peña-Flores, María del Pilar Cristal; Rubio-Calva, Carolina; Santos-Marcial, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Different types of scabies have been described based on their clinical outcome, one of which is the Crusted (Norwegian) type. This is an extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosupressed patients. A case ofa 42 year-old homosexual man is described. The patient was diagnosed with HIV, presenting pruritic lesions with a 4 month evolution in trunk and extremities. Lesions included xerosis, decapitated papules, badges with erythema, residual hyperchromic stains, multiple abrasions and ungueal pigmentation in both feet. At the beginning it was treated as apsorasiform dermatitis with steroids and antipruritics without success. Through a biopsy the suspected diagnosis of Crusted (Norwegian) scabies was confirmed. The patient was treated with a dose of oral ivermectin and topical benzyl benzoate and showed remission after two days.

  19. Chemical remanent magnetization of oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoef, J. ); Arkani-Hamed, J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effects of chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) of oceanic crust on the anomalous skewness of sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies are investigated. Considering a realistic constraint that the actual magnetization at anomaly M0 is reversed, the CRM of layer 2A basalts fails to explain the anomalous skewness of the magnetic anomalies. The CRM of the deeper layers does contribute to the anomalous skewness of anomalies 33/34, but the major contribution comes from thermal remanent magnetization.

  20. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  1. Ferromanganese crusts and nodules, rocks that grow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mizell, Kira; Hein, James

    2016-01-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts and nodules are marine sed- imentary mineral deposits, composed mostly of iron and manganese oxides. They precipitate very slowly from seawa- ter, or for nodules also from deep-sea sediment pore waters, recording the chemical signature of these source waters as they grow. Additional elements incorporate via sorption pro- cesses onto the Fe-Mn oxides, including rare and valuable metals that can reach concentrations that are economically valuable.

  2. Thickness of the magnetic crust of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2008-04-01

    To estimate the thickness of the magnetic crust of Mars, six observational magnetic spectra are fitted with the theoretical spectrum expected from a novel, bimodal distribution of magnetic sources. Observational spectra differ, for each comes from a different map or model of variously selected and analyzed Mars Global Surveyor Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer measurements of the vector magnetic field around Mars. The new theoretical spectrum represents fields from both compact sources and extended, laterally correlated sources on a spherical shell, so the estimated shell depth can now be doubled to obtain layer thickness. This typical magnetic crustal thickness is put at 47.8 +/- 8.4 km. The extensive sources are enormous, typically 650 km across, and account for over half the magnetic energy at low degrees. There is some indication that these sources are relatively shallow, but the typical area remains about 330,000 km2. Granted such extended sources represent magnetization of Mars' ancient crust in a core source field dominated by a reversing, areocentric paleodipole, each one arguably formed during a single polarity chron. How did such vast regions of magnetic crust form? A survey of many eligible mechanisms suggests magnetization of cooling igneous rock at minimal rates of about 1 to 0.1 km3/a during superchrons of order 15 to 150 Ma long.

  3. FAST TRACK PAPER: Older crust underlies Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2006-05-01

    The oldest rocks outcropping in northwest Iceland are ~16 Myr old and in east Iceland ~13 Myr. The full plate spreading rate in this region during the Cenozoic has been ~2 cm a-1, and thus these rocks are expected to be separated by ~290 km. They are, however, ~500 km apart. The conclusion is inescapable that an expanse of older crust ~210 km wide underlies Iceland, submerged beneath younger lavas. This conclusion is independent of any considerations regarding spreading ridge migrations, jumps, the simultaneous existence of multiple active ridges, three-dimensionality, or subsidence of the lava pile. Such complexities bear on the distribution and age of the older crust, but not on its existence or its width. If it is entirely oceanic its maximum age is most likely 26-37 Ma. It is at least 150 km in north-south extent, but may taper and extend beneath south Iceland. Part of it might be continental-a southerly extension of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. This older crust contributes significantly to crustal thickness beneath Iceland and the ~40 km local thickness measured seismically is thus probably an overestimate of present-day steady-state crustal production at Iceland.

  4. Water uptake mechanism in crispy bread crust.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Neleke H; Meinders, Marcel B J; Tromp, R Hans; Hamer, Rob J; van Vliet, Ton

    2008-08-13

    Crispness is an important quality characteristic of dry solid food products such as crispy rolls. Its retention is directly related to the kinetics of water uptake by the crust. In this study, a method for the evaluation of the water sorption kinetics in bread crust is proposed. Two different sorption experiments were used: an oscillatory sorption test and a sorption test in which the air relative humidity (RH) was increased stepwise. These two experiments had different time scales, which made it possible to get a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Results show that the adsorption and desorption dynamics of the oscillatory sorption test could be described by a single exponential in time. The water uptake rate ( k) was one of the fitting parameters. A maximum in the water uptake rate was found for a RH value between 50 and 70%. The rate parameters of the experiment where RH was increased stepwise were around a factor 10 lower than those derived from oscillatory sorption experiments. This is an important factor when designing experiments for the determination of water uptake rates. In addition, also a parameter describing the time dependence of the rate parameters of the oscillatory sorption experiment was calculated (C), again by fitting a single exponential to the rate parameters. C was in the same range as the rate parameter of the isotherm experiment. This indicates that different (relaxation) processes are acting at the same time in the bread crust during water uptake.

  5. Palynological evidence for gradual vegetation and climate changes during the "African Humid Period" termination at 13° N from a Mega-Lake Chad sedimentary sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, P. G. C.; Vincens, A.; Guiot, J.; Buchet, G.; Deschamps, P.; Doumnang, J.-C.; Sylvestre, F.

    2012-06-01

    Located at the transition between the Saharian and Sahelian zones, at the center of one of the largest endoreic basins, the Lake Chad is ideally located to record regional environmental changes that occurred in the past. However, until now, no continuous archive from Lake Chad covering the Holocene has been studied. In this paper, we present pollen data from the first Holocene sedimentary sequence collected in Lake Chad (13° N; 14° E; Sahel region). Dated between ca. 6700 and ca. 5000 cal yr BP, this record encompasses the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP). Vegetational reconstructions are based on standard analyses of the pollen diagrams and are strengthened by quantitative approaches. Potential biomes that occurred at that time around Mega-Lake Chad are reconstructed using the biomization method and mean annual precipitation is estimated using the modern analogues technique. Results show that between ca. 6700 and ca. 6050 cal yr BP, a vegetation close to humid woodland or humid savanna, including elements currently found much further southward, thrived in the vicinity and/or the extra-local environment of the Mega-Lake Chad in place of the modern steppe, dry woodland and desert vegetation observed today. At the same time, montane forest populations extended further southward on the Adamawa plateau. This vegetation distribution is supported by biome reconstructions as well as by mean annual precipitation estimates of ca. 800 (-400/+700) mm for the period. The high abundance of lowland humid pollen taxa is interpreted as the result of a northward migration of the corresponding plants during the AHP driven by more favorable climatic conditions. Our interpretation in favor of a regional vegetation response to climatic changes is supported by other pollen data from several Northwestern African records. However, we cannot rule out that an increase of Chari-Logone inputs into the Mega-Lake Chad due to variations in hydrological regime might have

  6. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mbengue, Babacar; Dagamajalu, Shobha; Fall, Mouhamadou Mansour; Loke, Mun Fai; Nguer, Cheikh Momar; Thiam, Alassane; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Dieye, Alioune

    2016-01-01

    Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria. PMID:27168977

  7. Geophysical evidence of Cretaceous volcanics in Logone Birni Basin (Northern Cameroon), Central Africa, and consequences for the West and Central African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loule, Jean-Pierre; Pospisil, Lubomil

    2013-01-01

    Detailed analyses and interpretation realized by combining existing 2D reflection seismic and Gravity/Magnetic data of the Logone Birni Basin (LBB) in the West and Central African Rift System (WCAS) have revealed the distribution of the main buried volcanic bodies as well as their relationships with the structural and tectonic evolution of this basin. The volcanic activity in the LBB is restricted to the Cretaceous period. Three main volcanic episodes are identified and are associated to the Neocomian, Late Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian rifting phases respectively. The volcanic bodies within the Lower Cretaceous are either lying directly on basement or are mainly interbedded with the contemporaneous sediments whereas the Upper Cretaceous bodies are morphologically expressed in the forms of dykes and sills. The volcanic activity was more intense in the western region of the central LBB (Zina sub-basin) along the Cameroon-Nigeria border whereas it was scanty and scattered in the other parts of the basin. The main volcanic dykes are found on the flanks of the major faults bounding basement horsts or in crestal positions in association with syndepositional faults. Although WCAS is associated with large amount of crustal extension and minor volcanism, the intense volcanic activity observed in LBB during the Cretaceous suggests that the intrusive zone during this period was confined to the basement beneath the study area flanked respectively to the north, south and southwest by the Lake Chad, Poli and Chum triple junctions. Tensional stresses generated by this localized domal uplift accounts for most of the observed tectonic structures where major faults transected the entire lithosphere, thus providing conduits for magma migration.

  8. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases.

  9. Structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí region, northern Paraguay: Evidence of a new Brasiliano/Pan-African mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanha, Ginaldo Ademar da Cruz; Warren, Lucas; Boggiani, Paulo César; Grohmann, Carlos Henrique; Cáceres, Alberto Arias

    The Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Itapucumí Group in northern Paraguay is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, including ooid grainstones, marls, shales and sandstones, containing Cloudina fossils in the eastern region. It is almost undeformed over the Rio Apa Cratonic Block but shows a strong deformational pattern at its western edge. A detailed structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group was conducted in the Vallemí Mine, along with a regional survey in other outcrops downstream in the Paraguay River and in the San Alfredo, Cerro Paiva and Sargento José E. López regions. In the main Vallemí quarry, the structural style is characterized by an axial-plane slaty cleavage in open to isoclinal folds, sometimes overturned, associated with N-S trending thrust faults and shear zones of E-vergence and with a low-grade chlorite zone metamorphism. The structural data presented here are compatible with the hypothesis of a newly recognized mobile belt on the western side of the Rio Apa Cratonic Block, with opposite vergence to that of the Paraguay Mobile Belt in Brazil. Both belts are related to the Late Brasiliano/Pan-African tectonic cycle with a Lower Cambrian deformation and metamorphism age. The deformation could be due to the late collision of the Amazonian Craton with the remainder of Western Gondwana or to the western active plate boundary related to the Pampean Belt. The structural and lithologic differences between the western Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí and Paraguay River region and the eastern region, near San Alfredo and Cerro Paiva, suggest that this group could be divided into two lithostratigraphic units, but more stratigraphic and geochronological analyses are required to confirm this possibility.

  10. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults.

    PubMed

    Dieye, Yakhya; Mbengue, Babacar; Dagamajalu, Shobha; Fall, Mouhamadou Mansour; Loke, Mun Fai; Nguer, Cheikh Momar; Thiam, Alassane; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Dieye, Alioune

    2016-01-01

    Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria.

  11. Seismic reflection images of a near-axis melt sill within the lower crust at the Juan de Fuca ridge.

    PubMed

    Canales, J Pablo; Nedimović, Mladen R; Kent, Graham M; Carbotte, Suzanne M; Detrick, Robert S

    2009-07-02

    The oceanic crust extends over two-thirds of the Earth's solid surface, and is generated along mid-ocean ridges from melts derived from the upwelling mantle. The upper and middle crust are constructed by dyking and sea-floor eruptions originating from magma accumulated in mid-crustal lenses at the spreading axis, but the style of accretion of the lower oceanic crust is actively debated. Models based on geological and petrological data from ophiolites propose that the lower oceanic crust is accreted from melt sills intruded at multiple levels between the Moho transition zone (MTZ) and the mid-crustal lens, consistent with geophysical studies that suggest the presence of melt within the lower crust. However, seismic images of molten sills within the lower crust have been elusive. Until now, only seismic reflections from mid-crustal melt lenses and sills within the MTZ have been described, suggesting that melt is efficiently transported through the lower crust. Here we report deep crustal seismic reflections off the southern Juan de Fuca ridge that we interpret as originating from a molten sill at present accreting the lower oceanic crust. The sill sits 5-6 km beneath the sea floor and 850-900 m above the MTZ, and is located 1.4-3.2 km off the spreading axis. Our results provide evidence for the existence of low-permeability barriers to melt migration within the lower section of modern oceanic crust forming at intermediate-to-fast spreading rates, as inferred from ophiolite studies.

  12. Crust-derived potassic fluid in metamorphic microdiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Shyh-Lung; Shen, Pouyan; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Liou, Juhn G.; Sobolev, Nikolay V.; Shatsky, Vladislav S.

    2005-03-01

    A highly potassic COH fluid, with dissolved phosphate, chloride and sulfate/sulfide, was identified as nanometer-size inclusions in metamorphic microdiamonds of Kokchetav dolomite marble and garnet-quartz-pyroxene rock using an analytical electron microscope (AEM) coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. This provides a direct piece of evidence for the formation of metamorphic microdiamonds from such a fluid. Although this crust-derived potassic fluid and the associated solid precipitates are in some respects similar to the fluid inclusions in fibrous/cloudy mantle diamonds, distinct chemical differences exist. This potassic COH fluid, in addition, has the potential to trigger high to ultrahigh-K magmatic and K metasomatic processes in mantle.

  13. Evolution of low-18O Icelandic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Emily C.; Bird, Dennis K.; Arnórsson, Stefán

    2013-07-01

    than the typical MORB. There is convincing evidence favoring low-18O compositions in primitive Icelandic basalts as also being the result of assimilating meteoric hydrothermally altered Icelandic crust, particularly in the roots of central volcanic complexes, where high-level intrusions develop. Here hydrothermally altered basalts have a high probability of undergoing partial melting. If this is the case, we hypothesize that there should be a notable secular variation in the δ18O values of upper crustal igneous products of the Iceland mantle plume over the sub-aerial extrusive geologic history of Iceland, in which progressively younger lavas exhibit decreasing δ18O values. Synthesis of published oxygen isotope analyses of unaltered whole rock and mineral separates of lavas from Tertiary age to present lends support to this hypothesis.

  14. Recycled crust and the secular cooling of mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel Dondi, E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Vidito, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Current models suggest that the massive basaltic production responsible for the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPS) during the Permian-Paleocene may represent the initial phases of some of the mantle plumes that feed the current ocean island basalts (OIB). In some cases this magmatism was so voluminous that it produced global environmental impacts. Recent petrological, geochemical and geophysical studies of some of these localities like Samoa, Hawaii, Galapagos provide evidence that melting is related to a true mantle plume that originates from a boundary layer beneath the upper mantle. Thus, plume-related magmas produced in OIB and LIPS and their connecting plume tracks provide evidence on mantle temperature, size and composition of heterogeneities, and deep geochemical cycles. Although a lot of work has been done on LIPS and OIB, no complete record of the evolution of a mantle plume is available to this point. Galapagos-related lavas provide a complete record of the evolution of a mantle plume since the plume's initial stages in the Cretaceous. In the case of the Galapagos, our work suggests a decrease from TP(max) of 1650 °C in the Cretaceous to 1500 °C in the present day. Our recent work on the Galapagos Islands and the preliminary work on older Galapagos-related terranes suggest that this secular cooling is related with increasing amounts of recycled crust in the plume. Detailed olivine chemistry shows that although peridotite is the dominant source lithology of the Galapagos Plume, a recycled pyroxenite component is also significant in both isotopically enriched and depleted domains of the archipelago. We suggest that this possibly represents two separate bodies of recycled crust within the Galapagos mantle plume.

  15. Differentiation of crusts and cores of the terrestrial planets - Lessons for the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The extent and mechanisms of global differentiation and the early thermal and tectonic histories of the terrestrial planets are surveyed in order to provide constraints on the first billion years of earth history. Indirect and direct seismic evidence for crusts on the moon, Mars and Venus is presented, and it is pointed out that substantial portions of these crusts have been in place since the cessation of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system four billion years ago. Evidence for sizable cores on Mars and Mercury and a small core on the moon is also discussed, and the heat involved in core formation is pointed out. Examination of the volcanic and tectonic histories of planets lacking plate tectonics indicates that core formation was not closely linked to crust formation on the moon or Mars, with chemical differentiation restricted to shallow regions, and was much more extensive on Mercury. Extension of these considerations to the earth results in a model of a hot and vigorously convecting mantle with an easily deformable crust immediately following core formation, and the gradual development of a lithosphere and plates.

  16. Melt inclusion evidence for CO2-rich melts beneath the western branch of the East African Rift: implications for long-term storage of volatiles in the deep lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, T. R.; Mukasa, S. B.; Simon, A. C.; Moore, G.; Barifaijo, E.

    2015-05-01

    We present new major element, trace element, and volatile (H2O, CO2, S, F, and Cl) concentrations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five high-K, low-silica basanites from the western branch of the East African Rift System and use these data to investigate the generation of H2O- and CO2-rich melts at up to ~150 km depth. Measured H2O and CO2 concentrations reach ~2.5 and ~1 wt%, respectively, representing some of the highest CO2 concentrations measured in a melt inclusion to date. These measurements represent direct evidence of the high CO2 and H2O concentrations required to generate high-K alkaline lavas, and the CO2 that has been previously inferred to be necessary for the low mantle potential temperatures in the area. Ratios of CO2/Nb, CO2/Ba, and CO2/Cl are used to estimate an initial melt CO2 concentration of 5-12 wt%. The measured CO2 concentrations are consistent with CO2 solubilities determined by molecular dynamics calculations and high-pressure experiments for melt generation at 3-6 GPa; the depth of melting suggested by previous studies in the area. These melt inclusions measurements represent direct evidence for the presence of H2O- and CO2-rich melts in the deep upper mantle that have been proposed based on experimental and seismic evidence. Primitive-mantle normalized trace element patterns more closely resemble those found in subduction settings rather than ocean island basalt, and ratios of slab fluid tracers such as Li/Dy and B/Be indicate that the measured volatile abundances may be related to Neoproterozoic subduction during the assembly of Gondwana, implying the storage of volatiles in the mantle by subduction-related metasomatism.

  17. Geochemical and isotopic composition of Pan-African metabasalts from southwestern Gondwana: Evidence of Cretaceous South Atlantic opening along a Neoproterozoic back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas M.; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Gaucher, Claudio; Bossi, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    A lithogeochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope study of former oceanic crustal rocks from the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane in the southern Dom Feliciano Belt, Uruguay (La Tuna amphibolites) and metabasites in the Chameis Subterrane of the Marmora Terrane in the Gariep Belt, Namibia/South Africa shows that these rocks are compositionally very similar and probably represent the same unit on opposite sides of the modern South Atlantic. The mafic rocks from both terranes are tholeiitic metabasalts and -andesites and have depleted rare earth element patterns, generally low TiO2 (< 1.5 wt.%), very low Th/Nb ratios and lack negative Nb-Ta anomalies, all features that are typical of ‘normal' mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) and/or back-arc basin basalts (BABB). In addition, both rock suites have extremely depleted Nd isotope compositions (εNd630 Ma = 6.7-9.4), superchondritic 147Sm/144Nd ratios, and low 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb initial ratios. The 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios of the La Tuna mafic rocks are low, whereas the Chameis metagabbro samples have higher, possibly alteration-related ratios. The geochemical and isotopic signatures are consistent with the formation of both rock suites in the same mature Neoproterozoic back-arc basin (Marmora Basin), supporting conclusions drawn from earlier provenance studies of metasedimentary units from these terranes. Other mafic rocks from the Marmora Terrane are interpreted as ocean island basalts that formed in a within-plate setting. A corollary of the conclusion that the mafic rocks in the Cuchilla Dionisio and Marmora Terranes formed in the same back-arc basin is (1) that the main Pan-African suture between the Río de la Plata Craton and the Kalahari Craton lies to the west of the Dom Feliciano Belt in South America, and (2) that the opening of the modern South Atlantic did not occur along that suture but along the axis of the Neoproterozoic Marmora back-arc basin.

  18. The effect of thicker oceanic crust in the Archaean on the growth of continental crust through time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilks, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Present crustal evolution models fail to account for the generation of the large volume of continental crust in the required time intervals. All Archaean plate tectonic models, whether invoking faster spreading rates, similar to today's spreading rates, or longer ridge lengths, essentially propose that continental crust has grown by island arc accretion due to the subduction of oceanic crust. The petrological differences that characterize the Archaean from later terrains result from the subduction of hotter oceanic crust into a hotter mantle. If the oceanic crust was appreciably thicker in the Archaean, as geothermal models would indicate, this thicker crust is surely going to have an effect on tectonic processes. A more valid approach is to compare the possible styles of convergence of thick oceanic crust with modern convergence zones. The best modern analog occurs where thick continental crust is colliding with thick continental crust. Oceanic crustal collision on the scale of the present-day Himalayan continental collision zone may have been a frequent occurrence in the Archaean, resulting in extensive partial melting of the hydrous underthrust oceanic crust to produce voluminous tonalite melts, leaving a depleted stabilized basic residuum. Present-day island arc accretion may not have been the dominant mechanism for the growth of the early Archaean crust.

  19. A plea to better feed African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroosnijder, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  20. Radiogenic heat production in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Claude; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Iarotsky, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure and evolution of continents depend strongly on the amount and distribution of radioactive heat sources in the crust. Determining the contribution of crustal rocks beneath a superficial layer is a major challenge because heat production depends weakly on major element composition and physical properties such as seismic wavespeed and density. Enriched granitic intrusives that lie at the current erosion level have a large impact on the surface heat flux but little influence on temperatures in the deep crust. Many lower crustal rocks that are poor in heat producing elements are restites from ancient orogenic events, implying that enrichment of the upper crust was achieved at the expense of deeper crustal levels. For the same total heat production, concentrating heat sources in an upper layer acts to reduce temperatures in the lower crust, thereby allowing stabilization of the crust. The present-day structure of the crust is a consequence of orogeny and should not be adopted for thermal models of the orogenic event itself. This review summarizes information extracted from large data sets on heat flow and heat production and provides estimates of crustal stratification and heat production in several geological provinces. Analysis of global and regional data sets reveals the absence of a positive correlation between surface heat flow and crustal thickness, showing that the average crustal heat production is not constant. Differences of heat flow between geological provinces are due in large part to changes of crustal structure and bulk composition. Collating values of the bulk crustal heat production in a few age intervals reveals a clear trend of decrease with increasing age. This trend can be accounted for by radioactive decay, indicating that thermal conditions at the time of crustal stabilization have not changed significantly. For the average crustal thickness of 40 km, Moho temperatures are near solidus values at the time of stabilization

  1. Diamondiferous eclogites from Siberia: Remnants of Archean oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D.; Jagoutz, E.; Lowry, D.; Mattey, D.; Kudrjavtseva, G.

    1994-12-01

    We have investigated eight diamond-bearing bimineralic eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya Mine, Yakutia, Siberia, in terms of major elements, 87Sr /86Sr- , 143Nd /144Nd and oxygen isotopic ratios. The β18O-values, measured with the new laser-fluorination technique, are different from mantle values and range between 5.19 and 7.38%. with an average error of 0.08%.. Strontium and neodymium initial isotopic ratios for cpx are between 0.70226 and 0.70699 and 0.51170 and 0.51257, respectively. Chemically and petrographically, the Siberian eclogites are very similar to the South African eclogite suite from Roberts Victor or Bellsbank, the most important similarities being the late Archean age (2.76 Ga) and the δ18O values that deviate from mantle values. However, differences exist in detail, as no samples with δ18O values lower than mantle values have yet been reported from Siberia and the cesium concentrations of the Siberian eclogites are generally lower than those of the Roberts Victor eclogite suite. The data obtained from the studied sample suite are best explained by a model proposing an origin from Archean oceanic crust that was intensely altered prior to subduction to mantle depths. Using oxygen isotopic values, the effects of seawater alteration can be shown and the composition of the unaltered protolith qualitatively estimated. We propose that mantle eclogites from kimberlites were generated by a globally operating subduction process during the late Archean and that differences between samples from different cratons are small compared to their similarities.

  2. Basaltic Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare basalts, KREEP basalts, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.

  3. The history of the earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, D. L.; McAlester, A. L.; Rottman, M. L.

    The history of the earth's crust since its formation 4.6 Gyr ago is traced in an introductory textbook, with consideration of the global climate and the general outline of biological evolution. The methodology of paleogeology is introduced, and the origin of the solar system, the accumulation and differentiation of the earth, the beginnings of life, and the history of the moon are examined. Separate chapters are then devoted to the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic earth. Photographs, maps, diagrams, and drawings are provided.

  4. Anatexis, hybridization and the modification of ancient crust: Mesozoic plutonism in the Old Woman Mountains area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A compositionally expanded array of granitic (s.l.) magmas intruded the > 2 Ga crust of the Old Woman Mountains area between 160 and 70 Ma. These magmas were emplaced near the eastern (inland) edge of the Jurassic/Cretaceous arcs of western North America, in an area where magma flux, especially during the Jurassic, was considerably lower than to the west. The Jurassic intrusives and over half of the Cretaceous intrusives are predominantly metaluminous and variable in composition; a major Cretaceous suite comprises only peraluminous monzogranite. Only the Jurassic intrusions show clear evidence for the presence of mafic liquids. All units, including the most mafic rocks, reveal isotopic evidence for a significant crustal component. However, none of the Mesozoic intrusives matches in isotopic composition either average pre-intrusion crust or any major unit of the exposed crust. Elemental inconsistencies also preclude closed system derivation from exposed crust. Emplacement of these magmas, which doubled the volume of the mid- to upper crust, did not dramatically change its elemental composition. It did, however, affect its Nd and especially Sr isotopic composition and modify some of the distinctive aspects of the elemental chemistry. We propose that Jurassic magmatism was open-system, with a major influx of mantle-derived mafic magma interacting strongly with the ancient crust. Mesozoic crustal thickening may have led to closed-system crustal melting by the Late Cretaceous, but the deep crust had been profoundly modified by earlier Mesozoic hybridization so that crustal melts did not simply reflect the original crustal composition. The clear evidence for a crustal component in magmas of the Old Woman Mountains area may not indicate any fundamental differences from the processes at work elsewhere in this or other magmatic arcs where the role of pre-existing crust is less certain. Rather, a compositionally distinctive, very old crust may simply have yielded a more

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  6. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  7. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  8. AfricaArray seismological studies of the structure and evolution of the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Nyblade, Andrew; Brandt, Martin; Tugume, Fred; Mulibo, Gabriel; Kgaswane, Eldridge; Mangongolo, Azangi; Manzi, Musa; El Tahir, Nada; Loots, Letticia

    2014-05-01

    The AfricaArray programme was launched in 2005 to conduct research that promotes development in Africa by building human and infrastructural capacity in support of the mineral exploration, mining, geohazard and environmental sectors. The AfricaArray "backbone" network now consists of 51 geophysical observatories in 20 sub-Saharan countries. Most stations are equipped with broadband seismometers, while 25 stations have continuous GPS sensors and 22 stations have meteorological packs. In addition, several temporary seismic arrays have been deployed to investigate the seismotectonics of the East African Rift System, the extent of the Congo craton, and the rifting of Mozambique and Madagascar. In this paper we will present results pertinent to large-scale crustal and mantle geodynamic processes that have been obtained by AfricaArray researchers. Brandt and Mulibo elucidated the relationship between the African Superplume, Superswell and the East African Rift System by studying the seismic velocity structure of the mantle. Kgaswane jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) and surface waves, and found that the Kalahari Craton lower crust is largely mafic, except for a few terrains such as the Kimberley. Kgaswane also produced evidence that supports a link between the eastern and western lobes of the Bushveld Complex. Mangongolo used surface wave tomography to define the south-western boundary of the Congo Craton. El Tahir used PRFs to investigate the crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, while Tugume determined the Moho depths and Poisson's ratios of the Precambrian crust in East Africa. Manzi reprocessed 3D reflection seismic data covering part of the Witwatersrand goldfields using seismic attribute analysis methods, and has provided new constraints on the evolution of the Basin during the Neoarchean. Loots interpreted a 105 km 2D seismic reflection profile immediately to the north of the Cape Fold Belt, imaging the Karoo and Cape Supergroup rocks and the

  9. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

  10. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  11. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat

  12. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  13. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface.

  14. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  15. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  16. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  17. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  18. Treatment of crusted scabies with albendazole: A case report.

    PubMed

    Douri, Thaer; Shawaf, A Z

    2009-10-15

    Crusted scabies is a severe variant of scabies caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is characterized by high mite burden, extensive hyperkeratotic scaling, crusted lesions, variable pruritus, generalized lymphadenopathy, erythroderma, and eosinophilia, in some cases. There is an increased incidence of crusted scabies, particularly among patients with HIV infection. We describe a 22-year-old Syrian immunocompetent female who had hyperkeratotic psoriasiform plaques and hyperkeratosis without itching. She was treated with oral albendazole and topical crotamiton with salicylic acid 5 percent.

  19. Grain size reduction, fluid infiltration, and extreme weakening in the continental lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegon, Luca; Stünitz, Holger; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the continental lower crust is essential when trying to model major geodynamic processes and to understand the mechanics and distribution of earthquakes at different depths in the lithosphere. However, whether the lower crust is mechanically strong or weak is still a debated issue, and convincing evidence for both, a weak and a strong lower crust has been shown. A key aspect in this controversy is the role of aqueous fluids, with anhydrous conditions typically invoked as the main reason for high strength of large parts of the granulite facies lower crust. The Lofoten islands in northern Norway represent an outstanding natural laboratory to investigate the progressive microstructural and rheological evolution of localized shear zones exhumed from the continental lower crust. In the anhydrous mangerite-charnockite rocks from Lofoten, deformation is strongly localized along discrete ductile shear zones developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (T=730° C, P=0.65 GPa). Shear zone formation was associated with an extreme grain size reduction of the main minerals of the magmatic protolith (perthite + clinopyroxene). Grain size reduction occurred by fracturing and neocrystallization in perthites, and by fracturing and hydration reactions in pyroxene, which was replaced by amphibole + quartz + calcite. Recrystallized perthites and reaction products show fine grain size (20-30 μm), equant shape, dispersed phase distribution, and the lack of a crystallographic preferred orientation. These observations are consistent with diffusion creep as the dominant deformation mechanism in the shear zones. The occurrence of new phases (amphibole, quartz) in triple and quadruple junctions, as well as the concentration of fine quartz grains along bands with a C' orientation strongly suggest the concomitant operation of grain boundary sliding and cavitation during grain-size sensitive creep. Bulk-rock chemical analysis indicates an

  20. Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E

    2006-01-17

    The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.

  1. The WORD (Wholeness, Oneness, Righteousness, Deliverance): Design of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an evidence-based weight loss and maintenance intervention translated for a faith-based, rural, African American population using a community-based participatory approach

    PubMed Central

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Cornell, Carol E.; Prewitt, Elaine; Bursac, Zoran; Tilford, J. Mick; Turner, Jerome; Eddings, Kenya; Love, ShaRhonda; Whittington, Emily; Harris, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Background The positive effects of weight loss on obesity-related risk factors diminish unless weight loss is maintained. Yet little work has focused on the translation of evidence-based weight loss interventions with the aim of sustaining weight loss in underserved populations. Using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages the strong faith-based social infrastructure characteristic of rural African American communities is a promising way to sustain weight loss in African Americans, who bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic. Objectives Led by a collaborative community-academic partnership, The WORD aims to change dietary and physical activity behaviors to produce and maintain weight loss in rural, African American adults of faith. Design The WORD is a randomized controlled trial with 450 participants nested within 30 churches. All churches will receive a 16-session core weight loss intervention. Half of the churches will be randomized to receive an additional 12-session maintenance component. Methods The WORD is a cultural adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program, whereby small groups will be led by trained church members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. A detailed cost-effectiveness and process evaluation will be included. Summary The WORD aims to sustain weight loss in rural African Americans. The utilization of a CBPR approach and the engagement of the faith-based social infrastructure of African American communities will maximize the intervention's sustainability. Unique aspects of this trial include the focus on weight loss maintenance and the use of a faith-based CBPR approach in translating evidence-based obesity interventions. PMID:25461496

  2. Biological Soil Crusts: Webs of Life in the Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    2001-01-01

    Although the soil surface may look like dirt to you, it is full of living organisms that are a vital part of desert ecosystems. This veneer of life is called a biological soil crust. These crusts are found throughout the world, from hot deserts to polar regions. Crusts generally cover all soil spaces not occupied by green plants. In many areas, they comprise over 70% of the living ground cover and are key in reducing erosion, increasing water retention, and increasing soil fertility. In most dry regions, these crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria (previously called blue-green algae), which are one of the oldest known life forms. Communities of soil crusts also include lichens, mosses, microfungi, bacteria, and green algae. These living organisms and their by-products create a continuous crust on the soil surface. The general color, surface appearance, and amount of coverage of these crusts vary depending on climate and disturbance patterns. Immature crusts are generally flat and the color of the soil, which makes them difficult to distinguish from bare ground. Mature crusts, in contrast, are usually bumpy and dark-colored due to the presence of lichens, mosses, and high densities of cyanobacteria and other organisms.

  3. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  4. Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Nikolai M; Ritzwoller, Michael H; Molnar, Peter; Levin, Vadim

    2004-07-09

    Intermediate-period Rayleigh and Love waves propagating across Tibet indicate marked radial anisotropy within the middle-to-lower crust, consistent with a thinning of the middle crust by about 30%. The anisotropy is largest in the western part of the plateau, where moment tensors of earthquakes indicate active crustal thinning. The preferred orientation of mica crystals resulting from the crustal thinning can account for the observed anisotropy. The middle-to-lower crust of Tibet appears to have thinned more than the upper crust, consistent with deformation of a mechanically weak layer that flows as if confined to a channel.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts from southeast Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological soil crusts can be the dominant source of N for arid land ecosystems. We measured potential N fixation rates biweekly for 2 years, using three types of soil crusts: (1) crusts whose directly counted cells were >98% Microcoleus vaginatus (light crusts); (2) crusts dominated by M. vaginatus, but with 20% or more of the directly counted cells represented by Nostoc commune and Scytonema myochrous (dark crusts); and (3) the soil lichen Collema sp. At all observation times, Collema had higher nitrogenase activity (NA) than dark crusts, which had higher NA than light crusts, indicating that species composition is critical when estimating N inputs. In addition, all three types of crusts generally responded in a similar fashion to climate conditions. Without precipitation within a week of collection, no NA was recorded, regardless of other conditions being favorable. Low (26??C) temperatures precluded NA, even if soils were moist. If rain or snow melt had occurred 3 or less days before collection, NA levels were highly correlated with daily average temperatures of the previous 3 days (r2=0.93 for Collema crusts; r2=0.86 for dark crusts and r2=0.83 for light crusts) for temperatures between 1??C and 26??C. If a precipitation event followed a long dry period, NA levels were lower than if collection followed a time when soils were wet for extended periods (e.g., winter). Using a combination of data from a recording weather datalogger, time-domain reflectometry, manual dry-down curves, and N fixation rates at different temperatures, annual N input from the different crust types was estimated. Annual N input from dark crusts found at relatively undisturbed sites was estimated at 9 kg ha-1 year-1. With 20% cover of the N-fixing soil lichen Collema, inputs are estimated at 13 kg ha-1 year-1. N input from light crusts, generally indicating soil surface disturbance, was estimated at 1.4 kg ha-1 year-1. The rates in light crusts are expected to be highly variable, as

  6. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  7. Nickel isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts and the constancy of deep ocean inputs and continental weathering effects over the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, L.; Williams, H. M.; Siebert, C.; Halliday, A. N.; Herrington, R. J.; Hein, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The global variability in nickel (Ni) isotope compositions in ferromanganese crusts is investigated by analysing surface samples of 24 crusts from various ocean basins by MC-ICPMS, using a double-spike for mass bias correction. Ferromanganese crusts have δ60Ni isotopic compositions that are significantly heavier than any other samples thus far reported (-0.1‰ to 0.3 ‰), with surface scrapings ranging between 0.9 ‰ and 2.5 ‰ (relative to NIST SRM986). There is no well resolved difference between ocean basins, although the data indicate somewhat lighter values in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, nor is there any evidence that the variations are related to biological fractionation, presence of different water masses, or bottom water redox conditions. Preliminary data for laterite samples demonstrate that weathering is accompanied by isotopic fractionation of Ni, which should lead to rivers and seawater being isotopically heavy. This is consistent with the slightly heavier than average isotopic compositions recorded in crusts that are sampled close to continental regions. Furthermore, the isotopic compositions of crusts growing close to a hydrothermal source are clustered around ∼ 1.5 ‰, suggesting that hydrothermal fluids entering the ocean may have a Ni isotopic composition similar to this value. Based on these data, the heavy Ni isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts are likely due to input of isotopically heavy Ni to the ocean from continental weathering and possibly also from hydrothermal fluids. A depth profile through one crust, CD29-2, from the north central Pacific Ocean displays large variations in Ni isotope composition (1.1 - 2.3 ‰) through the last 76 Myr. Although there may have been some redistribution of Ni associated with phosphatisation, there is no systematic difference in Ni isotopic composition between deeper, older parts and shallower, younger parts of the crust, which may suggest that oceanic sources and sinks of Ni have

  8. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  9. Evidence for potential of managing some African fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone.

    PubMed

    Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndungu, Mary W; Gitonga, Linus M; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2012-12-01

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aqueous solutions. The objective of the study was to get insight into the potential of managing these pests using the host-marking technique. Observations were done on mango slices marked by the flies and treated with aqueous solutions of fecal matter of the flies, respectively. In both host-marking and fecal matter experiments, C. cosyra, which is the most destructive species of the four on mango, was exceptional. It only discriminated against hosts treated with its fecal matter but with lower sensitivity while C. capitata and C.fasciventris discriminated against hosts marked by it or treated with its fecal matter and with higher sensitivity. Our results provide evidence for potential of managing some of the major fruit fly species infesting mango in Africa using the host-marking pheromone of the mango fruit fly, C. cosyra.

  10. Vulnerability of desert biological soil crusts to wind erosion: The influences of crust development, soil texture, and disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Gillette, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, consisting of cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, and mosses, are important in stabilizing soils in semi-arid and arid lands. Integrity of these crusts is compromised by compressional disturbances such as foot, vehicle, or livestock traffic. Using a portable wind tunnel, we found threshold friction velocities (TFVs) of undisturbed crusts well above wind forces experienced at these sites; consequently, these soils are not vulnerable to wind erosion. However, recently disturbed soils or soils with less well-developed crusts frequently experience wind speeds that exceed the stability thresholds of the crusts. Crustal biomass is concentrated in the top 3 mm of soils. Sandblasting by wind can quickly remove this material, thereby reducing N and C inputs from these organisms. This loss can result in reduced site productivity, as well as exposure of unprotected subsurface sediments to wind and water erosion. Actions to reduce impacts to these crusts can include adjustments in type, intensity, and timing of use.

  11. Crustal redistribution, crust-mantle recycling and Phanerozoic evolution of the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter D.; Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2009-12-01

    We here attempt a global scale mass balance of the continental crust during the Phanerozoic and especially the Cenozoic (65 Ma). Continental crust is mostly recycled back into the mantle as a result of the subduction of sediment in trenches (1.65 km 3/a), by the subduction of eroded forearc basement (1.3 km 3/a) and by the delamination of lower crustal material from orogenic plateaus (ca. 1.1 km 3/a). Subduction of rifted crust in continent-continent collision zones (0.4 km 3/a), and dissolved materials fixed into the oceanic crust (ca. 0.4 km 3/a) are less important crustal sinks. At these rates the entire continental crust could be reworked in around 1.8 Ga. Nd isotope data indicate that ca. 80% of the subducted continental crust is not recycled by melting at shallow levels back into arcs, but is subducted to depth into the upper mantle. Continent-continent collision zones do not generally form new crust, but rather cause crustal loss by subduction and as a result of their physical erosion, which exports crust from the orogen to ocean basins where it may be subducted. Regional sedimentation rates suggest that most orogens have their topography eliminated within 100-200 million years. We estimate that during the Cenozoic the global rivers exported an average of 1.8 km 3/a to the oceans, approximately balancing the subducted loss. Accretion of sediment to active continental margins is a small contribution to crustal construction (ca. 0.3 km 3/a). Similarly, continental large igneous provinces (flood basalts) represent construction of only around 0.12 km 3/a, even after accounting for their intrusive roots. If oceanic plateaus are accreted to continental margins then they would average construction rates of 1.1 km 3/a, meaning that to keep constant crustal volumes, arc magmatism would have to maintain production of around 3.8 km 3/a (or 94 km 3/Ma/km of trench). This slightly exceeds the rates derived from sparse seismic experiments in oceanic arc systems. Although

  12. CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-05-01

    We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic

  13. Complete genome analyses of the first porcine rotavirus group H identified from a South African pig does not provide evidence for recent interspecies transmission events.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Martin M; Peenze, Ina; Potgieter, Christiaan A; Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Yinda, Claude K; Steele, A Duncan; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are classified into eight species/groups (RVA-RVH) according to the migration patterns of their 11 genome segments, as well as by serological and molecular properties of Viral Protein 6 (VP6). In 1997 a new unclassified RV was reported infecting adults in Bangladesh and China. This virus was initially named novel adult diarrhoea rotavirus (ADRV-N), but later renamed as RVH. Since then, RVH has been detected in humans only very sporadically. However, RVH is increasingly being detected in pig populations in the USA, Brazil and Japan, but not yet in Africa. Unfortunately, whole genome sequence data of porcine RVH strains in GenBank is currently restricted to a single strain (SKA-1) from Japan. Porcine diarrhoeic samples were collected in South Africa and analysed for rotavirus using an RVA ELISA and electropherotyping by PAGE. One sample displayed a 4:2:1:1:1:1:1 migration pattern, typical for RVH. In order to further investigate this strain, sequence-independent amplification followed by random sequencing using the 454/Roche GS FLX Sequencer was performed, resulting in the second complete porcine RVH strain (MRC-DPRU1575) available in databases. Phylogenetically, all segments of MRC-DPRU1575 clustered closely with the SKA-1 strain and in some segments with known porcine RVH strains from Brazil and the USA. In contrast, the porcine RVH strains were only distantly related to human RVH strains from Asia and a partial RVH-like strain recently detected in bats from Cameroon. Overall, strain MRC-DPRU1575 is the first complete genome of a porcine RVH from Africa and allows for the development of improved RVH screening methods. Our analyses indicate that RVH strains cluster according to their host species, not suggesting any evidence of recent interspecies transmission events. However, more RVH genomes from a wider host range are needed to better understand their evolutionary pathways and zoonotic potential.

  14. Geochemical evidence for African dust and volcanic ash inputs to terra rossa soils on carbonate reef terraces, northern Jamaica, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of red or reddish-brown, clay-rich, "terra rossa" soils on limestone has been debated for decades. A traditional qualitative explanation for their formation has been the accumulation of insoluble residues as the limestone is progressively dissolved over time. However, this mode of formation often requires unrealistic or impossible amounts of carbonate dissolution. Therefore, where this mechanism is not viable and where local fluvial or colluvial inputs can be ruled out, an external source or sources must be involved in soil formation. On the north coast of the Caribbean island of Jamaica, we studied a sequence of terra rossa soils developed on emergent limestones thought to be of Quaternary age. The soils become progressively thicker, redder, more Fe- and Al-rich and Si-poor with elevation. Furthermore, although kaolinite is found in all the soils, the highest and oldest soils also contain boehmite. Major and trace element geochemistry shows that the host limestones and local igneous rocks are not likely source materials for the soils. Other trace elements, including the rare earth elements (REE), show that tephra from Central American volcanoes is not a likely source either. However, trace element geochemistry shows that airborne dust from Africa plus tephra from the Lesser Antilles island arc are possible source materials for the clay-rich soils. A third, as yet unidentified, source may also contribute to the soils. We hypothesize that older, more chemically mature Jamaican bauxites may have had a similar origin. The results add to the growing body of evidence of the importance of multiple parent materials, including far-traveled dust, to soil genesis.

  15. The Meaning of KMT (Ancient Egyptian) History for Contemporary African American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    1992-01-01

    Explores the history of KMT (ancient Egypt) and its importance for contemporary African-American experience. Reviews evidence that ancient Egypt was a black African population bound by history and culture to the rest of Africa. The rescue of Kemetic history can restore a sense of heritage to African Americans. (SLD)

  16. The Location and most Viable Magnetic Mineral of the Magnetic Layer of Mars Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, D.; Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2010-12-01

    The discovery of strong magnetic anomalies of remanant origin over the southern hemisphere of Mars [1] has provided the challenge to estimate the thickness of the magnetic crust and identify magnetic minerals capable of producing the anomalies. The power spectral analysis of the magnetic anomalies suggests a magnetic crust of 46 km thickness [2]. Estimates of depth to Curie temperature of viable magnetic mineral at about 4 Ga imply that the potentially magnetic layer must have been in the upper 70 km of the crust [3], and that the lower ~10 km must have been effectively demagnetized since by viscous decay [4]. The rock magnetic measurements show appreciable demagnetization at hydrostatic pressures up to 1.2 GPa [5], consistent with the above estimate of the magnetic layer thickness. The distinct lack of magnetic signature of many giant impact basins indicates that the impacts have demagnetized the crust. Detailed study of the magnetic anomalies surrounding Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre suggests that the area inside ~80% of the basin radius is almost completely demagnetized [6], as is confirmed by recent investigations [7,8]. First we use the evidence from these giant basins and show that Pierazzo et al. [1997] shock pressure distribution model with maximum decay exponent is most viable for Martian crust among the 6 models proposed. Using this model, we then determine the demagnetization of the crust by impacts that can create 10-500 km diameter craters. The surface of Mars is saturated by craters of diameters <100 km, which have completely demagnetized the upper ~10 km of Mars. The impacts that create 200-500 km diameter craters are capable of demagnetizing the entire crust beneath the craters. Second, we model topography, gravity, and magnetic data over all craters of diameters 300-600 km located in the southern hemisphere of Mars. The topography and gravity data suggest that majority of the craters are isostatically compensated and have distinct mantle plugs

  17. Are high p-wave velocity sediments on thin Tethyan crust, deep-water carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Graindorge, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Dellong, David; Kopp, Heidrun; Sallares, Valenti; Bartolome, Rafael; Gallais, Flora

    2016-04-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Central Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz regions indicate the widespread presence of a seismic unit, marked by strong continuous reflectors, directly overlying the basement. Seismic velocity analysis from seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate high p-wave velocities of 3.5 - 4.5 km/s in this layer. These same seismic studies image a thin crust, typically 6-9 km thick, in most cases thought to be oceanic in nature and related to the Tethys oceanic domain separating Africa (Gondwana) from Laurussia. We interpret this 2-3 km thick reflective layer to be carbonates, deposited in the late Triassic, Jurassic and early Cretaceous in the Tethys Ocean, in deep marine basins. Few drilling studies have penetrated into this layer. In one case (DSDP site 135, drilled at 4152 m water depth on Coral Patch Ridge in the western Gulf of Cadiz), Aptian (early Cretaceous) marls and limestone were drilled (560-689 m sub-seafloor depth). The Calcite compensation depth during the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous was about 4000 m to 3500 m according to compilations from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and is consistent with deposition of deep-water carbonates. For the NW Moroccan margin (Mazagan transect near El Jadida) there is a 2 km thick sedimentary layer with p-wave velocities of 4.0 - 4.5 km/s at the base of a 4 - 6 km thick sedimentary section. This layer extends from seafloor thought to be oceanic crust (west of the West African Coast magnetic anomaly) across a domain of thin/transitional crust with abundant Triassic salt diapirs to the foot of the margin. This reflective basal layer is also observed in reflection and refraction profiles from the Seine abyssal plain, below the toe of the Cadiz accretionary wedge (S. Algarve margin), in the Ionian abyssal plain and below the toe of the Calabrian accretionary wedge, all regions floored by this thin Tethyan crust. Work is in progress to determine the exact nature of this crust.

  18. A multi-locus species phylogeny of African forest duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae: evidence for a recent radiation in the Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons

  19. Petrology and Wavespeeds in Central Tibet Indicate a Partially Melted Mica-Bearing Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Xie, J.

    2013-12-01

    S-wave speeds and Vp/Vs ratios in the middle to deep crust of Tibet are best explained by a partially melted, mica-bearing middle to lower crust with a subhorizontal to gently dipping foliation. Surface-wave tomography [e.g., Yang et al., 2012; Xie et al., 2013] shows that the central Tibetan Plateau (the Qiangtang block) is characterized by i) slow S-wave speeds of 3.3-3.5 km/s at depths from 20-25 km to 45-50 km, ii) S-wave radial anisotropy of at least 4% (Vsh > Vsv) with stronger anisotropy in the west than the east [Duret et al., 2010], and iii) whole-crust Vp/Vs ratios in the range of 1.73-1.78 [Xu et al., 2013]. The depth of the Curie temperature for magnetite inferred from satellite magnetic measurements [Alsdorf and Nelson, 1999], the depth of the α-β quartz transition inferred from Vp/Vs ratios [Mechie et al., 2004], and the equilibration pressures and temperatures of xenoliths erupted from the mid-deep crust [Hacker et al., 2000] indicate that the thermal gradient in Qiangtang is steep, reaching 1000°C at 30-40 km depth. This thermal gradient crosses the dehydration-melting solidi for crustal rocks at 20-30 km depth, implying the presence or former presence of melt in the mid-deep crust. These temperatures do not require the wholesale breakdown of mica at these depths, because F and Ti can stabilize mica to at least 1300°C [Dooley and Patino Douce, 1996]. Petrology suggests, then, that the Qiangtang middle to deep crust consists of a mica-bearing residue from which melt has been extracted or is being extracted. Wavespeeds calculated for mica-bearing rocks with a subhorizontal to gently dipping foliation and minor silicate melt are the best match to the wavespeeds and anisotropy observed by seismology. Alsdorf, D., and D. Nelson, The Tibetan satellite magnetic low: Evidence for widespread melt in the Tibetan crust?, Geology, 27, 943-946, 1999. Dooley, D.F., and A.F. Patino Douce, Fluid-absent melting of F-rich phlogopite + rutile +quartz, American

  20. Some growth points in African child development research.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting research with African audiences demands cooperative communication between educational practitioners and parents with low literacy, and cross-sector communication among professionals. Intracultural exploration of factors influencing the pattern of human development has begun to document the potential of indigenous African cultures as a fund of resources for enhancing child development. Priority topics for future African developmental research include multilingualism, musical performance, socially distributed caregiving, and the relation between adolescence and economic activity. Integration of multiple disciplines in the application of research-based principles to service delivery in the fields of community-based (re)habilitation and early childhood care and education calls for researcher collaboration with practitioners.

  1. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.

    2015-07-01

    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  2. Continental crust composition constrained by measurements of crustal Poisson's ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandt, George; Ammon, Charles J.

    1995-03-01

    DECIPHERING the geological evolution of the Earth's continental crust requires knowledge of its bulk composition and global variability. The main uncertainties are associated with the composition of the lower crust. Seismic measurements probe the elastic properties of the crust at depth, from which composition can be inferred. Of particular note is Poisson's ratio,Σ ; this elastic parameter can be determined uniquely from the ratio of P- to S-wave seismic velocity, and provides a better diagnostic of crustal composition than either P- or S-wave velocity alone1. Previous attempts to measure Σ have been limited by difficulties in obtaining coincident P- and S-wave data sampling the entire crust2. Here we report 76 new estimates of crustal Σ spanning all of the continents except Antarctica. We find that, on average, Σ increases with the age of the crust. Our results strongly support the presence of a mafic lower crust beneath cratons, and suggest either a uniformitarian craton formation process involving delamination of the lower crust during continental collisions, followed by magmatic underplating, or a model in which crust formation processes have changed since the Precambrian era.

  3. Composition of the crust beneath the Kenya rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Christensen, N.I.

    1994-01-01

    We infer the composition of the crust beneath and on the flanks of the Kenya rift based on a comparison of the KRISP-90 crustal velocity structure with laboratory measurements of compressional-wave velocities of rock samples from Kenya. The rock samples studied, which are representative of the major lithologies exposed in Kenya, include volcanic tuffs and flows (primarily basalts and phonolites), and felsic to intermediate composition gneisses. This comparison indicates that the upper crust (5-12 km depth) consists primarily of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists similar to rocks exposed on the flanks of the rift, whereas the middle crust (12-22 km depth) consists of more mafic, hornblende-rich metamorphic rocks, probably intruded by mafic rocks beneath the rift axis. The lower crust on the flanks of the rift may consist of mafic granulite facies rocks. Along the rift axis, the lower crust varies in thickness from 9 km in the southern rift to only 2-3 km in the north, and has a seismic velocity substantially higher than the samples investigated in this study. The lower crust of the rift probably consists of a crust/mantle mix of high-grade metamorphic rocks, mafic intrusives, and an igneous mafic residuum accreted to the base of the crust during differentiation of a melt derived from the upper mantle. ?? 1994.

  4. Seismic anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Gaherty, James B.

    2013-04-01

    Most studies of the seismic structure of continental crust assume that the wave speeds are isotropic at seismic wavelengths. The ability to measure surface wave propagation speed from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise provides new opportunities to image the crust and uppermost mantle. We investigate radial anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada from group-velocity curves of Love and Rayleigh waves obtained from ambient-noise cross-correlation. We test the null hypothesis that the Love and Rayleigh group-speed curves can be simultaneously fit by an earth model containing isotropic seismic velocities throughout the crust. Group velocity is predicted for 200 000 one-dimensional earth models, which are generated by randomly varying the crustal shear velocity and radial anisotropy within a prescribed range. The goodness-of-fit of the predictions is assessed by comparison with two sets of observed dispersion curves that correspond to two tectonically distinct terranes: the Archean/early Proterozoic craton and the transition from craton to Cordillera. The majority of best-fitting models contain VSH > VSV (4-5 per cent) in the middle crust. The finding that the middle/lower crust is seismically anisotropic across a large swath of northwestern Canada, combined with recent observations of anisotropic crust in much of the western United States, suggests that anisotropy may be ubiquitous in the continental crust.

  5. Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun-down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

  6. Imaging proto-oceanic crust off the Brazilian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Evain, M.; Afilhado, A.; Rigoti, C.; Loureiro, A.; Alves, D.; Leprêtre, A.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.; Rabineau, M.; Feld, A.; Viana, A.; Aslanian, D.

    2015-01-01

    During the Sanba (Santos basin seismic transect) experiment in 2010-2011, a 380-km-long combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profile has been acquired using 30 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 4.5 km seismic streamer and a 8900 in.3 airgun array. The Sanba 3 profile crosses the southern flank of the Sao Paulo Plateau, the Sao Paulo Ridge and the easternmost Santos Basin in an east-west direction. Its eastern end is located on undisturbed oceanic crust. Tomographic and forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data reveals that the sedimentary thickness is variable with only 1-2 km on top of the ridge and thickening to 4-5 km in the basin. Crustal thickness at the ridge is about 18 km and the relative layer thickness and velocity gradients indicate a continental origin of this ridge. The eastern Santos Basin is underlain by crust of only 5 km thickness, characterized by high seismic velocities between 6.20 km s-1 in the upper crust and 7.40 km s-1 in the lower crust. Three hypotheses for the nature of the crust in this region are tested here: (i) thinned continental crust, (ii) serpentinized upper mantle material, (iii) thin oceanic crust. As seismic velocity gradients seem to rule out a continental origin of this region, and clear Moho reflections argue against serpentinized upper mantle, we propose that the crust underlying the easternmost Santos Basin is of oceanic origin. Deviations from normal oceanic crustal velocities in the lower crust (6.70-7.00 km s-1) can be explained by accretion at slow spreading rates leading to the inclusion of serpentinite into the lower crust at the onset of organized seafloor spreading.

  7. The global oxidation state of the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, J.; Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Alt, J.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Teagle, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation state of the oceanic crust is an important component of the Earth system. The widespread oxidation of the crust is a major contributor to the redox state of the mantle due to the subduction of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust, which supplies 10 - 25 % of the net ferric iron flux to the global mantle Fe3+/FeTOT budget (Lécuyer and Ricard, 1999). Secondly, the degree of oxidation of the upper oceanic crust provides a measure of the biomass of microbial life sub-basement (Bach and Edwards, 2003). Thirdly, oxidation state analyses of oceanic basalt give information on the environment and relative timings of local hydrothermal alteration events. To date comprehensive measurements of Fe3+/FeTOT for the oceanic crust are lacking. Post crystallisation oxidation processes, occurring predominantly in the upper basaltic layers of the crust, elevate ratios of ferric to total iron (Fe3+/FeTOT) from mantle levels of 0.16 ± 0.01 (Cottrell and Kelley, 2011). Ferrous (Fe2+/) iron is oxidised to ferric (Fe3+/) iron during reaction with oxidised seawater, which circulates through oceanic crust for tens of millions of years following crustal formation. This study integrates published data with new analyses from six ocean crustal boreholes to categorise the global oxidation state of the upper crust. Samples range from <1 to 129 Ma, and represent basalt from medium to superfast spreading centres, depths between <100 - 2000 mbsf, and at a variety of sedimentary cover rates and thicknesses. Results show that by 1 Ma, the Fe3+/FeTOT ratio of the bulk crust is already raised to an average of 0.28 ± 0.07, implying that the oxidation state is established very early in the lifetime of the ocean crust. Post 1 Ma, Fe3+/FeTOT ratios are more variable, reflecting the effects of prolonged exposure to circulating seawater, but are on average ~0.35.

  8. Decoupled Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of the continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence was presented that the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are decoupled in crust-mantle evolution. Rare earth element (including Sm and Nd) residue principally in silicates, and are resistant to mobilization by weathering and metamorphism. In contrast, Rb and Sr are easily fractionated by crustal processes and residue in carbonates as well as in silicates. As a result, continental Sr, but not Nd, can be recycled into the mantle by exchange of seawater with basalt at spreading ridges and by subduction of carbonates associated with ridge processes. These effects result in mean Rb-Sr ages of the continental crust and of the upper mantle that are too young. Crustal growth curves based largely on Rb-Sr data, such that of Hurley and Rand, are therefore incorrect.

  9. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  10. Clinopyroxene precursors to amphibole sponge in arc crust

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amphibole cumulates beneath arc volcanoes is a key control on magma geochemistry, and generates a hydrous lower crust. Despite being widely inferred from trace element geochemistry as a major lower crustal phase, amphibole is neither abundant nor common as a phenocryst phase in arc lavas and erupted pyroclasts, prompting some authors to refer to it as a ‘cryptic’ fractionating phase. This study provides evidence that amphibole develops by evolved melts overprinting earlier clinopyroxene—a near-ubiquitous mineral in arc magmas. Reaction-replacement of clinopyroxene ultimately forms granoblastic amphibole lithologies. Reaction-replacement amphiboles have more primitive trace element chemistry (for example, lower concentrations of incompatible Pb) than amphibole phenocrysts, but still have chemistries suitable for producing La/Yb and Dy/Yb ‘amphibole sponge’ signatures. Amphibole can fractionate cryptically as reactions between melt and mush in lower crustal ‘hot zones’ produce amphibole-rich assemblages, without significant nucleation and growth of amphibole phenocrysts. PMID:25002269

  11. Crustal evolution in the East African Orogen: a neodymium isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.

    2002-05-01

    The East African Orogen (EAO) is one of Earth's great collision zones, where East and West Gondwana collided to form the supercontinent `Greater Gondwana' or `Pannotia' at the end of Neoproterozoic time. There is now sufficient Nd isotopic data for basement rocks of the EAO to yield a useful summary. A total of 449 samples were gleaned from the literature, recalculated to a common value for the La Jolla Nd standard, and entered in Excel spreadsheets. This data set was filtered to exclude samples with 147Sm/ 144Nd> 0.165, considered to yield unreliable model ages, leaving 413 suitable data. The crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, including Egypt east of the Nile, Sudan east of the Keraf suture, Sinai, Israel, Jordan, most of Arabia, Eritrea, and northern Ethiopia yields overwhelmingly Neoproterozoic model ages. Crust to the east, in the Afif terrane of Arabia, Yemen, Somalia, and Eastern Ethiopia yields much older model ages, averaging 2.1 Ga, demonstrating an abundance of reworked ancient crust. This provides an isotopic link with Madagascar (mean age of 2.4 Ga), which in pre-Jurassic reconstructions lies on the southern extension of this older, remobilized tract. Crust in the far southern extreme of the EAO in Tanzania also yields ancient model ages, averaging 2.3 Ga. The central EAO, in southern Ethiopia and Kenya, yields intermediate ages (mean 1.1-1.2 Ga), interpreted to indicate extensive mixing between Neoproterozoic mantle-derived melts and ancient crust. The Nd isotope data indicate that the northern EAO is composed of juvenile Neoproterozoic crust sandwiched between reworked older crust, whereas the EAO farther south is progressively dominated by ancient crust reworked during Neoproterozoic time. The distribution of juvenile and reworked ancient crust suggests that the most intense collision between East and West Gondwana occurred in the southern part of the EAO.

  12. Soil crusts to warm the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; da Rocha Ulisses, Nunes; Lim Hsiao, Chiem; Northen, Trent; Brodie, Eoin

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can also be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. We used concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized warming had apparent and immediate consequences for the crust soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. These results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales. Based on estimates of the global biomass of cyanobacteria in soil biocrusts, one can easily calculate that there must currently exist about 15 million metric tons of scytonemin at work, warming soil surfaces worldwide

  13. Anorthositic oceanic crust in the Archean Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Dawson, J. B.; Hoernes, S.; Spettel, B.; Waenke, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrapure minerals separated from eclogite inclusions in kimberlites were analyzed for Sm, Nd, Sr, and oxygen isotopes and for major and trace elements. Clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet (gnt) are the only primary mineral phases in these rocks, and mineral phases and their alteration products. The WR sub calc. is the reconstructed bulk composition excluding all the contamination influences. Two groups of eclogites: are distinguished: (1) type A Noritic-anorthositic eclogites; and (2) type B Ti-ferrogabbroic eclogites. The oxygen isotopes are primary mantle-derived features of these rocks and are not caused by posteruption processes, as they were measured on unaltered, clean mineral separates and show a correlation with REE pattern and Sr and Nd isotopes. It is suggested that the variation of the oxygen isotopes are caused by crustal-level fluid-rock interaction at relatively low temperature. It is shown that oxygen isotopes variation in MORB basalts caused by the hydrothermal system are in the same range as the observed oxygen isotope variation in eclogites. A model to explain the new set of data is proposed. It is thought that some of these eclogites might be emplaced into the upper lithosphere or lower crust at the time corresponding to their internal isochron age. The calculated WR composition was used to estimate model ages for these rocks.

  14. The dual role of soil crusts in desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.; Thompson, S. E.; Chen, L.; Svoray, T.; Sela, S.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    Vegetation cover in dry regions is a key variable in determining desertification. Soils exposed to rainfall by desertification can form physical crusts that reduce infiltration, exacerbating water stress on the remaining vegetation. Paradoxically, field studies show that crust removal is associated with plant mortality in desert systems, while artificial biological crusts can improve plant regeneration. Here it is shown how physical crusts can act as either drivers of or buffers against desertification depending on their environmental context. The behavior of crusts is first explored using a simplified theory for water movement on a uniform, partly vegetated slope subject to stationary hydrologic conditions. Numerical model runs supplemented with field data from a semiarid Long-Term Ecological Research site are then applied to represent more realistic environmental conditions. When vegetation cover is significant, crusts can drive desertification, but this process is potentially self-limiting. For low vegetation cover, crusts mitigate against desertification by providing water subsidy to plant communities through a runoff-runon mechanism.

  15. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.

    PubMed

    Foley, Stephen F; Buhre, Stephan; Jacob, Dorrit E

    2003-01-16

    The Archaean oceanic crust was probably thicker than present-day oceanic crust owing to higher heat flow and thus higher degrees of melting at mid-ocean ridges. These conditions would also have led to a different bulk composition of oceanic crust in the early Archaean, that would probably have consisted of magnesium-rich picrite (with variably differentiated portions made up of basalt, gabbro, ultramafic cumulates and picrite). It is unclear whether these differences would have influenced crustal subduction and recycling processes, as experiments that have investigated the metamorphic reactions that take place during subduction have to date considered only modern mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Here we present data from high-pressure experiments that show that metamorphism of ultramafic cumulates and picrites produces pyroxenites, which we infer would have delaminated and melted to produce basaltic rocks, rather than continental crust as has previously been thought. Instead, the formation of continental crust requires subduction and melting of garnet-amphibolite--formed only in the upper regions of oceanic crust--which is thought to have first occurred on a large scale during subduction in the late Archaean. We deduce from this that shallow subduction and recycling of oceanic crust took place in the early Archaean, and that this would have resulted in strong depletion of only a thin layer of the uppermost mantle. The misfit between geochemical depletion models and geophysical models for mantle convection (which include deep subduction) might therefore be explained by continuous deepening of this depleted layer through geological time.

  16. Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In

  17. Crust and upper-mantle discontinuities from analysis of broadband seismological data in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; van der Lee, S.; Giardini, D.

    2001-12-01

    We have analyzed receiver functions to derive simple crustal models for a total of 17 permanent and temporary 3-component broadband seismological stations in the Mediterranean region. The 12 studied temporary stations have been operated under the MIDSEA project. To determine an accurate Moho depth we have reduced the trade-off between crustal velocities and discontinuity depth by using a new grid search method, which is an extension of recently published methods to determine crustal thickness. The values we find for Moho depth range from around 20 km for intra-oceanic islands and extended continental margins to near 45 km in regions where the Eurasian and African continents have collided. The relatively stable north-eastern African margin shows crustal thicknesses close to a standard value of 35 km while the relatively tectonically disturbed margin of north-western Africa shows significantly thinner crust. Modeling of crustal structure shows that all stacked receiver functions can be explained within standard deviations by a 2- or 3-layer model containing a sedimentary layer and/or a mid-crustal discontinuity. Both receiver function analysis and cross-correlation are powerful tools to reveal interfaces in the upper-mantle. For studying upper-mantle discontinuities we use both these methods. We transform the processed signals to the slowness-time domain to highlight P-to-S conversions from interfaces at different depths. The tectonic complexity of the Mediterranean region is found to extend down to the transition zone.

  18. Relamination of mafic subducting crust throughout Earth's history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunder, Ben; van Hunen, Jeroen; Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Earth has likely cooled by several hundred degrees over its history, which has probably affected subduction dynamics and associated magmatism. Today, the process of compositional buoyancy driven upwelling, and subsequent underplating, of subducted materials (commonly referred to as ;relamination;) is thought to play a role in the formation of continental crust. Given that Archean continental crust formation is best explained by the involvement of mafic material, we investigate the feasibility of mafic crust relamination under a wide range of conditions applicable to modern and early Earth subduction zones, to assess if such a process might have been viable in an early Earth setting. Our numerical parametric study illustrates that the hotter, thicker-crust conditions of the early Earth favour the upward relamination of mafic subducting crust. The amount of relaminating subducting crust is observed to vary significantly, with subduction convergence rate having the strongest control on the volume of relaminated material. Indeed, removal of the entire mafic crust from the subducting slab is possible for slow subduction (∼2 cm/yr) under Archean conditions. We also observe great variability in the depth at which this separation occurs (80-120 km), with events corresponding to shallower detachment being more voluminous, and that relaminating material has to remain metastably buoyant until this separation depth, which is supported by geological, geophysical and geodynamical observations. Furthermore, this relamination behaviour is commonly episodic with a typical repeat time of approximately 10 Myrs, similar to timescales of episodicity observed in the Archean rock record. We demonstrate that this relamination process can result in the heating of considerable quantities of mafic material (to temperatures in excess of 900 °C), which is then emplaced below the over-riding lithosphere. As such, our results have implications for Archean subduction zone magmatism, for

  19. Microscopic characterisation of black crusts on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Pereira, M F C; Rocha